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Sample records for fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis

  1. Rubella virus as a possible etiological agent of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Goto, Hiroshi; Komase, Katsuhiro; Abo, Hitoshi; Fujii, Kaoru; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Okamoto, Kiyoko

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether rubella virus is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Fourteen patients (14 eyes) diagnosed with FHI based on characteristic ocular manifestations and eight control subjects were studied. Aqueous humor (AH) samples from 14 FHI patients and one vitreous sample from a FHI patient were analyzed for intraocular antibody production against rubella virus by calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC). Viral detection by nested polymerase chain reaction and isolation by culture in RK-13 cells were conducted in nine FHI patients. In addition to laboratory examinations, medical history of rubella virus vaccination was also obtained. Ten patients with FHI examined showed intraocular synthesis of rubella virus antibodies (GWC > 3). A high index of rubella virus antibody production was also found in the vitreous sample (GWC = 30.6). GWC in all control subjects were below detectable level. The rubella genome was detected in two of nine patients, and rubella virus was isolated from one of nine patients with FHI. None of the patients with FHI had been vaccinated against rubella. Our laboratory data strongly suggest a relationship between FHI and rubella virus.

  2. The unusual association of inverse retinitis pigmentosa and Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis.

    PubMed

    Díez-Cattini, Gian Franco; Ancona-Lezama, David Arturo; Valdés-Lara, Carlos; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2017-01-01

    Classic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other syndromic variants have previously been associated to Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Common immunogenic and inflammatory pathways have been proposed to explain the higher incidence of this uveitic phenomenon in patients with retinal dystrophies without definitive answers. Infrequent variants of RP such as inverse RP have not been previously reported in association with FHI. We believe that finding the way these entities connect can shed some light into their complex pathogenesis and help find ways to foresee and prevent the appearance of complications such as cataract and macular edema. We present a 15 year old mexican male with history of nyctalopia and rapid, progressive visual loss since infancy who had profound hyper and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium changes in the posterior pole together with pigment clumping in the macula of both eyes and an electroretinogram pattern consistent of rod-cone dystrophy. He was diagnosed with inverse RP. Three years after his first visit he was found to have a mild asymptomatic non granulomatous anterior uveitis in the right eye with fine stellate keratic precipitates and subtle iris stromal atrophy not associated with iris synechiae and without evidence of posterior uveitis or findings consistent with infectious etiology. Findings were consistent with FHI. As the patient was normotensive, the lens was transparent and there was no clinical evidence of macular edema, the patient was kept under observation without treatment. Patients with RP are prone to develop chronic, low grade inflammation responses similar to the ones present in FHI. This association makes us believe that immunogenetic pathways involved in the degenerative process that leads to photoreceptor loss may become a target in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory complications in RP and disease progression. It also suggests FHI may be a triggered response predisposed by an unidentified genetic

  3. Usher syndrome associated with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis.

    PubMed

    Lichtinger, Alejandro; Chowers, Itay; Amer, Radgonde

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report two new cases of Usher syndrome associated with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU), to confirm our previous observation of the association between FHU and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and to evaluate if FHU is particularly associated with Usher syndrome. Retrospective medical record review of all new RP cases at Hadassah Medical Center between the years 2000 and 2007, review of our previously published data, and a meta-analysis of published relevant articles in peer reviewed journals. During the time frame of the study we diagnosed 58 new cases of RP, of whom one male and one female had the typical findings of FHU, and both had Usher syndrome type II. The difference in the occurrence of FHU between the 616 controls and the patients with RP was significant (p = 0.0073, Fisher's exact test). In our combined data, FHU occurred only in two types of RP; RP simplex with an incidence of 0.57%, and Usher syndrome with an incidence of 13.5%. This difference between the incidence of FHU in patients with Usher syndrome and other types of RP was significant (p < 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). Adding up these two cases with what is already published in the literature makes up a total of 17 RP patients with coexisting FHU. This study confirms the association between FHU and RP; and a particularly stronger association with Usher syndrome type II. Although infectious agents seem to play a role, the cause for this significant correlation is still unclear.

  4. Iris autofluorescence in Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Jia, Yading; Zhang, Suhua; Xie, Juan; Chang, Xin; Hou, Jia; Li, Gaiyun; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    To explore the characteristic autofluorescence patterns of iris depigmentation in eyes diagnosed with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). Near-infrared autofluorescence images and colour images of iris were taken in 21 eyes of 21 patients with FHU, 30 eyes of 15 normal subjects, 30 eyes of 15 normal age-related iris atrophy and 33 eyes of 20 patients with uveitis other than FHU. The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, HRA2) was used for melanin-related autofluorescence imaging. The indocyanine green angiography mode of HRA2 was applied for near-infrared laser imaging, and the wavelength of the excitation laser was 795 nm. Iris colour images were also taken with the slit lamp. In normal iris, moderately intense autofluorescence was noted for the pigment ruff at the pupillary border, the crests in the pupillary zone and the collarette; and there was mild autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. In eyes with age-related iris atrophy and uveitis, much less autofluorescence was seen than the healthy normal irides. In eyes with FHU, there was moderate but discontinuous autofluorescence in the pigment ruff, a petaloid pattern of autofluorescence in the pupillary zone, moderate autofluorescence in the collarette and reticular pattern of autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. Characteristic autofluorescence patterns appeared in eyes diagnosed with FHU. Near-infrared autofluorescence is a promising objective technique to document the iris changes in FHU. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of a novel equine ocular disorder: heterochromic iridocyclitis with secondary keratitis in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nelson I; McMullen, Richard J; Linder, Keith E; Cullen, John M; Gilger, Brian C

    2015-11-01

    To describe the clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of an equine ocular inflammatory disease resulting in anterior uveitis and corneal endothelial inflammation associated with iris pigment dispersion and retrocorneal fibrous membrane (RFM) formation. Retrospective study. Sixteen horses with evidence of pigmented keratic precipitates (KPs), corneal edema, and/or iris depigmentation. Information collected from the medical records included signalment, clinical signs, prereferral treatment duration and response to therapy, ophthalmic examination findings, postreferral treatment, response to therapy, and outcome. Twenty-one eyes from 16 horses were affected. Age ranged between 9 and 25 years (Average 16.1 years). Blepharospasm, epiphora, and/or corneal opacification were the first clinical signs noted. At the time of referral pigmented KPs, corneal edema, iridal depigmentation, and retrocorneal membranes were commonly seen. Treatment included topical and/or systemic anti-inflammatories and antibiotics with variable response. Reduction or cessation of anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in worsening of clinical signs and disease progression. Eight eyes ultimately required enucleation. Histopathology changes include iridal pigment loss and dispersion, RFM formation, and keratitis. Variable degrees of lymphoplasmacytic inflammation were dominated by T-cells within the corneal stroma, RFM, iris, and ciliary body with occasional multinucleated giant cells. Heterochromic iridocyclitis with secondary keratitis (HIK) is characterized by uveal inflammation with pigment dispersion and suspected corneal endothelial dysfunction. Horses being treated for HIK require diligent and frequent follow-up examinations in combination with aggressive local immune suppression to control the disease. However, HIK may not respond to therapy and enucleation may ultimately be required to ensure the horse's comfort. © 2014 American College of Veterinary

  6. Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis: a post-infectious manifestation of ocular toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed

    Jad, Akesbi; Céline, Terrada; Bahram, Bodaghi; Phuc, LeHoang; Nathalie, Cassoux

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the development of Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) secondary to toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis. The design is based on observational case series report. We report in this article six cases of typical FHC developing secondary to ocular toxoplasmosis. Intraocular immunoglobulin G production against Toxoplasma gondii was determined in the aqueous humor of five patients by calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC). The clinical examination revealed typical FHC with no active chorioretinal scar. We report on five women and one man (aged 33-64 years old; median 44.6 years) who developed FHC over a period of time ranging from 2-13 years. A positive GWC (>3) was found in four patients; of the two remaining patients one was negative and the other did not have anterior chamber paracentesis. Four patients were treated for an active ocular toxoplasmic lesion before the development of FHC with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and corticosteroids. Two patients had negative anti-toxoplasmic therapy for FHC (one with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 3 weeks and the other with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and corticosteroids for 8 weeks). One never had any treatment. All the patients had mild anterior chamber reaction with no synechia, diffuse and characteristic white stellate keratic precipitates and vitritis; five patients had posterior subcapsular cataract and heterochromia and three had elevated intraocular pressure. The findings help us to conclude that FHC can develop over a period of time after ocular toxoplasmosis. This could be a main association to search for when a Fuchs' uveitis is found with a chorioretinal scar. Ocular inflammation does not mean reactivation of ocular toxoplasmosis. FHC could be a secondary immune reaction with a past antigenic stimulation to a previous infection, i.e., toxoplasmosis, etc.

  7. Fuchs Lubricants, Inc., Huntington, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region III will issue a proposed penalty of $85,000.00 against Fuchs Lubricants, Inc. The penalty is for violations of CWA regulations found at 40 C.F.R. Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention regulations,

  8. Lensectomy for complicated cataract in juvenile chronic iridocyclitis.

    PubMed

    Kanski, J J

    1992-02-01

    Experience with the removal of complicated cataract by lensectomy in patients with juvenile chronic iridocyclitis (JCI) has so far been limited. The results of lensectomy were reviewed retrospectively in 131 patients with JCI (187 eyes). The mean follow up period was 5 years 4 months. The main operative complication was accidental loss of lens material into the vitreous cavity. The postoperative complications were glaucoma (23 eyes, 15%), phthisis (14 eyes, 8%), secondary pupillary membranes (11 eyes, 6%), and retinal detachment (six eyes, 3%). The incidence of postoperative phthisis was related to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP) at the time of surgery. Twenty four per cent of hypotonous eyes and 4% of eyes with normal or elevated IOP became phthisical. Visual acuity was improved in 77%, was worse in 13%, and unchanged in 10% of eyes. The main causes of a postoperative visual acuity of 6/60 or less were glaucoma, amblyopia, and phthisis. Lensectomy did not appear to alter the course of uveitis.

  9. Lensectomy for complicated cataract in juvenile chronic iridocyclitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kanski, J J

    1992-01-01

    Experience with the removal of complicated cataract by lensectomy in patients with juvenile chronic iridocyclitis (JCI) has so far been limited. The results of lensectomy were reviewed retrospectively in 131 patients with JCI (187 eyes). The mean follow up period was 5 years 4 months. The main operative complication was accidental loss of lens material into the vitreous cavity. The postoperative complications were glaucoma (23 eyes, 15%), phthisis (14 eyes, 8%), secondary pupillary membranes (11 eyes, 6%), and retinal detachment (six eyes, 3%). The incidence of postoperative phthisis was related to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP) at the time of surgery. Twenty four per cent of hypotonous eyes and 4% of eyes with normal or elevated IOP became phthisical. Visual acuity was improved in 77%, was worse in 13%, and unchanged in 10% of eyes. The main causes of a postoperative visual acuity of 6/60 or less were glaucoma, amblyopia, and phthisis. Lensectomy did not appear to alter the course of uveitis. PMID:1739719

  10. Hodge Numbers from Picard-Fuchs Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Charles F.; Harder, Andrew; Thompson, Alan

    2017-06-01

    Given a variation of Hodge structure over P^1 with Hodge numbers (1,1,\\dots,1), we show how to compute the degrees of the Deligne extension of its Hodge bundles, following Eskin-Kontsevich-Möller-Zorich, by using the local exponents of the corresponding Picard-Fuchs equation. This allows us to compute the Hodge numbers of Zucker's Hodge structure on the corresponding parabolic cohomology groups. We also apply this to families of elliptic curves, K3 surfaces and Calabi-Yau threefolds.

  11. John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs: an Unlikely Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    I discuss the origin of the idea of making a fusion (hydrogen) bomb and the physics involved in it, and then turn to the design proposed for one by the unlikely collaborators John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs in a patent application they filed at Los Alamos in May 1946, which Fuchs passed on to the Russians in March 1948, and which with substantial modifications was tested on the island of Eberiru on the Eniwetok atoll in the South Pacific on May 8, 1951. This test showed that the fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei could be ignited, but that the ignition would not propagate because the heat produced was rapidly radiated away. Meanwhile, Stanislaw Ulam and C.J. Everett had shown that Edward Teller’s Classical Super could not work, and at the end of December 1950, Ulam had conceived the idea of super compression, using the energy of a fission bomb to compress the fusion fuel to such a high density that it would be opaque to the radiation produced. Once Teller understood this, he invented a greatly improved, new method of compression using radiation, which then became the heart of the Ulam-Teller bomb design, which was tested, also in the South Pacific, on November 1, 1952. The Russians have freely acknowledged that Fuchs gave them the fission bomb, but they have insisted that no one gave them the fusion bomb, which grew out of design involving a fission bomb surrounded by alternating layers of fusion and fission fuels, and which they tested on November 22, 1955. Part of the irony of this story is that neither the American nor the Russian hydrogen-bomb programs made any use of the brilliant design that von Neumann and Fuchs had conceived as early as 1946, which could have changed the entire course of development of both programs.

  12. FUCHS-towards full circular RNA characterization using RNAseq.

    PubMed

    Metge, Franziska; Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F; Reinhardt, Richard; Dieterich, Chistoph

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) belong to a recently re-discovered species of RNA that emerge during RNA maturation through a process called back-splicing. A downstream 5' splice site is linked to an upstream 3' splice site to form a circular transcript instead of a canonical linear transcript. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have brought circRNAs back into the focus of many scientists. Since then, several studies reported that circRNAs are differentially expressed across tissue types and developmental stages, implying that they are actively regulated and not merely a by-product of splicing. Though functional studies have shown that some circRNAs could act as miRNA-sponges, the function of most circRNAs remains unknown. To expand our understanding of possible roles of circular RNAs, we propose a new pipeline that could fully characterizes candidate circRNA structure from RNAseq data-FUCHS: FU ll CH aracterization of circular RNA using RNA- S equencing. Currently, most computational prediction pipelines use back-spliced reads to identify circular RNAs. FUCHS extends this concept by considering all RNA-seq information from long reads (typically >150 bp) to learn more about the exon coverage, the number of double break point fragments, the different circular isoforms arising from one host-gene, and the alternatively spliced exons within the same circRNA boundaries. This new knowledge will enable the user to carry out differential motif enrichment and miRNA seed analysis to determine potential regulators during circRNA biogenesis. FUCHS is an easy-to-use Python based pipeline that contributes a new aspect to the circRNA research.

  13. Fuchs' dystrophy associated with radial keratotomy: Lamellar or perforating keratoplasty?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ausin, P; Antolin-Garcia, D; Santamaria Garcia, L; Blazquez-Fernandez, A-B

    2017-05-01

    A 70 year-old male patient with a history of radial keratotomy suffering from Fuchs' dystrophy and a cataract. The patient received a two-step surgery: lens phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implant, followed by descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in both eyes, four months later. There were no complications apart from a recurrent cystoid macular oedema in both eyes. The best corrected visual acuity was 20/40 both eyes, and the patient was satisfied. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty may be considered as an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty in the case of endothelial dysfunction and radial keratotomy in patients with no corneal ectasia or significant stromal opacity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of uveitis in a tertiary eye care center in Iran.

    PubMed

    Soheilian, Masood; Heidari, Kumars; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahsavari, Mohsen; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Dehghan, Mohammad

    2004-12-01

    To identify the distribution and characteristics of new uveitis referrals to a tertiary eye care center in Tehran. A three-year prospective study was carried out to obtain information on 544 new patients referred with uveitis. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed in all cases; a routine set of tests and an additional battery of directed workup were conducted when indicated. Mean age was 32.3 years. There was no significant sex predominance. The most common forms of uveitis were anterior (38.4%) vs. other anatomical forms, chronic (62.1%) vs. acute (28.3%), nongranulomatous (85.5%) vs. granulomatous (14.5%), and noninfectious (83.5%) vs. infectious (16.5%). With regard to etiology, 45.5% were idiopathic, 19.9% were due to specific ocular disease, and 37.3% were associated with systemic disorders. Behcet's disease was the most common noninfectious disease and toxoplasmosis the most common infectious entity. The most prevalent causes were idiopathic, Fuchs' heterochromic iridocylitis, and seronegative spondyloarthropathies in anterior uveitis; toxoplasmosis, Eales disease, and toxocariasis in posterior uveitis; idiopathic, sarcoidosis, and multiple sclerosis in intermediate uveitis; and, finally, Behcet's disease, idiopathic, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in panuveitis. The most frequent cause in patients under 16 years of age was pars planitis. Over 80% of the patients belonged to middle-to-upper socioeconomic classes. Uveitis significantly affected patients' lives in 63.1% of the cases. Although the current study was performed at a referral center, it may reflect to some extent the different distribution of uveitis in Iran and probably other Middle Eastern countries. Some entities such as presumed ocular histoplasmosis were not found, cytomegalovirus retinitis and birdshot chorioretinopathy were extremely rare, and HLA-B27-associated iridocyclitis was less commonly observed. In contrast, Behcet's disease, Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis, Eales

  15. Characteristics of Cytomegalovirus Uveitis in Immunocompetent Patients.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jyh Haur; Lim, Wee K; Ho, Su L; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    To present the clinical characteristics of patients with anterior uveitis who had evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on polymerase chain reaction PCR-based assays for viral DNA in aqueous samples. This was a retrospective observational case series of 16 patients with CMV infection on qualitative polymerase chain reaction PCR-based assays for viral DNA in aqueous samples. Case records of 16 patients were reviewed and relevant clinical information was collected using a standardized data sheet. There were 10 male and 6 female patients, with 16 eyes included. The median age at the first attack was 52 years (range 27-77 years). Thirteen patients (81.3%) presented with an initial BCVA of 20/40 or better. Eleven eyes (68.8%) had anterior chamber inflammation of 1+ cells or less. Eight eyes (50.0%) had concomitant sectoral iris atrophy, while 2 eyes were noted to have heterochromic irides. Eleven patients (68.8%) presented with an elevated intraocular pressure. Seven patients (43.8%) had clinical features that led to a presumptive diagnosis of Posner-Schlossman syndrome, while 3 patients (18.8%) were initially diagnosed with Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. Six patients were initially treated for uveitic glaucoma or anterior uveitis of unknown cause. There is a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CMV anterior uveitis. A high index of suspicion of a possible viral etiology, especially CMV, and subsequent accurate identification of the virus involved are fundamental to the overall therapeutic approach.

  16. Fuchs dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 4, chap 16. Price MO, Price FW. Endothelial keratoplasty. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, ... Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A. ...

  17. Corneal Astigmatism Stability in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty for Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sanchez, P James; Mayko, Zachary M; Straiko, Michael D; Terry, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    To calculate the magnitude and angle of the shift in corneal astigmatism associated with Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery to determine the feasibility of concurrent astigmatism correction at the time of DMEK triple procedures. Retrospective study. Forty-seven eyes that previously underwent the DMEK procedure for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and that had more than 1.0 diopter (D) of front corneal astigmatism preoperatively were identified. All DMEK surgeries used a clear corneal temporal incision of 3.2 mm. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was evaluated 6 months postsurgery with vector analysis using Scheimpflug image reading. We did not find a difference between pre- and postoperative magnitude of front astigmatism (P = 0.88; paired t test). The magnitude of the SIA front surface was 0.77 ± 0.63 D (range, 0.10-3.14 D). The centroid vector of the SIA front surface was 0.14 at 89.3°. A hyperopic corneal power shift was noted in both the front surface by 0.26 ± 0.74 D (range, 0.45-3.05 D) (P = 0.018; paired t test) and back surface by 0.56 ± 0.55 D (range, 0.25-2.40 D) (P < 0.01; paired t test). DMEK surgery induces minimal amounts of corneal astigmatism that is a with-the-rule shift associated with a temporal clear corneal incision. The stability of these data from preop to postop supports the plausibility of incorporating astigmatism correction with the cautious use of toric intraocular lenses for patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataract.

  18. Retroillumination Photography Analysis Enhances Clinical Definition of Severe Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eghrari, Allen O; Garrett, Brian S; Mumtaz, Aisha A; Edalati, Armand E; Meadows, Danielle N; McGlumphy, Elyse J; Iliff, Benjamin W; Gottsch, John D

    2015-12-01

    Retroillumination photography analysis (RPA) provides an objective assessment of the number and distribution of guttae in Fuchs corneal dystrophy. Here, we assess its correlation with clinical grading using slit-lamp biomicroscopy across varying levels of severity. Retroillumination photographs were conducted for 95 affected corneas with slit-lamp flash photography after pupillary dilation. Individual guttae were counted manually and the position of individual points recorded. Clinical grading using the Krachmer scale was documented for each eye during examination, and regression analyses were performed to identify the strength of association with number of guttae. We assessed range at each stage of clinical grading and used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess whether clinical grading levels demonstrated successively higher numbers of guttae. Krachmer score ranged from 1 to 5, with mean of 2.6. Mean numbers of guttae at each level of severity were 289 (1+), 999 (2+), 2669 (3+), 5474 (4+), and 7133 (5+). Each stage demonstrated significantly higher numbers of guttae than its preceding level except from 4+ to 5+ (P = 0.30), consistent with the definition of 4+ as the highest level defined by the presence of guttae. Higher levels of clinical grading were associated with larger ranges of guttae (P < 0.01). A linear regression model resulted in a strong fit between RPA and Krachmer score (r = 0.81). In this largest study of RPA data and comparison with subjective clinical grading of Fuchs dystrophy severity, RPA correlates strongly and demonstrates enhanced definition of severity at advanced stages of disease.

  19. Study of light scattering using C-Quant® in patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Martín, B; Gros-Otero, J; Martínez, J; Teus, M

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the light scattering in patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy without clinically significant corneal oedema, and evaluate its relationship with endothelial cell count, corneal thickness, and corneal biomechanical parameters. The values of light scattering were measured by C-Quant ® (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Germany) in 32 eyes of 17 patients diagnosed with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy without clinically significant corneal oedema. Corneal biomechanical properties were determined using ORA (ocular response) and Corvis ST ® (tonometry). A light scattering value outside the normal range was observed in 93.8% of eyes studied. No statistically significant association (P>.05) was found between the values of the measured light scattering by C-Quant ® and endothelial count, pachymetry, or corneal biomechanical properties. In this study, changes were found in the values of light scattering values of patients with corneal Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. This change does not appear to correlate significantly with disease severity. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of smoking and other risk factors with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy severity and corneal thickness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Igo, Robert P; Fondran, Jeremy; Mootha, V Vinod; Oliva, Matt; Hammersmith, Kristin; Sugar, Alan; Lass, Jonathan H; Iyengar, Sudha K

    2013-08-27

    We investigated effects of smoking and other risk factors on the development of advanced Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and on central corneal thickness (CCT). Eyes from Caucasian probands, affected and unaffected family members, and unrelated controls matched for age from the FECD Genetics Multi-Center Study (n = 2044 subjects) were examined. Univariate and multivariate models, adjusted for family correlations, were used to determine the effect of smoking, sex, diabetes, and age on FECD case/control status and CCT. In a multivariate model, sex and smoking were associated significantly with advanced FECD (grades 4-6) development (P = 0.016 and P = 0.047, respectively). Female sex increased odds by 34%. Smoking increased odds by 30%. In a multivariate model, diabetes was associated with an increase of 9.1 μm in average CCT (P = 0.021). Female sex was associated significantly with a decrease in average CCT by 6.9 μm (P = 0.015). Smoking had no significant effect on CCT in any model. As shown previously, advanced FECD was associated with large increases in CCT (31.4-94.2 μm). Smoking was associated with an increased risk of advanced FECD and self-reported diabetes was associated with increased CCT. Further study of the impact of smoking and diabetes on FECD development and changes in corneal thickness is warranted.

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel loci in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Natalie A.; Igo, Robert P.; Morris, Nathan J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Sharma, Shiwani; Pulagam, V. Lakshmi; Dunn, Steven; Stamler, John F.; Truitt, Barbara J.; Rimmler, Jacqueline; Kuot, Abraham; Croasdale, Christopher R.; Qin, Xuejun; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Riazuddin, S. Amer; Mills, Richard; Klebe, Sonja; Minear, Mollie A.; Zhao, Jiagang; Balajonda, Elmer; Rosenwasser, George O.; Baratz, Keith H; Mootha, V. Vinod; Patel, Sanjay V.; Gregory, Simon G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Price, Marianne O.; Price, Francis W.; Craig, Jamie E.; Fingert, John H.; Gottsch, John D.; Aldave, Anthony J.; Klintworth, Gordon K.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Li, Yi-Ju; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the cornea is vital to its transparency, and dystrophies that disrupt corneal organization are highly heritable. To understand the genetic aetiology of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), the most prevalent corneal disorder requiring transplantation, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 1,404 FECD cases and 2,564 controls of European ancestry, followed by replication and meta-analysis, for a total of 2,075 cases and 3,342 controls. We identify three novel loci meeting genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8): KANK4 rs79742895, LAMC1 rs3768617 and LINC00970/ATP1B1 rs1200114. We also observe an overwhelming effect of the established TCF4 locus. Interestingly, we detect differential sex-specific association at LAMC1, with greater risk in women, and TCF4, with greater risk in men. Combining GWAS results with biological evidence we expand the knowledge of common FECD loci from one to four, and provide a deeper understanding of the underlying pathogenic basis of FECD. PMID:28358029

  2. Bounding the number of limit cycles of discontinuous differential systems by using Picard-Fuchs equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihua; Zhao, Liqin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, by using Picard-Fuchs equations and Chebyshev criterion, we study the upper bounds of the number of limit cycles given by the first order Melnikov function for discontinuous differential systems, which can bifurcate from the periodic orbits of quadratic reversible centers of genus one (r19): x ˙ = y - 12x2 + 16y2, y ˙ = - x - 16 xy, and (r20): x ˙ = y + 4x2, y ˙ = - x + 16 xy, and the periodic orbits of the quadratic isochronous centers (S1) : x ˙ = - y +x2 -y2, y ˙ = x + 2 xy, and (S2) : x ˙ = - y +x2, y ˙ = x + xy. The systems (r19) and (r20) are perturbed inside the class of polynomial differential systems of degree n and the system (S1) and (S2) are perturbed inside the class of quadratic polynomial differential systems. The discontinuity is the line y = 0. It is proved that the upper bounds of the number of limit cycles for systems (r19) and (r20) are respectively 4 n - 3 (n ≥ 4) and 4 n + 3 (n ≥ 3) counting the multiplicity, and the maximum numbers of limit cycles bifurcating from the period annuluses of the isochronous centers (S1) and (S2) are exactly 5 and 6 (counting the multiplicity) on each period annulus respectively.

  3. Rubella Virus-associated Anterior Uveitis in a Vaccinated Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    ten Berge, Josianne C E M; van Daele, Paul L A; Rothova, Aniki

    2016-01-01

    Rubella virus is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic uveitis and almost all cases in Europe show an active antibody production in the aqueous humor against rubella virus. Herein we report a case of a fully vaccinated patient with common variable immunodeficiency who developed unilateral Fuchs heterochromic uveitis secondary to rubella virus which was proven by intraocular fluid examination. Awareness of rubella associated anterior uveitis should remain also in vaccinated patients, especially those without a fully competent immune system.

  4. Automated Retroillumination Photography Analysis for Objective Assessment of Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eghrari, Allen O; Mumtaz, Aisha A; Garrett, Brian; Rezaei, Mahsa; Akhavan, Mina S; Riazuddin, S Amer; Gottsch, John D

    2017-01-01

    Retroillumination photography analysis is an objective tool for the assessment of the number and distribution of guttae in eyes affected with Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD). Current protocols include manual processing of images; here, we assess validity and interrater reliability of automated analysis across various levels of FCD severity. Retroillumination photographs of 97 FCD-affected corneas were acquired, and total counts of guttae were previously summated manually. For each cornea, a single image was loaded into ImageJ software. We reduced color variability and subtracted background noise. Reflection of light from each gutta was identified as a local area of maximum intensity and counted automatically. Noise tolerance level was titrated for each cornea by examining a small region of each image with automated overlay to ensure appropriate coverage of individual guttae. We tested interrater reliability of automated counts of guttae across a spectrum of clinical and educational experience. A set of 97 retroillumination photographs was analyzed. Clinical severity as measured by a modified Krachmer scale ranged from a severity level of 1 to 5 in the set of analyzed corneas. Automated counts by an ophthalmologist correlated strongly with Krachmer grading (R = 0.79) and manual counts (R = 0.88). Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated strong correlation at 0.924 (95% CI, 0.870-0.958) among cases analyzed by 3 students, and 0.869 (95% CI, 0.797-0.918) among cases for which images were analyzed by an ophthalmologist and 2 students. Automated retroillumination photography analysis allows for grading of FCD severity with high resolution across a spectrum of disease severity.

  5. Automated retroillumination photography analysis for objective assessment of Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy severity

    PubMed Central

    Eghrari, Allen O.; Mumtaz, Aisha A.; Garrett, Brian; Rezaei, Mahsa; Akhavan, Mina S.; Riazuddin, S. Amer; Gottsch, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retroillumination photography analysis (RPA) is an objective tool for assessment of the number and distribution of guttae in eyes affected with Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy (FCD). Current protocols include manual processing of images; here we assess validity and interrater reliability of automated analysis across various levels of FCD severity. Methods Retroillumination photographs of 97 FCD-affected corneas were acquired and total counts of guttae previously summated manually. For each cornea, a single image was loaded into ImageJ software. We reduced color variability and subtracted background noise. Reflection of light from each gutta was identified as a local area of maximum intensity and counted automatically. Noise tolerance level was titrated for each cornea by examining a small region of each image with automated overlay to ensure appropriate coverage of individual guttae. We tested interrater reliability of automated counts of guttae across a spectrum of clinical and educational experience. Results A set of 97 retroillumination photographs were analyzed. Clinical severity as measured by a modified Krachmer scale ranged from a severity level of 1 to 5 in the set of analyzed corneas. Automated counts by an ophthalmologist correlated strongly with Krachmer grading (R2=0.79) and manual counts (R2=0.88). Intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated strong correlation, at 0.924 (95% CI, 0.870- 0.958) among cases analyzed by three students, and 0.869 (95% CI, 0.797- 0.918) among cases for which images was analyzed by an ophthalmologist and two students. Conclusions Automated RPA allows for grading of FCD severity with high resolution across a spectrum of disease severity. PMID:27811565

  6. Retroillumination photography analysis enhances clinical definition of severe Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Eghrari, Allen O.; Garrett, Brian S.; Mumtaz, Aisha A.; Edalati, Armand E.; Meadows, Danielle N.; McGlumphy, Elyse J.; Iliff, Benjamin W.; Gottsch, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Retroillumination photography analysis (RPA) provides objective assessment of the number and distribution of guttae in Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy. Here, we assess its correlation with clinical grading using slit-lamp biomicroscopy across varying levels of severity. Methods Retroillumination photographs were conducted of 95 affected corneas with slit-lamp flash photography after pupillary dilation. Individual guttae were counted manually and the position of individual points recorded. Clinical grading using the Krachmer scale was documented for each eye during examination, and regression analyses were performed to identify the strength of association with number of guttae. We assessed range at each stage of clinical grading, and utilized the Mann-Whitney U test to assess whether clinical grading levels demonstrated successively higher numbers of guttae. Results Krachmer score ranged from 1 to 5, with mean of 2.6. Mean numbers of guttae at each level of severity were 289 (1+), 999 (2+), 2669 (3+), 5474 (4+), and 7133 (5+). Each stage demonstrated significantly higher numbers of guttae than its preceding level except from 4+ to 5+ (p=0.30), consistent with the definition of 4+ as the highest level defined by presence of guttae. Higher levels of clinical grading were associated with larger ranges of guttae (p<0.01). A linear regression model resulted in a strong fit between RPA and Krachmer score (r=0.81). Conclusion In this largest study of RPA data and comparison with subjective clinical grading of FCD severity, RPA correlates strongly and demonstrates enhanced definition of severity at advanced stages of disease. PMID:26488628

  7. Effect of Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty on Color Vision in Patients With Fuchs Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Price, David A; Price, Marianne O; Lopez, Amanda; Price, Francis W

    2016-08-01

    To assess changes in color discernment after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). In this prospective, single-center study, the study group was composed of 26 patients with FECD, aged 46 to 85 years, who underwent DMEK as a single surgical procedure; 24 (92%) had pseudophakic and 2 (8%) had phakic eyes. The patients completed a computerized Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue color vision test before and 1 month after DMEK. A control group of 14 subjects, aged 57 to 85 years, was tested 1 month after cataract surgery. The median number of errors made by patients who had undergone DMEK on the color vision test improved from 64 (range 24-124) before surgery to 48 (range 10-120) after surgery (P = 0.0053). The post-DMEK scores in the 24 patients with pseudophakic eyes (median = 48, range = 10-120) were comparable to those of an age-matched control group of patients with cataract without corneal abnormalities (median = 53, range = 4-104, P = 0.88). The improvement in color vision was not correlated with the amount of improvement in best corrected visual acuity (r = -0.02, P = 0.91) or with the reduction in central pachymetry (r = -0.08, P = 0.71) after DMEK. Consistent with spontaneous comments from some patients with FECD that colors appear more vivid after DMEK, a comparison of pre- and postoperative color vision scores showed that color discernment usually improved after DMEK (81%). The lack of correlation between color vision improvement and pachymetry reduction leads us to hypothesize that color vision improvement may relate to removal of the guttae associated with FECD.

  8. Changes in color vision and contrast sensitivity after descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty for fuchs endothelial dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Javier; Livny, Eitan; Musa, Fayyaz U; Leeuwenburgh, Paulien; van Dijk, Korine; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate contrast sensitivity, color vision, and subjective patient satisfaction after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in patients with bilateral Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED). From a group of 500 DMEK surgeries performed in our center, patients with a history of bilateral FED and unilateral DMEK were identified. A total of 29 patients were included in the study and divided into 2 groups: phakic (n = 12) and pseudophakic unilateral DMEK (n = 17) and their contralateral, untreated FED-affected eye. In addition, a control group of 10 healthy eyes of 10 patients was included. Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue color vision tests were performed. Subjective optical quality was graded with a questionnaire. Compared with untreated FED-affected eyes, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was higher after DMEK in phakic and pseudophakic eyes (P = 0.030 and P < 0.001, respectively); a similar result was obtained for contrast sensitivity (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Color vision did not differ between untreated FED-affected and DMEK-operated eyes in the phakic group (P = 0.802) and the pseudophakic group (P = 0.227). Subjective optical quality was better in DMEK-operated eyes than in untreated FED-affected eyes in the phakic group (P < 0.001) and in the pseudophakic group (P < 0.001). In FED, DMEK may not only be effective for obtaining a higher visual acuity but particularly improving the contrast sensitivity may also lead to better subjective optical performance. Although frequently mentioned spontaneously by patients, an objective change in color vision could not be substantiated. Hence, quantifying contrast sensitivity before surgery may aid in the decision for surgery, and in the evaluation of surgical outcome.

  9. Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy in Patients With Myotonic Dystrophy, Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nelson S.; Milone, Margherita; Martinez-Thompson, Jennifer M.; Raja, Harish; Aleff, Ross A.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Fautsch, Michael P.; Wieben, Eric D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose RNA toxicity from CTG trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion within noncoding DNA of the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) and DM1 protein kinase (DMPK) genes has been described in Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and myotonic dystrophy, type 1 (DM1), respectively. We prospectively evaluated DM1 patients and their families for phenotypic FECD and report the analysis of CTG expansion in the TCF4 gene and DMPK expression in corneal endothelium. Methods FECD grade was evaluated by slit lamp biomicroscopy in 26 participants from 14 families with DM1. CTG TNR length in TCF4 and DMPK was determined by a combination of Gene Scan and Southern blotting of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA. Results FECD grade was 2 or higher in 5 (36%) of 14 probands, significantly greater than the general population (5%) (P < 0.001). FECD segregated with DM1; six of eight members of the largest family had both FECD and DM1, while the other two family members had neither disease. All DNA samples from 24 subjects, including four FECD-affected probands, were bi-allelic for nonexpanded TNR length in TCF4 (<40 repeats). Considering a 75% prevalence of TCF4 TNR expansion in FECD, the probability of four FECD probands lacking TNR expansion was 0.4%. Neither severity of DM1 nor DMPK TNR length predicted the presence of FECD in DM1 patients. Conclusions FECD was common in DM1 families, and the diseases cosegregated. TCF4 TNR expansion was lacking in DM1 families. These findings support a hypothesis that DMPK TNR expansion contributes to clinical FECD.

  10. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue: One hundred years of PVI, the Fuchs Painlevé equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, P. A.; Joshi, N.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F. W.; Noumi, M.

    2005-10-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General entitled `One hundred years of Painlevé VI, the Fuchs Painlevé equation'. The motivation behind this special issue is to celebrate the centenary of the discovery of this famous differential equation. The Editorial Board has invited P A Clarkson, N Joshi, M Mazzocco, F W Nijhoff and M Noumi to serve as Guest Editors for the issue. The nonlinear ordinary differential equation, which is nowadays known as the Painlevé VI (PVI) equation, is one of the most important differential equations in mathematical physics. It was discovered 100 years ago by Richard Fuchs (son of the famous mathematician Lazarus Fuchs) and reported for the first time in Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris 141 555 8 (1905). Gambier, in his seminal paper of 1906, included this equation as the top equation in the list of what are now known as the six Painlevé transcendental equations. The Painlevé list emerged from the work on the classification of all ordinary second-order differential equations whose general solution are `uniform', in the sense that there are no movable (i.e. as a function of the initial data) singularities (meaning branch points) worse than poles. The latter is known as the Painlevé property. As the top equation in the Painlevé list of transcendental equations, the importance of PVI can be appreciated by recognizing that this is a universal differential equation, which is the most general (in terms of number of free parameters) of the known second order ODEs defining nonlinear special functions. As such, parallels can be drawn between the role played by PVI transcendents in the nonlinear case and the hypergeometric functions at the linear level. In fact, the monograph From Gauss to Painlevé by K Iwasaki, H Kimura, S Shimomura and M Yoshida (Vieweg, 1991), draws very clearly the line stretching over more than 150 years of special function theory in which PVI is

  11. Genomic characterization of a persistent rubella virus from a case of Fuch' uveitis syndrome in a 73 year old man.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, Emily; Peairs, Randall R; Chen, Min-hsin; Icenogle, Joseph; Namdari, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Many cases of Fuchs' uveitis have been associated with persistent rubella virus infection. A 73-year-old male patient with typical Fuchs' Uveitis Syndrome (FUS) first experienced heterochromia of the left eye at the age fourteen, when rubella was endemic in the US. The purposes of this report are to describe the patient's FUS clinical presentations and to characterize the virus detected in the vitreous fluid. The patient underwent a therapeutic pars plana vitrectomy in May 2013. A real-time RT-PCR assay for rubella virus was performed on the vitreous fluid by Focus Diagnostics. Additional real-time RT-PCR assays for rubella virus detection and RT-PCR assays for generation of templates for sequencing were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The results from Focus Diagnostics were positive for rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR assays at CDC were also positive for rubella virus. A rubella virus sequence of 739 nucleotides was determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus was the sole member of a new phylogenetic group when compared to reference virus sequences. While FUS remains a clinical diagnosis, findings in this case support the association between rubella virus and the disease. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that this rubella virus was likely a previously undetected genotype which is no longer circulating. Since the patient had rubella prior to 1955, this sequence is from the earliest rubella virus yet characterized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fuchs-Kliewer phonons of H-covered and clean GaN(1 1 bar 00)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, M.; Himmerlich, M.; Krischok, S.; Kröger, J.

    2018-01-01

    Inelastic electron scattering is used to study surface phonon polaritons on H-covered and clean GaN(1 1 bar 00) surfaces. The Fuchs-Kliewer phonon of GaN(1 1 bar 00) -H gives rise to characteristic signatures of its single and multiple excitation in specular electron energy loss spectra. The loss intensities for multi-phonon scattering processes decrease according to a Poisson distribution. Vibrational spectra of this surface are invariant on the time scale of days reflecting its chemical passivation by the H layer. In contrast, vibrational spectra of pristine GaN(1 1 bar 00) are subject to a pronounced temporal evolution where spectroscopic weight is gradually shifted towards the multiple excitation of the Fuchs-Kliewer phonon. As a consequence, the monotonous decrease of the cross section for multiple quantum excitation as observed for the H-covered surface is not applicable. This remarkable effect is particularly strong in spectra acquired at low primary energies of incident electrons, which hints at processes occurring in the very surface region. Scenarios that may contribute to these observations are discussed.

  13. Uveitis in São Paulo, Brazil: 1053 New Patients in 15 Months.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Fernandez, Delia; Nascimento, Heloisa; Nascimento, Caio; Muccioli, Cristina; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-06-01

    To describe the clinical profile of uveitis and analyze changes over a 34-year period in the frequency of different entities and demographics, anatomic data, diagnoses, and systemic associations in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1053 consecutive patients who presented for the first time at the outpatient uveitis clinic were analyzed in a prospective, observational study, conducted between July 2012 and September 2013. Age, gender, clinical characteristics, visual acuity, and clinical and etiologic diagnoses in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were studied. Mean age was 39.8 ± 17.8 years (56.8% female), with most between 41 and 64 years (41.79%); 10.9% of the patients were HIV-positive and 8.1% were legally blind (best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA): ≤ 20/400) at the first evaluation. The posterior, bilateral, and chronic forms of uveitis occurred most frequently and toxoplasmosis was the main cause (24.03%) but was less frequent than in 1980; the same was true for Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. Syphilis, tuberculosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis had increased incidence rates. The current results can help determine the present epidemiology of uveitis and its changes over time in Brazil and increases essential information about the disease. Many uveitic entities are curable and visual damage can be prevented or limited if treated early and appropriately.

  14. Oligonucleotides targeting TCF4 triplet repeat expansion inhibit RNA foci and mis-splicing in Fuchs' dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaxin; Rong, Ziye; Gong, Xin; Zhou, Zhengyang; Sharma, Vivek K; Xing, Chao; Watts, Jonathan K; Corey, David R; Mootha, V Vinod

    2018-03-15

    Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common repeat expansion disorder. FECD impacts 4% of U.S. population and is the leading indication for corneal transplantation. Most cases are caused by an expanded intronic CUG tract in the TCF4 gene that forms nuclear foci, sequesters splicing factors and impairs splicing. We investigated the sense and antisense RNA landscape at the FECD gene and find that the sense-expanded repeat transcript is the predominant species in patient corneas. In patient tissue, sense foci number were negatively correlated with age and showed no correlation with sex. Each endothelial cell has ∼2 sense foci and each foci is single RNA molecule. We designed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to target the mutant-repetitive RNA and demonstrated potent inhibition of foci in patient-derived cells. Ex vivo treatment of FECD human corneas effectively inhibits foci and reverses pathological changes in splicing. FECD has the potential to be a model for treating many trinucleotide repeat diseases and targeting the TCF4 expansion with ASOs represents a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat FECD.

  15. N-Acetylcysteine Increases Corneal Endothelial Cell Survival in a Mouse Model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Chul; Meng, Huan; Jun, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated survival effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and in a mouse model of early-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Cultured bovine corneal endothelial cell viability against oxidative and ER stress was determined by CellTiter-Glo® luminescent reagent. Two-month-old homozygous knock-in Col8a2L450W/L450W mutant (L450W) and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) animals were divided into two groups of 15 mice. Group I received 7 mg/mL NAC in drinking water and Group II received control water for 7 months. Endothelial cell density and morphology were evaluated with confocal microscopy. Antioxidant gene (iNos) and ER stress/unfolded protein response gene (Grp78 and Chop) mRNA levels and protein expression were measured in corneal endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. Cell viability of H2O2 and thapsigargin exposed cells pre-treated with NAC was significantly increased compared to untreated controls (pitalic>0.01). Corneal endothelial cell density (CD) was higher (p=0.001) and percent polymegathism was lower (p=0.04) in NAC treated L450W mice than in untreated L450W mice. NAC treated L450W endothelium showed significant upregulation of iNos, whereas Grp78 and Chop were downregulated compared to untreated L450W endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. NAC increases survival in cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed against ER and oxidative stress. Systemic NAC ingestion increases corneal endothelial cell survival which is associated with increased antioxidant and decreased ER stress markers in a mouse model of early-onset FECD. Our study presents in vivo evidence of a novel potential medical treatment for FECD. PMID:24952277

  16. Menadione-Induced DNA Damage Leads to Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Fragmentation During Rosette Formation in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Halilovic, Adna; Schmedt, Thore; Benischke, Anne-Sophie; Hamill, Cecily; Chen, Yuming; Santos, Janine Hertzog

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), a leading cause of age-related corneal edema requiring transplantation, is characterized by rosette formation of corneal endothelium with ensuing apoptosis. We sought to determine whether excess of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species leads to chronic accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, instigating cell death. Results: We modeled the pathognomonic rosette formation of postmitotic corneal cells by increasing endogenous cellular oxidative stress with menadione (MN) and performed a temporal analysis of its effect in normal (HCEnC, HCECi) and FECD (FECDi) cells and ex vivo specimens. FECDi and FECD ex vivo specimens exhibited extensive mtDNA and nDNA damage as detected by quantitative PCR. Exposure to MN triggered an increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels and led to mtDNA and nDNA damage, while DNA amplification was restored with NAC pretreatment. Furthermore, MN exposure led to a decrease in ΔΨm and adenosine triphosphate levels in normal cells, while FECDi exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction at baseline. Mitochondrial fragmentation and cytochrome c release were detected in FECD tissue and after MN treatment of HCEnCs. Furthermore, cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 followed MN-induced cytochrome c release in HCEnCs. Innovation: This study provides the first line of evidence that accumulation of oxidative DNA damage leads to rosette formation, loss of functionally intact mitochondria via fragmentation, and subsequent cell death during postmitotic cell degeneration of ocular tissue. Conclusion: MN induced rosette formation, along with mtDNA and nDNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and fragmentation, leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis via caspase cleavage and cytochrome c release. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 1072–1083. PMID:26935406

  17. Menadione-Induced DNA Damage Leads to Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Fragmentation During Rosette Formation in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Halilovic, Adna; Schmedt, Thore; Benischke, Anne-Sophie; Hamill, Cecily; Chen, Yuming; Santos, Janine Hertzog; Jurkunas, Ula V

    2016-06-20

    Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), a leading cause of age-related corneal edema requiring transplantation, is characterized by rosette formation of corneal endothelium with ensuing apoptosis. We sought to determine whether excess of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species leads to chronic accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, instigating cell death. We modeled the pathognomonic rosette formation of postmitotic corneal cells by increasing endogenous cellular oxidative stress with menadione (MN) and performed a temporal analysis of its effect in normal (HCEnC, HCECi) and FECD (FECDi) cells and ex vivo specimens. FECDi and FECD ex vivo specimens exhibited extensive mtDNA and nDNA damage as detected by quantitative PCR. Exposure to MN triggered an increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels and led to mtDNA and nDNA damage, while DNA amplification was restored with NAC pretreatment. Furthermore, MN exposure led to a decrease in ΔΨm and adenosine triphosphate levels in normal cells, while FECDi exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction at baseline. Mitochondrial fragmentation and cytochrome c release were detected in FECD tissue and after MN treatment of HCEnCs. Furthermore, cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 followed MN-induced cytochrome c release in HCEnCs. This study provides the first line of evidence that accumulation of oxidative DNA damage leads to rosette formation, loss of functionally intact mitochondria via fragmentation, and subsequent cell death during postmitotic cell degeneration of ocular tissue. MN induced rosette formation, along with mtDNA and nDNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and fragmentation, leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis via caspase cleavage and cytochrome c release. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 1072-1083.

  18. Mutations in LOXHD1, a Recessive-Deafness Locus, Cause Dominant Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Riazuddin, S. Amer; Parker, David S.; McGlumphy, Elyse J.; Oh, Edwin C.; Iliff, Benjamin W.; Schmedt, Thore; Jurkunas, Ula; Schleif, Robert; Katsanis, Nicholas; Gottsch, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD) is a genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium and is the most common cause of corneal transplantation in the United States. Previously, we mapped a late-onset FCD locus, FCD2, on chromosome 18q. Here, we present next-generation sequencing of all coding exons in the FCD2 critical interval in a multigenerational pedigree in which FCD segregates as an autosomal-dominant trait. We identified a missense change in LOXHD1, a gene causing progressive hearing loss in humans, as the sole variant capable of explaining the phenotype in this pedigree. We observed LOXHD1 mRNA in cultured human corneal endothelial cells, whereas antibody staining of both human and mouse corneas showed staining in the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Corneal sections of the original proband were stained for LOXHD1 and demonstrated a distinct increase in antibody punctate staining in the endothelium and Descemet membrane; punctate staining was absent from both normal corneas and FCD corneas negative for causal LOXHD1 mutations. Subsequent interrogation of a cohort of >200 sporadic affected individuals identified another 15 heterozygous missense mutations that were absent from >800 control chromosomes. Furthermore, in silico analyses predicted that these mutations reside on the surface of the protein and are likely to affect the protein's interface and protein-protein interactions. Finally, expression of the familial LOXHD1 mutant allele as well as two sporadic mutations in cells revealed prominent cytoplasmic aggregates reminiscent of the corneal phenotype. All together, our data implicate rare alleles in LOXHD1 in the pathogenesis of FCD and highlight how different mutations in the same locus can potentially produce diverse phenotypes. PMID:22341973

  19. Dark Endothelial Spots After Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty May Appear as Recurrent Fuchs Dystrophy or Herald Graft Failure or Rejection.

    PubMed

    Zygoura, Vasiliki; Baydoun, Lamis; Monnereau, Claire; Satué, Maria; Oellerich, Silke; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of dark spots in the donor endothelial cell layer as observed with specular microscopy, in patients who underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED). Specular microscopy images of 83 consecutive eyes up to 7 years after DMEK were retrospectively reviewed in a masked fashion for the presence of dark spots and morphologic changes in the endothelial cell layer and processed for endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements. A normal endothelial cell layer was found in 52/83 eyes (62.7%) (group 0). In the remaining 31/83 eyes, various dark discolorations with or without altered endothelial cell morphology were categorized into 4 groups. Dark spots were classified as artifacts in 10/83 (12.0%) eyes (group I) and as "superimposed" dots in 10/83 (12.0%) eyes (group II), that is, optical irregularities slightly anterior to a healthy endothelial cell layer. In 11/83 (13.3%) eyes, endothelial stress was characterized by dark grayish discolorations and/or nuclear activation (group III). Most of the latter eyes also had a significant ECD decrease; 3 of these eyes later developed secondary graft failure, of which one was preceded by allograft rejection. None of the eyes showed recurrent guttae typical for FED (group IV). Dark endothelial spots after DMEK for FED may not represent a recurrent disease, but tissue irregularities just anterior to the graft. However, if associated with changes in endothelial cell morphology, nuclear activation and/or ECD decrease, dark discolorations may reflect "cellular stress" heralding secondary graft failure or (subclinical) allograft rejection.

  20. N-Acetylcysteine increases corneal endothelial cell survival in a mouse model of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Chul; Meng, Huan; Jun, Albert S

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated survival effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and in a mouse model of early-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Cultured bovine corneal endothelial cell viability against oxidative and ER stress was determined by CellTiter-Glo(®) luminescent reagent. Two-month-old homozygous knock-in Col8a2(L450W/L450W) mutant (L450W) and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) animals were divided into two groups of 15 mice. Group I received 7 mg/mL NAC in drinking water and Group II received control water for 7 months. Endothelial cell density and morphology were evaluated with confocal microscopy. Antioxidant gene (iNos) and ER stress/unfolded protein response gene (Grp78 and Chop) mRNA levels and protein expression were measured in corneal endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. Cell viability of H2O2 and thapsigargin exposed cells pre-treated with NAC was significantly increased compared to untreated controls (p < 0.01). Corneal endothelial cell density (CD) was higher (p = 0.001) and percent polymegathism was lower (p = 0.04) in NAC treated L450W mice than in untreated L450W mice. NAC treated L450W endothelium showed significant upregulation of iNos, whereas Grp78 and Chop were downregulated compared to untreated L450W endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. NAC increases survival in cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed against ER and oxidative stress. Systemic NAC ingestion increases corneal endothelial cell survival which is associated with increased antioxidant and decreased ER stress markers in a mouse model of early-onset FECD. Our study presents in vivo evidence of a novel potential medical treatment for FECD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of the Gutta-Induced Microenvironment With Corneal Endothelial Cell Behavior and Demise in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kocaba, Viridiana; Katikireddy, Kishore Reddy; Gipson, Ilene; Price, Marianne O; Price, Francis W; Jurkunas, Ula V

    2018-05-31

    The number and size of guttae increase over time in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD); however, the association between these physical parameters and disease pathogenesis is unclear. To determine the role of guttae in corneal endothelial cell function. In an in vitro model, cells from a human corneal endothelial cell line, HCENC-21T, were seeded on decellularized normal (n = 30) and FECD (n = 70) endothelial basement (Descemet) membranes (DMs). Normal human corneas were sent to our laboratory from 3 sources. The study took place at the Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, and was performed from September 2015 to July 2017. Normal DMs were obtained from 3 different tissue banks and FECD-DMs were obtained from patients undergoing endothelial keratoplasty in 2 departments. Endothelial cell shape, growth, and migration were assessed by live-cell imaging, and gene expression analysis as a function of guttae diameter was assessed by laser capture microscopy. Mean (SD) age of normal-DMs donors was 65.6 (4.4) years (16 women [53%]), and mean (SD) age of FECD-DMs donors was 68.9 (10.6) years (43 women [61%]). Cells covered a greater area (mean [SD], 97.7% [8.5%]) with a greater mean (SD) number of cells (2083[153] cells/mm2) on the normal DMs compared with the FECD DMs (72.8% [11%]; P = .02 and 1541 [221] cells/mm2 221/mm2; P = .01, respectively). Differences in endothelial cell growth over guttae were observed on FECD DMs depending on the guttae diameter. Guttae with a mean (SD) diameter of 10.5 (2.9) μm did not impede cell growth, whereas those with a diameter of 21.1 (4.9) μm were covered only by the cell cytoplasm. Guttae with the largest mean (SD) diameter, 31.8 (3.8) μm, were not covered by cells, which instead surrounded them in a rosette pattern. Moreover, cells adjacent to large guttae upregulated αSMA, N-cadherin, Snail1, and NOX4 genes compared with ones grown on normal DMs or small guttae. Furthermore

  2. Interface Fluid Syndrome After Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) Because of Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy Reversed by Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK).

    PubMed

    Luceri, Salvatore; Baksoellah, Zainab; Ilyas, Abbas; Baydoun, Lamis; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case that developed "interface fluid syndrome" after previous laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) because of Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED), which was reversed by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). A 58-year-old male patient presented with bilateral visual impairment owing to FED and visually significant cataract. Cataract surgery was carried out in both eyes followed by DMEK in his left eye. After cataract surgery, visual acuity did not improve sufficiently because corneal thickness increased and a fine cleft with interface fluid developed between the LASIK-flap and the residual stromal bed. After uneventful DMEK in his left eye, the fluid resolved within a week and visual acuity improved rapidly. This case demonstrates that "interface fluid syndrome" after LASIK caused by concomitant endothelial dysfunction may be reversed by DMEK allowing fast visual recovery.

  3. Performance evaluation of the new fully automated urine particle analyser UF-5000 compared to the reference method of the Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber.

    PubMed

    Previtali, Giulia; Ravasio, Rudi; Seghezzi, Michela; Buoro, Sabrina; Alessio, Maria Grazia

    2017-09-01

    UF-5000 is the new fully automated urine particle analyser. We validated its performance. 736 urines were analysed and results were compared by two pathologists on uncentrifuged samples, using Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber. AUC of ROC curve ranged between 0.86 and 0.99. Sensitivity was >0.90 for all the elements and similar for RBC and yeasts. Specificity ranged between 0.74 and 0.89 for total cast, epithelial/non-squamous/renal-tubular cells and RBC. For all the other parameters specificity was >0.90. Comparison with Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber was very good for all the parameters; r ranged between 0.52 and 0.99 except for pathological cast because of the lack of the pathological samples in medium and higher ranges. Linearity performance (R 2 ) was 1.00, 1.00 and 0.99 respectively for RBC, WBC and epithelial cells (EC). No carry-over was observed. The within-run imprecision was 25.42%,13.81%,1.36% for RBC; 37.50%,10.16%,1.41% for WBC and 35.25%, 17.85%,6.30% for EC at low, near the cut off level and high concentrations, respectively. The between-run imprecision was 6.90%,1.60% for RBC, 4.10%,1.90% for WBC and 7.60%,7.30% for EC, using low and high positive quality controls, respectively. UF-5000 is an analyser of great interest to detect urine particle related to pathological process of kidney and urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilateral uveitis and Usher syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Benson, Matthew D; MacDonald, Ian M

    2015-03-15

    Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous condition and represents the most common cause of inherited combined vision and hearing loss. Deficits manifest as sensorineural hearing loss that typically develops at a young age and retinitis pigmentosa that can lead to peripheral vision loss and night blindness. As a result, this syndrome can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. Previous studies have described an association between Usher syndrome and Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis, a form of non-granulomatous uveitis that generally presents in a unilateral manner. We present a rare finding of bilateral uveitis and, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of granulomatous uveitis as a feature in a patient with Usher syndrome. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a known history of retinitis pigmentosa presented to our clinic with suspected Usher syndrome, given her report of long-standing hearing loss. Aside from a mild loss in visual acuity, our patient was otherwise asymptomatic. Visual field testing, audiology and electroretinography findings supported the diagnosis of Usher syndrome. With slit lamp examination she was found to have bilateral keratic precipitates, with large, greasy-white, mutton-fat keratic precipitates on the endothelial surface of her left eye. A thorough work-up that included blood tests and imaging was negative for an alternative cause of her uveitis. We present a rare finding of bilateral uveitis and what we believe to be the first reported instance of mutton-fat keratic precipitates and granulomatous uveitis as a feature in a patient with Usher syndrome. By identifying atypical presentations of the disease, we hope to contribute to the range of ophthalmic conditions that may be seen in association with Usher syndrome.

  5. Patients with Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy and Cataract Undergoing Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty and Phacoemulsification with Intraocular Lens Implant: Staged versus Combined Procedure Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sykakis, Evripidis; Lam, Fook Chang; Georgoudis, Panagiotis; Hamada, Samer; Lake, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the surgical outcomes of staged and combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implant (phaco+IOL) and Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and cataract. Setting. Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, UK. Methods. Retrospective study of patients who had combined phaco+IOL and DSAEK (group 1) or phaco+IOL followed within 2 months by DSAEK (group 2). Patients who had previous eye surgery or any other ocular comorbidities were excluded. Results. There were 28 eyes in group 1 and 31 in group 2. There were no significant differences in the demographics and corneal tissue characteristics of the two groups. The endothelial disc dislocation and rebubbling rate within 1 week in group 1 was 21.42% and in group 2 was 3.2% (P = 0.04), while the endothelial cell density at 12 months was 1510 ± 433 for group 1 and 1535 ± 482 for group 2 (P = 0.89). The mean 12-month logMAR visual acuity was 0.28 ± 0.24 for group 1 and 0.33 ± 0.15 for group 2 (P = 0.38). Conclusions. Although the combined procedure seems to be associated with a higher complication rate the final outcomes seem to be similar to both methods.

  6. Patients with Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy and Cataract Undergoing Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty and Phacoemulsification with Intraocular Lens Implant: Staged versus Combined Procedure Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fook Chang; Georgoudis, Panagiotis; Hamada, Samer; Lake, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the surgical outcomes of staged and combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implant (phaco+IOL) and Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and cataract. Setting. Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, UK. Methods. Retrospective study of patients who had combined phaco+IOL and DSAEK (group 1) or phaco+IOL followed within 2 months by DSAEK (group 2). Patients who had previous eye surgery or any other ocular comorbidities were excluded. Results. There were 28 eyes in group 1 and 31 in group 2. There were no significant differences in the demographics and corneal tissue characteristics of the two groups. The endothelial disc dislocation and rebubbling rate within 1 week in group 1 was 21.42% and in group 2 was 3.2% (P = 0.04), while the endothelial cell density at 12 months was 1510 ± 433 for group 1 and 1535 ± 482 for group 2 (P = 0.89). The mean 12-month logMAR visual acuity was 0.28 ± 0.24 for group 1 and 0.33 ± 0.15 for group 2 (P = 0.38). Conclusions. Although the combined procedure seems to be associated with a higher complication rate the final outcomes seem to be similar to both methods. PMID:26064669

  7. Accuracy of Corneal Thickness by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Scheimpflug Camera in Virgin and Treated Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Auladell, Clara; Couceiro, Ana

    2018-06-01

    To assess intraobserver repeatability, intersession reproducibility, and agreement of swept-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and the Scheimpflug camera in measuring corneal thickness in virgin and grafted eyes with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Thirty-six control eyes, 35 FECD eyes, 30 FECD with corneal edema eyes, 25 Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) eyes, and 29 Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) eyes were included. The apical center, pupillary center, and thinnest corneal thickness were determined in 3 consecutive images and repeated 2 weeks later. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between measurements were calculated. Agreement between devices was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Corneal thickness measurements were highly reproducible and repeatable with both systems. SS-OCT showed better repeatability in all corneal locations in the normal, FECD, FECD with edema, DSAEK, and DMEK groups (coefficient of variation ≤0.60%, ≤0.36%, ≤0.43%, ≤1.09%, and ≤0.48%, respectively) than the Scheimpflug (coefficient of variation ≤1.15%, ≤0.92%, ≤1.10%, ≤1.25%, and ≤1.14%, respectively). Between-session 95% LOA for SS-OCT was less than 3% for all groups except for the FECD with edema group, being almost double using the Scheimpflug camera. Differences between instruments were statistically significant in all groups and locations (P < 0.01) except in the DSAEK group (P ≤ 0.51); however, SS-OCT underestimated all measurements. SS-OCT provides better reproducible and repeatable measurements of corneal thickness than those obtained with the Scheimpflug camera in patients with FECD or an endothelial transplant. Variations between examinations higher than the 95% LOA observed in our study should raise awareness of changes in the endothelial function.

  8. Trends in patterns of anterior uveitis in a tertiary institution in singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wai Jia; Poh, Eugenie W; Wong, Poh-Ying; Ho, Su-Ling; Lim, Wee-Kiak; Teoh, Stephen C

    2013-08-01

    To report the trends in etiology of patients with anterior uveitis (AU) in Singapore over 6 years. A retrospective review of the clinical records of all new patients who presented with anterior uveitis to the uveitis subspecialty clinic from 2005 to 2010 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. There were 552 new cases of AU. This comprised 59.5% of a total of 928 new patients diagnosed with uveitis from 2005 to 2010. The mean age was 48.0 ± 17.2 years. There was a male predominance (62.5%), with a male:female ratio of 1.7:1. The majority were of Chinese ethnicity (69%), followed by Malays (13.2%). Most cases were unilateral (79.5%) and idiopathic (50.4%). Common etiological causes included Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) (5.6%), ankylosing spondylitis (AS)-related AU (5.1%), herpes simplex virus (HSV) (4.7%), and herpes zoster virus (HZV) (4.5%). There were increasing trends in AS-related AU from 3.2% in 2008 to 6.5% in 2010, and psoriasis-associated AU from 1.7% in 2005 to 4.0% in 2008. There were decreasing trends in the incidence of FHI from 10.6% in 2006 to 4.7% in 2009. No change in incidence of viral etiologies was noted, but cytomegalovirus-related immune-recovery uveitis (IRU) comprised 7.4%. IRU showed an increasing trend from 1.7% in 2005 to 11.9% in 2007, then decreased to 3.3% in 2010. Using the Pearson chi-square test, there was no statistically significant association between ethnicities (Chinese, Malay, Indian) comparing infectious and noninfectious cases (p = 0.788), idiopathic and nonidiopathic cases (p = 0.170), or between the various etiologies of uveitis (p = 0.168). AU was the predominant form of uveitis seen at our centers. Infectious etiologies (18.5%) are the most common among nonidiopathic cases, with herpes viruses (9.2%) being most prevalent. Despite increased use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of microbial and viral DNA, there was no overall increase in detection of infectious causes for

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Fuchs endothelial dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a protein that is part of type VIII collagen. Type VIII collagen is largely found within the cornea, surrounding the endothelial cells. Specifically, type VIII collagen is a major component of a tissue at ...

  10. The Manchester Uveitis Clinic: the first 3000 patients--epidemiology and casemix.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas P

    2015-04-01

    To demonstrate the demography, anatomical, and diagnostic classification of patients with uveitis attending the Manchester Uveitis Clinic (MUC), a specialist uveitis clinic in the northwest of England, UK. Retrospective retrieval of data on a computerized database incorporating all new referrals to MUC from 1991 to 2013. A total of 3000 new patients with uveitis were seen during a 22-year period. The anatomical types seen were anterior 46%; intermediate 11.1%; posterior 21.8%; and panuveitis 21.1%. The most common diagnoses were Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (11.5% of total), sarcoidosis-related uveitis (9.7%), idiopathic intermediate uveitis (7.9%), idiopathic acute anterior uveitis (7.0%), and toxoplasmosis (6.9%). Syphilis and tuberculosis-associated uveitis increased markedly in frequency during the study period. The uveitis casemix in this region reflects a predominantly white Caucasian population in a temperate country, but with changing characteristics owing to increasing immigration, enhanced diagnostic techniques, changes in referral pattern, and some real changes in disease incidence.

  11. Description of a new species of the genus Anguillonema Fuchs, 1938 (Nematoda: Sphaerularioidea) with an identification key to the species.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, A; Pourjam, E; Pedram, M

    2018-06-21

    Anguillonema iranicum n. sp. is described and illustrated as the second species of this genus from Iran, based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characteristics. It is identified by a short, thin body, a continuous lip region, six lines on the lateral field, a short, thin stylet, a posteriorly located pharyngo-intestinal junction to excretory pore, the presence of a post-vulval uterine sac, vulval position at 89% (87.4-89.9%) of body length, an elongate conoid tail with a rounded to pointed tip and not dorsally bent, and common functional males with short spicules and lacking a bursa. Morphological differences between the new species and the three known species of the genus, namely A. amolensis, A. crenati and A. poligraphi, are discussed. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species using partial 18S rDNA sequence revealed that it formed a sister clade with three species of Howardula, one species of Anguillonema and one unidentified isolate. In phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of 28S rDNA D2-D3 segment, the new species formed a clade with two isolates of Parasitylenchus. A key to identification of Anguillonema species is also presented.

  12. On the Significance of Conceptual Metaphors in Teaching and Learning Science: Commentary on Lancor; Niebert and Gropengiesser; and Fuchs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Duit, Reinders

    2015-01-01

    The role of analogies and metaphors has played a significant part in the work on teaching and learning science. This commentary discusses three papers from this current issue that cover a wide range of studies in the spirit of conceptual metaphors--ranging from a study somewhat similar to "classical" conceptual change, to a teacher…

  13. The first record of Gregarina typographi Fuchs (Protista: Apicomplexa: Gregarinidae) from the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa; Bakı, Hilal

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study is determining pathogens of Ips typographus from Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey. Samples collected from the field were taken to laboratuar as soon as possible. Microscopic examination was completed by dissection with Ringer's solution. 780 Ips typographus beetles from Giresun, Rize and Artvin were examined. Gregarines were observed in the populations of I. typographus in the three regions. 27 of 780 beetles were found to be infected by the Gregarina typographi. Total rate of infection was 3.4% in three localities. During the study several life stages of the gregarine pathogen (trophozoite, gamont, Cysts and associative form) were observed. Gametocysts were spherical and from 77 to 85 μm in diameter. Total lengths of solitary gamonts were measured. from 90 to 155 μm. Measurements of gamonts and gametocysts of G. typographi were given and compared with other gregarines isolated from bark beetles. This pathogen is described as Gregarina typographi. The gregarine pathogen of Ips typographus is reported from Turkey for the first time.

  14. How Sharp is a Unicorn's Horn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.; Allignton, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Criticizes a study of the reliability and validity of curriculum-based reading inventories by L. S. Fuchs, D. Fuchs, and S. L. Deno and raises questions regarding the study's internal and external validity. (AEA)

  15. Strategies for Minimizing Variability in Progress Monitoring of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundock, Kaitlin; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Stokes, Kristen; Kladis, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that: (1) Curriculum-based monitoring (CBM) can be easily implemented and interpreted by teachers (e.g., Fuchs, Deno, & Mirkin, 1984); (2) student outcomes have improved when teachers use CBM to inform instructional decision making (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Stecker, 1991); (3) reliable and valid measures have been…

  16. Peer-Assisted Learning/Literacy Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" and a similar program known as "Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies" are peer-tutoring programs that supplement the primary reading curriculum (Fuchs, Fuchs, Kazdan, & Allen, 1999; Mathes & Babyak, 2001). This review uses the acronym "PALS" to encompass both programs and their…

  17. Hand-Held Calculator Algorithms for Coastal Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    and water depth at the structure toe, ds. The development of the equation is derived on the solution sheet included with program 104R. Algorithm uses...Limited Design Breaking Wave Height at Structure (AOS logic)... .... ....... ......... .54 6. 105R Wave Transmission - Fuchs’ Equation (RPN logic...58 105A Wave Transmission - Fuchs’ Equation (AOS logic). . . . 61 APPENDIX BLANK PROGRAM FORMS ........ ....................... ... 67 4

  18. 76 FR 50462 - Applications for New Awards; Technical Assistance and Dissemination To Improve Services and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...-recommendations-for-serving-adolescent-newcomers . Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L.S. (2006). New directions in research...). Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Technical Assistance and Dissemination To...

  19. Understanding PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004). It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the…

  20. An Evaluation of the Word Triad Method for Monitoring Spelling Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig; Wang, Ze

    2018-01-01

    Although spelling skill progress has typically been studied within the context of students' responses to written story starters (Deno, Marsten, & Mirkin, 1982; Fuchs & Fuchs, 2011; Hosp, Hosp, & Howell, 2007; Shinn & Shinn, 2002), there has been little research conducted within a curriculum-based measurement framework that has…

  1. Thoughts on Rethinking Response to Intervention with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors appreciate the opportunity provided by the editor to respond to the commentary on their article (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Compton, 2010). They also appreciate the editorial team of "School Psychology Review" for selecting their article as a Featured Article within the journal (Vaughn, Cirino et al., 2010). They interpret this as an indication…

  2. Resolution of chicken pox neuroretinitis with oral acyclovir: a case report.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Nagpal, Amit; Chopra, Sumeet; Karna, Satya

    2003-12-01

    It is usual to consider chicken pox as a benign infectious disease with a few anterior segment ocular complications like conjunctivitis, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, iridocyclitis, and glaucoma. The retinal manifestations are necrotising retinitis, vitritis, neuroretinitis, and retinal detachments. We report a case of neuroretinitis following chicken pox in a 23-year-old male. The complication was resolved by treatment with oral acyclovir in combination with systemic steroids. This report highlights the necessity for fundus examination in cases of chickenpox exhibiting visual symptoms.

  3. 77 FR 64591 - Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... determinations regarding the size of a railroad helps the Board minimize the reporting burden for smaller... and Regulatory Affairs, Attention: Patrick Fuchs, Surface Transportation Board Desk Officer, by fax at...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Potier MC, Dauphinot L, Shirley TL, Torero-Ibad R, Fuchs J, Jinnah HA. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase regulates early developmental programming of dopamine neurons: implications for Lesch-Nyhan disease ...

  5. Simplifying Differential Equations for Multiscale Feynman Integrals beyond Multiple Polylogarithms.

    PubMed

    Adams, Luise; Chaubey, Ekta; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-04-07

    In this Letter we exploit factorization properties of Picard-Fuchs operators to decouple differential equations for multiscale Feynman integrals. The algorithm reduces the differential equations to blocks of the size of the order of the irreducible factors of the Picard-Fuchs operator. As a side product, our method can be used to easily convert the differential equations for Feynman integrals which evaluate to multiple polylogarithms to an ϵ form.

  6. Charles Nordmann and Multicolour Stellar Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2010-11-01

    Charles Nordmann (1881-1940), an astronomer at the Paris Observatory, was the first to determine the effective temperature of stars with his photometre heterochrome, simultaneously and independently of Rosenberg, Wilsing and Scheiner in Germany. He is also the remote precursor of the multicolour photometry of Johnson and Morgan. In spite of the quality of his temperature determinations, which were as good or better than those made by spectrophotometry, he rapidly fell into oblivion because of some failures in his scientific work. We examine his activity in the international context of the time, and explain why he has been forgotten, to be rediscovered only recently.

  7. [Clinical aspects and therapy of the posner-schlossmann-syndrom (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hollwich, F

    1978-05-01

    Difficulties in the early diagnosis of the Posner-Schlossmann syndrome can be avoided by looking for the following typical clinical signs: Very fine, unpigmented precipitates, which are often only signly present, and which are scattered over the entire cornea: bright white in incident light, translucent in reflected light, and in transmitted light dark in spots. Posterior synechiae are not present. Obvious differences in color or heterochromia are present in only 30-40% of the cases. In the remaining cases, there ist only a slight color difference or unilateral, diffusely trophic hypochromia of the iris, often only after several attacks. The chamber angle is and remains open during the attacks. There are similarities between glaucomatocyclitic crisis and heterochromic cyclitis: Unilaterality, the same specific precipitates, no synechiae, and practically the same percentage of color differences of the iris. Hypochromic dystrophy of the iris dependent on the magnitude and duration of the cyclitic process. In both cases, there is the same rate of physical changes, pointing to a congenital damage of the sympathetic nervous system (status dysraphicus Passow). Hence, the Posner-Schlossmann syndrome can be regarded as a special case of heterochromic cyclitis. Neither miotics nor mydriatics, nor operation during the crisis. Acetazolamide (Diamox) combined with local cortisone will stop the crisis.

  8. Methotrexate for uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: value and requirement for additional anti-inflammatory medication.

    PubMed

    Heiligenhaus, A; Mingels, A; Heinz, C; Ganser, G

    2007-01-01

    To study the value of methotrexate (MTX) and the requirement for additional anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of severe chronic iridocyclitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Institutional study of 35 consecutive patients with JIA started on MTX as the single systemic immunosuppressive drug for the treatment of associated iridocyclitis. The clinical epidemiologic data, course of visual acuity (VA), development of complications, and the need for additional anti-inflammatory drugs were analyzed. Mean follow-up with MTX treatment was 27.6 months. Uveitic complications were present in 31 patients before MTX treatment. With MTX, quiescence of uveitis was obtained with (n=21) or without (n=4) additional topical steroids. Additional systemic immunosuppressive drugs were required in another 7 patients: cyclosporine A (n=4), azathioprine (n=1), infliximab (n=1), or etanercept (n=1). Three patients had active uveitis at the end of the follow-up period. During MTX therapy, uveitis first developed in the unaffected fellow eyes in 2 patients, and secondary glaucoma or ocular hypertension occurred in 7 patients. The VA deteriorated in 6, improved in 13, and was stable in the remaining eyes. The data suggest that MTX is very effective in controlling inflammation of uveitis in patients with JIA. However, additional topical steroids or systemic immunosuppressive drugs are often required.

  9. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attention: Patrick Fuchs, Surface.... Type of Review: Collection in existence without a Control Number. Respondents: Class I railroads... other depreciable property. Total Annual Hour Burden: 3,605 hours (515 hours x 7 Class I railroads...

  10. Von Neumann was not a Quantum Bayesian.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Blake C

    2016-05-28

    Wikipedia has claimed for over 3 years now that John von Neumann was the 'first quantum Bayesian'. In context, this reads as stating that von Neumann inaugurated QBism, the approach to quantum theory promoted by Fuchs, Mermin and Schack. This essay explores how such a claim is, historically speaking, unsupported. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. The Effects of Combining Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies and Incremental Rehearsal on Non-Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinen, Amy Bethel

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a phonics-based intervention on the reading outcomes of non-Spanish-speaking English Learners (ELs). Thirty-six K-3, primarily Karen- and Hmong-speaking ELs were randomly assigned to receive a modified version of Kindergarten Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (K-PALS; Fuchs et al., 2001b) combined with…

  12. I Remember You: Epigenetic Priming in Epithelial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Boris; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2017-12-19

    Exposure to inflammatory stimuli can remodel immune cells in a way that alters their response to future insults. In a landmark paper in Nature, Elaine Fuchs and colleagues show that memory of inflammation is not restricted to the hematopoietic lineage (Naik et al., 2017). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. When Darkness Falls: A Journey into Visual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Karla

    2006-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization is a rare condition where aberrant blood vessels behind the retina grow and then bleed, eventually becoming blind areas called Fuchs' spots. A woman suffering from this rare eye disease speaks about the challenges of coping with the visual disability and her determination to make the best of what life has to offer.

  14. Computers and Student Learning: Interpreting the Multivariate Analysis of PISA 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004, economists Thomas Fuchs and Ludger Woessmann published a statistical analysis of the relationship between technology and student achievement using year 2000 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The 2000 PISA was the first in a series of triennial assessments of 15-year-olds conducted by the…

  15. Grasping Reality Through Illusion: Interactive Graphics Serving Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    SIGGRAPH, or riding techniques to the enhancement of scientific computing. StarTours at Disneyland shows how stunningly far we ........ have come. We need...supercomputer References matching and steering tools. Such tools must be Bergman, L., Fuchs, H., Grant , E., Spach, S. [1986] universal and application

  16. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  17. Seismic Propagation in the Kuriles/Kamchatka Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-25

    model the final profile is well-represented by a spline interpolation. Figure 7 shows the sampling grid used to input velocity perturbations due to the...A modification of Cagniard’s method for s~ lving seismic pulse problems, Appl. Sci. Res. B., 8, p. 349, 1960. Fuchs, K. and G. Muller, Computation of

  18. A Conversation About Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    Professor Victor R. Fuchs is the Henry J. Kaiser Jr Professor at Stanford (California) University, where he applies economic analysis to social problems of national concern, with special emphasis on health and medical care. He holds joint appointments in the Economics Department and the School of Medicine's Department of Health Research and Policy. Professor Fuchs is a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association and a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He was the first economist to receive the Distinguished Investigator Award of the Association for Health Services Research and has also received the Baxter Foundation Health Services Research Prize. Professor Fuchs is president-elect of the American Economic Association. His latest book, The Future of Health Policy, was published by Harvard University Press in 1993. The following edited conversation between Professor Fuchs and Linda Hawes Clever, MD, Editor of the journal, took place on April 8, 1994. PMID:7941523

  19. The Majority of US Combat Casualty Soft-Tissue Wounds are not Infected or Colonized Upon Arrival or during Treatment at a Continental US Military Medical Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    comparison in chronic wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage 2001;47:34-7. 8. Pallua N, Fuchs PC. Hafemann B, et al. A new technique for quanti- tative bacterial...chronic wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage 1997;43:20-30. 10. Steer JA, Papini RPG, Wilson APR, et al. Quantitative microbiology in the management of bum

  20. Medical Device Plug-and-Play (MD PnP) Interoperability Standardization Program Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    TATRC / DoD Sandy Weininger, FDA / CDRH ICE-PAC / Industry Tracy Rausch, DocBox Inc. Ken Fuchs, Draeger Medical Carl Wallroth, Draeger Medical...Systems (LSTAT) Paul Jones, FDA / CDRH Kamran Sayrafian-Pour, NIST © 2006-2009 a white paper from the MD PnP Program rev July 2009 Advancing

  1. Intervention for First Graders with Limited Number Knowledge: Large-Scale Replication of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Rolfhus, Eric; Clarke, Ben; Decker, Lauren E.; Wilkins, Chuck; Dimino, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Replication studies are extremely rare in education. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scale-up replication of Fuchs et al., which in a sample of 139 found a statistically significant positive impact for Number Rockets, a small-group intervention for at-risk first graders that focused on building understanding of number operations. The…

  2. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes and fusarochromanone produced by Fusarium equiseti strains isolated from Norwegian cereals.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Ellen; Rundberget, Thomas; Kosiak, Barbara; Aastveit, Are H; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and secondary metabolites of 28 Norwegian strains of Fusarium equiseti have been characterized. Trichothecenes and fusarochromanone (FUCH) in rice culture extracts of the strains were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following metabolites were found in all isolates: FUCH, nivalenol (NIV), scirpentriol (SCIRP), 4-acetylnivalenol (4-ac-NIV, also called fusarenon-X), 15-acetyl-nivalenol (15-ac-NIV), and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). 4,15-diacetyl-nivalenol (diacetyl-NIV) was found in 5 isolates. Porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK15. American Type Culture Collection) were exposed to rice culture extracts to study cytotoxicity. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis of the identified secondary metabolites show that their main metabolites were FUCH, NIV, SCIRP, DAS and 15-ac-NIV, consecutively. The individual trichothecenes were highly intercorrelated, whereas the production of acetylated NIV and DAS was slightly less. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of cytotoxicity and metabolite profiles of rice culture extracts ascribed the toxicity mainly to a combination of FUCH and 15-ac-NIV, though SCIRP or DAS are agents in the combined toxicity as well.

  3. Response to Discussion of "Investigation of Oxide Bifilms in Investment Cast Superalloy IN100 Part I and II"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M. A.; Fuchs, G. E.

    2017-10-01

    In his most recent letter (Campbell in Met Trans A, 2017), Professor Campbell provides additional comments on Kaplan and Fuchs papers "Oxides Bifilms in Superalloy: IN100, Parts I and II (Met Trans A 47A:2346-2361, 2016; Met Trans A 47A:2362-2375, 2016) and on their response to his initial comments (Met Trans A 47A:3806-3809, 2016). In this recent submission, Campbell provides some very interesting thoughts on why bifilms were not observed by Kaplan and Fuchs and creates a new theory for the formation of defects referred to as bifilms. However, Campbell again provides no evidence to substantiate the presence of bifilms in Ni-base superalloys or his newly theorized mechanism. The vast majority of Campbell's comments are based solely on the re-interpretation of the photomicrographs and the data reported in the literature, including those presented by Kaplan and Fuchs (Met Trans A 47A:2346-2361, 2016; Met Trans A 47A:2362-2375, 2016). Campbell claims that bifilms are present throughout Ni-base superalloys, even though no one else has reported the presence of bifilms in Ni-base superalloys. In re-interpreting the data and images, Campbell ignores the extensive surface characterization results reported by Kaplan and Fuchs (Met Trans A 47A:2346-2361, 2016; Met Trans A 47A:2362-2375, 2016) that clearly indicate that there are no oxide films or bifilms on the fracture surfaces examined. Please note that this discussion of Campbell's most recent letter will be limited to Ni-base superalloys, since that is the subject of the research reported by Kaplan and Fuchs.

  4. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  5. A case of recurrence of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis (ocular toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Onouchi, Hiromi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Oohashi, Hideki; Kaiken, Han; Kawai, Kenji

    2010-12-20

    To describe a case of recurrence of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis. A 24-year-old woman presented with hyperemia in her right eye. Medical history included epilepsy at age 14 and mild mental retardation. Iridocyclitis and vitreous opacity were observed in the right eye, and furthermore widespread retinal vessel sheathing due to frosted branch angiitis was seen. Acyclovir was initiated for acute retinal necrosis with frosted branch angiitis. One week later, serologic tests showed elevated toxoplasma antibody level and toxoplasma antibody IgG level, and a white retinal exudative lesion with unclear margins was noted. Therefore, acetylspiramycin and prednisolone were initiated for a recurrence of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis. After treatment, inflammation subsided, the exudative lesion shrank, and the frosted branch angiitis improved. We encountered a case of ocular toxoplasmosis due to recurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis. The clinical symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis can be varied and the diagnosis should be kept in mind.

  6. New constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs via difference sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gaojun; Cao, Xiwang

    2018-04-01

    In quantum information theory, symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are related to quantum state tomography (Caves et al., 2004), quantum cryptography (Fuchs and Sasaki, 2003) [1], and foundational studies (Fuchs, 2002) [2]. However, constructing SIC-POVMs is notoriously hard. Although some SIC-POVMs have been constructed numerically, there does not exist an infinite class of them. In this paper, we propose two constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs, where a small deviation from uniformity of the inner products is allowed. We employ difference sets to present the first construction and the dimension of the approximately SIC-POVMs is q + 1, where q is a prime power. Notably, the dimension of this framework is new. The second construction is based on partial geometric difference sets and works whenever the dimension of the framework is a prime power.

  7. Topical Report Tantalum – 2.5% Tungsten Machinability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus

    2009-09-02

    Protection Association (NFPA). NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, Chapter 9 Tantalum and Annex E, supplemental Information on Tantalum require cutting oil be used when machining tantalum because it burns at such a high temperature that it breaks down the water in a water-based metalworking fluid (MWF). The NFPA guide devotes approximately 20 pages to this material. The Kansas City Plant (KCP) uses Fuchs Lubricants Ecocut Base 44 LVC as a MWF. This is a highly chlorinated oil with a high flash point (above 200° F). The chlorine is very helpful in preventing BUE (Built Up Edge) that occurs frequentlymore » with this very gummy material. The Ecocut is really a MWF additive that Fuchs uses to add chlorinated fats to other non-chlorinated MWF.« less

  8. SIC-POVMS and MUBS: Geometrical Relationships in Prime Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, D. M.

    2009-03-01

    The paper concerns Weyl-Heisenberg covariant SIC-POVMs (symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures) and full sets of MUBs (mutually unbiased bases) in prime dimension. When represented as vectors in generalized Bloch space a SIC-POVM forms a d2-1 dimensional regular simplex (d being the Hilbert space dimension). By contrast, the generalized Bloch vectors representing a full set of MUBs form d+1 mutually orthogonal d-1 dimensional regular simplices. In this paper we show that, in the Weyl-Heisenberg case, there are some simple geometrical relationships between the single SIC-POVM simplex and the d+1 MUB simplices. We go on to give geometrical interpretations of the minimum uncertainty states introduced by Wootters and Sussman, and by Appleby, Dang and Fuchs, and of the fiduciality condition given by Appleby, Dang and Fuchs.

  9. Iris texture traits show associations with iris color and genomic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Quillen, Ellen E; Guiltinan, Jenna S; Beleza, Sandra; Rocha, Jorge; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Shriver, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify associations among genomic biogeographic ancestry (BGA), quantitative iris color, and iris texture traits contributing to population-level variation in these phenotypes. DNA and iris photographs were collected from 300 individuals across three variably admixed populations (Portugal, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Two raters scored the photos for pigmentation spots, Fuchs' crypts, contraction furrows, and Wolflinn nodes. Iris color was quantified from RGB values. Maximum likelihood estimates of individual BGA were calculated from 176 ancestry informative markers. Pigmentation spots, Fuchs' crypts, contraction furrows, and iris color show significant positive correlation with increasing European BGA. Only contraction furrows are correlated with iris color. The relationship between BGA and iris texture illustrates a genetic contribution to this population-level variation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Towards Better Understanding QBism.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    Recently I posted a paper entitled "External observer reflections on QBism". As any external observer, I was not able to reflect all features of QBism properly. The comments I received from one of QBism's creators, C. A. Fuchs, were very valuable to me in better understanding the views of QBists. Some of QBism's features are very delicate and extracting them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore, I hope that the second portion of my reflections on QBism (or, strictly speaking, my reflections on Fuchs reflections on my earlier reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially, taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position). In the present paper I correct some of my earlier posted critical comments on QBism. At the same time, other critical comments gained new validation through my recent deeper understanding of QBists views on a number of problems.

  11. Topics in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Vahala, Linda

    During the period 1998-2013, research under the auspices of the Department of Energy was performed on RF waves in plasmas. This research was performed in close collaboration with Josef Preinhaelter, Jakub Urban, Vladimir Fuchs, Pavol Pavlo and Frantisek Zacek (Czech Academy of Sciences), Martin Valovic and Vladimir Shevchenko (Culham). This research is detailed and all 38 papers which were published by this team are cited.

  12. The Search for a Cold War Grand Strategy: NSC 68 & 162

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Robert Dallek, Harry S. Truman (New York: Times Books, 2008); Ernest R. May, American Cold War Strategy (New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press...Gave the Soviets the Atomic Bomb (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), 119. 32Robert C. Williams , Klaus Fuchs, Atom Spy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard...possibilities, including preemptive buying.”52 Dr. Ernest O. Lawrence was the final consultant engaged by the State-Defense Policy Review Group. The

  13. Discussion of "Investigation of Oxide Bifilms in Investment Cast Superalloy IN100 Parts I and II"*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2017-10-01

    Fuchs and Kaplan carried out experiments in an attempt to ascertain whether oxide bifilms were present in a vacuum-cast Ni-base superalloy but concluded negatively. Although this author challenged their interpretation of their findings, both parties had overlooked the presence in the alloy of boron which is now known to inhibit bifilm formation. However, even though boron can help significantly, improved filling system designs remain important if other damaging entrainment defects are to be avoided.

  14. Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta Analytic Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    studies of peer tutoring in elementary and secondary school mathematics, reported that tutoring programs raised math test scores by an average of 0.60...programs in elementary and secondary schools. Mathes and Fuchs (1994) found an improvement of 0.36 stan- dard deviations in 11 studies of peer...per- centile. Slavin et al. analyzed evaluations carried out in math courses in both middle and high schools. They located 13 evaluations, but only

  15. Combustion Dynamics of Biocidal Metal-Based Energetic Components in Turbulent Reactive Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    imperative for successful design of respective metalized energetic systems. This predictive ability must rely on accurate models describing...powders was reported to vary from 900 to 1200 K, depending on milling conditions (Zhang et al. 2010a). Another reactive material designed to...the Conference of the American Physical Society Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 845 II; Baltimore, MD), pp. 972-975. Fuchs

  16. Matrix Vesicle Enzyme Activity and Phospholipid Content in Endosteal Bone Following Implantation of Osseointegrating and Non-Osseointegrating Implant Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    limb. The collected hemopoietic material was a combination of cells, fractured cell debris, and matrix vesicles. This material was utilized for the... dogs and rabbits (Deutscher et al., 1978; Fuchs et al., 1981), and the mandibles of humans (Bunte et al., 1977). Following surgical implantation, there...associated with mineralization in a number of additional normal and pathologic conditions, including cementum (Hayashi, 1985), fracture callus (Boskey et al

  17. Additional boundary conditions and surface exciton dispersion relations

    SciTech Connect

    Rimbey, P.R.

    1977-01-15

    The surface-exciton dispersion curves in ZnO are derived from the surface impedances developed by Fuchs and Kliewer (FK) and Rimbey and Mahan (RM) including retardation. There exists a distinctive splitting between the two dispersions, the FK additional boundary conditions having longitudinal character, the RM additional boundary conditions being transverse. Surface-mode attenuation due to spatial dispersion is more pronouced in the RM formalism, although inclusion of a phenomenological damping parameter does not alter either dispersion curve. (AIP)

  18. Regulation of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    removed by a cotton swab, and the cells on the lower surface of the membrane were stained by crystal violet. BD BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chambers...PTK6 downstream players, including AKT, p130CAS, FAK, and ERK5. AKT signaling pro- motes the EMT in different cancer cell lines (23, 45, 46). PTK6...Yang R, Crawford SE, Vasioukhin V, Fuchs E, et al. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 negatively regulates growth and pro- motes enterocyte differentiation in

  19. Dying is a Living Process: A Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Initiating a Hospice at Madigan Army Medical Center with Implications for Army-Wide Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    for Health Industry : Cut Federal Costs," Hospital Progress 61 (January 1981): 13. 2Victor R. Fuchs, "The Economics of Health In A Postindustrial... industrial Vacuum Cleaner 300 - Examining Room: Examining Table 1,000 Supply Cabinet 200 Stool 95 Lamp 100 2,890 TOTAL CAPITAL OUTLAY 12,890 TOTAL COST...25. -Index Cards 6. 6. -Manila Folders 15. 15. - Staplers 10. 10. -Miscellaneous Items 50. 50. $ 106. 106. 17 Books and Periodicals - Books 50Q. 500

  20. Multigrid Methods: Proceedings of the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods (3rd) Held in Copper Mountain, Colorado on April 5-10, 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Time Series 53. J. Barros-Neto and R. A. Artino, Hypoelliptic Boundary-Value Problems 54. R. L. Sternberg, A. J. Kalinowski, and J. S. Papadakis... Systems 95. C E. AuL Rings of Continuous Functions 96. R. Chuaqui, Analysis , Geometry, and Probability 97. L. Fuchs and L. Sace, Modules Over...Local Refinements for a Class of Nonshared Memory Systems 449 Hermann Mierendorif Analysis of a Multigrid Method for the Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics

  1. Operationally Responsive Space: Creating Responsive Space for America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-20

    programs. Items identified for improvement include: 1 ) Fractured management and accounting , 2 ) Satellite availability, 3) Facilities (Processing...enveloped by our three output tiers. The three tiers: • Tier 1 is an immediate response taking minutes to days. • Tier 2 is a mid term response taking...needs to improve. 2 . Develop a philosophy. 3. Set a direction with specific goals (Fuchs 1 -7). The Department of Space should follow these

  2. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    nuclear weapons program in 1941 and renamed the program the Manhattan Project in 1942.6 The mammoth efforts of the Manhattan Project resulted in the...killing or mortally wounding up to 130,000 Japanese.11 While the scientists of the Manhattan Project were awestruck at the first nuclear blast in New...remove great danger for us.”12 Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall, two scientists on the Manhattan Project , had been previously recruited to spy for the

  3. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 49, Number 4, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    solutions required totally new techniques and technology , contractors, and organizations. Using the rapid developments in satellite systems in the 1960s as...both failed came as a postwar shock, especially to those who thought so highly of Klaus Fuchs as a babysitter .17 Conant provides a new look at how...Estimates wrote one of the articles; Max Millikan, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , who had helped create economic intelli- gence at the CIA

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Regeneration and Bone Formation in Mice: Implications in Fracture Repair and Wound Healing in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    nitrosourea mutagenesis, is the result of a missense mutation in the glucokinase gene. Diabetes 53(6):1577- 83. 7. Meyer CW, Korthaus D, Jagla W...Cornali E, Grosse J, Fuchs H, Klingenspor M, Roemheld S, Tschop M, Heldmaier G, De Angelis MH, Nehls M 2004 A novel missense mutation in the mouse...DNA polymorphisms or mutations that may be responsible for the QTLs. In order to identify the candidate genes for the Chr 9 QTL regions, we used

  5. A toolbox to visualise benefits resulting from flood hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha

    2017-04-01

    In order to visualize the benefits resulting from technical mitigation, a toolbox was developed within an open-source environment that allows for an assessment of gains and losses for buildings exposed to flood hazards. Starting with different scenarios showing the changes in flood magnitude with respect to the considered management options, the computation was based on the amount and value of buildings exposed as well as their vulnerability, following the general concept of risk assessment. As a result, beneficiaries of risk reduction may be identified and - more general - also different mitigation options may be strategically evaluated with respect to the height of risk reduction for different elements exposed. As such, multiple management options can be ranked according to their costs and benefits, and in order of priority. A relational database composed from different modules was created in order to mirror the requirements of an open source application and to allow for future dynamics in the data availability as well as the spatiotemporal dynamics of this data (Fuchs et al. 2013). An economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings exposed using (a) the building footprint, (b) the information of the building cadaster such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (c) regionally averaged construction costs. An exposition module was applied to connect the spatial GIS information (X and Y coordinates) of elements at risk to the hazard information in order to achieve information on exposure. An impact module linked this information to vulnerability functions (Totschnig and Fuchs 2013; Papathoma-Köhle et al. 2015) in order to achieve the monetary level of risk for every building exposed. These values were finally computed before and after the implementation of mitigation measure in order to show gains and losses, and visualised. The results can be exported in terms of spread sheets for further computation. References Fuchs S

  6. In vivo analysis of the iris thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Alessandro; Cigada, Mario; Savoldi, Luisa; Cavuto, Silvio; Fontana, Luigi; Cimino, Luca

    2014-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in providing in vivo measurements of iris thickness in healthy and pathological subjects. 14 healthy volunteers and 14 patients with unilateral Fuchs' uveitis were enrolled in the study. The two groups were comparable for age, gender and race. Each subject underwent complete clinical examination and anterior segment SD-OCT imaging in both eyes. SD-OCT scans of the iris were performed following a cross-sectional pattern. Iris thickness values were obtained using a purposely developed software-based analysis of OCT images. Measurements were carried out twice by two trained independent operators to assess intraobserver and interobserver repeatability. Analysis of iris thickness was conducted in four main quadrants: superior, inferior, nasal and temporal. Iris thickness values from normal subjects were compared with the ones measured in the affected and fellow eyes of patients with Fuchs' uveitis. Iris thickness measurements showed good intraobserver and interobserver repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.971). Superior and temporal iris sectors showed respectively thickest and thinnest values in all groups. In healthy eyes, iris thickness ranged from 327.92±37.29 μm temporally to 405.25±48.49 μm superiorly. Iris thickness measurements in the affected eyes of Fuchs' uveitis patients ranged from 285.48±56.02 μm temporally to 376.12±60.97 μm superiorly. Multiple comparison analysis showed iris thickness values to be significantly lower in eyes affected by Fuchs' uveitis than both in fellow eyes (p<0.001) of the same patients and in healthy eyes (p=0.0074). SD-OCT is a suitable technique for iris thickness assessment. Thickness analysis must be carried out using a sectorial approach, taking into consideration anatomical variations existing between different iris regions. SD-OCT is a potentially useful tool for detecting iris thickness variations induced by

  7. [Anterior uveitis caused by electrical discharge in whole body injuries (fifteen years study)].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Brož, L; Kripner, J

    2013-10-01

    To inform about clinical analysis of early ophthalmologic complication (uveitis) in patients sustained electric discharge injury. The authors refer about fifteen years follow-up of pediatric patients at the Department of Burns Medicine, 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, E.U., with electric discharge injury, in which the anterior uveitis was detected. Out of 43 patients after electric discharge injury, the always-unilateral iritis (iridocyclitis) was diagnosed in four (9 %) patients according to thorough going follow-up after first accidental diagnosis in the year 1998. Out of four boys aged 12 - 15 years, the first two were injured during the "play" - due to the contact with electrical trolley wire while running on railroad wagons roofs, and the two others were stuck by lighting under a tree by secondary electrical discharge. More serious skin burns were noticed in high-voltage current injury - 69 % or 55 % of body surface respectively, with the necessity of skin transplantation. The same was necessary in one boy injured by lighting with burns of 25 % of body surface, while the last one had on the skin the lighting signs only. In most of the patients, the resuscitation care due to unconsciousness and posttraumatic shock was necessary. The anterior uveitis was diagnosed subsequently, after initial preliminary diagnoses as conjunctivitis, episcleritis, or ophthalmia electrical. The iritis without visual function decrease was discovered in few days after the injury in three patients. Treatment and results: The inflammation was in these cases treated with short-term application of mydriatic and corticosteroid eye drops. Once only, the uveitis appeared after two months during the patients hospitalization and then the signs of iridocyclitis in the anterior chamber worsened and caused visual acuity decrease to hand movement in front of the eye. The condition was successfully treated by means of parabulbar betamethasone injection and long

  8. Practical method for balancing airplane moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamburger, H

    1924-01-01

    The present contribution is the sequel to a paper written by Messrs. R. Fuchs, L. Hopf, and H. Hamburger, and proposes to show that the methods therein contained can be practically utilized in computations. Furthermore, the calculations leading up to the diagram of moments for three airplanes, whose performance in war service gave reason for complaint, are analyzed. Finally, it is shown what conclusions can be drawn from the diagram of moments with regard to the defects in these planes and what steps may be taken to remedy them.

  9. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 64, Number 1, January 1926

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1926-01-01

    designed and put into production as soon as possible, so that toward the end of the war FIC. 1. FU~CH A:’OTUlIcaAFT Tat:clC ~IOt;:OOT better types were...fuse setting can also be determined. These data are computed by this corrector, which is of French design . The data obtained from this instrument are...and maximum speeds given above are those which will probably be obtained with planes now under develop- ment and should be considered in designing

  10. P and S Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle Under China and Surrounding Areas From Body and Surface Wave Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    Validation Results The 3D shear-wave velocity models are shown in Fig- ures 5–7 and can be accessed Ⓔ in the electronic edition of BSSA. Depth slices... edited by S. Karato and M. Toriumi, Oxford Sci., New York. Levshin, A. L., M. H. Ritzwoller, M. P. Barmin, A. Villasenor, and C. A. Padgett (2001), New...vol. 16, edited by K. Fuchs and C. Froidevaux, pp. 111–123, AGU, Washington, D.C. Nolet, G., C. Coutlee, and R. Clouser (1998), Sn velocities in

  11. A Study to Determine the Reasons Retirees Use CHAMPUS Rather Than the Fort Carson Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    al (1968), p. 868. 7Korsch, et al (1968), p. 869. 8William A. Flexner and Eric N. Berkowitz, " Marketing Research in Health Services Planning : A Model...34 Marketing Research in Health Services Planning: A Model." Public Health Reports, Vol. 94, No. 6 (November-December, 1979), pp. 503-513. Fuchs...34Patients’ Priorities for Medical Care", Medical Care, Vol. 21, No. 2 (February 1983), pp. 234-242. 13William A. Flexner and Eric N. Berkowitz, " Marketing

  12. Rotator cuff degeneration of the healthy shoulder in patients with unilateral arm amputation is not worsened by overuse.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Candela, V; Mariani, L; Venditto, T; Catalano, C; Castellano, S; Santilli, V; Giannicola, G; Castagna, A

    2018-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether overuse has a significant role in rotator cuff tear (RCT) aetiology, we evaluated both shoulders of patients with old unilateral arm amputation expecting a higher rate of RC degeneration in the healthy side. Nineteen males and six females (mean age: 57.3 ± 10.1) with an old (>20 years) unilateral arm amputation were submitted to an MRI of both shoulders. Tendon status and muscle tropism were evaluated according to Sugaya and Fuchs classifications, respectively; the acromion humeral distance was measured. Statistical analysis was performed to verify the prevalence of Sugaya and Fuchs categories in each sides. A significant prevalence of Sugaya type II in the amputated side (p = 0.02) and of type I in the healthy side (p < 0.001) was found. Rotator cuff was healthy in 28 and 52% of amputated and non-amputated side, respectively. The mean acromio-humeral distances of the amputated and healthy side were 0.8 cm (SD: 0.1) and 0.9 cm (SD: 0.1), respectively, (p = 0.02). A significant prevalence of Fuchs type II category in the healthy side (p < 0.001) was found. Fuchs III/IV were observed in 40 and 12% of amputated and healthy side, respectively. The present study resizes the role of overuse on the aetiology of RCT. Cuff tear prevalence in not amputated shoulders, inevitably submitted to functional overload, was not higher than that of coetaneous subjects with two functional upper limbs. Shoulder non-use is a risk factor for rotator cuff tear. As the prevalence of rotator cuff degeneration/tear is higher in the amputee side, non-use is a more relevant risk factor than overuse. In the daily clinical practice, patients with rotator cuff tear should be encouraged to shoulder movement because rotator cuff tendon status could be worsened by disuse. III.

  13. The German Debate Over Military Peacekeeping Missions: The First Step Toward an Eventual Combat Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    3Clay Clemens , "Opportunity or Obligation? Redefining Germany’s Military Role Outside of NATO," in Armed Forces and Soci&L, vol. 19, No. 2, Winter 1993, p...ranged from 79 fuchs NBC detection vehi-les, an excess of 315,000 rounds of tank and artillery ammunition, 2,000 radio sets, 600 shower-bath vehicles...Tale," p. 96. ’ 59Ibid., p. 92. The three activists were Franz Josef Strauss (CSU) from 1956 to 1962, Helmut Schmidt (SPD) from 1969 to 1972 and Manfred

  14. [open quotes]Sonya[close quotes] explains

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, N.

    This article describes observations of Ruth Werner from when she was an agent of the Soviet espionage service (code name [open quotes]Sonya[close quotes]) as related in her interview with the author. The main topics covered in the interview include her opinion and relationship with Klaus Fuchs, the German-born British physicist who passed the secrets of the first atomic bomb to the Russians, and her views on German reunification. Ruth focuses her discussion on her dedication to making the world a better place and the disillusionment she has felt as she reminisces about her past.

  15. STUDIES OF ARTHRITIS AND OTHER LESIONS INDUCED IN RATS BY INJECTION OF MYCOBACTERIAL ADJUVANT

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl M.; Waksman, Byron H.; Sharp, John T.

    1961-01-01

    A generalized disease is induced experimentally in the rat by administration of Freund's adjuvant. The primary clinical and pathologic lesions are arthritis, periarthritis, peritendinitis, and periostitis in the joints of the extremities and tail. Accompanying the arthritis in some cases, and never observed in its absence, are other specific tissue lesions including iridocyclitis, nodular lesions in the glabrous skin (ear, genitalia, feet, tail), transient rashes, a chronic skin disease, genitourinary lesions, and diarrhea. These make up a striking and characteristic picture. The arthritis usually precedes the other lesions and, together with the skin disease may show a prolonged and fluctuating course. Visceral lesions do not occur. Histologically, the basic lesion is a lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration, initially perivascular and subsequently more disseminated. In addition, in the region of the joints and in the corpora cavernosa of the penis, there is extensive proliferation of mesenchymal cells, especially fibroblasts. Foci of fibrinoid necrosis are seen in the articular and nodular lesions, and destructive lesions of the joints are common. Such a combination of tissue lesions has not previously been described in experimental pathology. The experimental disease is shown to have both similarities to and differences from Reiter's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain other disorders which occur in man. PMID:13733780

  16. Outcome and predicting factors of single and multiple intra-articular corticosteroid injections in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lanni, Stefano; Bertamino, Marta; Consolaro, Alessandro; Pistorio, Angela; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Galasso, Roberta; Lattanzi, Bianca; Calvo-Aranda, Enrique; Martini, Alberto; Ravelli, Angelo

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of IA CS (IAC) therapy in single and multiple joints in children with JIA and to seek for predictors of synovitis flare. The clinical charts of patients who received their first IAC injection between January 2002 and December 2008 were reviewed. The CS used was triamcinolone hexacetonide for large joints and methylprednisolone acetate for small or difficult to access joints. Patients were stratified as follows: one joint injected; two joints injected; and three or more joints injected. Predictors included sex, age at disease onset, JIA category, age and disease duration, ANA status, iridocyclitis, general anaesthesia, number and type of injected joints, acute-phase reactants and concomitant MTX therapy. The cumulative probability of survival without synovitis flare for patients injected in one, two, or three or more joints was 70, 45 and 44%, respectively, at 1 year; 61, 32 and 30%, respectively, at 2 years; and 37, 22 and 19%, respectively, at 3 years. On Cox regression analysis, positive CRP, negative ANA and injection in the ankle were the strongest predictors for synovitis flare. The only significant side effect was skin hypopigmentation or s.c. atrophy, which occurred in <2% of patients. IAC therapy-induced sustained remission of synovitis in a substantial proportion of patients injected either in single or multiple joints, with a good safety profile. The risk of synovitis flare was higher in patients who had positive CRP, negative ANA and were injected in the ankle.

  17. Risk of Band Keratopathy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Jan, Ren-Long; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Chang, Yuh-Shin

    2016-01-01

    This study is a retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study to investigate the risk of band keratopathy following end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study cohort included 94,039 ESRD on-dialysis patients identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), code 585 and registered between January 2000 to December 2009 at the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 94,039 patients selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. In total, 230 ESRD patients and 26 controls had band keratopathy (P < 0.0001) during the follow-up period, indicating a significantly elevated risk of band keratopathy in the ESRD patients compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 12.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.14–18.32). After adjustment for potential confounders including sarcoidosis, hyperparathyroidism, iridocyclitis, and phthisis bulbi, ESRD patients were 11.56 times more likely to develop band keratopathy in the full cohort (adjusted HR = 11.56, 95% CI = 7.70–17.35). In conclusion, ESRD increases the risk of band keratopathy. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and ophthalmologists is important to deal with band keratopathy following ESRD and prevent visual acuity impairments. PMID:27346848

  18. Ocular Behçet disease: current therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Evereklioglu, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To alert physician to timely recognition and current treatment of recurrent hypopyon iridocyclitis or panuveitis in ocular Behçet disease (OBD). Interferon-α, rituximab, intravitreal triamcinolone, and biological response modifiers by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab are being used increasingly for the treatment of severe sight-threatening ocular inflammation including retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema (CME). Biological agents offer tremendous potential in the treatment of OBD. Given that OBD predominantly afflicts the younger adults in their most productive years, dermatologist, rheumatologist, internist, or general practitioners supervising patients with oculo-articulo-oromucocutaneous syndromes should be aware of systemic Behçet disease. Early recognition of ocular involvement is important and such patients should strongly be instructed to visit immediately an ophthalmologist, as uveitis management differs from extraocular involvements with high ocular morbidity from sight-threatening complications due to relapsing inflammatory attacks in the posterior segment of the eye. A single infliximab infusion should be considered for the control of acute panuveitis, whereas repeated long-term infliximab infusions were proved to be more effective in reducing the number of episodes in refractory uveoretinitis with faster regression and complete remission of CME.

  19. Herpes zoster epidemiology, management, and disease and economic burden in Europe: a multidisciplinary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert W.; Alvarez-Pasquin, Marie-José; Bijl, Marc; Franco, Elisabetta; Gaillat, Jacques; Clara, João G.; Labetoulle, Marc; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Naldi, Luigi; Sanmarti, Luis S.; Weinke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is primarily a disease of nerve tissue but the acute and longer-term manifestations require multidisciplinary knowledge and involvement in their management. Complications may be dermatological (e.g. secondary bacterial infection), neurological (e.g. long-term pain, segmental paresis, stroke), ophthalmological (e.g. keratitis, iridocyclitis, secondary glaucoma) or visceral (e.g. pneumonia, hepatitis). The age-related increased incidence of HZ and its complications is thought to be a result of the decline in cell-mediated immunity (immunosenescence), higher incidence of comorbidities with age and social-environmental changes. Individuals who are immunocompromised as a result of disease or therapy are also at increased risk, independent of age. HZ and its complications (particularly postherpetic neuralgia) create a significant burden for the patient, carers, healthcare systems and employers. Prevention and treatment of HZ complications remain a therapeutic challenge despite recent advances. This is an overview of the multidisciplinary implications and management of HZ in which the potential contribution of vaccination to reducing the incidence HZ and its complications are also discussed. PMID:26478818

  20. Risk of Band Keratopathy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Jan, Ren-Long; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Chang, Yuh-Shin

    2016-06-27

    This study is a retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study to investigate the risk of band keratopathy following end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study cohort included 94,039 ESRD on-dialysis patients identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), code 585 and registered between January 2000 to December 2009 at the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 94,039 patients selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. In total, 230 ESRD patients and 26 controls had band keratopathy (P < 0.0001) during the follow-up period, indicating a significantly elevated risk of band keratopathy in the ESRD patients compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 12.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.14-18.32). After adjustment for potential confounders including sarcoidosis, hyperparathyroidism, iridocyclitis, and phthisis bulbi, ESRD patients were 11.56 times more likely to develop band keratopathy in the full cohort (adjusted HR = 11.56, 95% CI = 7.70-17.35). In conclusion, ESRD increases the risk of band keratopathy. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and ophthalmologists is important to deal with band keratopathy following ESRD and prevent visual acuity impairments.

  1. Human papilloma virus vaccine associated uveitis.

    PubMed

    Holt, Henry D; Hinkle, David M; Falk, Naomi S; Fraunfelder, Frederick T; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2014-03-01

    To report a possible association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and uveitis. Spontaneous reports from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side effects, World Health Organization and Food and Drug Administration were collected on uveitis associated with human papilloma virus vaccination. A MEDLINE search was performed using keywords "uveitis," "iritis," "iridocyclitis," "human papilloma virus," "Cervarix", and "Gardasil." Data garnered from spontaneous reports included the age, gender, adverse drug reaction (ADR), date of administration, concomitant administration of other vaccinations, time until onset of ADR, other systemic reactions, and dechallenge and rechallenge data. A total of 24 case reports of uveitis associated with human papilloma virus vaccination were identified, all cases were female, and the median age was 17. Median time from HPV vaccination to reported ADR was 30 days (range 0-476 days). According to World Health Organization criteria, the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccination and uveitis is "possible." Causality assessments are based on the time relationship of drug administration, uveitis development and re-challenge data. Clinicians should be aware of a possible bilateral uveitis and papillitis following HPV vaccination.

  2. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  3. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings of some ocular conditions in sheep and goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Tookhy, O.; Tharwat, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to describe the ultrasonographic findings in relation to the clinical symptoms of some common ocular conditions in sheep and goats. Fifty animals (32 goats and 18 sheep) with different ocular problems were examined. Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a B-mode ocular ultrasound unit, and the structure of the globe was evaluated at a depth of 4-6 cm. Early cases (n=35, 70%) showed varying ocular conditions; hypopyon, (n=8, 16%), stromal abscesses, (n=4, 8%), and anterior uveitis (n=23, 46%). Hypopyon appeared clinically as a white or yellowish material in the anterior chamber, and ultrasonographically as a hyperechoic mass in the anterior chamber. Severe iridocyclitis was noticed in acute cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) accompanied by blepharospasm, photophobia, excessive tearing and eyelid margin crust formation. Ultrasonographically, the pupil appeared constricted with increased hyperechoic thickening of the ciliary body. In chronic cases of IKC, corneal pigmentation (n=5, 10%) and cataract (n=10, 20%) were seen. Ultrasonographically the type and degree of cataract were diagnosed. The present study provides an inside view of the inner ocular structures during the course of certain eye diseases where ophthalmoscopic examination is not possible. Our findings, although preliminary, are relevant for the more complete diagnosis of certain external ocular conditions in sheep and goat herds. PMID:26623306

  4. Changes in patterns of uveitis at a tertiary referral center in Northern Italy: analysis of 990 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Luca, Cimino; Raffaella, Aldigeri; Sylvia, Marchi; Valentina, Mastrofilippo; Fabiana, Viscogliosi; Marco, Coassin; Annamaria, Soldani; Luisa, Savoldi; Alessandro, De Fanti; Lucia, Belloni; Alessandro, Zerbini; Maria, Parmeggiani; Matthew, Chersich; Alessandra, Soriano; Carlo, Salvarani; Luigi, Fontana

    2018-02-01

    The role of uveitis, an uncommon ocular disease, is often neglected in research and treatment of autoimmune conditions. The study described the spectrum of uveitis at a referral center in North Italy, and compared that to a previously published series of patients. We reviewed all patients with uveitis diagnosed from 2013 to 2015 at the Immunology Eye Unit, Arcispedale S. M. Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. We examined patient characteristics, disease spectrum, and etiologies. In total, 990 cases of uveitis were identified, who were mostly female (59%) with a median age at presentation of 44 years (interquartile range = 29-57). Anterior uveitis was most frequent (53.5%), followed by panuveitis (22.8%), posterior (16.2%), and intermediate uveitis (5.5%). Anterior herpetic uveitis (15.6%), Fuchs uveitis (9.7%), and HLA-B27 positive anterior uveitis (7.7%) were the most common specific diagnoses. Compared with the previous series, we observed an increased incidence of uveitis, and a different pattern of diagnoses. Rates of herpetic, HLA-B27 positive uveitis, and presumed ocular tuberculosis were higher, but Fuchs uveitis was less frequent. The pattern of uveitis appears to be changing, very likely due to population-level increases in infectious diseases, to the availability of new diagnostic tests and to the interdisciplinary approach used in patient diagnosis.

  5. Using support vector machine to predict beta- and gamma-turns in proteins.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuzhen; Li, Qianzhong

    2008-09-01

    By using the composite vector with increment of diversity, position conservation scoring function, and predictive secondary structures to express the information of sequence, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm for predicting beta- and gamma-turns in the proteins is proposed. The 426 and 320 nonhomologous protein chains described by Guruprasad and Rajkumar (Guruprasad and Rajkumar J. Biosci 2000, 25,143) are used for training and testing the predictive model of the beta- and gamma-turns, respectively. The overall prediction accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient in 7-fold cross-validation are 79.8% and 0.47, respectively, for the beta-turns. The overall prediction accuracy in 5-fold cross-validation is 61.0% for the gamma-turns. These results are significantly higher than the other algorithms in the prediction of beta- and gamma-turns using the same datasets. In addition, the 547 and 823 nonhomologous protein chains described by Fuchs and Alix (Fuchs and Alix Proteins: Struct Funct Bioinform 2005, 59, 828) are used for training and testing the predictive model of the beta- and gamma-turns, and better results are obtained. This algorithm may be helpful to improve the performance of protein turns' prediction. To ensure the ability of the SVM method to correctly classify beta-turn and non-beta-turn (gamma-turn and non-gamma-turn), the receiver operating characteristic threshold independent measure curves are provided. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Corneal transplantation trends in France from 2004 to 2015: A 12-year review.

    PubMed

    Bigan, Guillaume; Puyraveau, Marc; Saleh, Maher; Gain, Philippe; Martinache, Isabelle; Delbosc, Bernard; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the 12-year longitudinal trends in indication and corneal transplantation techniques in France from 2004 to 2015. The records of all corneal transplantations performed from 2004 to 2015 in France were retrospectively reviewed. The patient indications and types of transplant performed were analyzed. A total of 46,658 corneal transplantations were performed between 2004 and 2015, with 34,187 (73.3%) penetrating keratoplasty and 10,452 (22.4%) lamellar keratoplasty. The leading surgical indications were secondary endothelial failure (24.3%), keratoconus (18.8%), regraft (13.5%), and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (15.1%). Endothelial keratoplasty became the preferred technique for endothelial diseases and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty the preferred technique for keratoconus, surpassing penetrating keratoplasty in 2013. Secondary endothelial failure is the top indication for performing a keratoplasty over the 12-year period. There was a shift from penetrating keratoplasty to endothelial keratoplasty performed for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and secondary endothelial failure, and to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, performed for keratoconus. This highlights an important shift in managing corneal diseases toward the application of selective and more conservative surgeries and changes in indications in corneal transplantation.

  7. Nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory for uniformly sheared underdamped systems.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koshiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory (MCT) for uniformly sheared underdamped systems is developed, starting from the microscopic thermostated Sllod equation and the corresponding Liouville equation. Special attention is paid to the translational invariance in the sheared frame, which requires an appropriate definition of the transient time correlators. The derived MCT equation satisfies the alignment of the wave vectors and is manifestly translationally invariant. Isothermal condition is implemented by the introduction of current fluctuation in the dissipative coupling to the thermostat. This current fluctuation grows in the α relaxation regime, which generates a pronounced relaxation of the yield stress compared to the overdamped case. This result fills the gap between the molecular dynamics simulation and the overdamped MCT reported previously. The response to a perturbation of the shear rate demonstrates an inertia effect which is not observed in the overdamped case. Our theory turns out to be a nontrivial extension of the theory by Fuchs and Cates [J. Rheol. 53, 957 (2009)] to underdamped systems. Since our starting point is identical to that of Chong and Kim [Phys. Rev. E 79, 021203 (2009)], the contradictions between Fuchs-Cates and Chong-Kim are resolved.

  8. A comparison of lamellar and penetrating keratoplasty outcomes: a registry study.

    PubMed

    Coster, Douglas J; Lowe, Marie T; Keane, Miriam C; Williams, Keryn A

    2014-05-01

    To investigate changing patterns of practice of keratoplasty in Australia, graft survival, visual outcomes, the influence of experience, and the surgeon learning curve for endothelial keratoplasty. Observational, prospective cohort study. From a long-standing national corneal transplantation register, 13 920 penetrating keratoplasties, 858 deep anterior lamellar keratoplasties (DALKs), and 2287 endokeratoplasties performed between January 1996 and February 2013 were identified. Kaplan-Meier functions were used to assess graft survival and surgeon experience, the Pearson chi-square test was used to compare visual acuities, and linear regression was used to examine learning curves. Graft survival. The total number of corneal grafts performed annually is increasing steadily. More DALKs but fewer penetrating grafts are being performed for keratoconus, and more endokeratoplasties but fewer penetrating grafts are being performed for Fuchs' dystrophy and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. In 2012, 1482 grafts were performed, compared with 955 in 2002, translating to a requirement for 264 extra corneal donors across the country in 2012. Comparing penetrating grafts and DALKs performed for keratoconus over the same era, both graft survival (P <0.001) and visual outcomes (P <0.001) were significantly better for penetrating grafts. Survival of endokeratoplasties performed for Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy was poorer than survival of penetrating grafts for the same indications over the same era (P <0.001). Visual outcomes were significantly better for penetrating grafts than for endokeratoplasties performed for Fuchs' dystrophy (P <0.001), but endokeratoplasties achieved better visual outcomes than penetrating grafts for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (P <0.001). Experienced surgeons (>100 registered keratoplasties) achieved significantly better survival of endokeratoplasties (P <0.001) than surgeons who had performed fewer grafts (<100

  9. Incidence of secondary glaucoma in behcet disease.

    PubMed

    Elgin, Ufuk; Berker, Nilufer; Batman, Aygen

    2004-12-01

    To determine the incidence of secondary glaucoma in Behcet disease. A total of 230 eyes of 129 patients with Behcet disease, were examined in uveitis and glaucoma clinics of Ankara Social Security Eye Hospital between January 1997 and September 2002. The data from all patients were investigated both retrospectively and prospectively. The mean age of 129 patients was 34.2 +/- 7.4 years (range, 18 to 55 years). In 22 patients (17%), the disease was diagnosed on the basis of the ocular findings, while in the remaining 107 patients (83%), the period between the diagnosis of Behcet disease and the onset of the ocular symptoms was 23.3 +/- 17 months (range, 1 month to 5.3 years); 122 eyes (53%) had the episodes of acute recurrent iridocyclitis, while 108 eyes (47%) developed chronic posterior uveitis, including vitreitis, retinitis, vasculitis, or optic nerve involvement. Secondary glaucoma was diagnosed in 25 eyes (10.9%); 11 eyes (44%) with steroid or inflammation induced open angle glaucoma, 6 eyes (24%) with partial angle-closure glaucoma and peripheral anterior synechiae, 5 eyes (20%) with angle closure glaucoma, peripheral anterior synechiae, and pupil block and 3 eyes (12%) with neovascular glaucoma. The treatments included YAG-laser iridotomy in 5 eyes, diode-laser cyclodestruction in 3 eyes, primary trabeculectomies with mitomycin-c in 4 eyes, secondary trabeculectomies with mitomycin-c in 2 eyes, Ahmed valve implantations in 2 eyes, and cyclocryotherapy in 3 eyes. We suggest that secondary glaucoma is a common and serious complication of Behcet disease. It develops as a result of multiple factors, generally triggered by recurrent intraocular inflammation. Early recognition and treatment of these factors have vital importance to avoid the visual morbidity.

  10. Bartonella and intraocular inflammation: a series of cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Mentis, Andreas; Pappa, Chrisavgi; Zafeiropoulos, Paraskevas; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present various forms of uveitis and/or retinal vasculitis attributed to Bartonella infection and review the impact of this microorganism in patients with uveitis. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana intraocular inflammation from 2001 to 2010 in the Ocular Inflammation Department of the University Eye Clinic, Ioannina, Greece. Presentation of epidemiological and clinical data concerning Bartonella infection was provided by the international literature. Results: Eight patients with the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae and two patients with B. quintana intraocular inflammation were identified. Since four patients experienced bilateral involvement, the affected eyes totaled 14. The mean age was 36.6 years (range 12–62). Uveitic clinical entities that we found included intermediate uveitis in seven eyes (50%), vitritis in two eyes (14.2%), neuroretinitis in one eye (7.1%), focal retinochoroiditis in one eye (7.1%), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) due to vasculitis in one eye (7.1%), disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment in one eye (7.1%), and iridocyclitis in one eye (7.1%). Most of the patients (70%) did not experience systemic symptoms preceding the intraocular inflammation. Antimicrobial treatment was efficient in all cases with the exception of the case with neuroretinitis complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Conclusion: Intraocular involvement caused not only by B. henselae but also by B. quintana is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. A high index of suspicion is needed because the spectrum of Bartonella intraocular inflammation is very large. In our study the most common clinical entity was intermediate uveitis. PMID:21750616

  11. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have increased risk of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Halling, Morten L; Kjeldsen, Jens; Knudsen, Torben; Nielsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Koch

    2017-09-07

    To investigate whether immune mediated diseases (IMD) are more frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this population based registry study, a total of 47325 patients with IBD were alive and registered in the Danish National Patient Registry on December 16, 2013. Controls were randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) and matched for sex, age, and municipality. We used ICD 10 codes to identify the diagnoses of the included patients. The IBD population was divided into three subgroups: Ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and Both the latter referring to those registered with both diagnoses. Subsequently, odds-ratios (OR) and 95%CI were obtained separately for each group and their respective controls. The use of Bonferoni post-test correction adjusted the significance level to P < 0.00125. P -values were estimated using Fisher's exact test. There were significantly more women than men in the registry, and a greater percentage of comorbidity in the IBD groups ( P < 0.05). Twenty different IMDs were all significantly more frequent in the IBD group. Sixteen were associated with UC versus twelve with CD. In both UC and CD ORs were significantly increased ( P < 0.00125) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), celiac disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), sarcoidosis, asthma, iridocyclitis, psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Restricted to UC ( P < 0.00125) were autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, Grave's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis , and atrophic gastritis. Restricted to CD ( P < 0.00125) were psoriatic arthritis and episcleritis. Restricted to women with UC ( P < 0.00125) were atrophic gastritis, rheumatoid arthritis, temporal arteritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica. Restricted to women with CD were episcleritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. The only disease restricted to men ( P < 0.00125) was sarcoidosis. Immune

  12. Trabeculotomy ab interno with Trabectome as surgical management for systemic fluoroquinolone-induced pigmentary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Den Beste, Kyle A.; Okeke, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT) is a poorly-understood ocular syndrome in which patients present with acute iridocyclitis and pigmentary dispersion with or without ocular hypertension. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, though recent reports suggest an antecedent upper respiratory tract infection or systemic antibiotic administration may trigger the clinical syndrome. Patient concerns: A 55-year-old female was referred for a second opinion regarding her bilateral ocular pain, photophobia, and ocular hypertension. Her medical history was notable for a diagnosis of pneumonia managed with oral moxifloxacin several weeks prior to her initial presentation. Diagnoses: Visual acuity was 20/40 with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg in the affected eye despite maximal tolerated medical therapy. The patient had severe bilateral iris transillumination defects with posterior synechiae formation and 3+ pigment with rare cell in the anterior chamber. This constellation of findings was consistent with a diagnosis of BAIT. Interventions: A peripheral iridotomy was placed, which mildly relieved the iris bowing, but did not affect the IOP or inflammatory reaction. The patient then underwent cataract extraction with posterior synechiolysis and ab interno trabeculotomy of the left eye with the Trabectome. Outcomes: The patient's IOP on the first post-operative day was 13 mmHg, and anterior chamber inflammation was noted to be significantly reduced at post-operative week 2. The patient was recently seen at a 1-year post-operative visit and her IOP remains in the low teens on a low-dose combination topical agent. Lessons: Ophthalmologists should remain aware of the association between systemic fluoroquinolones and acute pigmentary dispersion that can progress to glaucoma. The Trabectome remains a viable option for management of pigmentary and uveitic glaucoma resistant to medical treatment. PMID:29068979

  13. Impact of the Topological Surface State on the Thermoelectric Transport in Sb2Te3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Hinsche, Nicki F; Zastrow, Sebastian; Gooth, Johannes; Pudewill, Laurens; Zierold, Robert; Rittweger, Florian; Rauch, Tomáš; Henk, Jürgen; Nielsch, Kornelius; Mertig, Ingrid

    2015-04-28

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory and tight-binding methods for the thermoelectric properties of p-type Sb2Te3 films are presented. The thickness-dependent electrical conductivity and the thermopower are computed in the diffusive limit of transport based on the Boltzmann equation. Contributions of the bulk and the surface to the transport coefficients are separated, which enables to identify a clear impact of the topological surface state on the thermoelectric properties. When the charge carrier concentration is tuned, a crossover between a surface-state-dominant and a Fuchs-Sondheimer transport regime is achieved. The calculations are corroborated by thermoelectric transport measurements on Sb2Te3 films grown by atomic layer deposition.

  14. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Congressional liaison task force - a briefing of the October 1994 meeting

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    As the US Senate overturned roadblocks attempting-unsuccessfully-to halt passage of the elementary and secondary education reauthorization legislation representatives from several federal agencies and laboratories addressed Congressional Liaison Task Force (CLTF) participants October 12th. They spoke about their commitment, programs, and accomplishments toward the nation`s science knowledge, particularly at the precollege level. Marjorie S. Steinberg legislative assistant to bill cosponsor Sen. Jeff Bingaman (DNM), and Gary Allen, Triangle Coalition director of Governmental affairs, spoke about education legislation and specifically about the Technology for Education Act that was on the Senate floor for a vote in October and now is law. Brucemore » A. Fuchs talked about the National Institute of Health`s (NIH) work in science literacy and education. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s (NASA) Frank C. Owens and Eddie Anderson contributed to this report.« less

  16. LruA and LruB Antibodies in Sera of Humans with Leptospiral Uveitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh; Rathinam, S. R.; Priya, C. Gowri; Muthukkaruppan, V. R.; Stevenson, Brian; Timoney, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Uveitis can be a serious complication of leptospirosis. Previous studies indicated that the leptospiral lipoproteins LruA and LruB are expressed in the eyes of uveitic horses and that antibodies directed against those proteins show in vitro cross-reactivity with components of equine lens, ciliary body, and/or retina. We now demonstrate that sera from a significant proportion of humans who have leptospiral uveitis also contain antibodies against LruA and LruB. Different categories of nonleptospiral uveitis and autoimmune uveitis were also screened; patients diagnosed with Fuchs uveitis or Behçet's syndrome produced antibodies that cross-reacted with LruA and LruB, suggesting similarities of the autoimmune responses in those diseases with those of leptospiral uveitis. PMID:18400972

  17. Different structural morphologies of the two surfaces in some Co-based amorphous ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordin, G.; Buttino, G.

    1992-12-01

    In nearly zero magnetostriction Co-based Metglas amorphous ribbons, the anomalous Hall effect is used to investigate the behaviour of the surfaces (dull or shiny). The electronic transport properties of a double-layer film, where one of the two layers examined is ferromagnetic and amorphous, and the other is a non-magnetic film, are interpreted on the basis of the mean free path method of Bergmann and Fuchs-Sondheimer theory. The results obtained confirm the different structural morphology of the amorphous surfaces (dull or shiny) already observed by means of bending effects on the initial permeability that depends on the way of winding the ribbons in toroidal samples of the same amorphous materials.

  18. Viral entry pathways: the example of common cold viruses.

    PubMed

    Blaas, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    For infection, viruses deliver their genomes into the host cell. These nucleic acids are usually tightly packed within the viral capsid, which, in turn, is often further enveloped within a lipid membrane. Both protect them against the hostile environment. Proteins and/or lipids on the viral particle promote attachment to the cell surface and internalization. They are likewise often involved in release of the genome inside the cell for its use as a blueprint for production of new viruses. In the following, I shall cursorily discuss the early more general steps of viral infection that include receptor recognition, uptake into the cell, and uncoating of the viral genome. The later sections will concentrate on human rhinoviruses, the main cause of the common cold, with respect to the above processes. Much of what is known on the underlying mechanisms has been worked out by Renate Fuchs at the Medical University of Vienna.

  19. Aspects of spatial dispersion in the optical properties of a vacuum-dielectric interface

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.; Rimbey, P.R.

    1976-09-15

    We have examined the relationship between the polarizibility for a two-phase (vacuum-dielectric) system and the use of additional boundary conditions and the like, as regards the response of systems exhibiting spatial dispersion. As a consequence we are able to derive information about induced-charge and current densities and the continuity of the field quantities across the interface. It is shown that it is not possible to resonantly excite longitudinal bulk modes with incident light in the formalism of Rimbey-Mahan. We have derived sum rules in wave-vector space on bulk polaritions in homogeneous isotropic systems. In the case of nonhomogeneous perfect crystalsmore » in which the bulk response is described by the matrix epsilon-bar (Q, Q'), we have solved formally for the surface impedance in terms of an assumed arbitrary epsilon-bar (Q, Q'), by means of an extension of the Fuchs-Kliewer formalism. (AIP)« less

  20. Wound-Induced Polyploidization: Regulation by Hippo and JNK Signaling and Conservation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Vicki P.; Jun, Albert S.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue integrity and homeostasis often rely on the proliferation of stem cells or differentiated cells to replace lost, aged, or damaged cells. Recently, we described an alternative source of cell replacement- the expansion of resident, non-dividing diploid cells by wound-induced polyploidization (WIP). Here we show that the magnitude of WIP is proportional to the extent of cell loss using a new semi-automated assay with single cell resolution. Hippo and JNK signaling regulate WIP; unexpectedly however, JNK signaling through AP-1 limits rather than stimulates the level of Yki activation and polyploidization in the Drosophila epidermis. We found that polyploidization also quantitatively compensates for cell loss in a mammalian tissue, mouse corneal endothelium, where increased cell death occurs with age in a mouse model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Our results suggest that WIP is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanism that maintains the size and synthetic capacity of adult tissues. PMID:26958853

  1. Wound-Induced Polyploidization: Regulation by Hippo and JNK Signaling and Conservation in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Losick, Vicki P; Jun, Albert S; Spradling, Allan C

    2016-01-01

    Tissue integrity and homeostasis often rely on the proliferation of stem cells or differentiated cells to replace lost, aged, or damaged cells. Recently, we described an alternative source of cell replacement- the expansion of resident, non-dividing diploid cells by wound-induced polyploidization (WIP). Here we show that the magnitude of WIP is proportional to the extent of cell loss using a new semi-automated assay with single cell resolution. Hippo and JNK signaling regulate WIP; unexpectedly however, JNK signaling through AP-1 limits rather than stimulates the level of Yki activation and polyploidization in the Drosophila epidermis. We found that polyploidization also quantitatively compensates for cell loss in a mammalian tissue, mouse corneal endothelium, where increased cell death occurs with age in a mouse model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Our results suggest that WIP is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanism that maintains the size and synthetic capacity of adult tissues.

  2. Scintillation Reduction using Conjugate-Plane Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Haagen, Gary A.

    2017-06-01

    All observatories are plagued by atmospheric turbulence exhibited as star scintillation or "twinkle" whether a high altitude adaptive optics research or a 30 cm amateur telescope. It is well known that these disturbances are caused by wind and temperature driven refractive gradients in the atmosphere and limit the ultimate photometric resolution of land-based facilities. One approach identified by Fuchs (1998) for scintillation noise reduction was to create a conjugate image space at the telescope and focus on the dominant conjugate turbulent layer within that space. When focused on the turbulent layer little or no scintillation exists. This technique is described whereby noise reductions of 6 to 11/1 have been experienced with mathematical and optical bench simulations. Discussed is a proof-of-principle conjugate optical train design for an 80 mm, f-7 telescope.

  3. Scintillation Reduction using Conjugate-Plane Imaging (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Haagen, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) All observatories are plagued by atmospheric turbulence exhibited as star scintillation or "twinkle" whether a high altitude adaptive optics research or a 30-cm amateur telescope. It is well known that these disturbances are caused by wind and temperature-driven refractive gradients in the atmosphere and limit the ultimate photometric resolution of land-based facilities. One approach identified by Fuchs (1998) for scintillation noise reduction was to create a conjugate image space at the telescope and focus on the dominant conjugate turbulent layer within that space. When focused on the turbulent layer little or no scintillation exists. This technique is described whereby noise reductions of 6 to 11/1 have been experienced with mathematical and optical bench simulations. Discussed is a proof-of-principle conjugate optical train design for an 80-mm, f7 telescope.

  4. Perceptual belongingness determines the direction of lightness induction depending on grouping stability and intentionality.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Mauro; Prpic, Valter; Santoro, Ilaria; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Galmonte, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    Contrast and assimilation are two opposite perceptual phenomena deriving from the relationships among perceptual elements in a visual field. In contrast, perceptual differences are enhanced; while, in assimilation, they are decreased. Indeed, if contrast or assimilation occurs depends on various factors. Interestingly, Gestalt scientists explained both phenomena as the result of perceptual belongingness, giving rise to an intriguing paradox. Benary suggested that belongingness determines contrast; conversely, Fuchs suggested that it determines assimilation. This paradox can be related both to the grouping stability (stable/multi-stable) and to the grouping intentionality (intentional/non-intentional). In the present work we ran four experiments to test whether the contrast/assimilation outcomes depend on the above-mentioned variables. We found that, intentionality and multi-stability elicit assimilation; while, non-intentionality and stability elicit contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.

  6. Electrical resistivity of CuAlMo thin films grown at room temperature by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger

    2016-07-01

    We report on the thickness dependence of electrical resistivity of CuAlMo films grown by dc magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature. The electrical resistance of the films was monitored in situ during their growth in the thickness range 10-1000 nm. By theoretically modelling the evolution of resistivity during growth we were able to gain an insight into the dominant electrical conduction mechanisms with increasing film thickness. For thicknesses in the range 10-25 nm the electrical resistivity is found to be a function of the film surface roughness and is well described by Namba’s model. For thicknesses of 25-40 nm the experimental data was most accurately fitted using the Mayadas and Shatkes model which accounts for grain boundary scattering of the conduction electrons. Beyond 40 nm, the thickness of the film was found to be the controlling factor and the Fuchs-Sonheimer (FS) model was used to fit the experimental data, with diffuse scattering of the conduction electrons at the two film surfaces. By combining the Fuchs and Namba (FN) models a suitable correlation between theoretical and experimental resistivity can be achieved across the full CuAlMo film thickness range of 10-1000 nm. The irreversibility of resistance for films of thickness >200 nm, which demonstrated bulk conductivity, was measured to be less than 0.03% following subjection to temperature cycles of -55 and +125 °C and the temperature co-efficient of resistance was less than ±15 ppm °C-1.

  7. Cornea Preservation Time Study: Methods and Potential Impact on the Cornea Donor Pool in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Ayala, Allison R.; Benetz, Beth A.; Gal, Robin L.; Aldave, Anthony J.; Corrigan, Michelle M.; Dunn, Steven P.; McCall, Ty L.; Pramanik, Sudeep; Rosenwasser, George O.; Ross, Kevin W.; Terry, Mark A.; Verdier, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the aims, methods, donor and recipient cohort characteristics, and potential impact of the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). Methods: The CPTS is a randomized clinical trial conducted at 40 clinical sites (70 surgeons) designed to assess the effect of donor cornea preservation time (PT) on graft survival 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Eyes undergoing surgery for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema were randomized to receive donor corneas stored ≤7 days or 8 to 14 days. Donor and patient characteristics, tissue preparation and surgical parameters, recipient and donor corneal stroma clarity, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, complications, and a reading center-determined central endothelial cell density were collected. Surveys were conducted to evaluate pre-CPTS PT practices. Results: The 1330 CPTS donors were: 49% >60 years old, 27% diabetic, had a median eye bank–determined screening endothelial cell density of 2688 cells/mm2, and 74% eye bank prepared for DSAEK. A total of 1090 recipients (1330 eyes including 240 bilateral cases) had: median age of 70 years, were 60% female, 90% white, 18% diabetic, 52% phakic, and 94% had Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Before the CPTS, 19 eye banks provided PT data on 20,852 corneas domestically placed for DSAEK in 2010 to 2011; 96% were preserved ≤7 days. Of 305 American Academy of Ophthalmology members responding to a pre-CPTS survey, 233 (76%) set their maximum PT preference at 8 days or less. Conclusions: The CPTS will increase understanding of factors related to DSAEK success and, if noninferiority of longer PT is shown, will have great potential to extend the available pool of endothelial keratoplasty donors. Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01537393. PMID:25850706

  8. Astigmatism Correction With Toric Intraocular Lenses in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Triple Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sanchez, P James; Mayko, Zachary M; Straiko, Michael D; Terry, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    To report the clinical efficacy of astigmatism correction with toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) in patients undergoing the Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) triple procedure and to evaluate the accuracy of the correction. Fifteen eyes of 10 patients who received cataract extraction, toric IOL placement, and DMEK surgery for Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataracts were evaluated. The cylinder power of toric IOLs was determined by an online toric calculator with keratoscopy measurements obtained using Scheimpflug corneal imaging. Prediction errors were assessed as a difference vector between the anticipated minus postoperative residual astigmatism. At 10.1 ± 4.9 months postoperatively, 8/13 (61.5%) of eyes achieved uncorrected distance visual acuity better than 20/40. Mean best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) improved from 0.21 ± 0.15 preoperatively to 0.08 ± 0.12 postoperatively (P < 0.01). The magnitude of refractive astigmatism was also significantly decreased from 2.23 ± 1.10 D (range 0.75-4.25 D) preoperatively to 0.87 ± 0.75 D (range 0.00-3.00 D) postoperatively (P < 0.01). In 1 eye with rotational misalignment by 43 degrees, we found no improvement of astigmatism. The prediction error of astigmatism at the corneal plane was 0.77 ± 0.54 D (range 0.10-1.77 D). Four eyes with preoperative "with-the-rule" corneal astigmatism had postoperative "against-the-rule" refractive astigmatism. For patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataracts, use of toric IOLs might be a valuable option in triple DMEK surgery. Additionally, care should be taken to prevent excessive IOL rotation.

  9. A Mathematical Model to Predict Endothelial Cell Density Following Penetrating Keratoplasty With Selective Dropout From Graft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Riddlesworth, Tonya D.; Kollman, Craig; Lass, Jonathan H.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Stulting, R. Doyle; Benetz, Beth Ann; Gal, Robin L.; Beck, Roy W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We constructed several mathematical models that predict endothelial cell density (ECD) for patients after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema). Methods. In a subset (n = 591) of Cornea Donor Study participants, postoperative ECD was determined by a central reading center. Various statistical models were considered to estimate the ECD trend longitudinally over 10 years of follow-up. A biexponential model with and without a logarithm transformation was fit using the Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares algorithm. To account for correlated data, a log-polynomial model was fit using the restricted maximum likelihood method. A sensitivity analysis for the potential bias due to selective dropout was performed using Bayesian analysis techniques. Results. The three models using a logarithm transformation yield similar trends, whereas the model without the transform predicts higher ECD values. The adjustment for selective dropout turns out to be negligible. However, this is possibly due to the relatively low rate of graft failure in this cohort (19% at 10 years). Fuchs' dystrophy and pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (PACE) patients had similar ECD decay curves, with the PACE group having slightly higher cell densities by 10 years. Conclusions. Endothelial cell loss after PK can be modeled via a log-polynomial model, which accounts for the correlated data from repeated measures on the same subject. This model is not significantly affected by the selective dropout due to graft failure. Our findings warrant further study on how this may extend to ECD following endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25425307

  10. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, vulnerability assessment has emerged as an important field of research in flood risk management, in particular with respect to climate change and necessary adaptation strategies for the society. Probably starting with Chamber's seminal article on vulnerability, coping and policy (Chambers 1989), and further developed as the causal structure of vulnerability by Bohle (2001) and others, at least two research paradigms exist: an internal side focusing on societal resilience and coping capacities, and an external side targeted at a reduction of negative effects in terms of loss reduction (Fuchs 2009). Despite considerable research effects, however, different definitions and concepts still dominate the debate; it is surely that different scientific disciplines are working with this term: natural scientists, engineers, social scientists or economists, to name just a few. Each discipline defines vulnerability in a way which fits to their disciplinary purposes (Fuchs et al. 2011). But why has there been so little progress in our ability to adapt to flood hazards? White et al. (2001) summarised this paradox in an article with the title "Knowing better and losing even more - the use of knowledge in hazard management". One of the fundamental reasons for the lack of progress is the continuing separation of research on natural processes and socio-economic processes without considering interaction between these systems (Fuchs & Keiler 2013), as well as between scientific research results and the policy implementation (Medd & Marvin 2005). Moreover, as many studies were focused on the vulnerability of least developed societies to natural hazards (O'Brien et al. 2008), there is a particular lack in studies targeted at an implementation of existing adaptation frameworks at the level of highly-developed countries (Field et al. 2012; Scolobig et al. 2012). This gap results in a challenge for attempts to develop formal models into practical application and policy

  11. Endocrine aspects of paediatric rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Neeck, G; Michels, H

    1996-05-01

    Compared to the now numerous studies on the endocrinology of rheumatic diseases in adults, only a small number of studies has been published on children with rheumatic diseases. Prolactin has been most extensively investigated, showing interesting parallels with the findings in adults with rheumatological diseases. Thus, analogous to adult RA most forms of JRA or JCA (with the exception of ANA-positive JRA with uveitis) appear to show, if anything, low to normal levels of prolactin. Since the prolactin levels in adult RA depend on the inflammatory activity, and the physiological prolactin secretion decreases in chronic stress (especially sleep disorders), these results are most likely to be explained as reactive non-specific mechanisms in the stress of the disease. However, specific mechanisms are also being discussed to explain the low prolactin levels in adult RA. The results of prolactin measurements in juvenile SLE, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis and ANA-positive JRA with a raised incidence of uveitis, contrast with this. These conditions sometimes show significantly higher prolactin levels compared to healthy controls. A correlation of the increase of prolactin concentration with the inflammatory activity has been described for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. These results correlate well with those of adult forms such as diseases of the seronegative spondyloarthropathies type, SLE and iridocyclitis. Raised prolactin concentrations are also found in these diseases. The inflammation promoting and immunostimulatory effects of prolactin found especially in animal experiments are confirmed clinically in these diseases by reports of successful treatments with the prolactin inhibitor, bromocriptine. The results available up to now for human growth hormone in JRA and JCA tend to be comparable with the results for prolactin in these form of paediatric rheumatological diseases. Besides normal values above, all lowered concentrations are measured for this hormone

  12. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have increased risk of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Halling, Morten L; Kjeldsen, Jens; Knudsen, Torben; Nielsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Koch

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether immune mediated diseases (IMD) are more frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS In this population based registry study, a total of 47325 patients with IBD were alive and registered in the Danish National Patient Registry on December 16, 2013. Controls were randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) and matched for sex, age, and municipality. We used ICD 10 codes to identify the diagnoses of the included patients. The IBD population was divided into three subgroups: Ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease (CD) and Both the latter referring to those registered with both diagnoses. Subsequently, odds-ratios (OR) and 95%CI were obtained separately for each group and their respective controls. The use of Bonferoni post-test correction adjusted the significance level to P < 0.00125. P-values were estimated using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS There were significantly more women than men in the registry, and a greater percentage of comorbidity in the IBD groups (P < 0.05). Twenty different IMDs were all significantly more frequent in the IBD group. Sixteen were associated with UC versus twelve with CD. In both UC and CD ORs were significantly increased (P < 0.00125) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), celiac disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), sarcoidosis, asthma, iridocyclitis, psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Restricted to UC (P < 0.00125) were autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, Grave’s disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis , and atrophic gastritis. Restricted to CD (P < 0.00125) were psoriatic arthritis and episcleritis. Restricted to women with UC (P < 0.00125) were atrophic gastritis, rheumatoid arthritis, temporal arteritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica. Restricted to women with CD were episcleritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. The only disease restricted to men (P < 0.00125) was

  13. Factors associated with corneal graft survival in the cornea donor study.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Alan; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Croasdale, Christopher R; Feder, Robert S; Holland, Edward J; Lass, Jonathan H; Macy, Jonathan I; Mannis, Mark J; Smith, Patricia W; Soukiasian, Sarkis H; Beck, Roy W

    2015-03-01

    The Cornea Donor Study (CDS) showed that donor age is not a factor in survival of most penetrating keratoplasties for endothelial disease. Secondary analyses confirm the importance of surgical indication and presence of glaucoma in outcomes at 10 years. To assess the relationship between donor and recipient factors and corneal graft survival in the CDS. Multicenter prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted at 80 clinical sites. One hundred five surgeons enrolled 1090 participants undergoing corneal transplant for a moderate-risk condition, principally Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema (PACE). Forty-three eye banks provided corneas. Corneas from donors younger than 66 years and donors 66 years or older were assigned, masked to donor age. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines. Participants were followed up for as long as 12 years. Graft failure, defined as a regrafting procedure or a cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months. The 10-year cumulative probability of graft failure was higher in participants with PACE than in those with Fuchs dystrophy (37% vs 20%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.1 [99% CI, 1.4-3.0]; P < .001) and in participants with a history of glaucoma before penetrating keratoplasty, particularly with prior glaucoma surgery (58% with prior glaucoma surgery and use of medications to lower intraocular pressure at the time of surgery vs 22% with no history of glaucoma surgery or medication use; HR, 4.1 [99% CI, 2.2-7.5]; P < .001). We found trends toward increased graft failure in recipients who were 70 years or older compared with those younger than 60 years (29% vs 19%; HR, 1.2 [99% CI, 0.7-2.1]; P = .04) or were African American (HR, 1.5; P = .11) or who had a history of smoking (35% vs 24%; HR, 1.6 [99% CI, 0.9-2.8]; P = .02). Lower endothelial cell density (ECD) and higher corneal thickness (CT) at 6 months (6% vs 41% for ECD ≥2700 vs <1700 cells

  14. THE SEARCH FOR A COMPLEX MOLECULE IN A SELECTED HOT CORE REGION: A RIGOROUS ATTEMPT TO CONFIRM TRANS-ETHYL METHYL ETHER TOWARD W51 e1/e2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, P. Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-20

    An extensive search has been conducted to confirm transitions of trans-ethyl methyl ether (tEME, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCH{sub 3}), toward the high-mass star forming region W51 e1/e2 using the 12 m Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory at wavelengths from 2 mm and 3 mm. In short, we cannot confirm the detection of tEME toward W51 e1/e2 and our results call into question the initial identification of this species by Fuchs et al. Additionally, re-evaluation of the data from the original detection indicates that tEME is not present toward W51 e1/e2 in the abundance reported by Fuchs and colleagues. Typical peak-to-peak noise levels for themore » present observations of W51 e1/e2 were between 10 and 30 mK, yielding an upper limit of the tEME column density of ≤1.5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2}. This would make tEME at least a factor of two times less abundant than dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) toward W51 e1/e2. We also performed an extensive search for this species toward the high-mass star forming region Sgr B2(N-LMH) with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 100 m Green Bank Telescope. No transitions of tEME were detected and we were able to set an upper limit to the tEME column density of ≤4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup –2} toward this source. Thus, we are able to show that tEME is not a new molecular component of the interstellar medium and that an exacting assessment must be carried out when assigning transitions of new molecular species to astronomical spectra to support the identification of large organic interstellar molecules.« less

  15. Visual acuity, refractive error, and endothelial cell density six months after Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).

    PubMed

    Koenig, Steven B; Covert, Douglas J; Dupps, William J; Meisler, David M

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and endothelial cell density 6 months after Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We performed an institutional review board-approved prospective study of a surgical case series of 34 patients at 2 institutions undergoing DSAEK for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, or aphakic bullous keratopathy with or without simultaneous phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Clinical outcomes, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), spherical equivalent refraction, and refractive astigmatism and topographic or keratometric astigmatism, were assessed at the 6-month postoperative examination and compared with preoperative values with paired Student t tests. The change in endothelial cell density from the eye bank examination to 6 months after transplantation was similarly evaluated. BSCVA averaged 20/99 preoperatively and 20/42 postoperatively (P < 0.0001). After DSAEK, 30 (88.2%) of 34 patients showed improved BSCVA, and 21 (61.8%) of the 34 patients achieved a BSCVA of 20/40 or better. For patients not undergoing simultaneous phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, a hyperopic shift in refraction of 1.19 +/- 1.32 D was noted. Refractive astigmatism, topographic astigmatism, and keratometry showed no statistically significant change. Endothelial cell density of donor corneas averaged 2826 +/- 370 cells/mm, whereas the mean postoperative density was 1396 +/- 440 cells/mm. This finding corresponded to an average loss of 1426 cells/mm (50% loss; P = 0.0001). The first half of cases experienced an average cell loss of 1674 cells/mm (59% loss) compared with 1181 (41% loss) in the second half of cases (P = 0.005). Three (9%) of 34 grafts experienced iatrogenic graft failure and required reoperation with new donor tissue. Also, 9 (27%) of 34 grafts experienced dislocation in the early postoperative period and required repositioning

  16. Eye bank prepared versus surgeon cut endothelial graft tissue for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Marie; Auxenfans, Céline; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Marty, Anne-Sophie; Damour, Odile; Burillon, Carole; Kocaba, Viridiana

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) performed with cornea bank (CB) prestripped tissue and surgeon stripped tissue (SST).This retrospective study examined subjects who underwent DMEK with CB or surgeon prepared tissue for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal thickness, endothelial cell count (ECC), and complications were examined before and throughout a 6-month postoperative period.Eleven CB and 22 SST subjects were included. Six months after surgery, BCVA was 20/20 or better in 36.4% of CB and 22.7% of SST subjects (P = .43). Median logMAR BCVA was 0.10 (0.00-0.20, 20/25) in group CB and 0.10 (0.10-0.30, 20/25) in group SST. Median preoperative corneal thickness was 614.0 μm (577.5-662.0 μm) and 658.0 μm (606.0-689.0 μm) in CB and SST subjects, respectively (P = .37). Six months after surgery, median corneal thickness was lower in the CB group (571.0 μm [478.0-592.0 μm]), than in the SST group (576.0 μm [531.0-607.0 μm], P = .02). At 6 months, median ECC was 1500.0 cell/mm (1321.5-2049.0 cell/mm, 41% decrease) in group CB and 1403.0 cell/mm (972.5-2010.7 cell/mm, 46% decrease) in group SST (P = .70). Rebubbling was required in 5 CB (45.5%) and 15 SST (68.2%) subjects (P = .39).Fuchs' dystrophy patients have good anatomic and functional DMEK results. Similar outcomes and complication rates occurred with eye bank and surgeon prepared donor tissue.

  17. JET (3He)-D scenarios relying on RF heating: survey of selected recent experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Andrew, Y.; Biewer, T. M.; Casati, A.; Crombé, K.; de la Luna, E.; Ericsson, G.; Felton, R.; Giacomelli, L.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Joffrin, E.; Källne, J.; Kiptily, V.; Lomas, P.; Mantica, P.; Marinoni, A.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Ongena, J.; Puiatti, M.-E.; Santala, M.; Sharapov, S.; Valisa, M.; JET EFDA contributors

    2009-04-01

    Recent JET experiments have been devoted to the study of (3He)-D plasmas involving radio frequency (RF) heating. This paper starts by discussing the RF heating efficiency theoretically expected in such plasmas, covering both relevant aspects of wave and of particle dynamics. Then it gives a concise summary of the main conclusions drawn from recent experiments that were either focusing on studying RF heating physics aspects or that were adopting RF heating as a tool to study plasma behavior. Depending on the minority concentration chosen, different physical phenomena are observed. At very low concentration (X[3He] < 1%), energetic tails are formed which trigger MHD activity and result in loss of fast particles. Alfvén cascades were observed and gamma ray tomography indirectly shows the impact of sawtooth crashes on the fast particle orbits. Low concentration (X[3He] < 10%) favors minority heating while for X[3He] Gt 10% electron mode conversion damping becomes dominant. Evidence for the Fuchs et al standing wave effect (Fuchs et al 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 1637-47) on the absorption is presented. RF induced deuterium tails were observed in mode conversion experiments with large X[3He] (≈18%). As tentative modeling shows, the formation of these tails can be explained as a consequence of wave power absorption by neutral beam particles that efficiently interact with the waves well away from the cold D cyclotron resonance position as a result of their substantial Doppler shift. As both ion and electron RF power deposition profiles in (3He)-D plasmas are fairly narrow—giving rise to localized heat sources—the RF heating method is an ideal tool for performing transport studies. Various of the experiments discussed here were done in plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs). ITBs are identified as regions with locally reduced diffusivity, where poloidal spinning up of the plasma is observed. The present know-how on the role of RF heating for impurity transport is

  18. New approaches in the indirect quantification of thermal rock properties in sedimentary basins: the well-log perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Numerical temperature models generated for geodynamic studies as well as for geothermal energy solutions heavily depend on rock thermal properties. Best practice for the determination of those parameters is the measurement of rock samples in the laboratory. Given the necessity to enlarge databases of subsurface rock parameters beyond drill core measurements an approach for the indirect determination of these parameters is developed, for rocks as well a for geological formations. We present new and universally applicable prediction equations for thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity in sedimentary rocks derived from data provided by standard geophysical well logs. The approach is based on a data set of synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastic rocks, carbonates and evaporates) composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities varying between 0 and 30%. Petrophysical properties are assigned to both the rock-forming minerals and the pore-filling fluids. Using multivariate statistics, relationships then were explored between each thermal property and well-logged petrophysical parameters (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) on a regression sub set of data (70% of data) (Fuchs et al., 2015). Prediction quality was quantified on the remaining test sub set (30% of data). The combination of three to five well-log parameters results in predictions on the order of <15% for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, and of <10% for specific heat capacity. Comparison of predicted and benchmark laboratory thermal conductivity from deep boreholes of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin results in 3 to 5% larger uncertainties with regard to the test data set. With regard to temperature models, the use of calculated TC borehole profiles approximate measured temperature logs with an

  19. Modular invariant representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and superalgebras

    PubMed Central

    Kac, Victor G.; Wakimoto, Minoru

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we launch a program to describe and classify modular invariant representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and superalgebras. We prove a character formula for a large class of highest weight representations L(λ) of a Kac-Moody algebra [unk] with a symmetrizable Cartan matrix, generalizing the Weyl-Kac character formula [Kac, V. G. (1974) Funct. Anal. Appl. 8, 68-70]. In the case of an affine [unk], this class includes modular invariant representations of arbitrary rational level m = t/u, where t [unk] Z and u [unk] N are relatively prime and m + g ≥ g/u (g is the dual Coxeter number). We write the characters of these representations in terms of theta functions and calculate their asymptotics, generalizing the results of Kac and Peterson [Kac, V. G. & Peterson, D. H. (1984) Adv. Math. 53, 125-264] and of Kac and Wakimoto [Kac, V. G. & Wakimoto, M. (1988) Adv. Math. 70, 156-234] for the u = 1 (integrable) case. We work out in detail the case [unk] = A1(1), in particular classifying all its modular invariant representations. Furthermore, we show that the modular invariant representations of the Virasoro algebra Vir are precisely the “minimal series” of Belavin et al. [Belavin, A. A., Polyakov, A. M. & Zamolodchikov, A. B. (1984) Nucl. Phys. B 241, 333-380] using the character formulas of Feigin and Fuchs [Feigin, B. L. & Fuchs, D. B. (1984) Lect. Notes Math. 1060, 230-245]. We show that tensoring the basic representation and modular invariant representations of A1(1) produces all modular invariant representations of Vir generalizing the results of Goddard et al. [Goddard P., Kent, A. & Olive, D. (1986) Commun. Math. Phys. 103, 105-119] and of Kac and Wakimoto [Kac, V. G. & Wakimoto, M. (1986) Lect. Notes Phys. 261, 345-371] in the unitary case. We study the general branching functions as well. All these results are generalized to the Kac-Moody superalgebras introduced by Kac [Kac, V. G. (1978) Adv. Math. 30, 85-136] and to N = 1 super

  20. Corneal graft rejection in African Americans at Howard University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Larry; Ngakeng, Vanessa; Copeland, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    There is scarcity of data in the literature on cornel graft rejection rate in patients exclusively of African ancestry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rejection rate of corneal transplant surgery performed at Howard University Hospital on such patients over a 15 year period. A retrospective evaluation was performed of the cornea graft rejection and corneal graft failure rate in 125 penetrating keratoplasties (PKPs) done by one corneal specialist at Howard University Hospital from January 1, 1990 to August 31, 2005. Of the 125 patients, 62 were eliminated from the study because of re-grafted eyes, non-African descent, primary graft failures, follow-up less than 1 month and lack of availability of charts. This study, therefore, studied and recorded data from 63 penetrating keratoplasties of 63 eyes from 60 patients. Episodes of graft rejection were documented in 23 eyes (36.5% of cases). Nine out of the 23 graft rejections manifested to secondary graft failure (39%). Overall, there were nine out of the 63 PKPs (14.3%) that resulted in secondary graft failure over the past 15 years. The major diagnostic categories were bullous keratopathy 24 (38%), keratoconus 10 (15.8%), Fuch's dystrophy 4 (6.3%), other 20 (31.7%). Of the cases with episodes of rejection and failure, 4.3% and none were attributable to keratoconus, 30.4% and 22.2% for bullous keratopathy, and 8.7% and 22.2% for Fuch's dystrophy, respectively. Also, best visual acuity was looked at in patients with rejection episodes. None of the patients had a pre-op visual acuity 20/40 or better; however, post-op PKP 2 (8.7%) of patients achieved 20/40 or better. Also, 4 (17.4%) of patients had a pre-op visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150, but post-op PKP best visual acuity between 20/50 and 20/150 was increased to 9 (39.1%). At 36% the prevalence of corneal graft rejection was one of the highest in the reported literature. But only 14% of those episodes resulted in graft failure which is one of

  1. Easing access to R using 'shiny' to create graphical user interfaces: An example for the R package 'Luminescence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, Christoph; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Dietze, Michael; Fuchs, Margret C.; Schmidt, Christoph; Fischer, Manfred; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    the R package 'Luminescence' in the form of interactive web applications. These applications can be accessed online so that a user is not even required to have a local installation of R and which provide access to most of the plotting functions of the R package 'Luminescence'. These functionalities will be demonstrated live during the PICO session. References Chang, W., Cheng, J., Allaire, JJ., Xie, Y., McPherson, J., 2016. shiny: Web Application Framework for R. R package version 0.13.2. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=shiny Kreutzer, S., Schmidt, C., Fuchs, M.C., Dietze, M., Fischer, M., Fuchs, M., 2012. Introducing an R package for luminescence dating analysis. Ancient TL, 30: 1-8, 2012.

  2. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zeaxanthin and visual function in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function Study (ZVF) FDA IND #78, 973.

    PubMed

    Richer, Stuart P; Stiles, William; Graham-Hoffman, Kelly; Levin, Marc; Ruskin, Dennis; Wrobel, James; Park, Dong-Wouk; Thomas, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with the carotenoid zeaxanthin (Zx) raises macula pigment optical density (MPOD) and has unique visual benefits for patients with early atrophic macular degeneration having visual symptoms but lower-risk National Institute of Health/National Eye Institute/Age-Related Eye Disease Study characteristics. This was a 1-year, n = 60 (57 men, 3 women), 4-visit, intention-to-treat, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial of patients (74.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 10) with mild-to-moderate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary supplement carotenoid pigment intervention groups: 8 mg Zx (n = 25) and 8 mg Zx plus 9 mg lutein (L) (n = 25) or 9 mg L ("Faux Placebo," control group, n = 10). Analysis was by Bartlett's test for equal variance, 3-way repeated factors analysis of variance, independent t test (P < 0.05) for variance and between/within group differences, and post-hoc Scheffé's tests. Estimated foveal heterochromic flicker photometry, 1° macular pigment optical density (MPOD QuantifEye(®)), low- and high-contrast visual acuity, foveal shape discrimination (Retina Foundation of the Southwest), 10° yellow kinetic visual fields (KVF), glare recovery, contrast sensitivity function (CSF), and 6° blue cone ChromaTest(®) color thresholds were obtained serially at 4, 8, and 12 months. Ninety percent of subjects completed ≥ 2 visits with an initial Age-Related Eye Disease Study report #18 retinopathy score of 1.4 (1.0 SD)/4.0 and pill intake compliance of 96% with no adverse effects. There were no intergroup differences in 3 major AMD risk factors: age, smoking, and body mass index as well as disease duration and Visual Function Questionnaire 25 composite score differences. Randomization resulted in equal MPOD variance and MPOD increasing in each of the 3 groups from 0.33 density units (du) (0.17 SD) baseline to 0.51 du (0.18 SD) at 12 m, (P = 0

  3. Endothelial cell density to predict endothelial graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jonathan H; Sugar, Alan; Benetz, Beth Ann; Beck, Roy W; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Gross, Robert; Heck, Ellen; Holland, Edward J; Mannis, Mark J; Raber, Irving; Stark, Walter; Stulting, R Doyle

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative and/or postoperative central endothelial cell density (ECD) and its rate of decline postoperatively are predictive of graft failure caused by endothelial decompensation following penetrating keratoplasty to treat a moderate-risk condition, principally, Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema. In a subset of Cornea Donor Study participants, a central reading center determined preoperative and postoperative ECD from available specular images for 17 grafts that failed because of endothelial decompensation and 483 grafts that did not fail. Preoperative ECD was not predictive of graft failure caused by endothelial decompensation (P = .91). However, the 6-month ECD was predictive of subsequent failure (P < .001). Among those that had not failed within the first 6 months, the 5-year cumulative incidence (+/-95% confidence interval) of failure was 13% (+/-12%) for the 33 participants with a 6-month ECD of less than 1700 cells/mm(2) vs 2% (+/-3%) for the 137 participants with a 6-month ECD of 2500 cells/mm(2) or higher. After 5 years' follow-up, 40 of 277 participants (14%) with a clear graft had an ECD below 500 cells/mm(2). Preoperative ECD is unrelated to graft failure from endothelial decompensation, whereas there is a strong correlation of ECD at 6 months with graft failure from endothelial decompensation. A graft can remain clear after 5 years even when the ECD is below 500 cells/mm(2).

  4. [Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DEAEK). Systematic review of clinical-effectiveness and safety].

    PubMed

    Paz-Valiñas, L; de la Fuente-Cid, R; de Rojas-Silva, M V; López-Rodríguez, I; López-García, M

    2015-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the efficacy/effectiveness, safety and cost of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) technique in patients with corneal endothelial failure. Comprehensive literature search conducted in the main biomedical databases from January-May 2012. Following a critical perusal of the total of 485 abstracts retrieved, 16 case series and one economic evaluation study were included. Corrected distance visual acuity and uncorrected distance visual acuity improved after treatment with DSAEK, attaining values of 0.6 to 0.8 and 0.5 respectively. The degree of post-DSAEK astigmatism was not significant with respect to baseline values. The main complications were graft dislocation-detachment (1.5-23%), primary failure (0-12%) and endothelial rejection (0.8-8.5%). In Fuchs' dystrophy and bullous keratopathy, data on the effectiveness of DSAEK indicate post-intervention improvement in uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity. Astigmatism arising after DSAEK was not significant. The most significant post-DSAEK complications are linked to the viability of the graft, with the most frequent complications being dislocation-detachment and, to a lesser extent, endothelial rejection. The studies that assess DSAEK are case series, and for the most part retrospective. The quality of this type of studies is both low and limited. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  6. Laser-assisted cataract surgery: benefits and barriers.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Kathryn M; Talamo, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    The use of the femtosecond laser (FSL) in cataract surgery may represent the largest advancement in the field since the inception of phacoemulsification. The goal of this review is to outline the benefits of and barriers to this technology. There are several significant potential benefits of the FSL in cataract surgery over conventional manual cataract surgery: precise capsulotomy formation, clear corneal and limbal relaxing incision construction, lens fragmentation, and lens softening. Evidence suggests that refractive benefits include more precise effective lens position as well as reduced effective phacoemulsification time with the use of FSL compared with manual surgery. Patients with conditions such as Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation, history of trauma, or brunescent cataracts may particularly benefit from this technology. There are significant financial and logistical issues to consider prior to the purchase of a FSL, including the cost of the laser, and charges to patients, and how the laser affects the patient flow in the operating room. The FSL may significantly change the current approach to cataract surgery.

  7. Graft failure: III. Glaucoma escalation after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Emily C; Kwon, Young H

    2008-06-01

    Glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty is a frequently observed post-operative complication and is a risk factor for graft failure. Penetrating keratoplasty performed for aphakic and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and inflammatory conditions are more likely to cause postoperative glaucoma compared with keratoconus and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. The intraocular pressure elevation may occur immediately after surgery or in the early to late postoperative period. Early postoperative causes of glaucoma include pre-existing glaucoma, retained viscoelastic, hyphema, inflammation, pupillary block, aqueous misdirection, or suprachoroidal hemorrhage. Late causes include pre-existing glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, ghost cell glaucoma, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, and steroid-induced glaucoma. Determining the cause of IOP elevation can help guide therapeutic intervention. Treatments for refractory glaucoma include topical anti-glaucoma medications such as beta-adrenergic blockers. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, miotic agents, adrenergic agonists, and prostaglandin analogs should be used with caution in the post-keratoplasty patient, because of the possibility of corneal decompensation, cystoid macular edema, or persistent inflammation. Various glaucoma surgical treatments have reported success in post-keratoplasty glaucoma. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C can be successful in controlling IOP without the corneal toxicity noted with 5-fluorouracil. Glaucoma drainage devices have successfully controlled intraocular pressure in postkeratoplasty glaucoma; this is, however, associated with increased risk of graft failure. Placement of the tube through the pars plana may improve graft success compared with implantation within the anterior chamber. In addition, cyclophotocoagulation remains a useful procedure for eyes that have refractory glaucoma despite multiple surgical interventions.

  8. Measurements of Gas-phase H2so4, Oh, So2 and Aerosol Size Distribution On Mount Zugspitze At The Schneefernerhaus: Estimation of Sources and Sinks of Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uecker, J.; Hanke, M.; Kamm, S.; Umann, B.; Arnold, F.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R.

    Gas-phase sulfuric acid and OH have been measured by the novel MPI-K ULTRA- CIMS (ultra-trace gas detection by CIMS technique) at the Schneefernerhaus( 2750 m asl; below the summit of Mount Zugspitze, Germany) in October 2001. These mea- surements were accompanied by measurements of SO2 with another MPI-K CIMS instrument and aerosol size distribution measurements by DMPS (differential mobil- ity particle sizer) operated by the Institut fuer Wasserchemie (Technische Universitaet Muenchen). In that way a data set was obtained which allows investigating major sources and sinks of sulfuric acid under relative clean conditions. H2SO4 and espe- cially OH concentrations are relatively well correlated to solar flux. Noon maximum concentrations of OH and H2SO4 of 6.5·106 and 2·106 cm-3, respectively, were ob- served. The average SO2 concentrations were below 20 ppt. The aerosol size distribu- tion was obtained in 39 size ranges from 10 to 1056 nm. Typical aerosol concentrations are in the range of 400 to 1800 cm-3 during the discussed period of time. An estima- tion of the production rate of H2SO4 was inferred building on the reaction of SO2 and OH, while the loss rate was calculated by considering the condensation of H2SO4 on aerosol particles (Fuchs and Sutugin approach). Results of the measurements and calculations will be discussed.

  9. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  10. Malaria in the Renaissance: remedies from European herbals from the 16th and 17th century.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael; Alther, Wandana; Kessler, Michael; Kluge, Martin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2011-01-27

    From antiquity up into the 20th century tertian and quartan malaria which are caused by the parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae were widespread in Central Europe. Hundreds of different remedies against malaria can be found in herbals from the Renaissance. To document and discuss from a modern pharmacological viewpoint the old remedies described in eight 16th and 17th century herbals written in German. Eight of the most important herbals of the 16th and 17th century including Bock (1577), Fuchs (1543), Matthiolus (1590), Lonicerus (1560), Brunfels (1532), Zwinger (1696), and Tabernaemontanus (1591 and 1678) were searched for terms related to malaria, and documented plants and recipes described for its treatment. Additionally the overlapping of these remedies with those in De Materia Medica by the Greek physician Dioscorides was studied. Three hundred and fourteen taxa were identified in the herbals for this indication. Recent pharmacological data was found for just 5% of them. The influence of De Materia Medica was shown to be negligible with only 3.5% of the remedies in common. European Renaissance herbals may be a valuable source of information for the selection of plants for focussed antiplasmodial screening programmes, but have received only little scientific attention. Antimalarial remedies from these herbals must be viewed as independent sources of knowledge separate from Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Management of corneal endothelial decompensation with Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant].

    PubMed

    Röck, T; Bartz-Schmidt, K-U; Röck, D; Yoeruek, E

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the main causes for developing bullous keratopathy are from problems related to intraocular surgery, trauma, infection, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and chronically elevated intraocular pressure. In the 1990s penetrating keratoplasty was once considered the therapy of choice for treatment of bullous keratopathy but in recent years it has been replaced by posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) procedure represents the final development of posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The question now arises whether DMEK can be used in patients with bullous keratopathy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. A 72-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation with the diagnosis of bullous keratopathy and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. The bullous keratopathy was caused by a variety of previous operations as well as decompensation of intraocular pressure. This article describes the therapy of bullous keratopathy by DMEK with existing Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. After surgery the cornea became clear and the best-corrected visual acuity improved from hand movement to 0.2. The intraocular pressure remained normal (10-14 mmHg) without antiglaucoma medication and the endothelial cell count decreased only slightly over a follow-up of 13 months. No complications were encountered. The DMEK surgical procedure seems to be possible in patients with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant and endothelial decompensation. However, further studies with a larger number of patients should follow to validate the replacement of penetrating keratoplasty and other posterior lamellar procedures by DMEK.

  12. Assessing microstructures of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy: pathway for corneal physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Tankam, Patrice; He, Zhiguo; Chu, Ying-Ju; Won, Jungeun; Canavesi, Cristina; Lepine, Thierry; Hindman, Holly B; Topham, David J; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles; Rolland, Jannick P

    2015-03-15

    Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) was applied ex vivo in the investigation of corneal cells and their surrounding microstructures with particular attention to the corneal endothelium. Experiments using fresh pig eyeballs, excised human corneal buttons from patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FED), and healthy donor corneas were conducted. Results show in a large field of view (1  mm×1  mm) high definition images of the different cell types and their surrounding microstructures through the full corneal thickness at both the central and peripheral locations of porcine corneas. Particularly, an image of the endothelial cells lining the bottom of the cornea is highlighted. As compared to healthy human corneas, the corneas of individuals with FED show characteristic microstructural alterations of the Descemet's membrane and increased size and number of keratocytes. The GD-OCM-based imaging system developed may constitute a novel tool for corneal imaging and disease diagnosis. Also, importantly, it may provide insights into the mechanism of corneal physiology and pathology, particularly in diseases of the corneal endothelium.

  13. A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J.; Pinsky, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. PMID:26156299

  14. Palaeobiology, palaeoecology and stratigraphic significance of the Late Miocene cockle Lymnocardium soproniense from Lake Pannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Imre; Cziczer, István; Sztanó, Orsolya; Dávid, Árpád; Johnson, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Stratigraphic subdivision of the Upper Miocene deposits in the Pannonian Basin has been traditionally based on the endemic mollusc species of Lake Pannon. The cockle species Lymnocardium soproniense Vitális, apparently evolving through a sympatric speciation event in the sublittoral zone of Lake Pannon about 10.2-10.3 Ma, attained wide geographical distribution in the Pannonian basin and thus may serve as a good stratigraphic marker. Lymnocardium soproniense was one of the few large-sized cockles in Lake Pannon, most closely related to its ancestor, L. schedelianum (Fuchs), and to another descendant of the latter, L. variocostatum Vitális. According to the δ18O stable isotope record of its shells, the large size of L. soproniense was coupled with an extended life time of more than 10 years, probably reflecting a stable lake environment with increased resource availability and decreased predation. The species lived in quiet offshore conditions, below the storm wave base, where clay was deposited from suspension and the influence of currents was negligible. The base of the Lymnocardium soproniense Zone in the sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon is defined by the first occurrence of the species, whereas the top of the zone is marked with the base of the overlying Congeria praerhomboidea Zone, defined by the FAD of C. praerhomboidea.

  15. Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary; Tewari, Pria; Sung, Shijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Terahertz corneal hydration sensing has shown promise in ophthalmology applications and was recently shown to be capable of detecting water concentration changes of about two parts in a thousand in ex vivo corneal tissues. This technology may be effective in patient monitoring during refractive surgery and for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in diseases of the cornea. In this work, Fuchs dystrophy, cornea transplant rejection, and keratoconus are discussed, and a hydration sensitivity of about one part in a hundred is predicted to be needed to successfully distinguish between diseased and healthy tissues in these applications. Stratified models of corneal tissue reflectivity are developed and validated using ex vivo spectroscopy of harvested porcine corneas that are hydrated using polyethylene glycol solutions. Simulation of the cornea’s depth-dependent hydration profile, from 0.01 to 100 THz, identifies a peak in intrinsic reflectivity contrast for sensing at 100 GHz. A 100 GHz hydration sensing system is evaluated alongside the current standard ultrasound pachymetry technique to measure corneal hydration in vivo in four rabbits. A hydration sensitivity, of three parts per thousand or better, was measured in all four rabbits under study. This work presents the first in vivo demonstration of remote corneal hydration sensing. PMID:23085925

  16. The bivalve Placuna (Indoplacuna) miocenica from the Middle Miocene of Siwa Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt: Systematic paleontology, paleoecology, and taphonomic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed M.; El Hedeny, Magdy M.; Rashwan, Mohammed A.; Abdel Aal, Abdel Aal A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the epifaunal, free lying bivalve Placuna (Indoplacuna) miocenica (Fuchs, 1883) encountered in the Middle Miocene Marmarica Formation of Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, in terms of systematic paleontology, paleoecology and taphonomy. Well to moderately preserved shells of this species were collected from three sections. They have been found embedded in sandy, marly and chalky limestones. Although they are extremely thin and fragile, they occurred as complete disarticulated and articulated valves. Specimens of P. (I.) miocenica are highly accumulated in the north Siwa section forming a coquinoid band (30 cm thick). In addition, they are generally distributed sporadically in different stratigraphic levels within the three studied sequences. Taphonomic observations indicated that these shells were affected by encrustation, bioerosion, disarticulation, fragmentation and abrasion. Moreover, valves of this species suffered minor chipping along their fragile margins. The occurrence of the studied species associated with oysters and other benthic faunal assemblages within carbonate sediments revealed shallow, low energy, warm and intertidal environments with periods of relatively agitated conditions.

  17. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The representation of multiplication and division facts in memory.

    PubMed

    De Brauwer, Jolien; Fias, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Recently, using a training paradigm, Campbell and Agnew (2009) observed cross-operation response time savings with nonidentical elements (e.g., practice 3 + 2, test 5 - 2) for addition and subtraction, showing that a single memory representation underlies addition and subtraction performance. Evidence for cross-operation savings between multiplication and division have been described frequently (e.g., Campbell, Fuchs-Lacelle, & Phenix, 2006) but they have always been attributed to a mediation strategy (reformulating a division problem as a multiplication problem, e.g., Campbell et al., 2006). Campbell and Agnew (2009) therefore concluded that there exists a fundamental difference between addition and subtraction on the one hand and multiplication and division on the other hand. However, our results suggest that retrieval savings between inverse multiplication and division problems can be observed. Even for small problems (solved by direct retrieval) practicing a division problem facilitated the corresponding multiplication problem and vice versa. These findings indicate that shared memory representations underlie multiplication and division retrieval. Hence, memory and learning processes do not seem to differ fundamentally between addition-subtraction and multiplication-division.

  19. Modifications of haematology analyzers to improve cell counting and leukocyte differentiating in cerebrospinal fluid controls of the Joint German Society for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Tilmann O; Nebe, C Thomas; Löwer, Christa; Lehmitz, Reinhard; Kruse, Rolf; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Dorn-Beineke, Alexandra

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is used with haematology analyzers (HAs) to count cells and differentiate leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To evaluate the FCM techniques of HAs, 10 external DGKL trials with CSF controls were carried out in 2004 to 2008. Eight single platform HAs with and without CSF equipment were evaluated with living blood leukocytes and erythrocytes in CSF like DGKL controls: Coulter (LH750,755), Abbott CD3200, CD3500, CD3700, CD4000, Sapphire, ADVIA 120(R) CSF assay, and Sysmex XE-2100(R). Results were compared with visual counting of native cells in Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber, unstained, and absolute values of leukocyte differentiation, assayed by dual platform analysis with immune-FCM (FACSCalibur, CD45, CD14) and the chamber counts. Reference values X were compared with HA values Y by statistical evaluation with Passing/Bablock (P/B) linear regression analysis to reveal conformity of both methods. The HAs, studied, produced no valid results with DGKL CSF controls, because P/B regression revealed no conformity with the reference values due to:-blank problems with impedance analysis,-leukocyte loss with preanalytical erythrocyte lysis procedures, especially of monocytes,-inaccurate results with ADVIA cell sphering and cell differentiation with algorithms and enzyme activities (e.g., peroxidase). HA techniques have to be improved, e.g., using no erythrocyte lysis and CSF adequate techniques, to examine CSF samples precise and accurate. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. A structural and vibrational study on the first condensed borosulfate K5[B(SO4)4] by using the FTIR-Raman spectra and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppe, Henning Alfred; Kazmierczak, Karolina; Romano, Elida; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The first borosulfate, K5[B(SO4)4] (recently synthesized by Henning A. Höppe, Karolina Kazmierczak, Michael Daub, Katharina Förg, Franziska Fuchs, Harald Hillebrecht, 2012) was characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the structure and vibrational properties of the compound. Employing the B3P86 and B3LYP levels of theory, the molecular structures of the compound were theoretically determined in gas phase and the harmonic vibrational frequencies were evaluated at the same levels. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies for the borosulfate compound are consistent with the experimental IR and Raman spectra. These calculations gave us a precise knowledge of the normal modes of vibration taking into account the type of coordination adopted by sulfate groups of this compound as ligands with C3v and C2v symmetries. A complete assignment of all the observed bands in the IR and Raman spectra for K5[B(SO4)4] was performed. Here, the infrared and Raman spectra of K5[B(SO4)4] were interpreted, discussed and completely assigned. The nature of the Ksbnd O, Ksbnd S, Bsbnd O, and Ssbnd O bonds and the topological properties of the compound were investigated and analyzed by means of Natural Bond Order (NBO) and Bader's Atoms in Molecules theory (AIM), respectively.

  1. Organization of the hao gene cluster of Nitrosomonas europaea: genes for two tetraheme c cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, D J; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B

    1994-06-01

    The organization of genes for three proteins involved in ammonia oxidation in Nitrosomonas europaea has been investigated. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region and four heme-containing peptides produced by proteolysis of the tetraheme cytochrome c554 of N. europaea were determined by Edman degradation. The gene (cycA) encoding this cytochrome is present in three copies per genome (H. McTavish, F. LaQuier, D. Arciero, M. Logan, G. Mundfrom, J.A. Fuchs, and A. B. Hooper, J. Bacteriol. 175:2445-2447, 1993). Three clones, representing at least two copies of cycA, were isolated and sequenced by the dideoxy-chain termination procedure. In both copies, the sequences of 211 amino acids derived from the gene sequence are identical and include all amino acids predicted by the proteolytic peptides. In two copies, the cycA open reading frame (ORF) is followed closely (three bases in one copy) by a second ORF predicted to encode a 28-kDa tetraheme c cytochrome not previously characterized but similar to the nirT gene product of Pseudomonas stutzeri. In one copy of the cycA gene cluster, the second ORF is absent.

  2. Secondary angle closure caused by air migrating behind the pupil in descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung S; Desai, Neel R; Schmidt, Gregory W; Jun, Albert S; Schein, Oliver D; Stark, Walter J; Eghrari, Allen O; Gottsch, John D

    2009-07-01

    To report secondary angle closure caused by air migrating behind the pupil in the context of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in the early postoperative period after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). A retrospective case series was conducted on 100 consecutive DSEK cases from 90 patients undergoing DSEK because of corneal disease from Fuchs corneal dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, aphakic bullous keratopathy, and iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Preoperative and postoperative slit-lamp examinations and IOP measurements were ascertained for all 100 eyes. Main outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative IOP. Thirteen of 100 eyes developed an IOP rise of greater than 30 mm Hg on the first postoperative day. Six of these 13 patients developed angle closure from air migrating posterior to the iris and causing iridocorneal adhesions. One of these 13 patients developed pupillary block from air anterior to iris. Six of 13 patients developed increased IOP without pupillary block or iridocorneal adhesions and had a history of preexisting primary or secondary glaucoma. A secondary angle closure associated with DSEK is reported with air migrating behind the iris, resulting in extensive iridocorneal adhesions. An acute increase in IOP after DSEK can also be induced by air anterior to the iris causing pupillary block. IOP spikes are much more common in the first few postoperative days after DSEK. Medical treatment can occasionally resolve air posterior to the iris, but if iridocorneal adhesions are extensive and persistent, air removal and angle reformation may be necessary.

  3. Perpendicular dynamics of runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Gomez, I.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Sanchez, R.

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, it will be shown that the runaway phenomenon in tokamak plasmas cannot be reduced to a one-dimensional problem, based on the competence between electric field acceleration and collisional friction losses in the parallel direction. A Langevin approach, including collisional diffusion in velocity space, will be used to analyze the two-dimensional runaway electron dynamics. An investigation of the runaway probability in velocity space will yield a criterion for runaway, which will be shown to be consistent with the results provided by the more simple test particle description of the runaway dynamics [Fuchs et al., Phys. Fluids 29, 2931more » (1986)]. Electron perpendicular collisional scattering will be found to play an important role, relaxing the conditions for runaway. Moreover, electron pitch angle scattering perpendicularly broadens the runaway distribution function, increasing the electron population in the runaway plateau region in comparison with what it should be expected from electron acceleration in the parallel direction only. The perpendicular broadening of the runaway distribution function, its dependence on the plasma parameters, and the resulting enhancement of the runaway production rate will be discussed.« less

  4. Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Descemetorhexis: A Novel Technique in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Daniel; von Sonnleithner, Christoph; Bertelmann, Eckart; Joussen, Antonia M; Torun, Necip

    2016-10-01

    To explore the feasibility of femtosecond laser-assisted descemetorhexis (DR) to facilitate Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery. Six pseudophakic patients suffering from Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy underwent femtosecond laser-assisted DMEK surgery. DR was performed using the LenSx femtosecond laser, followed by manual removal of the Descemet membrane. Optical coherence tomography images were used to measure DR parameters. Patients were followed up for 1 month to examine best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell loss, flap detachment, and structure of the anterior chamber of the eye. The diameter of the DR approximated the intended diameter closely [mean error of 34 μm (0.45%) and 54 μm (0.67%) in the x- and y-diameter, respectively] and did not require manual correction. The median visual acuity increased from 0.4 logMAR (range 0.6-0.4 logMAR) preoperative to 0.2 logMAR (range 0-0.4 logMAR) postoperative. The median endothelial cell loss was 22% (range 7%-34%). No clinically significant flap detachments were noted. All patients had clear corneas after surgery, and no side effects or damage to structures of the anterior chamber were noted. Femtosecond laser-assisted DR is a safe and precise method for facilitating DMEK surgery.

  5. New therapeutic modality for corneal endothelial disease using Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drops.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Corneal endothelial dysfunction accompanied by visual disturbance is a primary indication for corneal endothelial transplantation. However, despite the value and potential of endothelial graft surgery, a strictly pharmacological approach for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction remains an attractive proposition. Previously, we reported that the selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 promotes cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. These findings have led us to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease using ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey models of partial endothelial dysfunction, we showed that corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated via the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, resulting in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density. Based on these animal studies, we are now attempting to advance the clinical application of ROCK inhibitor eye drops for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, and the effects of Y-27632 eye drops after transcorneal freezing were evaluated in 8 patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. We observed a positive effect of ROCK inhibitor eye drops in treating patients with central edema caused by Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy. We believe that our new findings will contribute to the establishment of a new approach for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  6. The Role of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress in the Pathomechanism of the Age-Related Ocular Diseases and Other Pathologies of the Anterior and Posterior Eye Segments in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) form under normal physiological conditions and may have both beneficial and harmful role. We search the literature and current knowledge in the aspect of ROS participation in the pathogenesis of anterior and posterior eye segment diseases in adults. ROS take part in the pathogenesis of keratoconus, Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, and granular corneal dystrophy type 2, stimulating apoptosis of corneal cells. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma stimulating apoptotic and inflammatory pathways on the level of the trabecular meshwork and promoting retinal ganglion cells apoptosis and glial dysfunction in the posterior eye segment. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. ROS induce apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells. ROS promote apoptosis of vascular and neuronal cells and stimulate inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in the course of diabetic retinopathy. ROS are associated with the pathophysiological parainflammation and autophagy process in the course of the age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26881021

  7. The Evolution of Corneal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Röck, Tobias; Landenberger, Johanna; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-12-15

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of surgical methods in and leading indications for corneal transplantation from 2005 to 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from the corneal graft waiting list and from all keratoplasties carried out between 2005 and 2016 at the University Eye Hospital Tübingen were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS A total of 1259 keratoplasties were performed between 2005 and 2016 at the University Eye Hospital Tübingen. The most common surgical indications for corneal transplantation were Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (45.5%) and keratoconus (14.2%). The mean rate of corneal transplantations almost doubled from 71 keratoplasties per year in the first 6-year period to 139 keratoplasties per year in the second 6-year period (P=0.005). The number of penetrating keratoplasties remained similar. The number of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasties (DMEK) increased significantly from 2008 to 2016 (P<0.0001). One DMEK procedure was performed in 2008 (representing 1.4% of all transplantations), while 75 DMEK procedures were performed in 2016 (representing 60.5% of all transplantations) (P<0.0001). DMEK became the favored surgical method for endothelial disorders, exceeding penetrating keratoplasty in 2013. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows evolutionary changes in preferred corneal transplantation techniques and leading indications for keratoplasty from 2005 to 2016. Since its introduction a decade ago, DMEK is currently the golden standard in the management of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  8. 5-Fluorouracil for epithelial downgrowth after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ryan K; Greene, Daniel P; Shield, David R; Eberhart, Charles G; Huang, John J; Shayegani, Aryan

    2013-12-01

    To report the use of intracameral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to treat epithelial downgrowth after performing a Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We describe the case of a 79-year-old woman who underwent a DSAEK for pseudophakic Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. The patient required 2 repeat DSAEKs for graft failure and persistent, visually significant interface haze. Six months after the third and most recent DSAEK, the patient was followed up and found to have a visual acuity of 20/100. On examination, the patient continued to have a persistent interface haze. However, the patient also had a cellular anterior chamber reaction despite the administration of frequent topical corticosteroids, and subtle findings of a translucent, membranous growth over the iris. Argon laser photocoagulation of the area resulted in a whitening response, characteristic of epithelial growth. Epithelial downgrowth was diagnosed, and intracameral 5-FU was administered. One month after the injection was given, the patient's examination results and vision improved to 20/60. Six months after the single injection, the patient had a clear DSAEK graft without interface haze, a quiet chamber, and 20/30 visual acuity. Epithelial downgrowth that occurs after performing a DSAEK can be treated successfully using intracameral 5-FU.

  9. Iris structure and minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Trixler, Dániel; Tényi, Tamás

    2017-10-01

    This study compared five human iris characteristics and minor physical anomalies (MPAs) between patients with schizophrenia (n = 32) and controls (n = 31). Correlations between iris characteristics and MPAs were expected, due to their same ectodermic origin. Iris macro photos were taken and quantified in five categories mentioned before. MPAs were also examined in both groups. Our results show significant differences in the frequency of pigment dots of the iris and total number of MPAs between groups. Other significant differences were found in the extension of concentric furrows, as they were more common in healthy subjects, while Wolfflin nodules occurred significantly more often in patients with schizophrenia. Expected difference in Fuch's crypts could not be observed between groups. Light eye color was positively correlated to pigment dots and Wolfflin nodules, and negatively correlated with concentric furrows. Dark eye color showed positive correlation with concentric furrows, and negative correlation with pigment dots and concentric furrows. A gender effect could also been observed: male individuals showed moderate positive correlations between pigment dots and total MPAs frequency, while this couldn't be observed in the female group. Our findings suggest possible connections between iris characteristics and MPAs, where males are more prone to deviations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Smartphone-based imaging of the corneal endothelium at sub-cellular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toslak, Devrim; Thapa, Damber; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Chen, Yanjun; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-07-01

    This aim of this study was to test the feasibility of smartphone-based specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium at a sub-cellular resolution. Quantitative examination of endothelial cells is essential for evaluating corneal disease such as determining a diagnosis, monitoring progression and assessing treatment. Smartphone-based technology promises a new opportunity to develop affordable devices to foster quantitative examination of endothelial cells in rural and underserved areas. In our study, we incorporated an iPhone 6 and a slit lamp to demonstrate the feasibility of smartphone-based microscopy of the corneal endothelium at a sub-cellular resolution. The sub-cellular resolution images allowed quantitative calculation of the endothelial cell density. Comparative measurements revealed a normal endothelial cell density of 2978 cells/mm2 in the healthy cornea, and a significantly reduced cell density of 1466 cells/mm2 in the diseased cornea with Fuchs' dystrophy. Our ultimate goal is to develop a smartphone-based telemedicine device for low-cost examination of the corneal endothelium, which can benefit patients in rural areas and underdeveloped countries to reduce health care disparities.

  11. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Teper, Sławomir J.; Janiszewska, Dominika A.; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements. PMID:26457303

  12. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Nowinska, Anna K; Teper, Sławomir J; Janiszewska, Dominika A; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  13. Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Tewari, Pria; Sung, Sijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott

    2012-09-01

    Terahertz corneal hydration sensing has shown promise in ophthalmology applications and was recently shown to be capable of detecting water concentration changes of about two parts in a thousand in ex vivo corneal tissues. This technology may be effective in patient monitoring during refractive surgery and for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in diseases of the cornea. In this work, Fuchs dystrophy, cornea transplant rejection, and keratoconus are discussed, and a hydration sensitivity of about one part in a hundred is predicted to be needed to successfully distinguish between diseased and healthy tissues in these applications. Stratified models of corneal tissue reflectivity are developed and validated using ex vivo spectroscopy of harvested porcine corneas that are hydrated using polyethylene glycol solutions. Simulation of the cornea's depth-dependent hydration profile, from 0.01 to 100 THz, identifies a peak in intrinsic reflectivity contrast for sensing at 100 GHz. A 100 GHz hydration sensing system is evaluated alongside the current standard ultrasound pachymetry technique to measure corneal hydration in vivo in four rabbits. A hydration sensitivity, of three parts per thousand or better, was measured in all four rabbits under study. This work presents the first in vivo demonstration of remote corneal hydration sensing.

  14. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  15. Electron Phonon Coupling versus Photoelectron Energy Loss at the Origin of Replica Bands in Photoemission of FeSe on SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengmiao; Sawatzky, George A.

    2018-06-01

    The recent observation of replica bands in single-layer FeSe /SrTiO3 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has triggered intense discussions concerning the potential influence of the FeSe electrons coupling with substrate phonons on the superconducting transition temperature. Here we provide strong evidence that the replica bands observed in the single-layer FeSe /SrTiO3 system and several other cases are largely due to the energy loss processes of the escaping photoelectron, resulted from the well-known strong coupling of external propagating electrons to Fuchs-Kliewer surface phonons in ionic materials in general. The photoelectron energy loss in ARPES on single-layer FeSe /SrTiO3 is calculated using the demonstrated successful semiclassical dielectric theory in describing low energy electron energy loss spectroscopy of ionic insulators. Our result shows that the observed replica bands are mostly a result of extrinsic photoelectron energy loss and not a result of the electron phonon interaction of the Fe d electrons with the substrate phonons. The strong enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature in these monolayers remains an open question.

  16. [Reactivation of herpes zoster infection by varicella-zoster virus].

    PubMed

    Cvjetković, D; Jovanović, J; Hrnjaković-Cvjetković, I; Brkić, S; Bogdanović, M

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in varicella-zoster virus in the middle of the twentieth century. Virus isolation in 1958 had made it possible to find out the complete DNA sequence of the varicella-zoster virus. Molecular identify of the causative agents of varicella and shingles had been proved. ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND HISTOPATHOLOGY: Varicella-zoster virus is a member of the Herpesviridae family. After primary infection which results in varicella, the virus becomes latent in the cerebral or posterior root ganglia. Some of these individuals develop shingles after several decades because of virus reactivation. It is caused by decline of cellular immune response. Circumstances such as old age, hard work, using of steroids or malignancies contribute to the appearance of shingles. Histopathological findings include degenerative changes of epithelial cells such as ballooning, multinucleated giant cells and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions. Shingles occur sporadically, mainly among the elderly who have had varicella. There is no seasonal appearance of shingles. Individuals suffering from shingles may be sometimes contagious for susceptible children because of enormous amount of virus particles in vesicle fluid. Clinically, shingles is characterized at first by pain or discomfort in involved dermatome, usually without constitutional symptoms. Local edema and erythema appear before developing of rash. Maculopapular and vesicular rash evolves into crusts. The most commonly involved ganglia are: lumbar, thoracic, sacral posterior root ganglia, then geniculate ganglion of the VIIth cranial nerve and the trigeminal ganglion. The most common complication, postherpetic neuralgia, may last for as long as two or three weeks, sometimes even one year or more. Other complications that may be seen in shingles, but more rarely, are ocular (keratitis, iridocyclitis, secondary glaucoma, loss of sight), neurological (various motor neuropathies, encephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome

  17. The age and degree of diachroneity of India-Asia collision determined from the sedimentary record: a comparison of new evidence from the east (Tibet) and west (Ladakh) of the orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Boudagher-Fadel, M.; Godin, L.; Parrish, R.; Bown, P.; Garzanti, E.; Horstwood, M.; Jenks, D.

    2009-12-01

    The age and degree of diachroneity of India-Asia collision is critical to construction of models of orogenesis and to understanding the causes of spatial variations in Himalayan evolution along strike. The age of collision is quoted between 65-34 Ma (Jaeger et al 1989; Aitchison et al 2007) and the degree of dichroneity is considered negligible (Searle et al 1997) to substantial (Rowley 1998). We studied the youngest Tethyan succession in the east (Tingri, Tibet) and west (Ladakh, India) of the orogen and used two approaches to date collision: 1) timing of closure of Tethys, by dating the youngest marine strata and 2) first evidence of Asian detritus deposited on the Indian plate, using U-Pb ages of detrital zircon to assess provenance. Both these approaches provide a minimum age to collision. In Ladakh, Indian plate passive margin limestones of the Paleocene Dibling Fm are overlain by the youngest marine facies of the region, the marine Kong Fm and fluvio-deltaic Chulung La Fm (Garzanti et al 1987). The age of the Kong and Chulung La Formations is disputed, from P5/6 (Fuchs & Willems 1990) to P8 (Garzanti et al 1987) the discrepancy possibly the result of research at different locations. Provenance is considered to be either ophiolitic from the Indian plate (Fuchs & Willems 1990) or containing detritus from the Trans-Himalayan arc of the Asian plate (Garzanti et al 1987; Critelli & Garzanti 1994). Our samples from the Kong Fm contained planktic foraminifera indicating a Middle to Early P6 age (54-56 Ma) and larger benthic foraminifera indicating Middle SBZ8 age (53-54 Ma). U-Pb dating of detrital zircons allows discrimination between Asian provenance (dominated by Mesozoic grains from the Trans-Himalayan arc) and Indian provenance (characterized by Precambrian grains and an absence of Mesozoic grains). Our data from the Kong and Chulung La Fms shows a primary provenance from the Asian plate. Thus collision is constrained by arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian

  18. Luminescence and Radiocarbon dating of roman time harbour sediments from Cologne - A comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tobias; Frechen, Manfred; Fuchs, Magret C.; Trier, Marcus; Tsukamoto, Sumiko

    2010-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was applied to fluvial and colluvial deposits which were taken from a roman time harbour basin in Cologne. Hence, independent age control was given by roman artefacts (coins, bricks) of known age and by three radiocarbon data. For one sample (well sorted fluvial sand), a single aliquot regenerative (SAR) protocol was applied to coarse grain quartz. A large number of equivalent doses (80) were collected and after De-measurements, different statistical approaches were tested. The results show, that calculating the age by using the Mean or Median of all accepted De-values yields OSL ages of 3.5 ± 0.3 ka and 2.8 ± 0.3 ka, respectively, what would be significantly too old. The application of the Leading Edge Method (Lepper & McKeever 2002), the statistical approach after Fuchs & Lang (2001) or the Minimum Age Method (MAM3) after Galbraith et al. (1999) yield OSL age estimates of 2.0 ± 0.1 ka, 2.1 ± 0.1 ka and 1.7 ± 0.6 ka, respectively. Those ages fit very well to the 14C-ages and are in better agreement with the known archaeological background. For the colluvial sample, the quartz OSL signal was effected by feldspar impurities. For this sample, different methodological approaches were tested to see which one has the best potential to minimize the feldspar contribution. Therefore the post-IR blue stimulated quartz luminescence was recorded. The quartz signal was measured using continuous wave (CW) and pulsed OSL (POSL). For the CW measurements, it was tested if a prior IR-bleach @ 50°C or @ 225°C has better potential for minimizing the feldspar signal. In this case, an IR-bleach @ 225°C (Buylaert et al. in press) was the most effective way to obtain a higher purity of the quartz OSL signal. Buylaert, J.P., Murray, A.S., Thomsen, K.J., Jain, M.: The effect of preheating on the IRSL signal from feldspar. In press. - Radiat. Meas., special issue, LED08. Fuchs, M. & Lang, A. (2001): OSL dating of coarse-grain fluvial

  19. Hydrocarbon-mediated gold and uranium concentration in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Williams-Jones, Anthony; Schumann, Dirk; Couillard, Martin; Murray, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    uranium mineral, occurs as complex-shaped grains that represent aggregates containing billions of uraninite nanocrystals (5 - 7 nm in diameter), which grew in situ in the pyrobitumen matrix or more likely its liquid precursor (Fuchs et al., 2015). This in situ growth of isolated nanocrystalline aggregates shows that uranium was mobilised and concentrated by liquid hydrocarbons, and that uraninite nanocrystals were released from the oils during the conversion of oil to pyrobitumen. Our study provides new insights into the complex mechanisms of ore formation in the Witwatersrand Supergroup and compelling evidence that hydrocarbons played a major role in the concentration of the gold and uranium. It does not rule out the possibility that gold and uranium were introduced into the Witwatersrand Basin as detrital grains but shows that mobilisation of gold and uranium by hydrothermal fluids and hydrocarbon liquids, respectively, and the mixing of these fluids, were essential to ore formation. Fuchs, S., Schumann, D., Williams-Jones, A.E., Vali, H., 2015. The growth and concentration of uranium and titanium minerals in hydrocarbons of the Carbon Leader Reef, Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa. Chemical Geology 393-394, 55-66.

  20. The Drive to Life on Wet and Icy Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Barge, Laura M.; Bhartia, Rohit; Bocanegra, Dylan; Bracher, Paul J.; Branscomb, Elbert; Kidd, Richard; McGlynn, Shawn; Meier, David H.; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Shibuya, Takazo; Vance, Steve; White, Lauren; Kanik, Isik

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a reformulation of the submarine alkaline hydrothermal theory for the emergence of life in response to recent experimental findings. The theory views life, like other self-organizing systems in the Universe, as an inevitable outcome of particular disequilibria. In this case, the disequilibria were two: (1) in redox potential, between hydrogen plus methane with the circuit-completing electron acceptors such as nitrite, nitrate, ferric iron, and carbon dioxide, and (2) in pH gradient between an acidulous external ocean and an alkaline hydrothermal fluid. Both CO2 and CH4 were equally the ultimate sources of organic carbon, and the metal sulfides and oxyhydroxides acted as protoenzymatic catalysts. The realization, now 50 years old, that membrane-spanning gradients, rather than organic intermediates, play a vital role in life's operations calls into question the idea of “prebiotic chemistry.” It informs our own suggestion that experimentation should look to the kind of nanoengines that must have been the precursors to molecular motors—such as pyrophosphate synthetase and the like driven by these gradients—that make life work. It is these putative free energy or disequilibria converters, presumably constructed from minerals comprising the earliest inorganic membranes, that, as obstacles to vectorial ionic flows, present themselves as the candidates for future experiments. Key Words: Methanotrophy—Origin of life. Astrobiology 14, 308–343. The fixation of inorganic carbon into organic material (autotrophy) is a prerequisite for life and sets the starting point of biological evolution. (Fuchs, 2011) Further significant progress with the tightly membrane-bound H+-PPase family should lead to an increased insight into basic requirements for the biological transport of protons through membranes and its coupling to phosphorylation. (Baltscheffsky et al., 1999) PMID:24697642

  1. Evolving indications for and trends in keratoplasty in British Columbia, Canada, from 2002 to 2011: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Johnson C H; Holland, Simon P; Dubord, Paul J; Moloney, Gregory; McCarthy, Martin; Yeung, Sonia N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the evolving indications for keratoplasty and the shift in the type of keratoplasty performed in British Columbia, Canada, over a 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. This was a retrospective database review of all the records of corneal transplant tissues at the Eye Bank of British Columbia, Canada, from January 2002 to December 2011. The patient demographics, indications, and types of transplant performed were analyzed. A total of 4843 corneal transplants were performed in 3742 patients (1968 male and 1774 female) from January 2002 to December 2011. The number of keratoplasties performed ranged from 420 in 2008 to 578 in 2011. The top 4 indications over the 10-year period were Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED; 18.9%), aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (17.4%), regraft (17.1%), and keratoconus (15.5%). Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) accounted for 86.5% (4191 transplants) of all keratoplasties performed. Since the introduction of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in 2007, there was a significant increase in the number of DSAEKs (P < 0.0001) performed and a statistical decline in the number of PKPs (P < 0.0001) performed. Despite only 30 deep anterior lamellar keratoplasties being performed, an increasing trend was observed after 2008 (P = 0.0087). A decreasing trend in PKPs and an increasing trend in DSAEKs were observed for surgeries performed for FED, aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, and regraft. FED has become the top indication for performing a keratoplasty over the 10-year period. There was a shift from PKP to DSAEK performed for endothelial failure. Although the number of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgeries was small, there was a significant increasing trend.

  2. Immunological and molecular polymorphisms of OspC, an immunodominant major outer surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Wilske, B; Preac-Mursic, V; Jauris, S; Hofmann, A; Pradel, I; Soutschek, E; Schwab, E; Will, G; Wanner, G

    1993-01-01

    The gene of the immunodominant major protein pC of Borrelia burgdorferi was previously cloned and sequenced (R. Fuchs, S. Jauris, F. Lottspeich, V. Preac-Mursic, B. Wilske, and E. Soutschek, Mol. Microbiol. 6:503-509, 1992). pC is abundantly expressed on the outer surface of B. burgdorferi, as demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibody L22 1F8. Accordingly, pC is renamed OspC, by analogy to the outer surface proteins OspA and OspB. Western immunoblot analysis of 45 B. burgdorferi isolates with monoclonal antibodies revealed that OspC is immunologically heterogeneous. Partial sequence analysis of the ospC gene confirmed the protein heterogeneity at the genetic level. We found that the degree of identity between the ospC partial sequences of five strains representing different OspA serotypes was only 63.3 to 85.4%. Immunological heterogeneity was also observed among representatives of the three newly designated genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and group VS461. Heterogeneity was confirmed for B. garinii at the genetic level. The ospC gene was also cloned from strains that did not express OspC, and antibody-reactive OspC was expressed in Escherichia coli. In addition, OspC-expressing variants were obtained from a nonexpressing strain by plating single colonies on solid medium. These findings confirm that the ospC gene is also present in nonexpressing strains. Because OspC is an immunodominant protein for the early immune response in Lyme borreliosis and was effective as a vaccine in an animal model, the immunological and molecular polymorphisms of ospC and OspC have important implications for the development of diagnostic reagents and vaccines. Images PMID:8478108

  3. Resistivity scaling due to electron surface scattering in thin metal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianji; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of electron surface scattering on the thickness-dependent electrical resistivity ρ of thin metal layers is investigated using nonequilibrium Green's function density functional transport simulations. Cu(001) thin films with thickness d =1 -2 nm are used as a model system, employing a random one-monolayer-high surface roughness and frozen phonons to cause surface and bulk scattering, respectively. The zero-temperature resistivity increases from 9.7 ±1.0 μ Ω cm at d =1.99 nm to 18.7 ±2.6 μ Ω cm at d =0.9 0 nm, contradicting the asymptotic T =0 prediction from the classical Fuchs-Sondheimer model. At T =9 00 K, ρ =5.8 ±0.1 μ Ω cm for bulk Cu and ρ =13.4 ±1.1 and 22.5 ±2.4 μ Ω cm for layers with d =1.99 and 0.90 nm, respectively, indicating an approximately additive phonon contribution which, however, is smaller than for bulk Cu or atomically smooth layers. The overall data indicate that the resistivity contribution from surface scattering is temperature-independent and proportional to 1 /d , suggesting that it can be described using a surface-scattering mean-free path λs for 2D transport which is channel-independent and proportional to d . Data fitting indicates λs=4 ×d for the particular simulated Cu(001) surfaces with a one-monolayer-high surface roughness. The 1 /d dependence deviates considerably from previous 1 /d2 predictions from quantum models, indicating that the small-roughness approximation in these models is not applicable to very thin (<2 nm) layers, where the surface roughness is a considerable fraction of d .

  4. Human SLC4A11-C functions as a DIDS-stimulatable H+(OH−) permeation pathway: partial correction of R109H mutant transport

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The SLC4A11 gene mutations cause a variety of genetic corneal diseases, including congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy 2 (CHED2), Harboyan syndrome, some cases of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FECD), and possibly familial keratoconus. Three NH2-terminal variants of the human SLC4A11 gene, named SLC4A11-A, -B, and -C are known. The SLC4A11-B variant has been the focus of previous studies. Both the expression of the SLC4A11-C variant in the cornea and its functional properties have not been characterized, and therefore its potential pathophysiological role in corneal diseases remains to be explored. In the present study, we demonstrate that SLC4A11-C is the predominant SLC4A11 variant expressed in human corneal endothelial mRNA and that the transporter functions as an electrogenic H+(OH−) permeation pathway. Disulfonic stilbenes, including 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonate (DIDS), 4,4′-diisothiocyanatodihydrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (H2DIDS), and 4-acetamido-4′-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (SITS), which are known to bind covalently, increased SLC4A11-C-mediated H+(OH−) flux by 150–200% without having a significant effect in mock-transfected cells. Noncovalently interacting 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DADS) was without effect. We tested the efficacy of DIDS on the functionally impaired R109H mutant (SLC4A11-C numbering) that causes CHED2. DIDS (1 mM) increased H+(OH−) flux through the mutant transporter by ∼40–90%. These studies provide a basis for future testing of more specific chemically modified dilsulfonic stilbenes as potential therapeutic agents to improve the functional impairment of specific SLC4A11 mutant transporters. PMID:25394471

  5. Outcomes of Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty Using Eye Bank-Prepared Preloaded Grafts.

    PubMed

    Palioura, Sotiria; Colby, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty using grafts preloaded by an eye bank in a commercially available insertion device. In this retrospective case series, a series of 35 eyes in 34 consecutive patients who underwent Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or previously failed full-thickness grafts at a single tertiary care center from March 2013 to March 2014 was included. The donor tissue had undergone pre-lamellar dissection, trephination, and loading into EndoGlide Ultrathin inserters at the Lions Eye Institute for Transplant and Research (Tampa, FL) and was shipped overnight in Optisol GS to the surgeon (K.C.). Surgery was performed within 24 hours from tissue preparation and loading by the eye bank. Donor and recipient characteristics, endothelial cell density (ECD), best-corrected visual acuity, and central corneal thickness were recorded. The main outcome measures were intraoperative and postoperative complications and ECD loss at 3, 6, and 12 months. One primary graft failure (2.8%), 2 rebubblings (5.7%), and 1 graft rejection (2.8%) occurred. Mean preoperative donor ECD was 2821 ± 199 cells/mm. Six months postoperatively, the mean endothelial cell loss was 25.3% ± 17.2% (n = 32), which remained stable at 1 year (31.5% ± 17.9%, n = 32). Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/100 preoperatively to 20/25 at a mean follow-up of 1 year (n = 32). Mean central corneal thickness was reduced from 711 ± 110 μm to 638 ± 66 μm at the last follow-up visit. Donor graft tissue preloaded by an eye bank can be used successfully for endothelial keratoplasty. Preloading reduces intraoperative tissue manipulation.

  6. A prospective pilot study of home monitoring in adults with cystic fibrosis (HOME-CF): protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choyce, Jocelyn; Shaw, Karen L; Sitch, Alice J; Mistry, Hema; Whitehouse, Joanna L; Nash, Edward F

    2017-01-23

    Home monitoring has the potential to detect early pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), with consequent improvements in health outcomes and healthcare associated costs. This study aims to assess the effects of home monitoring on hospital admissions, quality of life, antibiotic requirements, exacerbation frequency, lung function, nutritional outcomes, anxiety, depression, costs and health outcomes, as well as the qualitative effects on the patient experience. This randomised controlled mixed-methods trial aims to recruit 100 adults with CF cared for in one large regional CF centre. Participants are randomly allocated 1:1 to the intervention group (twice-weekly home monitoring of symptoms measured by the Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Symptom Diary - Chronic Respiratory Infection Symptom Score (CFRSD-CRISS) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV 1 )) or a control group (routine clinical care) for the 12-month study period. Measurements are recorded at study visits at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Spirometry, body weight, co-morbidities, medications, hospital inpatient days, courses of antibiotics (oral and intravenous), pulmonary exacerbations (defined by the modified Fuchs criteria) are recorded at each study visit. Health status, capability and health economics are measured at each study visit by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire and an adapted resource use questionnaire. The patient experience is assessed by semi-structured qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 months. Results from this study will help to determine the effect of home monitoring on inpatient bed days and quality of life in adults with CF, as well as other relevant health and health economic outcomes. This study protocol is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02994706 ), date registered 16 th July 2014.

  7. Outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with a low corneal endothelial cell density.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hotta, Kazuki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Konomi, Kenji; Den, Seika; Shimazaki, Jun

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with a low preoperative corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and analyze factors affecting the prognosis. Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Chiba, Japan. Noncomparative case series. Eyes with a preoperative ECD of less than 1000 cells/mm(2) that had cataract surgery between 2006 and 2010 were identified. Standard phacoemulsification with intraocular lenses was performed using the soft-shell technique. The rate of endothelial cell loss, incidence of bullous keratopathy, and risk factors were retrospectively assessed. Sixty-one eyes (53 patients) with a low preoperative ECD were identified. Preoperative diagnoses or factors regarded as causing endothelial cell loss included Fuchs dystrophy (20 eyes), laser iridotomy (16 eyes), keratoplasty (10 eyes), traumatic injury (3 eyes), trabeculectomy (3 eyes), corneal endotheliitis (2 eyes), and other (7 eyes). The corrected distance visual acuity improved from 0.59 ± 0.49 logMAR preoperatively to 0.32 ± 0.48 logMAR postoperatively (P<.001). The mean ECD was 693 ± 172 cells/mm(2) and 611 ± 203 cells/mm(2), respectively (P=.001). The mean rate of endothelial cell loss was 11.5% ± 23.4%. Greater ECD loss was associated with a shorter axial length (AL) (<23.0 mm) and diabetes mellitus. Bullous keratopathy developed in 9 eyes (14.8%) and was associated with posterior capsule rupture. The results suggest that modern techniques for cataract surgery provide excellent visual rehabilitation in many patients with a low preoperative ECD. Shorter AL, diabetes mellitus, and posterior capsule rupture were risk factors for greater ECD loss and bullous keratopathy. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing Practice Patterns and Long-term Outcomes of Endothelial Versus Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Dutch Registry Study.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Mor M; Peeters, Jean Marie P W U; van den Biggelaar, Frank J H M; Ambergen, Ton A W; van Dongen, Martin C J M; Kruit, Pieter Jan; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

    2016-10-01

    To compare graft survival, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), and refraction following penetrating keratoplasty (PK) vs endothelial keratoplasty (EK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED) and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK). Nonrandomized treatment comparison with national registry data. All consecutive patients undergoing first keratoplasty for FED and PBK between 1998 and 2014 were analyzed, with a maximum follow-up of 5 years (mean ± SD follow-up 39 ± 20 months, range 0-60 months). Graft survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis. BCVA, ECD, and refractive error were compared using linear mixed models. Main outcome measures were graft survival, BCVA, refraction, and ECD. A total of 5115 keratoplasties (PK = 2390; EK = 2725) were identified. Two-year graft survival following EK was lower compared with PK (94.5% vs 96.3%, HR = 1.56, P = .001). Five-year survival was comparable for EK and PK (93.4% vs 89.7%, HR = 0.89, P = .261). EK graft survival improved significantly over time while remaining stable for PK. One-year BCVA was better following EK vs PK (0.34 vs 0.47 logMAR, P < .001). Astigmatism was lower 1 year after EK vs PK (-1.69 vs -3.52 D, P < .001). One-year ECD was lower after EK vs PK (1472 vs 1859 cells/mm 2 , P < .001). At 3 years, ECD did not differ between EK and PK. Long-term graft survival after EK and PK is high and comparable despite lower short-term survival for EK. EK graft survival improved over time, suggesting a learning curve. EK results in better BCVA, lower astigmatism, and similar long-term ECD compared with PK for FED and PBK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cataract surgery in eyes with low corneal endothelial cell density.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Yoshida, Motoaki; Manabe, Shin-ichi; Hirata, Akira

    2011-08-01

    To compare corneal endothelial damage after cataract surgery in eyes with low endothelial cell density (ECD) and eyes with normal ECD. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Case-control study. Cataract surgery was performed in eyes with a low ECD (500 to 1000 cells/mm(2)) (low-density group) and control eyes with a normal ECD. The ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, and the percentage cell loss and increase in CCT were compared. The low-density group and control group each comprised 50 eyes. In the low-density group, 39 eyes had nonprogressive endothelial pathology and 11 had Fuchs dystrophy. The mean ECD was significantly less and the CCT significantly greater in the low-density group than in the control group throughout the follow-up (P ≤.0066). However, no significant difference in the percentage of cell loss was found between groups at 1 or 3 months (5.1%, low-density group; 4.2%, control group) (P ≥.1477). The percentage increase in CCT was significantly greater in the low-density group than in the control group at 1 month (P<.0001), although there was no significant difference at 3 months (0.4% and -0.4%, respectively) (P=.2172). Corneal endothelial damage after cataract surgery in eyes with low ECD was slight and comparable to that in healthy eyes, which suggests that cataract surgery alone (without corneal transplantation) should be performed first. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional assessment of SLC4A11, an integral membrane protein mutated in corneal dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sampath K.; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Morgan, Patricio E.; Deitmer, Joachim W.

    2016-01-01

    SLC4A11, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, is a widely expressed integral membrane protein, abundant in kidney and cornea. Mutations of SLC4A11 cause some cases of the blinding corneal dystrophies, congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy, and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. These diseases are marked by fluid accumulation in the corneal stroma, secondary to defective fluid reabsorption by the corneal endothelium. The role of SLC4A11 in these corneal dystrophies is not firmly established, as SLC4A11 function remains unclear. To clarify the normal function(s) of SLC4A11, we characterized the protein following expression in the simple, low-background expression system Xenopus laevis oocytes. Since plant and fungal SLC4A11 orthologs transport borate, we measured cell swelling associated with accumulation of solute borate. The plant water/borate transporter NIP5;1 manifested borate transport, whereas human SLC4A11 did not. SLC4A11 supported osmotically driven water accumulation that was electroneutral and Na+ independent. Studies in oocytes and HEK293 cells could not detect Na+-coupled HCO3− transport or Cl−/HCO3− exchange by SLC4A11. SLC4A11 mediated electroneutral NH3 transport in oocytes. Voltage-dependent OH− or H+ movement was not measurable in SLC4A11-expressing oocytes, but SLC4A11-expressing HEK293 cells manifested low-level cytosolic acidification at baseline. In mammalian cells, but not oocytes, OH−/H+ conductance may arise when SLC4A11 activates another protein or itself is activated by another protein. These data argue against a role of human SLC4A11 in bicarbonate or borate transport. This work provides additional support for water and ammonia transport by SLC4A11. When expressed in oocytes, SLC4A11 transported NH3, not NH3/H+. PMID:27558157

  11. Sulfur Hexafluoride 20% Versus Air 100% for Anterior Chamber Tamponade in DMEK: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Raquel Esteves; Guerra, Paulo Silva; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Ferreira, Nuno Pinto; Gonçalves, Ana Inês; Quintas, Ana Miguel; Rodrigues, Walter

    2018-06-01

    To compare intracameral 20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) versus 100% air as tamponade for graft attachment in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Using an electronic database search on MEDLINE and CENTRAL from inception to December 2017, we performed a literature review and meta-analysis including all comparative studies of SF6 at a 20% concentration (20% SF6) versus pure air (100% air) for anterior chamber tamponade in DMEK. The primary outcome was the rebubbling rate at the final observation. The secondary outcomes were 1) the graft detachment rate, 2) mean difference (MD) in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 3) manifest refraction spherical equivalent, 4) central corneal thickness (CCT), 5) percentage of endothelial cell loss (ECL), and 6) rate of pupillary block by the final observation. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan5.3 software. Five retrospective studies were included, assessing 1195 eyes (SF6 277; air 918). The main indication for surgery was Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (SF6 85.2%; air 86.2%) and bullous keratopathy (SF6 10.8%; air 10.0%). Overall, studies were of moderate to good methodological quality. Patients in the SF6 group required 58% less rebubbling procedures (risk ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-0.56, P < 0.0001). No differences were found regarding BCVA improvement (MD 0.03, 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.11, P = 0.49). SF6 was associated with a minor hyperopic shift (MD 0.37 D, 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.21, P = 0.21). No differences were found regarding CCT, ECL, and rate of pupillary block (P > 0.05). In DMEK, 20% SF6 tamponade and longer postoperative time supine were associated with 58% fewer rebubbling procedures, and an ECL not statistically different from using 100% air.

  12. Air Versus Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Tamponade in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty: A Fellow Eye Comparison.

    PubMed

    von Marchtaler, Philipp V; Weller, Julia M; Kruse, Friedrich E; Tourtas, Theofilos

    2018-01-01

    To perform a fellow eye comparison of outcomes and complications when using air or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas as a tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). One hundred thirty-six eyes of 68 consecutive patients who underwent uneventful DMEK in both eyes for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were air tamponade (80% of the anterior chamber volume) in the first eye and 20% SF6 gas tamponade (80% of the anterior chamber volume) in the second eye; and same donor tissue culture condition in both eyes. All eyes received laser iridotomy on the day before DMEK. Main outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, corneal volume, rebubbling rate, and rate of postoperative pupillary block caused by the air/gas bubble. Thirteen of 68 eyes (19.1%) with an air tamponade needed rebubbling compared with 4 of 68 eyes (5.9%) with an SF6 gas tamponade (P = 0.036). Postoperative pupillary block necessitating partial release of air/gas occurred in 1 eye (1.5%) with an air tamponade and 3 eyes (4.4%) with an SF6 gas tamponade (P = 0.301). There were no significant differences in preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, and corneal volume within 3-month follow-up. Our results confirm the previously reported better graft adhesion when using an SF6 gas tamponade in DMEK without increased endothelial cell toxicity. The rate of pupillary block in eyes with an SF6 gas tamponade was comparable to that with an air tamponade. As a consequence, we recommend using SF6 gas as the tamponade in DMEK.

  13. Epithelial innervation of human cornea: a three-dimensional study using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guthoff, Rudolf F; Wienss, Holger; Hahnel, Christian; Wree, Andreas

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of a new method to visualize distribution and morphology of human corneal nerves (Adelta- and C-fibers) by means of fluorescence staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Trephinates of corneas with a diagnosis of Fuchs corneal dystrophy were sliced into layers of 200 microm thickness using a Draeger microkeratome (Storz, Germany). The anterior lamella was stained with the Life/Dead-Kit (Molecular Probes Inc.), examined by the confocal laser scanning microscope "Odyssey XL," step size between 0.5 and 1 microm, and optical sections were digitally 3D-reconstructed. Immediate staining of explanted corneas by the Life/Dead-Kit gave a complete picture of the nerves in the central human cornea. Thin nerves running parallel to the Bowman layer in the subepithelial plexus perforate the Bowman layer orthogonally through tube-like structures. Passing the Bowman layer, Adelta- and C-fibers can be clearly distinguished by fiber diameter, and, while running in the basal epithelial plexus, by their spatial arrangement. Adelta-fibers run straight and parallel to the Bowman layer underneath the basal cell layer. C-fibers, after a short run parallel to the Bowman layer, send off multiple branches penetrating epithelial cell layers orthogonally, ending blindly in invaginations of the superficial cells. In contrast to C-fibers, Adelta-fibers show characteristic bulbous formations when kinking into the basal epithelial plexus. Ex-vivo fluorescence staining of the cornea and 3D reconstructions of confocal scans provide a fast and easily reproducible tool to visualize nerves of the anterior living cornea at high resolution. This may help to clarify gross variations of nerve fiber patterns under various clinical and experimental conditions.

  14. Corneal Thickness as a Predictor of Corneal Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, David D.; Sugar, Alan; Baratz, Keith; Beck, Roy; Dontchev, Mariya; Dunn, Steven; Gal, Robin L.; Holland, Edward J.; Kollman, Craig; Lass, Jonathan H.; Mannis, Mark J.; Penta, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Assess corneal thickness (CT) and correlation with graft outcome after penetrating keratoplasty in the Cornea Donor Study. Methods 887 subjects with a corneal transplant for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs or pseudophakic corneal edema) had post-operative CT measurements throughout a 5 year follow up time. Relationships between baseline (recipient, donor, and operative) factors and CT were explored. Proportional hazards models were used to assess association between CT and graft failure. Relationship between CT and cell density was assessed with a longitudinal repeated measures model and Spearman correlation estimates. Results Higher longitudinal CT measurements were associated with diagnosis of pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema (P<0.001), intraocular pressure > 25mmHg during the first post-operative month (P=0.003), white (non-Hispanic) donor race (P=0.002) and respiratory causes of donor death (P<0.001). Among those without graft failure within the first post-operative year, the 5-year cumulative incidence (±95% CI) of graft failure was 5% ± 5% in those with a 1-year CT ≤500μm, 5% ± 3% for CT 501 – 550μm, 7% ± 4% for CT 551 – 600μm and 20% ± 11% for CT >600μm. In multivariate analysis, both 1 year CT and cell density were associated with subsequent graft failure (P=0.002 and 0.009). CT increase was modestly associated with endothelial cell loss during follow up (r=-0.29). Conclusion During the first 5 years following penetrating keratoplasty, CT can serve as a predictor of graft survival. However, CT is not a substitute for cell density measurement as both measures were independently predictive of graft failure. PMID:23343949

  15. Stress and magnetism in LaCoO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkov, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Cobaltates exhibit a wide variety of exciting electronic properties resulting from strong electron correlations; these include superconductivity, giant magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transition, and strong thermoelectric effects. This makes them an excellent platform to study correlated electron physics, as well as being useful for various applications in electronics and sensors. In the ground state in the bulk, the prototypical complex cobalt oxide LaCoO3 is in a spin-compensated low-spin state (t2g^6), which results in the ground state being nonmagnetic. In a recent experiment, Fuchs et al. (Phys. Rev. B 75, 144402 (2007)) have demonstrated that a ferromagnetic ground state could be stabilized by epitaxial tensile strain resulting in a Curie temperature (TC) of ˜90 K when LaCoO3 (LCO) is grown on SrTiO3 (STO) using pulsed laser deposition. In this talk I will discuss our recent successful attempt to integrate a LCO/STO heterostructure with Si (001) using molecular beam epitaxy. We have grown strained, epitaxial LaCoO3 on (100)-oriented silicon using a single crystal STO buffer (Appl.Phys. Lett. 98, 053104 (2011)). SQUID magnetization measurements confirm that the ground state of the strained LaCoO3 is ferromagnetic with a TC of 85 K. Our first-principles calculations of strained LaCoO3 using the LSDA+U method show that beyond biaxial tensile strain of 2.5% local magnetic moments, originating from the high spin state of Co^3+, emerge in a low spin Co^3+ matrix. Ferromagnetism found in tensile-strained LaCoO3 is tightly coupled to the material's orbital and structural response to applied strain. Theoretical calculations show how LaCoO3 accommodates tensile strain via spin state disproportionation, resulting in an unusual sublattice structure.

  16. Coagulation effect on the activity size distributions of long lived radon progeny aerosols and its application to atmospheric residence time estimation techniques.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-03-01

    The long lived naturally occurring radon progeny species in the atmosphere, namely (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po, have been used as important tracers for understanding the atmospheric mixing processes and estimating aerosol residence times. Several observations in the past have shown that the activity size distribution of these species peaks at larger particle sizes as compared to the short lived radon progeny species - an effect that has been attributed to the process of coagulation of the background aerosols to which they are attached. To address this issue, a mathematical equation is derived for the activity-size distribution of tracer species by formulating a generalized distribution function for the number of tracer atoms present in coagulating background particles in the presence of radioactive decay and removal. A set of these equations is numerically solved for the progeny chain using Fuchs coagulation kernel combined with a realistic steady-state aerosol size spectrum that includes nucleation, accumulation and coarse mode components. The important findings are: (i) larger shifts in the modal sizes of (210)Pb and (210)Po at higher aerosol concentrations such as that found in certain Asian urban regions (ii) enrichment of tracer specific activity on particles as compared to that predicted by pure attachment laws (iii) sharp decline of daughter-to-parent activity ratios for decreasing particle sizes. The implication of the results to size-fractionated residence time estimation techniques is highlighted. A coagulation corrected graphical approach is presented for estimating the residence times from the size-segregated activity ratios of (210)Bi and (210)Po with respect to (210)Pb. The discrepancy between the residence times predicted by conventional formula and the coagulation corrected approach for specified activity ratios increases at higher atmospheric aerosol number concentrations (>10(10) #/m(3)) for smaller sizes (<1 μm). The results are further

  17. Management of postkeratoplasty astigmatism by paired arcuate incisions with compression sutures.

    PubMed

    Fares, Usama; Mokashi, Aashish A; Al-Aqaba, Mouhamed Ali; Otri, Ahmad Muneer; Miri, Ammar; Dua, Harminder Singh

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the efficacy of paired arcuate incisions and compression sutures technique in the management of post penetrating keratoplasty (PK) astigmatism. A paired arcuate incision with compression sutures procedure was used to treat 26 eyes with post-PK astigmatism ranging from 6.00 to 16.50 dioptres (D). The incisions were placed at the 7.0 mm optical zone inside the graft-host junction at a depth of 80% of corneal thickness. A 45° paired arc length was planned for eyes with preoperative astigmatism between 6D and 9D, and a 60° paired arc length was planned for eyes with preoperative astigmatism of >9D. At 3 months, corneal topography and refraction was performed and suture(s) removed if indicated. Net and vector astigmatism changes were calculated to determine the efficacy of the procedure. The indications for PK included keratoconus, Fuch's endothelial dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and corneal scar. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean magnitude of astigmatism from 9.66 ± 2.90D preoperatively to 4.37 ± 2.53D postoperatively in the whole group. The mean decrease in the astigmatism was 4.37 ± 2.05D (58.4%) and 6.23 ± 3.63D (52.6%) in patients with 6-9D and >9D, respectively. Vector power calculations also showed a significant astigmatism reduction in all groups. The safety and efficacy indices were 1.40 and 0.28, respectively. Manual astigmatic keratotomy is a viable technique with relatively good safety and efficacy outcomes. Based on the results we propose that increasing the arc length to a minimum of 60° for astigmatism of 6-9D, and to 75° for astigmatism >9D, is likely to have a greater beneficial effect.

  18. In situ lubricant degradation in Antarctic marine sediments. 1. Short-term changes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Belinda A W; Davies, Noel W; Goldsworthy, Paul M; Riddle, Martin J; Snape, Ian; Stark, Jonathan S

    2006-02-01

    A large-scale, in situ experiment was set up near the Bailey Peninsula area (Casey Station, East Antarctica) to monitor the natural attenuation of synthetic lubricants in marine sediments over five years. Here, we report the short-term changes after 5 and 56 weeks. The lubricants tested were an unused and used Mobil lubricant (0W/40; Exxon Mobil, Irving, TX, USA) and a biodegradable alternative (0W/20; Fuchs Lubricants, Harvey, IL, USA). Clean sediment was collected, contaminated with the lubricants, and deployed by divers onto the seabed in a randomized block design. The sampled sediments were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. The base fluid of all lubricant treatments did not decrease significantly after 56 weeks in situ. Alkanoate esters of 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane in the biodegradable and unused lubricants were degraded extensively in situ; however, these esters constituted only a minor proportion of the lubricant volume. The additives, alkylated naphthalenes and substituted diphenylamines, were fairly resistant to degradation, which is of environmental concern because of their toxicity. The biodegradable lubricant did not break down to recognized biodegradable thresholds and, as such, should not be classified as biodegradable under Antarctic marine conditions. A separate experiment was conducted to determine the influence of sediment preparation and deployment on compound ratios within the lubricants, and we found that preparation and deployment of the contaminated sediments had only a minor effect on compound recovery. Further monitoring of this in situ experiment will provide much needed information about the long-term natural attenuation of lubricants.

  19. Epidermal-skin-test 1,000 (EST-1,000)--a new reconstructed epidermis for in vitro skin corrosivity testing.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, J; Heisler, E; Karpinski, S; Losse, J; Thomas, D; Siefken, W; Ahr, H-J; Vohr, H-W; Fuchs, H W

    2005-10-01

    The determination of a possible corrosive or irritative potential of certain products and ingredients is necessary for their classification and labeling requirements. Reconstructed skin as a model system provides fundamental advantages to single cell culture testing and leads to promising results as shown by different validation studies (for review: Fentem, J.H., Botham, P.A., 2002. ECVAM's activities in validating alternative tests for skin corrosion and irritation. ATLA 30(Suppl. 2), 61-67). In this study we introduce our new reconstructed epidermis "Epidermal-Skin-Test" (EST-1,000). This fully grown epidermis consists of proliferating as well as differentiating keratinocytes. EST-1,000 shows a high comparability to normal human skin as shown by histological and immunohistochemical data. Characteristic markers (KI-67, CK 1/10/5/14, transglutaminase, collagen IV, involucrin, beta 1 integrin) can be identified easily. The main focus of this work was to characterize EST-1,000 especially with respect to its barrier function by testing several substances of known corrosive potential. Skin corrosion was detected by the cytotoxic effect of the substances on a reconstructed epidermis after short-term application to the stratum corneum. The effect was determined by standard MTT assay and accompanying histological analysis. Hence EST-1,000 shows a very high predictive potential and closes the gap between animal testing and the established full-thickness model Advanced-Skin-Test 2,000 (AST-2,000) (Noll, M., Merkle, M.-L., Kandsberger, M., Matthes, T., Fuchs, H., Graeve, T., 1999. Reconstructed human skin (AST-2,000) as a tool for pharmaco-toxicology. ATLA 27, 302).

  20. Dispersion, mode-mixing and the electron-phonon interaction in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, A.; Ridley, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    The electron-phonon interaction with polar optical modes in nanostructures is re-examined in the light of phonon dispersion relations and the role of the Fuchs-Kliewer (FK) mode. At an interface between adjacent polar materials the frequencies of the FK mode are drawn from the dielectric constants of the adjacent materials and are significantly smaller than the corresponding frequencies of the longitudinal optic (LO) modes at the zone centre. The requirement that all polar modes satisfy mechanical and electrical boundary conditions forces the modes to become hybrids. For a hybrid to have both FK and LO components the LO mode must have the FK frequency, which can only come about through the reduction associated with phonon dispersion relations. We illustrate the effect of phonon dispersion relations on the Fröhlich interaction by considering a simple linear-chain model of the zincblende lattice. Optical and acoustic modes become mixed towards short wavelengths in both optical and acoustic branches. A study of GaAs, InP and cubic GaN and AlN shows that the polarity of the optical branch and the acousticity of the acoustic branch are reduced by dispersion in equal measures, but the effect is relatively weak. Coupling coefficients quantifying the strengths of the interaction with electrons for optical and acoustic components of mixed modes in the optical branch show that, in most cases, the polar interaction dominates the acoustic interaction, and it is reduced from the long-wavelength result towards the zone boundary by only a few percent. The effect on the lower-frequency FK mode can be large.

  1. On twin density and resistivity of nanometric Cu thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Barmak, Katayun; Liu, Xuan; Darbal, Amith

    2016-08-14

    Crystal orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope was used to quantify the twin boundary length fraction per unit area for five Ta{sub 38}Si{sub 14}N{sub 48}/SiO{sub 2} encapsulated Cu films with thicknesses in the range of 26–111 nm. The length fraction was found to be higher for a given twin-excluded grain size for these films compared with previously investigated SiO{sub 2} and Ta/SiO{sub 2} encapsulated films. The quantification of the twin length fraction per unit area allowed the contribution of the twin boundaries to the size effect resistivity to be assessed. It is shown that the increased resistivity of the Ta{submore » 38}Si{sub 14}N{sub 48} encapsulated Cu films compared with the SiO{sub 2} and Ta/SiO{sub 2} encapsulated films is not a result of increased surface scattering, but it is a result of the increase in the density of twin boundaries. With twin boundaries included in the determination of grain size as a mean-intercept length, the resistivity data are well described by 2-parameter Matthiessen's rule summation of the Fuchs-Sondheimer and Mayadas Shatzkes models, with p and R parameters that are within experimental error equal to those in prior reports and are p = 0.48(+0.33/−0.31) and R = 0.27 ± 0.03.« less

  2. Conditionally Immortal Slc4a11-/- Mouse Corneal Endothelial Cell Line Recapitulates Disrupted Glutaminolysis Seen in Slc4a11-/- Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlin; Ogando, Diego G; Kim, Edward T; Choi, Moon-Jung; Li, Hongde; Tenessen, Jason M; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2017-07-01

    To establish conditionally immortal mouse corneal endothelial cell lines with genetically matched Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11-/- mice as a model for investigating pathology and therapies for SLC4A11 associated congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. We intercrossed H-2Kb-tsA58 mice (Immortomouse) expressing an IFN-γ dependent and temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T antigen (tsTAg) with Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11-/- C57BL/6 mice. The growth characteristics of the cell lines was assessed by doubling time. Ion transport activities (Na+/H+ exchange, bicarbonate, lactate, and Slc4a11 ammonia transport) were analyzed by intracellular pH measurement. The metabolic status of the cell lines was assessed by analyzing TCA cycle intermediates via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The immortalized Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11-/- mouse corneal endothelial cells (MCECs) remained proliferative through passage 49 and maintained similar active ion transport activity. As expected, proliferation was temperature sensitive and IFN-γ dependent. Slc4a11-/- MCECs exhibited decreased proliferative capacity, reduced NH3:H+ transport, altered expression of glutaminolysis enzymes similar to the Slc4a11-/- mouse, and reduced proportion of TCA cycle intermediates derived from glutamine with compensatory increases in glucose flux compared with Slc4a11+/+ MCECs. This is the first report of the immortalization of MCECs. Ion transport of the immortalized endothelial cells remains active, except for NH3:H+ transporter activity in Slc4a11-/- MCECs. Furthermore, Slc4a11-/- MCECs recapitulate the glutaminolysis defects observed in Slc4a11-/- mouse corneal endothelium, providing an excellent tool to study the pathogenesis of SLC4A11 mutations associated with corneal endothelial dystrophies and to screen potential therapeutic agents.

  3. Classical pathology of sympathetic ophthalmia presented in a unique case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shida; Aronow, Mary E; Wang, Charles; Shen, Defen; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The ocular pathology of sympathetic ophthalmia is demonstrated in a 10 year-old boy who sustained a penetrating left globe injury and subsequently developed sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye two months later. Two and a half weeks following extensive surgical repair of the left ruptured globe, he developed endophthalmitis and was treated with oral and topical fortified antibiotics. One month after the initial injury, a progressive corneal ulcer of the left eye led to perforation and the need for emergent corneal transplantation. The surgical specimen revealed fungus, Scedosporium dehoogii. The boy received systemic and topical anti-fungal therapy. Two months following the penetrating globe injury of the left eye, a granulomatous uveitis developed in the right eye. Sympathetic ophthalmia was suspected and the patient began treatment with topical and oral corticosteroids. Given the concern of vision loss secondary to sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye, as well as poor vision and hypotony in the injured eye, the left eye was enucleated. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation with giant cells was noted within a cyclitic membrane which filled the anterior and posterior chamber of the left globe. Other classic features including Dalen-Fuchs nodules were identified. Small, choroidal, ill-defined granulomas and relative sparing of the choriocapillaris were present. Molecular analysis did not identify evidence of remaining fungal infection. The pathology findings were consistent with previously described features of sympathetic ophthalmia. The present case is unique in that co-existing fungal infection may have potentiated the risk for developing sympathetic ophthalmia in the fellow eye.

  4. Classical Pathology of Sympathetic Ophthalmia Presented in a Unique Case

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shida; Aronow, Mary E; Wang, Charles; Shen, Defen; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The ocular pathology of sympathetic ophthalmia is demonstrated in a 10 year-old boy who sustained a penetrating left globe injury and subsequently developed sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye two months later. Two and a half weeks following extensive surgical repair of the left ruptured globe, he developed endophthalmitis and was treated with oral and topical fortified antibiotics. One month after the initial injury, a progressive corneal ulcer of the left eye led to perforation and the need for emergent corneal transplantation. The surgical specimen revealed fungus, Scedosporium dehoogii. The boy received systemic and topical anti-fungal therapy. Two months following the penetrating globe injury of the left eye, a granulomatous uveitis developed in the right eye. Sympathetic ophthalmia was suspected and the patient began treatment with topical and oral corticosteroids. Given the concern of vision loss secondary to sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye, as well as poor vision and hypotony in the injured eye, the left eye was enucleated. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation with giant cells was noted within a cyclitic membrane which filled the anterior and posterior chamber of the left globe. Other classic features including Dalen-Fuchs nodules were identified. Small, choroidal, ill-defined granulomas and relative sparing of the choriocapillaris were present. Molecular analysis did not identify evidence of remaining fungal infection. The pathology findings were consistent with previously described features of sympathetic ophthalmia. The present case is unique in that co-existing fungal infection may have potentiated the risk for developing sympathetic ophthalmia in the fellow eye. PMID:25067979

  5. Screening and Characterization of Drugs That Protect Corneal Endothelial Cells Against Unfolded Protein Response and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Chul; Toyono, Tetsuya; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Zack, Donald J.; Jurkunas, Ula; Usui, Tomohiko; Jun, Albert S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To screen for and characterize compounds that protect corneal endothelial cells against unfolded protein response (UPR) and oxidative stress. Methods Bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) were treated for 48 hours with 640 compounds from a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library and then challenged with thapsigargin or H2O2 to induce UPR or oxidative stress, respectively. Cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Glo survival assay. Selected “hits” were subjected to further dose-response testing, and their ability to modulate expression of UPR and oxidative stress markers was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot, and measurement of protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adducts in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (iHCECs). Results Forty-one drugs at 20 μM and 55 drugs at 100 μM increased survival of H2O2-challenged cells, and 8 drugs at 20 μM and 2 drugs at 100 μM increased survival of thapsigargin-challenged cells, compared with untreated control cells. Nicergoline, ergothioneine, nimesulide, oxotremorine, and mefenamic acid increased survival of both H2O2- and thapsigargin-challenged cells. Oxotremorine altered DNA damage inducible 3 (CHOP) gene expression, glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein expression, and protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels. Mefenamic acid altered GRP78 protein expression and protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels. Conclusions Oxotremorine and mefenamic acid are potential survival factors for corneal endothelial cells under UPR and oxidative stress. The described assay can be further expanded to screen additional drugs for potential therapeutic effect in corneal endothelial diseases such as Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. PMID:28159976

  6. Screening and Characterization of Drugs That Protect Corneal Endothelial Cells Against Unfolded Protein Response and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Chul; Toyono, Tetsuya; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Zack, Donald J; Jurkunas, Ula; Usui, Tomohiko; Jun, Albert S

    2017-02-01

    To screen for and characterize compounds that protect corneal endothelial cells against unfolded protein response (UPR) and oxidative stress. Bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) were treated for 48 hours with 640 compounds from a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library and then challenged with thapsigargin or H2O2 to induce UPR or oxidative stress, respectively. Cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Glo survival assay. Selected "hits" were subjected to further dose-response testing, and their ability to modulate expression of UPR and oxidative stress markers was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot, and measurement of protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adducts in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (iHCECs). Forty-one drugs at 20 μM and 55 drugs at 100 μM increased survival of H2O2-challenged cells, and 8 drugs at 20 μM and 2 drugs at 100 μM increased survival of thapsigargin-challenged cells, compared with untreated control cells. Nicergoline, ergothioneine, nimesulide, oxotremorine, and mefenamic acid increased survival of both H2O2- and thapsigargin-challenged cells. Oxotremorine altered DNA damage inducible 3 (CHOP) gene expression, glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein expression, and protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels. Mefenamic acid altered GRP78 protein expression and protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels. Oxotremorine and mefenamic acid are potential survival factors for corneal endothelial cells under UPR and oxidative stress. The described assay can be further expanded to screen additional drugs for potential therapeutic effect in corneal endothelial diseases such as Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy.

  7. The drive to life on wet and icy worlds.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael J; Barge, Laura M; Bhartia, Rohit; Bocanegra, Dylan; Bracher, Paul J; Branscomb, Elbert; Kidd, Richard; McGlynn, Shawn; Meier, David H; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Shibuya, Takazo; Vance, Steve; White, Lauren; Kanik, Isik

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a reformulation of the submarine alkaline hydrothermal theory for the emergence of life in response to recent experimental findings. The theory views life, like other self-organizing systems in the Universe, as an inevitable outcome of particular disequilibria. In this case, the disequilibria were two: (1) in redox potential, between hydrogen plus methane with the circuit-completing electron acceptors such as nitrite, nitrate, ferric iron, and carbon dioxide, and (2) in pH gradient between an acidulous external ocean and an alkaline hydrothermal fluid. Both CO2 and CH4 were equally the ultimate sources of organic carbon, and the metal sulfides and oxyhydroxides acted as protoenzymatic catalysts. The realization, now 50 years old, that membrane-spanning gradients, rather than organic intermediates, play a vital role in life's operations calls into question the idea of "prebiotic chemistry." It informs our own suggestion that experimentation should look to the kind of nanoengines that must have been the precursors to molecular motors-such as pyrophosphate synthetase and the like driven by these gradients-that make life work. It is these putative free energy or disequilibria converters, presumably constructed from minerals comprising the earliest inorganic membranes, that, as obstacles to vectorial ionic flows, present themselves as the candidates for future experiments. Key Words: Methanotrophy-Origin of life. Astrobiology 14, 308-343. The fixation of inorganic carbon into organic material (autotrophy) is a prerequisite for life and sets the starting point of biological evolution. (Fuchs, 2011 ) Further significant progress with the tightly membrane-bound H(+)-PPase family should lead to an increased insight into basic requirements for the biological transport of protons through membranes and its coupling to phosphorylation. (Baltscheffsky et al., 1999 ).

  8. The R package 'Luminescence': a history of unexpected complexity and concepts to deal with it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, Sebastian; Burow, Christoph; Dietze, Michael; Fuchs, Margret C.; Friedrich, Johannes; Fischer, Manfred; Schmidt, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Overcoming limitations in the so far used standard software, developing an efficient solution of low weight for a very specific task or creating graphs of high quality: the reasons that may had initially lead a scientist to work with R are manifold. And as long as developed solutions, e.g., R scripts, are needed for personal use only, code can remain unstructured and a documentation is not compulsory. However, this changes with the first friendly request for help after the code has been reused by others. In contrast to single scripts, written without intention to ever get published, for R packages the CRAN policy demands a more structured and elaborated approach including a minimum of documentation. Nevertheless, growing projects with thousands of lines of code that need to be maintained can become overwhelming, in particular as researchers are not by definition experts on managing software projects. The R package 'Luminescence' (Kreutzer et al., 2017), a collection of tools dealing with the analysis of luminescence data in a geoscientific, geochronological context, started as one single R script, but quickly evolved into a comprehensive solution connected with various other R packages. We present (1) a very brief development history of the package 'Luminescence', before we (2) sketch technical challenges encountered over time and solutions that have been found to deal with it by using various open source tools. Our presentation is considered as a collection of concepts and approaches to set up R projects in geosciences. References. Kreutzer, S., Dietze, M., Burow, C., Fuchs, M. C., Schmidt, C., Fischer, M., Friedrich, J., 2017. Luminescence: Comprehensive Luminescence Dating Data Analysis. R package version 0.6.4. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Luminescence

  9. HSPB8 and BAG3 cooperate to promote spatial sequestration of ubiquitinated proteins and coordinate the cellular adaptive response to proteasome insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Solenn M; Lambert, Herman; Rodrigue, Marc-Antoine; Fuchs, Margit; Landry, Jacques; Lavoie, Josée N

    2018-02-05

    BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG)-3 is viewed as a platform that would physically and functionally link distinct classes of molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein (HSP) family for the stabilization and clearance of damaged proteins. In this study, we show that HSPB8, a member of the small heat shock protein subfamily, cooperates with BAG3 to coordinate the sequestration of harmful proteins and the cellular adaptive response upon proteasome inhibition. Silencing of HSPB8, like depletion of BAG3, inhibited targeting of ubiquitinated proteins to the juxtanuclear aggresome, a mammalian system of spatial quality control. However, aggresome targeting was restored in BAG3-depleted cells by a mutant BAG3 defective in HSPB8 binding, uncoupling HSPB8 function from its binding to BAG3. Depletion of HSPB8 impaired formation of ubiquitinated microaggregates in an early phase and interfered with accurate modifications of the stress sensor p62/sequestosome (SQSTM)-1. This impairment correlated with decreased coupling of BAG3 to p62/SQSTM1 in response to stress, hindering Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (KEAP)-1 sequestration and stabilization of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf)-2, an important arm of the antioxidant defense. Notably, the myopathy-associated mutation of BAG3 (P209L), which lies within the HSPB8-binding motif, deregulated the association between BAG3 and p62/SQSTM1 and the KEAP1-Nrf2 signaling axis. Together, our findings support a so-far-unrecognized role for the HSPB8-BAG3 connection in mounting of an efficient stress response, which may be involved in BAG3-related human diseases.-Guilbert, S. M., Lambert, H., Rodrigue, M.-A., Fuchs, M., Landry, J., Lavoie, J. N. HSPB8 and BAG3 cooperate to promote spatial sequestration of ubiquitinated proteins and coordinate the cellular adaptive response to proteasome insufficiency.

  10. PREFACE: European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Sören

    2014-12-01

    The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is an annual event that has been organised since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary and Denmark. The overall planning of the workshops is conducted by the Intelligent Control and Diagnosis (ICD) steering committee. This year's ACD workshop took place at HTW Berlin (University of Applied Sciences) and was organised by the Control Engineering group of School of Engineering I of HTW Berlin. 38 papers were presented at ACD 2014, with contributions spanning a variety of fields in modern control science: Discrete control, nonlinear control, model predictive control, system identification, fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, control applications, applications of fuzzy logic, as well as modelling and simulation, the latter two forming a basis for all tasks in modern control. Three interesting and high-quality plenary lectures were delivered. The first plenary speaker was Wolfgang Weber from Pepperl+Fuchs, a German manufacturer of state-of-the-art industrial sensors and process interfaces. The second and third plenary speakers were two internationally high-ranked researchers in their respective fields, Prof. Didier Theilliol from Université de Lorraine and Prof. Carsten Scherer from Universität Stuttgart. Taken together, the three plenary lectures sought to contribute to closing the gap between theory and applications. On behalf of the whole ACD 2014 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who submitted papers and participated in the workshop. We hope it was a fruitful and memorable event for all. Together we are looking forward to the next ACD workshop in 2015 in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Horst Schulte (General Chair), Sören Georg (Programme Chair)

  11. Benzoate Metabolism Intermediate Benzoyl Coenzyme A Affects Gentisate Pathway Regulation in Comamonas testosteroni

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Cheng-Ying

    2014-01-01

    A previous study showed that benzoate was catabolized via a coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent epoxide pathway in Azoarcus evansii (R. Niemetz, U. Altenschmidt, S. Brucker, and G. Fuchs, Eur. J. Biochem. 227:161-168, 1995), but gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was induced. Similarly, we found that the Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-1 degraded benzoate via a CoA-dependent epoxide pathway and that gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GenA) was also induced when benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate served as a carbon source for growth. Genes encoding the CoA-dependent epoxide (box genes) and gentisate (gen genes) pathways were identified. Genetic disruption revealed that the gen genes were not involved in benzoate and 3-hydroxybenzoate degradation. Hence, we investigated gen gene regulation in the CNB-1 strain. The PgenA promoter, a MarR-type regulator (GenR), and the GenR binding site were identified. We found that GenR took gentisate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoyl-CoA as effectors and that binding of GenR to its target DNA sequence was prohibited when these effectors were present. In vivo studies showed that the CNB-1 mutant that lost benzoyl-CoA synthesis was not able to activate PgenA promoter, while transcription of genA was upregulated in another CNB-1 mutant that lost the ability to degrade benzoyl-CoA. The finding that benzoyl-CoA (a metabolic intermediate of benzoate degradation) and 3-hydroxybenzoate function as GenR effectors explains why GenA was induced when CNB-1 grew on benzoate or 3-hydroxybenzoate. Regulation of gentisate pathways by MarR-, LysR-, and IclR-type regulators in diverse bacterial groups is discussed in detail. PMID:24771026

  12. The electrical resistivity of rough thin films: A model based on electron reflection at discrete step edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianji; Zheng, Pengyuan; Pandey, Sumeet C.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the surface roughness on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films is described by electron reflection at discrete step edges. A Landauer formalism for incoherent scattering leads to a parameter-free expression for the resistivity contribution from surface mound-valley undulations that is additive to the resistivity associated with bulk and surface scattering. In the classical limit where the electron reflection probability matches the ratio of the step height h divided by the film thickness d, the additional resistivity Δρ = √{3 /2 } /(g0d) × ω/ξ, where g0 is the specific ballistic conductance and ω/ξ is the ratio of the root-mean-square surface roughness divided by the lateral correlation length of the surface morphology. First-principles non-equilibrium Green's function density functional theory transport simulations on 1-nm-thick Cu(001) layers validate the model, confirming that the electron reflection probability is equal to h/d and that the incoherent formalism matches the coherent scattering simulations for surface step separations ≥2 nm. Experimental confirmation is done using 4.5-52 nm thick epitaxial W(001) layers, where ω = 0.25-1.07 nm and ξ = 10.5-21.9 nm are varied by in situ annealing. Electron transport measurements at 77 and 295 K indicate a linear relationship between Δρ and ω/(ξd), confirming the model predictions. The model suggests a stronger resistivity size effect than predictions of existing models by Fuchs [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 100 (1938)], Sondheimer [Adv. Phys. 1, 1 (1952)], Rossnagel and Kuan [J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 22, 240 (2004)], or Namba [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 9, 1326 (1970)]. It provides a quantitative explanation for the empirical parameters in these models and may explain the recently reported deviations of experimental resistivity values from these models.

  13. Novel technique for the preparation of corneal grafts for descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Muraine, Marc; Gueudry, Julie; He, Zhiguo; Piselli, Simone; Lefevre, Sabine; Toubeau, David

    2013-11-01

    To report a simple novel technique to facilitate preparation of Descemet membrane grafts for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Laboratory investigation and retrospective, single-center, consecutive case series. Preparation of the endothelial graft is performed on an artificial anterior chamber, endothelial side up. After an incomplete circular superficial trephination, we describe a simple technique using a 27 gauge cannula to detach the Descemet membrane (DM). Endothelial cell density (ECD) was measured before dissection on 12 human corneas for research and 3 days after storage in organ culture. Histologic and electron microscopy analysis were performed. A DMEK was performed in 50 patients with Fuchs dystrophy. Visual acuity and ECD were evaluated 2 and 6 months after surgery. ECD was 2765 ± 256 cells/mm(2) on corneas for research before dissection and 2651 ± 305 cells/mm(2) after 3 days in organ culture (P < .01). Histologic and electronic sections confirm that the cleavage was between DM and posterior stroma. Clinically, preparation of 2 corneas from a single donor was unsuccessful; 48 corneas were clear at 2 months and 47 at 6 months. At 2 months 77% of the patients had recovered a visual acuity of at least 20/30. At 6 months, 91.5% of the patients had a visual acuity of at least 20/30. ECD was 2656 ± 28 cells/mm(2) (range: 2450-3100 cells/mm(2)) preoperatively, 1797 ± 41 cells/mm(2) (range: 1100-2700 cells/mm(2)) at 2 months, and 1658 ± 43 cells/mm(2) (range: 900-2600 cells/mm(2)) at 6 months. We report here a reliable and efficient technique for the preparation of pure Descemet membrane grafts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of In-situ Rock Thermal Properties from Geophysical Log Data of SK-2 East Borehole, Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, X.; Peng, C.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin is a drilling project under the framework of ICDP. It aims at detecting Cretaceous environmental/climate changes and exploring potential resources near or beneath the base of the basin. The main hole, SK-2 East Borehole, has been drilled to penetrate through the Cretaceous formation. A variety of geophysical log data were collected from the borehole, which provide a great opportunity to analyze thermal properties of in-situ rock surrounding the borehole.The geothermal gradients were derived directly from temperature logs recorded 41 days after shut-in. The matrix and bulk thermal conductivity of rock were calculated with the geometric-mean model, in which mineral/rock contents and porosity were required as inputs (Fuchs et. al., 2014). Accurate mineral contents were available from the elemental capture spectroscopy logs and porosity data were derived from conventional logs (density, neutron and sonic). The heat production data were calculated by means of the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium determined from natural gamma-ray spectroscopy logs. Then, the heat flow was determined by using the values of geothermal gradients and thermal conductivity.The thermal parameters of in-situ rock over the depth interval of 0 4500m in the borehole were derived from geophysical logs. Statistically, the numerical ranges of thermal parameters are in good agreement with the measured values from both laboratory and field in this area. The results show that high geothermal gradient and heat flow exist over the whole Cretaceous formation, with anomalously high values in the Qingshankou formation (1372.0 1671.7m) and the Quantou formation (1671.7 2533.5m). It is meaningful for characterization of geothermal regime and exploration of geothermal resources in the basin. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the "China Continental Scientific Drilling Program of Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK)" of China

  15. Integrability and conformal data of the dimer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Ruelle, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The central charge of the dimer model on the square lattice is still being debated in the literature. In this paper, we provide evidence supporting the consistency of a c=-2 description. Using Lieb’s transfer matrix and its description in terms of the Temperley-Lieb algebra {{TL}}n at β =0, we provide a new solution of the dimer model in terms of the model of critical dense polymers on a tilted lattice and offer an understanding of the lattice integrability of the dimer model. The dimer transfer matrix is analyzed in the scaling limit, and the result for {L}0-\\frac{c}{24} is expressed in terms of fermions. Higher Virasoro modes are likewise constructed as limits of elements of {{TL}}n and are found to yield a c=-2 realization of the Virasoro algebra, familiar from fermionic bc ghost systems. In this realization, the dimer Fock spaces are shown to decompose, as Virasoro modules, into direct sums of Feigin-Fuchs modules, themselves exhibiting reducible yet indecomposable structures. In the scaling limit, the eigenvalues of the lattice integrals of motion are found to agree exactly with those of the c=-2 conformal integrals of motion. Consistent with the expression for {L}0-\\frac{c}{24} obtained from the transfer matrix, we also construct higher Virasoro modes with c = 1 and find that the dimer Fock space is completely reducible under their action. However, the transfer matrix is found not to be a generating function for the c = 1 integrals of motion. Although this indicates that Lieb’s transfer matrix description is incompatible with the c = 1 interpretation, it does not rule out the existence of an alternative, c = 1 compatible, transfer matrix description of the dimer model.

  16. The effects of environmental physical factors on the microbial communities and the distribution of different CO2 fixation pathways in a limestone landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wun, S. R.; Huang, T. Y.; Hsu, B. M.; Fan, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to study the effects of physical factors on the relative abundance of bacteria and their preferential admissions of autotrophic CO2 fixation pathways after subjected to environmental long-term influence. The Narrow-Sky located in upper part of Takangshan is a small gulch of Pleistocene coralline limestone formation in southern Taiwan. The physical parameters such as illumination, humidity, and temperature were varied largely in habitats around the gulch, namely on the limestone wall at the opening of gulch, on the coordinate ground soil, on the wall inside the gulch, and the water drip from limestone wall. The total organic carbon was measured in solid samples to evaluate the biomass of the habitats. A metagenomic approach was carried out to reveal their microbial community structure. After the metagenomic library of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was constructed, a BLAST search by "nomenclature of bacteria" instead of sequences between the OTU libraries and KEGG database was carried out to generate libraries of "model microbial communities", which the complete genomes of the entire bacterial populations were available. Our results showed the biomass of habitats in the opening of gulch was twice higher than the inside, suggesting the illumination played an important role in biosynthesis. In quantitative comparison in key enzymes of CO2 fixation pathways by model communities, 70% to 90% of bacteria possessed key enzymes of Fuchs-Holo cycle, while only 5% to 20% of bacteria contained key enzymes of Calvin-Benson cycle. The key enzymes for hydroxypropionate/ hydroxybutyrate and dicarboxylate/ 4-hydroxybutyrate cycles were not found in this study. In the water sample, approximate 10% of bacteria consisted of the key enzyme for Arnon-Buchanan cycle. Less than 2% of bacteria in all habitats take the reductive acetyl-CoA cycle for CO2 fixation. This study provides a novel method to study biosynthetic process of microbial communities in natural habitats.

  17. Ab initio study of the electron energy loss function in a graphene-sapphire-graphene composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despoja, Vito; Djordjević, Tijana; Karbunar, Lazar; Radović, Ivan; Mišković, Zoran L.

    2017-08-01

    The propagator of a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W in a sandwichlike structure consisting of two graphene layers separated by a slab of Al2O3 (or vacuum) is derived from single-layer graphene response functions and by using a local dielectric function for the bulk Al2O3 . The response function of graphene is obtained using two approaches within the random phase approximation (RPA): an ab initio method that includes all electronic bands in graphene and a computationally less demanding method based on the massless Dirac fermion (MDF) approximation for the low-energy excitations of electrons in the π bands. The propagator W is used to derive an expression for the effective dielectric function of our sandwich structure, which is relevant for the reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy of its surface. Focusing on the range of frequencies from THz to mid-infrared, special attention is paid to finding an accurate optical limit in the ab initio method, where the response function is expressed in terms of a frequency-dependent conductivity of graphene. It was shown that the optical limit suffices for describing hybridization between the Dirac plasmons in graphene layers and the Fuchs-Kliewer phonons in both surfaces of the Al2O3 slab, and that the spectra obtained from both the ab initio method and the MDF approximation in the optical limit agree perfectly well for wave numbers up to about 0.1 nm-1. Going beyond the optical limit, the agreement between the full ab initio method and the MDF approximation was found to extend to wave numbers up to about 0.3 nm-1 for doped graphene layers with the Fermi energy of 0.2 eV.

  18. Microstructure evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide and Sn-doped indium oxide deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Man; Bikowski, Andre; Ellmer, Klaus, E-mail: ellmer@helmholtz-berlin.de

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on borosilicate glass substrates deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). One-dimensional power spectral density (1DPSD) functions derived from the AFM profiles, which can be used to distinguish different growth mechanisms, were used to compare the microstructure scaling behavior of the thin films. The rms roughness R{sub q} evolves with film thickness as a power law, R{sub q} ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}, and different growth exponents β were found for AZOmore » and ITO films. For AZO films, β of 1.47 and 0.56 are obtained for RT and 300 °C depositions, respectively, which are caused by the high compressive stress in the film at RT and relaxation of the stress at 300 °C. While for ITO films, β{sub 1} = 0.14 and β{sub 2} = 0.64 for RT, and β{sub 1} = 0.89 and β{sub 2} = 0.3 for 300 °C deposition are obtained, respectively, which is related to the strong competition between the surface diffusion and shadowing effect and/or grain growth. Electrical properties of both materials as a function of film thickness were also compared. By the modified Fuchs-Sondheimer model fitting of the electrical transport in both materials, different nucleation states are pointed out for both types of films.« less

  19. Simulation and measurement of nanometer-scale resistivity of copper films for interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarimbiyik, Arif Emre

    2007-12-01

    A highly versatile simulation program is developed and used to examine how the resistivity of thin metal films and lines increases as their dimensions approach and become smaller than the mean fee path of electrons in metals such as copper (size effect). The simulation program: (1) provides a more accurate calculation of surface scattering effects than that obtained from the usual formulation of Fuchs' theory, (2) calculates grain-boundary effects that are consistent with the theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes, (3) includes the effects of surface and grain-boundary scattering either separately or together, and (4) simulates the effect on resistivity if a surface of a film or line has a different value for the scattering parameter. The increase in resistivity with decreasing thickness of thin, evaporated copper films (approximately 10 nm to 150 nm thick) was determined from sheet resistance and film thickness measurements. Good agreement between the experimental results with those of the simulation program was obtained when the measured mean grain sizes were used by the simulation program. The mean of the grain sizes tend to decrease with decreasing film thickness and thereby increase the impact of grain-boundary scattering on the effective resistivity of the film. Estimates of the mean grain size for each film were determined from using, in combination, the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. With values for the measured change in sheet resistance with temperature of these films, it is shown that measurements of the electrical film thickness, using Matthiessen's rule, agreed to within 3 nm of the physical measurements (profilometer) of these films. Hence, Matthiessen's rule can continue to be used to measure the thickness of a copper film and, by inference, the cross-sectional area of a copper line for dimensions well below the mean free path of electrons in copper at room temperature (39 nm).

  20. The New Zealand National Eye Bank: survival and visual outcome 1 year after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hussain Y; Ormonde, Sue; Brookes, Nigel H; Moffatt, S Louise; Sherwin, Trevor; Pendergrast, David G C; McGhee, Charles N J

    2011-07-01

    To identify potential donor, recipient, surgical, and postoperative factors that may influence survival and visual outcome of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). As part of a prospective longitudinal study, the electronic records of the New Zealand National Eye Bank were analyzed for the 10-year period from 1994-2003. Both univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. During the study period, the New Zealand National Eye Bank supplied 1820 corneas for PKP and 1629 (90%) had 1-year follow-up data. Overall, the 1-year survival rate was 87% (n = 1429). Donor factors including age, donor source, cause of death, death-to-preservation interval, endothelial cell density, donor lens status, and storage duration, were not significantly associated with decreased survival. The leading cause of PKP failure was irreversible rejection (7%, n = 114). Independent risk factors identified for decreased PKP survival were: 1 or more episodes of reversible rejection, active inflammation at PKP, preexisting corneal vascularization, intraoperative complications, small graft size (≤ 7.25 mm), large graft size (≥ 8.5 mm), preoperative glaucoma, and a preoperative diagnosis of regraft or trauma. A best-corrected Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better was achieved in 60% of eyes [mean: 6/15 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution 0.40)]. Keratoconus and Fuchs endothelial dystrophy were the diagnoses with best survival and visual outcome, whereas, bullous keratopathy, trauma or noninfective keratitis were associated with poorer visual outcome. Several independent risk factors were identified that significantly influenced PKP first year survival outcome. This information is valuable to patients and surgeons with respect to determining prognosis and clinical decision making.

  1. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether in the Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Sakai, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Miyamoto, Taihei; Fujitake, Masaharu; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2013-06-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) has two inequivalent methyl group internal rotors which corresponds to the two vibrational motions, ν_{28} and ν_{29}. Due to these internal rotations, a rotational transition could be split into maximum five components. The skeletal torsion (ν_{30}) is another low-lying state (ν_{30}) that interacts with the ν_{28} and ν_{29} modes. The microwave spectra of the trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule in the ν_{28} = 1, ν_{29} = 1, and ν_{30} = 1, 2 and 3 have been extensively studied by using Hougen's tunneling matrix formalism. The microwave spectroscopy in the ground state was studied by several groups. The splitting due to the ν_{28} mode (C-CH_3 internal rotation) is small in the ground state and was not fully resolved in most of the previous studied rotational transitions. In this paper, we report the results of the pulsed nozzle-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy so as to measure the fully resolved spectra. The submillmeter wave spectroscopy was also carried out. Our analysis including the previously reported transitions would be useful for astronomical observations. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {269}, 242 2011. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {255}, 164 2009. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc.{251}, 301 2008. K. Kobayashi, K. Murata, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi Int. Symposium on Mol. Spectrosc., 65th Meeting TH15 2010.} M. Hayashi, and K. Kuwada J. Mol. Structure {28}, 147 1975. M. Hayashi, and M. Adachi J. Mol. Structure {78}, 53 1982. S. Tsunekawa, Y. Kinai, Y. Kondo, H. Odashima, and K. Takagi Molecules {8}, 103 2003. U. Fuchs, G. Winnewisser, P. Groner, F. C. De Lucia, and E. Herbst Astrophys. J. Suppl. {144}, 277 2003.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of monocomponent droplet temperature/refractive index, size and evaporation rate with phase rainbow refractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingchun; Crua, Cyril; Li, Haipeng; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Mädler, Lutz; Wu, Xuecheng; Gréhan, Gérard

    2018-07-01

    The accurate measurements of droplet temperature, size and evaporation rate are of great importance to characterize the heat and mass transfer during evaporation/condensation processes. The nanoscale size change of a micron-sized droplet exactly describes its transient mass transfer, but is difficult to measure because it is smaller than the resolutions of current size measurement techniques. The Phase Rainbow Refractometry (PRR) technique is developed and applied to measure droplet temperature, size and transient size changes and thereafter evaporation rate simultaneously. The measurement principle of PRR is theoretically derived, and it reveals that the phase shift of the time-resolved ripple structures linearly depends on, and can directly yield, nano-scale size changes of droplets. The PRR technique is first verified through the simulation of rainbows of droplets with changing size, and results show that PRR can precisely measure droplet refractive index, absolute size, as well as size change with absolute and relative errors within several nanometers and 0.6%, respectively, and thus PRR permits accurate measurements of transient droplet evaporation rates. The evaporations of flowing single n-nonane droplet and mono-dispersed n-heptane droplet stream are investigated by two PRR systems with a high speed linear CCD and a low speed array CCD, respectively. Their transient evaporation rates are experimentally determined and quantitatively agree well with the theoretical values predicted by classical Maxwell and Stefan-Fuchs models. With the demonstration of evaporation rate measurement of monocomponent droplet in this work, PRR is an ideal tool for measurements of transient droplet evaporation/condensation processes, and can be extended to multicomponent droplets in a wide range of industrially-relevant applications.

  3. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 106 to 4.27 × 105 and 8.57 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 105 and 5.12 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22649297

  4. Standardized DMEK Technique: Reducing Complications Using Prestripped Tissue, Novel Glass Injector, and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Gas.

    PubMed

    Terry, Mark A; Straiko, Michael D; Veldman, Peter B; Talajic, Julia C; VanZyl, Cor; Sales, Christopher S; Mayko, Zachary M

    2015-08-01

    To report low complication rates in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas, a novel glass injector, and donor tissue prestripped by an eye bank technician. A standardized technique of DMEK was performed in 80 consecutive Fuchs corneal dystrophy cases using technician-prestripped tissue, a novel glass injector, a modified Yoeruek tap technique, and an SF6 gas (20% concentration) bubble for prolonged tissue support. Twenty-five donors were premarked with an "S" stamp for intraoperative orientation. Surgery was performed by 2 experienced DMEK surgeons and 2 inexperienced cornea fellows. Complications were recorded, and the percent endothelial cell loss was calculated at 6 months postoperatively. There were 5 cases that received an air bubble injection postoperatively (6% rebubble rate). There were 6 grafts that immediately failed, 2 because of excessive surgical trauma, and 4 because of upside-down graft placement documented by optical coherence tomography. None of the 25 cases with an S stamp failed. Recipient corneas cleared quickly with no clinical evidence of toxicity from the SF6 gas bubble, and the grafts experienced a mean endothelial cell loss of 27% at 6 months. Tissue prestripped by an eye bank technician can be safely used for DMEK surgery. SF6 gas for prolonged tissue support may reduce the rebubble rate in DMEK, with no apparent acute toxic effect. An unrecognized upside-down graft was the primary cause of graft failure in this series. Upside-down grafts may be eliminated by the use of donor tissue premarked by the eye bank with an S orientation stamp.

  5. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    PubMed

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modular, Metal-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization Approach to Angularly Fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Oxidized Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Paul F.; Parrish, Damon; Pradhan, Padmanava; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 2-bromobenzaldehyde and 6-bromo-2,3-dimethoxybenzaldehyde with 4-methyl-1-naphthaleneboronic acid and acenaphthene-5-boronic acid gave corresponding o-naphthyl benzaldehydes. Corey–Fuchs olefination followed by reaction with n-BuLi led to various 1-(2-ethynylphenyl)naphthalenes. Cycloisomerization of individual 1-(2-ethynylphenyl)naphthalenes to various benzo[c]phenanthrene (BcPh) analogues was accomplished smoothly with catalytic PtCl2 in PhMe. In the case of 4,5-dihydrobenzo[l]acephenanthrylene, oxidation with DDQ gave benzo[l]acephenanthrylene. The dimethoxy-substituted benzo[c]phenanthrenes were demethylated with BBr3 and oxidized to the ortho-quinones with PDC. Reduction of these quinones with NaBH4 in THF/EtOH in an oxygen atmosphere gave the respective dihydrodiols. Exposure of the dihydrodiols to N-bromoacetamide in THF-H2O led to bromohydrins that were cyclized with Amberlite IRA 400 HO− to yield the series 1 diol epoxides. Epoxidation of the dihydrodiols with mCPBA gave the isomeric series 2 diol epoxides. All of the hydrocarbons as well as the methoxy-substituted ones were crystallized and analyzed by X-ray crystallography, and these data are compared to other previously studied BcPh derivatives. The methodology described is highly modular and can be utilized for the synthesis of a wide variety of angularly fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their putative metabolites and/or other derivatives. PMID:26196673

  8. Comparison of parametric methods for modeling corneal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazizi, Hala; Brunette, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Corneal topography is a medical imaging technique to get the 3D shape of the cornea as a set of 3D points of its anterior and posterior surfaces. From these data, topographic maps can be derived to assist the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of disorders. In this paper, we compare three different mathematical parametric representations of the corneal surfaces leastsquares fitted to the data provided by corneal topography. The parameters obtained from these models reduce the dimensionality of the data from several thousand 3D points to only a few parameters and could eventually be useful for diagnosis, biometry, implant design etc. The first representation is based on Zernike polynomials that are commonly used in optics. A variant of these polynomials, named Bhatia-Wolf will also be investigated. These two sets of polynomials are defined over a circular domain which is convenient to model the elevation (height) of the corneal surface. The third representation uses Spherical Harmonics that are particularly well suited for nearly-spherical object modeling, which is the case for cornea. We compared the three methods using the following three criteria: the root-mean-square error (RMSE), the number of parameters and the visual accuracy of the reconstructed topographic maps. A large dataset of more than 2000 corneal topographies was used. Our results showed that Spherical Harmonics were superior with a RMSE mean lower than 2.5 microns with 36 coefficients (order 5) for normal corneas and lower than 5 microns for two diseases affecting the corneal shapes: keratoconus and Fuchs' dystrophy.

  9. Outcomes of descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using imported donor corneas.

    PubMed

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Vanikieti, Kavin; Nimvorapun, Nutthida; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn

    2017-04-05

    The lack of development of local donor tissue acquisition in several regions of the world has resulted in the necessity of performing keratoplasty with imported donor corneas. The greatest concern about the use of donor corneas supplied by foreign eye banks is the effect of the increased donor death-to-operation time which inevitably occurs during the tissue recovery, tissue processing, and tissue transfer between the countries. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) using imported donor corneas. This retrospective, non-comparative case series investigated the outcomes of the 102 consecutive DSAEK procedures using imported donor corneas performed at a single university-based hospital between August 2006-2014. The main outcome measures were postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), and complications. The mean death-to-operation time was 9.52 ± 1.48 days (range, 8-13). The mean preoperative ECD was 2761 ± 285 cells/mm 2 . Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy was the predominant indication for grafting. The mean follow-up duration was 65.3 months. Ninety-three eyes had improved vision postoperatively (91.18%). BCVA unchanged in 3 eyes due to preexisting macular scar and advanced glaucoma. Primary graft failure occurred in 6 eyes (5.88%). Of the 93 eyes with improved BCVA, 100% had their best corrected vision within the first 1 year. The mean ECD at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months after surgery was 1762 ± 294 cells/mm 2 , 1681 ± 284 cells/mm 2 , 1579 ± 209 cells/mm 2 , 1389 ± 273 cells/mm 2 , and 1251 ± 264 cells/mm 2 respectively. The mean ECD loss at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years after surgery was 36.2%, 39.1%, 42.8%, 49.7%, and 54.7% respectively. The most common complication was graft detachment/dislocation (10.78%). There were no cases of any postoperative infection. DSAEK with imported donor corneas provides

  10. A spatiotemporal multi-hazard exposure assessment based on property data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth; Zischg, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    recreation purpose are considerably exposed to river flooding. Residential buildings have shown an average exposure, compared to the number of buildings of this type in the overall building stock. In sum, around 5 % of all buildings are exposed to torrential flooding, and around 9 % to river flooding, with around 1 % of the buildings stock being multi-exposed. The temporal assessment of exposure has shown considerable differences in the dynamics of exposure to different hazard categories in comparison to the overall property stock. In conclusion, the presented object-based assessment is an important and suitable tool for nation-wide exposure assessment and may be used in operational risk management. Reference: Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M. & A. Zischg (2015): A spatiotemporal multi-hazard exposure assessment based on property data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 15 (9). p. 2127-2142

  11. PREFACE: PASREG 2003: International Workshop on Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masato; Cardwell, David; Salama, Kamel; Krabbes, Gernot; Habisreuther, Tobias; Gawalek, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena, for being generous hosts during the workshop. The International PASREG Board selected the following distinguished researchers as recipients of the 2003 PASREG Award for Excellence to acknowledge their contribution to the development of bulk high-temperature superconductors: Masato Murakami, ISTEC Tokyo; Günter Fuchs, IFW Dresden; Uichiro Mitzutani, Nagoya University; Bernhard Oswald, OSWALD Electric Motors Co. Miltenberg; Anna E Carillo, Teresa Puig and Xavier Obradors, ICMAB Barcelona.

  12. The effect of donor diabetes history on graft failure and endothelial cell density 10 years after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jonathan H; Riddlesworth, Tonya D; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Benetz, Beth A; Price, Francis W; Sugar, Alan; Terry, Mark A; Soper, Mark; Beck, Roy W

    2015-03-01

    To examine the long-term effect of donor diabetes history on graft failure and endothelial cell density (ECD) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in the Cornea Donor Study. Multicenter, prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial. One thousand ninety subjects undergoing PK for a moderate risk condition, principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema, were enrolled by 105 surgeons from 80 clinical sites in the United States. Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years of age were assigned by 43 eye banks to participants without respect to recipient factors. Donor and recipient diabetes status was determined from existing medical records. Images of the central endothelium were obtained before surgery (baseline) and at intervals for 10 years after surgery and were analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine ECD. Time to graft failure (regraft or cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months) and ECD. There was no statistically significant association of donor diabetes history with 10-year graft failure, baseline ECD, 10-year ECD, or ECD values longitudinally over time in unadjusted analyses, nor after adjusting for donor age and other significant covariates. The 10-year graft failure rate was 23% in the 199 patients receiving a cornea from a donor with diabetes versus 26% in the 891 patients receiving a cornea from a donor without diabetes (95% confidence interval for the difference, -10% to 6%; unadjusted P=0.60). Baseline ECD (P=0.71), 10-year ECD (P>0.99), and changes in ECD over 10 years (P=0.86) were similar comparing donor groups with and without diabetes. The study results do not suggest an association between donor diabetes and PK outcome. However, the assessment of donor diabetes was imprecise and based on historical data only. The increasing frequency of diabetes in the aging population in the United States affects the donor pool. Thus, the impact of donor diabetes on long-term endothelial health after PK or endothelial

  13. UV-A Irradiation Activates Nrf2-Regulated Antioxidant Defense and Induces p53/Caspase3-Dependent Apoptosis in Corneal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cailing; Vojnovic, Dijana; Kochevar, Irene E; Jurkunas, Ula V

    2016-04-01

    To examine whether Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defense and p53 are activated in human corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs) by environmental levels of ultraviolet A (UV-A), a known stimulator of oxidative stress. Immortalized human CEnCs (HCEnCi) were exposed to UV-A fluences of 2.5, 5, 10, or 25 J/cm2, then allowed to recover for 3 to 24 hours. Control HCEnCi did not receive UV-A. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using H2DCFDA. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1, p53, and caspase3 were detected by immunnoblotting or real-time PCR. Activated caspase3 was measured by immunoblotting and a fluorescence assay. Exposure of HCEnCi to 5, 10, and 25 J/cm2 UV-A increased ROS levels compared with controls. Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 mRNA increased 1.7- to 3.2-fold at 3 and 6 hours after irradiation with 2.5 and 5 J/cm2 UV-A. At 6 hours post irradiation, UV-A (5 J/cm2) enhanced nuclear Nrf2 translocation. At 24 hours post treatment, UV-A (5, 10, and 25 J/cm2) produced a 1.8- to 2.8-fold increase in phospho-p53 and a 2.6- to 6.0-fold increase in activated caspase3 compared with controls, resulting in 20% to 42% cell death. Lower fluences of UV-A induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defense and higher fluences activate p53 and caspase3, indicating that even near-environmental levels of UV-A may affect normal CEnCs. This data suggest that UV-A may especially damage cells deficient in antioxidant defense, and thus may be involved in the etiology of Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD).

  14. Five-Year Graft Survival Comparing Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ang, Marcus; Soh, Yuqiang; Htoon, Hla Myint; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Tan, Donald

    2016-08-01

    To compare 5-year graft survival after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in Asian eyes. Prospective, nested, cohort study. Consecutive patients who underwent DSAEK (423 eyes) or PK (405 eyes) for Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FED) or bullous keratopathy (BK). Clinical data and donor and recipient characteristics were recorded from our prospective cohort from the Singapore Corneal Transplant Registry. All surgeries were performed by the corneal surgeons at our center, which included cases performed or partially performed by corneal fellows in training under direct supervision. Five-year cumulative graft survival. Overall mean age was 67.8±9.8 years, and 50.1% of patients were men. There were no significant differences in age (P = 0.261) or gender (P = 0.78) between PK and DSAEK groups in our predominantly Chinese (76.6%) Asian cohort, with more BK compared with FED (68.1% vs. 31.9%; P < 0.001). Overall 5-year graft survival was superior for DSAEK compared with PK (79.4% vs. 66.5%; P < 0.001, log-rank test). Median 5-year percent endothelial cell density loss was significantly greater in PK compared with DSAEK (60.9% vs. 48.7%; P = 0.007). Cox regression analysis revealed that BK was a significant factor associated with graft failure (hazard ratio [HR], 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05-5.33; P < 0.001), and PK was more likely to fail compared with endothelial keratoplasty (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08-2.41; P = 0.02) adjusting for confounders such as recipient age, gender, and donor factors. Five-year cumulative incidence of complications such as graft rejection (P < 0.001), epitheliopathy (P < 0.001), suture-related corneal infections (P < 0.001), and wound dehiscence (P = 0.002) were greater in the PK group compared with the DSAEK group. In Asian eyes from the same study cohort with standardized surgical and postoperative regimes, 5-year graft survival was superior for DSAEK compared with

  15. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  16. Interstellar Methanol from the Lab to Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar methanol is considered to be a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. It holds a central role in many astrochemical models [e.g. 1]. Methanol has also been the focus of several laboratory studies [e.g. 2, 3] in an effort to gain insight into grain-surface chemistry, which potentially builds chemical complexity already in the cold, dark phases of protostellar evolution. The case of methanol is a prime example of experimental work having implications on astronomical scales. For this meeting, I would like to highlight how physical and chemical models can be unified to simulate infalling material during the birth of a low-mass protostar. An axisymmetric 2D semi-analytic collapse model [4], wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations with RADMC3D [5] and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network [6] are used to study two physical scenarios. In the first case, the dominant disc growth mechanism is viscous spreading, while in the second, continuous infall of matter prevails. The results show that the infall path influences the abundance of methanol entering each type of disk, ranging from complete loss of methanol to an enhancement by a factor of >1 relative to the prestellar phase [7]. This work illustrates how the experimentally verified hydrogenation sequence of carbon monoxide leading to methanol influences the delivery of methanol ice to the planet- and comet-forming zones of protoplanetary disks. Such intriguing links will soon be tested by upcoming cometary data from the Rosetta mission and ALMA observations.[1] Garrod R. T., Herbst E., 2006, A&A, 457, 927[2] Watanabe N., Nagaoka A., Shiraki T., Kouchi A., 2004, ApJ, 616, 638[3] Fuchs G. W., Cuppen H. M., Ioppolo S., Romanzin C., Bisschop S. E., Andersson S., van Dishoeck E. F., Linnartz H., 2009, A&A, 505, 629[4] Visser R., van Dishoeck E. F., Doty S. D., Dullemond C. P., 2009, A&A, 495, 881[5] Dullemond C. P., Dominik C., 2004, A&A, 417, 159[6] Walsh C., Millar T. J

  17. From ENSEMBLES to CORDEX: exploring the progress for hydrological impact research for the upper Danube basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanzel, Philipp; Kling, Harald

    2017-04-01

    reproduced with the CORDEX RCMs, albeit with slightly higher precipitation in the CORDEX data. The distinct pattern of future change in discharge seasonality - increasing winter discharge and decreasing summer discharge - is confirmed with the new CORDEX data, with a range of projections very similar to the range projected by the ENSEMBLES RCMs. References: Kling, H., Fuchs, M., Paulin, M. 2012. Runoff conditions in the upper Danube basin under an ensemble of climate change scenarios. Journal of Hydrology 424-425, 264-277.

  18. The Embodied Self in Parkinson's Disease: Feasibility of a Single Tango Intervention for Assessing Changes in Psychological Health Outcomes and Aesthetic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sabine C.; Mergheim, Katja; Raeke, Judith; Machado, Clarissa B.; Riegner, Eliane; Nolden, Joachim; Diermayr, Gudrun; von Moreau, Dorothee; Hillecke, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dance is an embodied activity with benefits for mobility, balance, and quality of life (QoL) of persons affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD). It is enjoyable and likely to support adherence to movement prescriptions. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring changes in psychological outcomes, specifically well-being, body self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and experienced beauty after a single Argentine Tango intervention in a workshop format. To anchor experienced beauty in a theory, the article introduces a model of embodied aesthetics featuring active art-making as a central aspect of healing in arts-based interventions. Methods: In a single-group pre–post design, we tested the feasibility of measuring psychological changes of 34 PD patients from Southern Germany after an introductory workshop in Argentine Tango. They participated in a 90 min Tango for PD intervention and completed the Heidelberg State Inventory (HSI-24; (Koch et al., 2007)), the Body Self-Efficacy Scale (BSE; (Fuchs and Koch, 2014)) with a sub-dimension on aesthetic experience, and the Credibility-Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ; (Devilly and Borkovec, 2000)) before and after the intervention. A subgroup completed the therapeutic factors of arts therapies-scale, a new measure to elaborate on the aesthetic experience. We analyzed pre–post-differences with a t-test for paired samples. Results and Discussion: The study supports the feasibility of measuring health-related psychological changes from a single Argentine Tango intervention for PD patients, as well as acceptance and appropriateness of the intervention for the patient group. After the tango intervention, well-being, body self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies increased. Participants also experienced an increase in beauty of their movements and other aesthetic aspects. We suspect that, in addition to the functional and psychological factors identified so far, the aesthetic experience in dance

  19. [Implantation of a sulcus-fixated toric additive intraocular lens in a case of high astigmatism after a triple procedure].

    PubMed

    Linz, K; Auffarth, G U; Kretz, F T A

    2014-08-01

    Residual refractive errors, especially high-grade astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty, often lead to a significant loss of vision. If high anismetropia could not be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, different kinds of surgical procedures are available for visual rehabilitation (intraocular lens exchange, astigmatic keratotomy, Excimer laser treatment, intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation and additive intraocular lens implantation). Toric add-on IOLs are especially designed for sulcus implantation and correcting high astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes. All toric IOLs are individually manufactured according to subjective refraction and biometry. Depending on the underlying manufacturer high-grade astigmatism can be corrected with a cylindrical power up to + 30.0 D. A 74-year-old patient presented with endothelial decompensation and an uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 1.0 logMAR for penetrating keratoplasty on the right eye due to a Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Postoperatively, the uncorrected distance visual acuity improved to 0.8 logMAR, with pinhole correction to 0.5 logMAR. After removing the sutures a high and irregular corneal astigmatism of 21.0 D was found. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) with a refraction of + 5.5 D sph, - 21.0 D cyl 90° was 0.24 logMAR. Therefore an individually manufactured toric additive intraocular lens of + 25.0 D cylindrical and - 18.0 D spherical power for sulcus implantation was chosen and implanted uneventfully. Eight months after surgery refractive astigmatism was reduced significantly to - 0.75 D with an UDVA of 0.08 logMAR and a CDVA of 0.02 logMAR. During the 8-months follow-up period the additive IOL remained centered and no IOL rotation could be observed. Toric add-on IOLs are a safe and successful method for reducing high astigmatism and anisometropia after penetrating keratoplasty. One of the main advantages is the reversibility of the procedure by an explantation of

  20. A new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-RDMA for size distribution measurements of sub-3 nm ions at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchin, Alessandro; Downard, Andy; Kangasluoma, Juha; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Steiner, Gerhard; Manninen, Hanna E.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Flagan, Richard C.; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-06-01

    Reliable and reproducible measurements of atmospheric aerosol particle number size distributions below 10 nm require optimized classification instruments with high particle transmission efficiency. Almost all differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) have an unfavorable potential gradient at the outlet (e.g., long column, Vienna type) or at the inlet (nano-radial DMA), preventing them from achieving a good transmission efficiency for the smallest nanoparticles. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) that increases the transmission efficiency to 12 % for ions as small as 1.3 nm in Millikan-Fuchs mobility equivalent diameter, Dp (corresponding to 1.2 × 10-4 m2 V-1 s-1 in electrical mobility). We successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and as a booster a condensation particle counter (CPC). With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions within a mobility range from 1.2 × 10-4 to 5.8 × 10-6 m2 V-1 s-1. The system was modeled, tested in the laboratory and used to measure negative ions at ambient concentrations in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) 7 measurement campaign at CERN. We achieved a higher size resolution (R = 5.5 at Dp = 1.47 nm) than techniques currently used in field measurements (e.g., Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS), which has a R ˜ 2 at largest sizes, and R ˜ 1.8 at Dp = 1.5 nm) and maintained a good total transmission efficiency (6.3 % at Dp = 1.5 nm) at moderate inlet and sheath airflows (2.5 and 30 L min-1, respectively). In this paper, by measuring size distributions at high size resolution down to 1.3 nm, we extend the limit of the current technology. The current setup is limited to ion measurements. However, we envision that future research focused on the charging mechanisms could extend the technique to measure neutral aerosol particles as well, so that it will be possible

  1. Clinical outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty using eye bank-prepared tissues.

    PubMed

    Deng, Sophie X; Sanchez, P James; Chen, Luxia

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) using prestripped donor tissue prepared by an eye bank. Retrospective, noncomparative case series. This retrospective, noncomparative, observational study investigated the outcomes of the first 40 consecutive DMEK procedures performed by a single surgeon using prestripped tissues prepared by a single eye bank during the period September 17, 2013 to July 1, 2014. A new technique to unfold the Descemet membrane grafts using a single cannula was described. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the prestripped and poststripped endothelial cell counts (ECC), postoperative ECC, visual acuity measurements, and complications. Of the 43 prestripped tissues received, 40 were transplanted. The leading indications for DMEK were Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (n = 28) and bullous keratopathy (n = 11). Nine DMEK procedures were performed in combination with phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Six patients had undergone prior glaucoma surgeries. The mean follow-up duration was 5.3 months (range, 1 week to 11 months). Preoperative spectacle-corrected visual acuity was ≤20/200 in 8 patients (20%) and ≤20/40 in 37 patients (92.5%). Primary graft failure occurred in the first case. Thirty-eight patients had improved vision postoperatively. Among the 39 patients who had successful DMEK, postoperative BCVA was ≥20/20 in 20 patients (51.2%), ≥20/25 in 30 patients (76.9%), and ≥20/40 in 34 patients (87.2%) by the last follow-up. There was no secondary graft failure. Rejection occurred in 2 patients because of self-discontinuation of topical corticosteroid. The most common complication was partial detachment requiring air injection (11 of 40 patients; 27.5%). Mean ECC loss after stripping of Descemet membrane was 3.9% (range, 6.5% gain to 14.5% loss). During the first 6 months after transplantation, the average ECC loss was 30.5% (range, 3.8%-67.4% loss

  2. Conditionally Immortal Slc4a11−/− Mouse Corneal Endothelial Cell Line Recapitulates Disrupted Glutaminolysis Seen in Slc4a11−/− Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenlin; Ogando, Diego G.; Kim, Edward T.; Choi, Moon-Jung; Li, Hongde; Tenessen, Jason M.; Bonanno, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish conditionally immortal mouse corneal endothelial cell lines with genetically matched Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11−/− mice as a model for investigating pathology and therapies for SLC4A11 associated congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. Methods We intercrossed H-2Kb-tsA58 mice (Immortomouse) expressing an IFN-γ dependent and temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T antigen (tsTAg) with Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11−/− C57BL/6 mice. The growth characteristics of the cell lines was assessed by doubling time. Ion transport activities (Na+/H+ exchange, bicarbonate, lactate, and Slc4a11 ammonia transport) were analyzed by intracellular pH measurement. The metabolic status of the cell lines was assessed by analyzing TCA cycle intermediates via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The immortalized Slc4a11+/+ and Slc4a11−/− mouse corneal endothelial cells (MCECs) remained proliferative through passage 49 and maintained similar active ion transport activity. As expected, proliferation was temperature sensitive and IFN-γ dependent. Slc4a11−/− MCECs exhibited decreased proliferative capacity, reduced NH3:H+ transport, altered expression of glutaminolysis enzymes similar to the Slc4a11−/− mouse, and reduced proportion of TCA cycle intermediates derived from glutamine with compensatory increases in glucose flux compared with Slc4a11+/+ MCECs. Conclusions This is the first report of the immortalization of MCECs. Ion transport of the immortalized endothelial cells remains active, except for NH3:H+ transporter activity in Slc4a11−/− MCECs. Furthermore, Slc4a11−/− MCECs recapitulate the glutaminolysis defects observed in Slc4a11−/− mouse corneal endothelium, providing an excellent tool to study the pathogenesis of SLC4A11 mutations associated with corneal endothelial dystrophies and to screen potential therapeutic agents. PMID:28738416

  3. Spectral Induced Polarization monitoring of the groundwater physico-chemical parameters daily variations for stream-groundwater interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jougnot, Damien; Camerlynck, Christian; Robain, Henri; Tallec, Gaëlle; Ribolzi, Olivier; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, geophysical methods have been attracting an increasing interest in hydrology and environmental sciences given their sensitivity to parameters of interests and their non-intrusive nature. The Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) is a low frequency electro-magnetic method that allows the characterization of the subsurface through its complex electrical conductivity. It reports the modulus of the conductivity and the phase between an injected current and a measured voltage over a rather large frequency range (from few millihertz to few tens of kilohertz). The real part of the conductivity is sensitive to lithological (porosity, specific surface area) and hydrological (water saturation, water salinity) parameters, while the imaginary part is linked to electrochemical polarizations, that have been shown to be largely influenced by the chemistry of the pore water. In the present contribution, we aim at better characterizing the exchanges between a stream and the surrounding groundwater using the SIP method and its sensitivity to pore water changes over time. Two sites from the OZCAR Research Infrastructure (French Critical Zone observatories) have been chosen for this study: the Houay Pano catchment (Laos) and the Orgeval catchment (France). These two sites have a good existing infrastructure and have been already studied extensively in terms of hydrology, geophysics, and hydrochemistry. They constitute perfect experimental sites to develop novel methodologies for the assessment of stream-groundwater exchanges. We propose to obtain a vertical description of the changes in complex electrical conductivity with depth based on SIP soundings undertaken with the multi-channel system SIP Fuchs III. We conducted a high-frequency monitoring close to a river stream (one vertical profiles every 30 min). In parallel, a high frequency monitoring of the physico-chemical parameters (temperature, conductivity, ionic concentrations) in the river stream has been

  4. Comparing the MRI-based Goutallier Classification to an experimental quantitative MR spectroscopic fat measurement of the supraspinatus muscle.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Fabian; Böhm, Dirk; Eden, Lars; Schmalzl, Jonas; Meffert, Rainer H; Köstler, Herbert; Weng, Andreas M; Ziegler, Dirk

    2016-08-22

    The Goutallier Classification is a semi quantitative classification system to determine the amount of fatty degeneration in rotator cuff muscles. Although initially proposed for axial computer tomography scans it is currently applied to magnet-resonance-imaging-scans. The role for its clinical use is controversial, as the reliability of the classification has been shown to be inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the semi quantitative MRI-based Goutallier Classification applied by 5 different raters to experimental MR spectroscopic quantitative fat measurement in order to determine the correlation between this classification system and the true extent of fatty degeneration shown by spectroscopy. MRI-scans of 42 patients with rotator cuff tears were examined by 5 shoulder surgeons and were graduated according to the MRI-based Goutallier Classification proposed by Fuchs et al. Additionally the fat/water ratio was measured with MR spectroscopy using the experimental SPLASH technique. The semi quantitative grading according to the Goutallier Classification was statistically correlated with the quantitative measured fat/water ratio using Spearman's rank correlation. Statistical analysis of the data revealed only fair correlation of the Goutallier Classification system and the quantitative fat/water ratio with R = 0.35 (p < 0.05). By dichotomizing the scale the correlation was 0.72. The interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities were substantial with R = 0.62 and R = 0.74 (p < 0.01). The correlation between the semi quantitative MRI based Goutallier Classification system and MR spectroscopic fat measurement is weak. As an adequate estimation of fatty degeneration based on standard MRI may not be possible, quantitative methods need to be considered in order to increase diagnostic safety and thus provide patients with ideal care in regard to the amount of fatty degeneration. Spectroscopic MR measurement may increase the accuracy of

  5. Automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores, developed and evaluated using nitrogen and argon isotope data measured on the Gisp2 ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Leuenberger, Markus

    2017-04-01

    densification of polar firn including heat diffusion: Application to close-off characteristics and gas isotopic fractionation for Antarctica and Greenland sites. J. Geophys. Res.,108, NO. D24, 4792. Severinghaus, J. P., Sowers, T., Brook, E. J., Alley, R. B., and Bender, M. L. (1998). Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice. Nature, 391:141-146. Schwander, J., Sowers, T., Barnola, J., Blunier, T., Fuchs, A., and Malaizé, B. (1997). Age scale of the air in the summit ice: implication for glacial-interglacial temperature change. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos., 102(D16):19483-19493.

  6. Inverse cutting of posterior lamellar corneal grafts by a femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders; Søndergaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side by a femto-second laser, resulting in reproducible, thin grafts of even thickness. A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure was performed in 10 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Patients were followed-up regularly and evaluated by measurement of complications, visual acuity, corneal thickness (Pentacam HR), and endothelial cell density. Femto-laser cutting of grafts and surgery was uncomplicated. Rebubbling was necessary in 5 of 10 cases (normally only in 1 of 20 cases). All grafts were attached and cleared up during the first few weeks. After six months, the average visual acuity was 0.30 (range: 0.16 to 0.50), corneal thickness was 0.58 mm (range 0.51 to 0.63), and endothelial cell density was 1.570 per sq. mm (range: 1.400 to 2.000 cells per sq. mm). The grafts were of uniform thickness, but substantial interface haze was present in most grafts. Posterior lamellar corneal grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side using a femto-second laser. All grafts were clear after 6 months with satisfying endothelial cell counts. Poor visual acuity caused by interface scatter was observed in most patients. Femto-second laser cutting parameters needs to be optimised to

  7. Inverse Cutting of Posterior Lamellar Corneal Grafts by a Femtosecond Laser

    PubMed Central

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders; Søndergaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side by a femto-second laser, resulting in reproducible, thin grafts of even thickness. Methods A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure was performed in 10 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Patients were followed-up regularly and evaluated by measurement of complications, visual acuity, corneal thickness (Pentacam HR), and endothelial cell density. Results Femto-laser cutting of grafts and surgery was uncomplicated. Rebubbling was necessary in 5 of 10 cases (normally only in 1 of 20 cases). All grafts were attached and cleared up during the first few weeks. After six months, the average visual acuity was 0.30 (range: 0.16 to 0.50), corneal thickness was 0.58 mm (range 0.51 to 0.63), and endothelial cell density was 1.570 per sq. mm (range: 1.400 to 2.000 cells per sq. mm). The grafts were of uniform thickness, but substantial interface haze was present in most grafts. Conclusions Posterior lamellar corneal grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side using a femto-second laser. All grafts were clear after 6 months with satisfying endothelial cell counts. Poor visual acuity caused by interface scatter was observed in most patients. Femto-second laser cutting

  8. Post-operative rotator cuff integrity, based on Sugaya's classification, can reflect abduction muscle strength of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahito; Collin, Phillipe; Josseaume, Thierry; Lädermann, Alexandre; Goto, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Katumasa; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is common in structural and qualitative assessment of the rotator cuff post-operatively. Rotator cuff integrity has been thought to be associated with clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability of cuff integrity (Sugaya's classification) and assess the correlation between Sugaya's classification and the clinical outcome. It was hypothesized that Sugaya's classification would show good reliability and good correlation with the clinical outcome. Post-operative MR images were taken two years post-operatively, following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. For assessment of inter-rater reliability, all radiographic evaluations for the supraspinatus muscle were done by two orthopaedic surgeons and one radiologist. Rotator cuff integrity was classified into five categories, according to Sugaya's classification. Fatty infiltration was graded into four categories, based on the Fuchs' classification grading system. Muscle hypotrophy was graded as four grades, according to the scale proposed by Warner. The clinical outcome was assessed according to the constant scoring system pre-operatively and 2 years post-operatively. Of the sixty-two consecutive patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears, fifty-two patients were reviewed in this study. These subjects included twenty-three men and twenty-nine women, with an average age of fifty-seven years. In terms of the inter-rater reliability between orthopaedic surgeons, Sugaya's classification showed the highest agreement [ICC (2.1) = 0.82] for rotator cuff integrity. The grade of fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy demonstrated good agreement, respectively (0.722 and 0.758). With regard to the inter-rater reliability between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist, Sugaya's classification showed good reliability [ICC (2.1) = 0.70]. On the other hand, fatty infiltration and muscle hypotrophy classifications demonstrated fair and moderate agreement

  9. Connecting Observations and Reanalysis of the MJO with Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years, refined theories have been advanced the explain the onset and/or propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation over the tropical warm pool. For example, Adames and Kim (2016) built on Sobel and Maloney (2012, 2013) to describe the MJO as a dispersive moisture wave whose instability mechanism is a radiative-convective instability supported by anvils of large mesoscale systems. Wang and Chen (2016) describe a similar frictionally coupled moisture mode that captures many basic features of the canonically observed MJO. Arnold and Randall (2015) hypothesize that the MJO might be described as self-aggregation of convection over the Indian Ocean. Fuchs and Raymond (2017) describe the MJO as a first baroclinic dispersive mode in a simplified model with a linear WISHE instability that shows decreased propagation speeds for lower wavelengths. Not all of these theories can be correct, and quite possibly none of them are fully. Intelligent use of observations and reanalysis of past MJO events can help guide development of MJO theory. For example, Powell (2017) shows that in MERRA-2 reanalysis, the MJO propagates as a convectively coupled Kelvin wave over the Western Hemisphere then transitions abruptly into a slower moving mode over the Indian Ocean. A complete MJO theory must account for both forms as, and when, the MJO circumnavigates. Observations (like TRMM and GPM data) and reanalysis can reveal the relative roles of cloud-scale processes and large-scale free tropospheric horizontal advection in "pre-moistening" the troposphere in the location of MJO initiation where subsequent propagation of an existing MJO occurs. This can, for example, help validate or refute aspects of moisture mode theory that require large-scale dynamics to moisten an area ahead of an active envelope of MJO-related convection before the MJO can propagate eastward. Radar and satellite observations might yield some insight into whether convective self-aggregation is a real

  10. First OH reactivity measurements in Harvard Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdlinger-Blatt, I. S.; Martin, S. T.; Hansel, A.; McKinney, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    , Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 12, 871-875, (1998). W. Lindinger, A. Hansel, and A. Jordan: Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels. Chemical Society Reviews , 27, 1998. S. Lou, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. Zhang, W. Wang, and A. Hofzumahaus, Atmospheric OH reactivities in the Pearl River Delta - China in summer 2006: measurement and model results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11243-11260, (2010). V. Sinha, J. Williams, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld., The Comparaptive Reactivity Methode - a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air, Atmos. Env., 38, 2511-2522, (2008).

  11. Associations of Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Snoring with Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wu, Kana; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Frank; Ogino, Shuji; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Redline, Susan; Willett, Walter C.; Ma, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: We assessed the relationship between sleep duration, snoring and colorectal cancer risk. Design: Prospective cohort studies. Setting: United States. Participants: A total of 30,121 men aged 41 to 79 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 76,368 women aged 40 to 73 years in the Nurses' Health Study. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: We queried information on sleep duration and snoring in 1986/87. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs, 95% CIs). We documented 1,973 incident colorectal cancer cases (709 men and 1,264 women) over a 22-year follow-up period. Compared to sleep an average 7 h, ≥ 9 h of sleep was significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer among men (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.82), and to a lesser degree, among women (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.44). The risk associated with longer sleep was restricted to individuals who regularly snored (men: HR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.84; women: HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.36) and to overweight individuals (i.e., BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) (men: HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.21; women: HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.94). Short sleep duration (≤ 5 h) was not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in the entire sample or in subgroups stratified by snoring or BMI. Conclusions: Longer sleep duration was associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer among individuals who were overweight or snored regularly. This observation raises the possibility that sleep apnea and its attendant intermittent hypoxemia may contribute to cancer risk. Citation: Zhang X; Giovannucci EL; Wu K; Gao X; Hu F; Ogino S; Schernhammer ES; Fuchs CS; Redline S; Willett WC; Ma J. Associations of self-reported sleep duration and snoring with colorectal cancer risk in men and women. SLEEP 2013;36(5):681-688. PMID:23633750

  12. Ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "Antidotes" in Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron.

    PubMed

    Valiakos, E; Marselos, M; Sakellaridis, N; Constantinidis, Th; Skaltsa, H

    2015-04-02

    This paper focuses on the plants quoted in the recipes of the first chapter entitled "About the Antidotes" belonging to the first and largest section "Element Alpha" of Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron, a medieval medical manuscript. Nikolaos Myrepsos was a Byzantine physician at the court of John III Doukas Vatatzes at Nicaea (13th century). He wrote in Greek a rich collection of 2667 recipes, the richest number known in late Byzantine era, conventionally known as Dynameron and divided into 24 sections, the "Elements". The only existing translation of this work is in Latin, released in 1549 in Basel by Leonhart Fuchs. Since no other translation has ever been made in any language, this work still remains poorly known. Our primary source material was the codex written in 1339 and kept in the National Library of France (in Paris) under the number grec. 2243. For comparison, all the other codices, which contain the entire manuscript, have also been studied, namely the codices EBE 1478 (National Library of Greece, Athens), grec. 2237 and grec. 2238 (both in Paris), Lavra Ε 192 (Mont Athos, Monastery of Megisti Lavra), Barocci 171 (Oxford) and Revilla 83 (Escorial). The exhaustive study of the "About the Antidotes" led us to the interpretation of 293 plant names among which we recognized 39 medicinal plants listed by the European Medicines Agency, (Herbal Medicines, www.ema.eu); the therapeutic indications of some of them provided by Myrepsos were similar or related to their current ones, as given in their monographs. The plants belong to various families of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae 10.6%; Lamiaceae 9.2%; Asteraceae 8.9%; Fabaceae 6.8% and Rosaceae 5.1%. The most frequently mentioned plants even under several different names are the following: Apium graveolens L., Crocus sativus L., Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Rosa centifolia L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Papaver somniferum L., Costus sp., Petroselinum

  13. Global Survey of Corneal Transplantation and Eye Banking.

    PubMed

    Gain, Philippe; Jullienne, Rémy; He, Zhiguo; Aldossary, Mansour; Acquart, Sophie; Cognasse, Fabrice; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-02-01

    Corneal transplantation restores visual function when visual impairment caused by a corneal disease becomes too severe. It is considered the world's most frequent type of transplantation, but, to our knowledge, there are no exhaustive data allowing measurement of supply and demand, although such data are essential in defining local, national, and global strategies to fight corneal blindness. To describe the worldwide situation of corneal transplantation supply and demand. Data were collected between August 2012 and August 2013 from a systematic review of published literature in parallel with national and international reports on corneal transplantation and eye banking. In a second step, eye bank staff and/or corneal surgeons were interviewed on their local activities. Interviews were performed during international ophthalmology or eye-banking congresses or by telephone or email. Countries' national supply/demand status was classified using a 7-grade system. Data were collected from 148 countries. Corneal transplantation and corneal procurements per capita in each country. In 2012, we identified 184,576 corneal transplants performed in 116 countries. These were procured from 283,530 corneas and stored in 742 eye banks. The top indications were Fuchs dystrophy (39% of all corneal transplants performed), a primary corneal edema mostly affecting elderly individuals; keratoconus (27%), a corneal disease that slowly deforms the cornea in young people; and sequellae of infectious keratitis (20%). The United States, with 199.10-6 corneal transplants per capita, had the highest transplantation rate, followed by Lebanon (122.10-6) and Canada (117.10-6), while the median of the 116 transplanting countries was 19.10-6. Corneas were procured in only 82 countries. Only the United States and Sri Lanka exported large numbers of donor corneas. About 53% of the world's population had no access to corneal transplantation. Our survey globally quantified the considerable shortage of

  14. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty 3-year graft and endothelial cell survival compared with penetrating keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Price, Marianne O.; Gorovoy, Mark; Price, Francis W.; Benetz, Beth A.; Menegay, Harry J.; Lass, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess 3-year outcomes of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in comparison with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS). Design Prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized clinical trial. Participants A total of 173 subjects undergoing DSAEK for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) compared with 1101 subjects undergoing PKP from the CDS. Methods The DSAEK procedures were performed by two experienced surgeons using the same donor and similar recipient criteria as for the CDS PKP procedures, performed by 68 surgeons. Graft success was assessed by Kaplan Meier survival analysis. Central endothelial cell density (ECD) was determined from baseline donor and postoperative central endothelial images by the reading center used in the CDS Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study. Main Outcome Measures Graft clarity and endothelial cell density Results The donor and recipient demographics were comparable in the DSAEK and PKP groups, except the proportion of Fuchs’ dystrophy cases was higher in the DSAEK cohort. The 3-year survival rate did not differ significantly between DSAEK and PKP procedures performed for either Fuchs’ dystrophy (96% for both, P=0.81) or non-Fuchs cases (86% vs. 84%, respectively, P=0.41). Principal causes of graft failure/regraft within 3 years after DSAEK and PKP were immunologic graft rejection (0.6% vs. 3.1%), endothelial decompensation in the absence of documented rejection (1.7% vs 2.1%), unsatisfactory visual or refractive outcome (1.7% vs. 0.5%), and infection (0% vs. 1.1%), respectively. The 3-year predicted probability of a rejection episode was 9% with DSAEK vs. 20% with PKP (P=0.0005). The median 3-year cell loss for DSAEK and PKP was 46% and 51%, respectively (P=0.33) in Fuchs’s dystrophy cases, and 59% and 61%, respectively (P=0.70), in the non-Fuchs’ cases. At 3 years, use of a smaller DSAEK insertion incision was associated

  15. Extending amulti-scale parameter regionalization (MPR) method by introducing parameter constrained optimization and flexible transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    A multi-scale parameter-estimation method, as presented by Samaniego et al. (2010), is implemented and extended for the conceptual hydrological model COSERO. COSERO is a HBV-type model that is specialized for alpine-environments, but has been applied over a wide range of basins all over the world (see: Kling et al., 2014 for an overview). Within the methodology available small-scale information (DEM, soil texture, land cover, etc.) is used to estimate the coarse-scale model parameters by applying a set of transfer-functions (TFs) and subsequent averaging methods, whereby only TF hyper-parameters are optimized against available observations (e.g. runoff data). The parameter regionalisation approach was extended in order to allow for a more meta-heuristical handling of the transfer-functions. The two main novelties are: 1. An explicit introduction of constrains into parameter estimation scheme: The constraint scheme replaces invalid parts of the transfer-function-solution space with valid solutions. It is inspired by applications in evolutionary algorithms and related to the combination of learning and evolution. This allows the consideration of physical and numerical constraints as well as the incorporation of a priori modeller-experience into the parameter estimation. 2. Spline-based transfer-functions: Spline-based functions enable arbitrary forms of transfer-functions: This is of importance since in many cases the general relationship between sub-grid information and parameters are known, but not the form of the transfer-function itself. The contribution presents the results and experiences with the adopted method and the introduced extensions. Simulation are performed for the pre-alpine/alpine Traisen catchment in Lower Austria. References: Samaniego, L., Kumar, R., Attinger, S. (2010): Multiscale parameter regionalization of a grid-based hydrologic model at the mesoscale, Water Resour. Res., doi: 10.1029/2008WR007327 Kling, H., Stanzel, P., Fuchs, M., and

  16. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    sleep regulation and sleep function, with the added advantage that it is a day-active species closely related to primates. Citation: Coolen A; Hoffmann K; Barf RP; Fuchs E; Meerlo P. Telemetric study of sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the day-active tree shrew Tupaia belangeri. SLEEP 2012;35(6):879-888. PMID:22654207

  17. Carrier interactions and porosity initiated reversal of temperature dependence of thermal conduction in nanoscale tin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Pankaj B.; Prakash, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tin has been identified as an attractive electrode material for energy storage/conversion technologies. Tin thin films have also been utilized as an important constituent of thermal interface materials in thermal management applications. In this regards, in the present paper, we investigate thermal conductivity of two nanoscale tin films, (i) with thickness 500 ± 50 nm and 0.45% porosity and (ii) with thickness 100 ± 20 nm and 12.21% porosity. Thermal transport in these films is characterized over the temperature range from 40 K-310 K, using a three-omega method for multilayer configurations. The experimental results are compared with analytical predictions obtained by considering both phonon and electron contributions to heat conduction as described by existing frequency-dependent phenomenological models and BvK dispersion for phonons. The thermal conductivity of the thicker tin film (500 nm) is measured to be 46.2 W/m-K at 300 K and is observed to increase with reduced temperatures; the mechanisms for thermal transport are understood to be governed by strong phonon-electron interactions in addition to the normal phonon-phonon interactions within the temperature range 160 K-300 K. In the case of the tin thin film with 100 nm thickness, porosity and electron-boundary scattering supersede carrier interactions, and a reversal in the thermal conductivity trend with reduced temperatures is observed; the thermal conductivity falls to 1.83 W/m-K at 40 K from its room temperature value of 36.1 W/m-K. In order to interpret the experimental results, we utilize the existing analytical models that account for contributions of electron-boundary scattering using the Mayadas-Shatzkes and Fuchs-Sondheimer models for the thin and thick films, respectively. Moreover, the effects of porosity on carrier transport are included using a previous treatment based on phonon radiative transport involving frequency-dependent mean free paths and the morphology of the nanoporous

  18. Stability and precipitation of diverse nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Chintal

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry that is exploiting the novel characteristics of materials manufactured at the nanoscale. Carbon based nanomaterials such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Detonation Nanodiamond (DND) possess unique properties and find a wide range of industrial applications. With the advent of mass production of such materials, there is a possibility of contamination of water resources. Depending on the surface properties and structures, they might aggregate and settle down, or be dispersed and transported by the water. Therefore, there is a need to develop an understanding of the fate of such materials in aqueous media. The understanding and effect of solution chemistry is a key to predicting their deposition, transport, reactivity, and bioavailability in aquatic environments. The colloidal behavior of organic dispersed CNTs and water dispersed DNDs is investigated. The aggregation behavior of these two colloidal systems is quite different from that of hydrophilic, water soluble functionalized CNTs (F-CNTs). The values of the Fuchs stability ratio or the critical coagulant concentration are determined experimentally using time-resolved dynamic light scattering and are used to predict the stability of such systems. It is found that the aggregation behavior of the organic dispersed, antisolvent precipitated system does not follow the conventional Derjaguin--Landau--Verwey-- Overbeek (DLVO) theory. But they stabilize in the long term, which is attributed to the supersaturation generated by different solubility of a solute in the solvent/antisolvent. Based on particle size distribution, zeta potential as well as the aggregation kinetics, the water dispersed DNDs are found to be relatively stable in aqueous solutions, but aggregate rapidly in presence of mono and divalent salts. Also, the formation of carboxylic groups on the DND surface does not alter colloidal behavior as dramatically as it does for other nanocarbons especially carbon

  19. Multifunctional ion transport properties of human SLC4A11: comparison of the SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C variants.

    PubMed

    Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Shao, Xuesi M; Frausto, Ricardo F; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Aldave, Anthony J; Kurtz, Ira

    2016-11-01

    Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED), Harboyan syndrome (CHED with progressive sensorineural deafness), and potentially a subset of individuals with late-onset Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy are caused by mutations in the SLC4A11 gene that results in corneal endothelial cell abnormalities. Originally classified as a borate transporter, the function of SLC4A11 as a transport protein remains poorly understood. Elucidating the transport function(s) of SLC4A11 is needed to better understand how its loss results in the aforementioned posterior corneal dystrophic disease processes. Quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that, of the three known human NH 2 -terminal variants, SLC4A11-C is the major transcript expressed in human corneal endothelium. We studied the expression pattern of the three variants in mammalian HEK-293 cells and demonstrated that the SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C variants are plasma membrane proteins, whereas SLC4A11-A is localized intracellularly. SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C were shown to be multifunctional ion transporters capable of transporting H + equivalents in both a Na + -independent and Na + -coupled mode. In both transport modes, SLC4A11-C H + flux was significantly greater than SLC4A11-B. In the presence of ammonia, SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C generated inward currents that were comparable in magnitude. Chimera SLC4A11-C-NH 2 -terminus-SLC4A11-B experiments demonstrated that the SLC4A11-C NH 2 -terminus functions as an autoactivating domain, enhancing Na + -independent and Na + -coupled H + flux without significantly affecting the electrogenic NH 3 -H (n) + cotransport mode. All three modes of transport were significantly impaired in the presence of the CHED causing p.R109H (SLC4A11-C numbering) mutation. These complex ion transport properties need to be addressed in the context of corneal endothelial disease processes caused by mutations in SLC4A11. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Indications for and outcomes of repeat penetrating keratoplasty, 1989-1995.

    PubMed

    Patel, N P; Kim, T; Rapuano, C J; Cohen, E J; Laibson, P R

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the indications for and outcomes of repeat penetrating keratoplasty over a 7-year period and compare them to a similar study over the prior 6-year period at the same institution. Retrospective noncomparative case series. Two hundred twenty-three consecutive repeat corneal transplants performed by one of five corneal surgeons between 1989 and 1995 were studied. Reasons for primary and regraft failure, indications for the initial corneal graft, graft clarity, and best-corrected visual acuity were measured on each patient. Between 1989 and 1995, 16% (271 of 1689) of transplants performed by our cornea group were regrafts compared with 9% (165 of 1860) in the period from 1983 to 1988 (P < 0.01). The most common indications for penetrating keratoplasty before regraft were pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (27%, 61 of 223), failed graft (20%, 44 of 223), Fuchs' dystrophy (11%, 24 of 223), aphakic bullous keratopathy (9%, 21 of 223), keratoconus (8%, 17 of 223), and herpes simplex keratitis (6%, 14 of 223). Compared with the prior study period of 1983 to 1988, an increase was revealed in the incidence of failed graft (11% to 20%, P = 0.03), and a decrease was revealed in the incidence of aphakic bullous keratopathy (19% to 9%, P = 0.01). Of the 223 regrafts, 55 (25%) failed during the study period (range, 1 month to 7.5 years; mean 2.1 years). Eleven percent (6 of 55) of regraft failures occurred within 6 months, and 55% (30 of 55) failed within 18 months. Of the 150 regrafts with 2 years follow-up (mean, 3.9 years), 111 (74%) had clear grafts. A best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 to 20/40 was achieved in 41% (46 of 111), 20/50 to 20/100 in 32% (36 of 111), 20/200 to 20/400 in 21% (23 of 111), and counting fingers to no light perception in 5% (6 of 111). Failed grafts are increasing as an indication for penetrating keratoplasty. Graft clarity and visual acuity results continue to be very good, supporting the use of repeat corneal transplantation.

  1. UV-A Irradiation Activates Nrf2-Regulated Antioxidant Defense and Induces p53/Caspase3-Dependent Apoptosis in Corneal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cailing; Vojnovic, Dijana; Kochevar, Irene E.; Jurkunas, Ula V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defense and p53 are activated in human corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs) by environmental levels of ultraviolet A (UV-A), a known stimulator of oxidative stress. Methods Immortalized human CEnCs (HCEnCi) were exposed to UV-A fluences of 2.5, 5, 10, or 25 J/cm2, then allowed to recover for 3 to 24 hours. Control HCEnCi did not receive UV-A. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using H2DCFDA. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1, p53, and caspase3 were detected by immunnoblotting or real-time PCR. Activated caspase3 was measured by immunoblotting and a fluorescence assay. Results Exposure of HCEnCi to 5, 10, and 25 J/cm2 UV-A increased ROS levels compared with controls. Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1 mRNA increased 1.7- to 3.2-fold at 3 and 6 hours after irradiation with 2.5 and 5 J/cm2 UV-A. At 6 hours post irradiation, UV-A (5 J/cm2) enhanced nuclear Nrf2 translocation. At 24 hours post treatment, UV-A (5, 10, and 25 J/cm2) produced a 1.8- to 2.8-fold increase in phospho-p53 and a 2.6- to 6.0-fold increase in activated caspase3 compared with controls, resulting in 20% to 42% cell death. Conclusions Lower fluences of UV-A induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant defense and higher fluences activate p53 and caspase3, indicating that even near-environmental levels of UV-A may affect normal CEnCs. This data suggest that UV-A may especially damage cells deficient in antioxidant defense, and thus may be involved in the etiology of Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). PMID:27127932

  2. Efficient implementation of the continuous-time hybridization expansion quantum impurity solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafermann, Hartmut; Werner, Philipp; Gull, Emanuel

    2013-04-01

    -magnetic host metal. They are widely used today. In nanoscience they serve as representations of quantum dots and molecular conductors. In condensed matter physics, they are playing an increasingly important role in the description of strongly correlated electron materials, where the complicated many-body problem is mapped onto an auxiliary quantum impurity model in the context of dynamical mean-field theory, and its cluster and diagrammatic extensions. They still constitutes a non-trivial many-body problem, which takes into account the (possibly retarded) interaction between electrons occupying the impurity site. Electrons are allowed to dynamically hop on and off the impurity site, which is described by a time-dependent hybridization function. Solution method: The quantum impurity model is solved using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm which is based on a perturbation expansion of the partition function in the impurity-bath hybridization. Monte Carlo configurations are represented as segments on the imaginary time interval and individual terms correspond to Feynman diagrams which are stochastically sampled to all orders using a Metropolis algorithm. For a detailed review on the method, we refer the reader to [8]. Running time: 1-8 h. B. Bauer, L. D. Carr, H. G. Evertz, A. Feiguin, J. Freire, S. Fuchs, L. Gamper, J. Gukelberger, E. Gull, S. Guertler, A. Hehn, R. Igarashi, S. V. Isakov, D. Koop, P. N. Ma, P. Mates, H. Matsuo, O. Parcollet, G. Pawlowski, J. D. Picon, L. Pollet, E. Santos, V. W. Scarola, U. Schollwöck, C. Silva, B. Surer, S. Todo, S. Trebst, M. Troyer, M. L. Wall, P. Werner and S. Wessel, Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment 2011, P05001 (2011). F. Alet, P. Dayal, A. Grzesik, A. Honecker, M. Körner, A. Läuchli, S. R. Manmana, I. P. McCulloch, F. Michel, R. M. Noack, G. Schmid, U. Schollwöck, F. Stöckli, S. Todo, S. Trebst, M. Troyer, P. Werner, S. Wessel, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 74S (2005) 30. A. Albuquerque, F. Alet, P. Corboz

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuelmore » Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  4. The record of India-Asia collision preserved in Tethyan ocean basin sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Yani; Jenks, Dan; Godin, Laurent; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Bown, Paul; Horstwood, Matt; Garzanti, Eduardo; Bracialli, Laura; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    the time of collision. With the recent discovery that the Indus Group sediments in the suture zone cannot be used for this purpose as previously proposed (Henderson et al. 2011) we turn to the 54 Ma Kong and Chulung La Formation youngest Tethyan sediments on the Indian margin (Garzanti et al. 1987) to investigate whether we can identify such material, and whether it be Spong arc (Fuchs and Willems 1990), KLA or Trans-Himalayan derived, thus determining what collided with India and when. References Bouilhol P, Jagoutz O, Hanchar JM, Dudas FO. 2013. Dating the India-Eurasia collision through arc magmatic records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 366, 163-175. Chatterjee S, Goswami A, Scotese CR. 2013. The longest voyage: Tectonic, magmatic, and paleoclimatic evolution of the Indian plate during its northward flight from Gondwana to Asia. Gondwana Research 23, 238-267. Clift P, Carter A, Krol M, Kirby E. 2002. Constraints on India-Eurasia collision in the Arabian sea region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. The tectonic and climatic evolution of the Arabian Sea region Geological Society of London Special Publication 195, 97-116. de Sigoyer J, Chavagnac V, Blichert-Toft J, Villa IM, Luais B, Guillot S, Cosca M, Mascle G. 2000. Dating the Indian continental subduction and collisional thickening in the northwest Himalaya: Multichronology of the Tso Morari eclogites. Geology 28, 487-490. Fuchs G, Willems H. 1990. The final stages of sedimentation in the Tethyan zone of Zanskar and their geodynamic significance (Ladakh - Himalaya). Jahrbuche Geologische Bundenstalt 133: 259-273. Garzanti E, Baud A, Mascle G. 1987. Sedimentary Record of the Northward Flight of India and Its Collision with Eurasia (Ladakh Himalaya, India). Geodinamica Acta 1, 297-312. Green OR, Searle MP, Corfield RI, Corfield RM. 2008. Cretaceous-tertiary carbonate platform evolution and the age of the India-Asia collision along the Ladakh Himalaya (northwest India). J Geol 116: 331

  5. The sedimentary record of India-Asia collision: an evaluation of new and existing constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Yani; Henderson, Alex; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Godin, Laurent; Parrish, Randy; Bown, Paul; Garzanti, Eduardo; Horstwood, Matt; Jenks, Dan

    2010-05-01

    fluvio-deltaic Chulung La Fm (Garzanti et al 1987). The age of the Kong and Chulung La Formations is disputed, from P5/6 (Fuchs & Willems 1990) to P8 (Garzanti et al 1987) the discrepancy possibly the result of research at different locations. Provenance is considered to be either ophiolitic from the Indian plate (Fuchs & Willems 1990) or containing detritus from the Trans-Himalayan arc of the Asian plate (Garzanti et al 1987; Critelli & Garzanti 1994). Our samples from the Kong Fm contained planktic foraminifera indicating a Middle to Early P6 age (54-56 Ma) and larger benthic foraminifera indicating Middle SBZ8 age (53-54 Ma). U-Pb dating of detrital zircons allows discrimination between Asian provenance (dominated by Mesozoic grains from the Trans-Himalayan arc) and Indian provenance (characterized by Precambrian grains and an absence of Mesozoic grains). Our data from the Kong and Chulung La Fms shows a primary provenance from the Asian plate. Thus collision is constrained by arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian plate by 54 Ma. In Tingri, Tibet, Indian plate passive margin limestones of the Zephure Shan Fm extend to the early Eocene, overlain by marine facies of the Pengqu Fm. The youngest marine facies have been dated at 34 Ma (Wang et al. 2002), but this age is disputed by other workers who assign an age of 50 Ma (Zhu et al. 2005). Our new biostratigraphic data from the Pengqu Fm show that calcareous nannofossil species are compatible with an age corresponding to Zones NP11-12 (50.6-53.5 Ma). The dominant population of zircons have Cretaceous-Paleocene ages, derived from the Asian plate, thus indicating that contact between India and Asia had occurred by this time. We therefore conclude that although the Indus Molasse does not provide constraint to the timing of India-Asia collision as previously thought, data from the Tethyan strata show that collision occurred by 54 Ma in the west, with only extremely limited, if any diachroneity eastward.

  6. Link between Miocene compression of Lower Austroalpine Rust Range and subsidence of neighboring Eisenstadt Basin: Results from high-resolution geophysics at the Oslip section (Northern Burgenland, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Hermann; Scheibz, Jürgen; Chwatal, Werner; Kohlbeck, Franz

    2014-05-01

    ) During Middle Badenian times shallow-marine Leitha Limestone was deposited along islands and atolls of the crystalline basement, and clastic sedimentation of the Eisenstadt Basin comprised both fine clastic marine and coarse clastic fluvial deposits. 3) Since Leitha Formation on top of the Rust Range is of Middle Badenian age, the base of which is located at an altitude of 200 meter above sea level, and limestone beds equivalent in age crop out at the eastern and western side of the Range at an altitude of 130 meter, we conclude epirogenetic uplift of Rust Range, which took place after Middle Badenian times. 4) The uplifted Rust Range was sealed by deposits of Upper Sarmatian age at its western side near St. Margarethen and at its eastern side north of Oggau. 5) Updoming of the Rust Range of at least 70 meters caused open fold structures in the Lower Miocene succession as measured along the Oslip road-section, openly folded limestone beds of Middle Badenian age east of St. Margarethen (Fuchs, 1965; Sauer et al., 1992) as well as eastward tilted successions of Badenian age, the fault tectonics of which was interpreted as reverse drag associated with deformation bands in the footwall of a normal fault in the Oslip sandpit by Spahić et al. (2011). 6) The exploration well Zillingtal 1 in the western Eisenstadt Basin down to a depth of 1415 m proofed 1150 m thick deposits of Badenian age overlain by approximately 200 m thick deposits of Sarmatian age (Häusler, in press). Consequently subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin coevalled the short period of updoming and openly folding of the Rust Range during Upper Badenian to Lower Sarmatian times. 7) Ongoing subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin along the listric fault in front of the uplifted Rust Range until Middle Pannonian times resulted in growth strata dipping to the east and fault drags indicating a hanging-wall syncline. Fuchs, W. (1965): Geologie des Ruster Berglandes (Burgenland). - Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt

  7. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Gao, Xiufeng; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Liu, Jenney; Aras, Siddhesh; Sommer, Natascha; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Tost, Monica; Neff, Frauke; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Naton, Beatrix; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Schrewe, Anja; Sun, Minxuan; Höfler, Heinz; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Weissmann, Norbert; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Bassett, David J. P.; Grossman, Lawrence I.

    2012-01-01

    and thus reduced airway responsiveness; long-term lung pathology develops in the knockout mice due to impairment of energy-costly lung maintenance processes; and therefore, we propose mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as asthma.—Hüttemann, M., Lee, I., Gao, X., Pecina, P., Pecinova, A., Liu, J., Aras, S., Sommer, N., Sanderson, T. H., Tost, M., Neff, F., Aguilar-Pimentel, J. A., Becker, L., Naton, B., Rathkolb, B., Rozman, J., Favor, J., Hans, W., Prehn, C., Puk, O., Schrewe, A., Sun, M., Höfler, H., Adamski, J., Bekeredjian, R., Graw, J., Adler, T., Busch, D. H., Klingenspor, M., Klopstock, T., Ollert, M., Wolf, E., Fuchs, H., Gailus-Durner, V., Hrabě de Angelis, M., Weissmann, N., Doan, J. W., Bassett, D. J. P., Grossman, L. I. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology. PMID:22730437

  8. Isochron burial dating of Danube terraces in the course of an interlaboratory comparison on sample preparation in Vienna and Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, Stephanie; Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Decker, Kurt; Braucher, Regis; Fiebig, Markus; Braun, Mihály; Häuselmann, Philipp; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    -depositional history, but have different pre-exposure and transport histories [4]. The sandy gravel of the Haslau terrace was sampled in an active gravel pit. At this location, two major sedimentary units are separated by an erosional hiatus of unknown duration. The upper sequence was sampled at 5.5 m depth and the lower one was sampled at 11.8 m depth. From both depths six quartzite or quartz-bearing cobbles were taken together with a bulk sample from the matrix for isochron burial duration determination. Five samples were split after crushing and sieving and were processed at both the Cosmogenic Nuclide Sample Preparation Laboratory at Vienna and at Budapest (http://www.geochem.hu/kozmogen/Lab_en.html), in order to assess and compare the sample processing preocedures of these recently operating sample preparation laboratories. AMS measurements were performed at the French national facility ASTER (CEREGE (Aix-en-Provence, France). Thanks to OTKA PD83610, NKM-96/2014, NKM-31/2015; OMAA 90öu17; LP2012-27/2012. INSU/CNRS, the ANR through the program "EQUIPEX Investissement d'Avenir", IRD and CEA. [1] Decker et al., 2005. QSR 24, 307-322 [2] Hintersberger et al, 2013, EGU2013-12755 [3] Salcher et al. 2012. Tectonics, 31, TC3004, doi:10.1029/2011TC002979 [4] Balco and Rovey, 2008. AJS 908, 1083-1114 [5] Fuchs and Grill, 1984, Geologische Gebietskarte der Republik Österreich 1:200 000 Wien und Umgebung

  9. Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons (IAU S244)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Jonathan I.; Disney, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    ; Numerical simulation of the dwarf companions of giant galaxies A. Nelson and P. Williams; Delayed galaxies C. Struck, M. Hancock, B. Smith, P. Appleton, V. Charmandaris and M. Giroux; Probe of dark galaxies via disturbed/lopsided isolated galaxies I. Karachentsev, V. Karachentseva, W. Huchtmeier, D. Makarov and S. Kaisin; Star formation thresholds J. Schaye; Scaling relations of dwarf galaxies without supernova-driven winds K. Tassis, A. Kravtsov and N. Gnedin; Star formation in massive low surface brightness galaxies K. O'Neil; Linking clustering properties and the evolution of low surface brightness galaxies D. Bomans and S. Rosenbaum; Too small to form a galaxy: how the UV background determines the baryon fraction M. Hoeft, G. Yepes and S. Gottlober; Star formation in damped Lyman selected galaxies L. Christensen; Dark-matter content of early-type galaxies with planetary nebulae N. Napolitano et al.; Hunting for ghosts: low surface brightnesses from pixels R. Scaramella and S. Sabatini; Baryonic properties of the darkest galaxies E. Grebel; The dwarf low surface brightness population in different environments of the local universe S. Sabatini, J. Davies, S. Roberts and R. Scaramella; Mass modelling of dwarf spheroidal galaxies J. Klimentowski et al.; Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A Group L. Makarova and D. Makarov; A flat faint end of the Fornax cluster galaxy luminosity function S. Mieske, M. Hilker, L. Infante and C. Mendes de Oliveira; Can massive dark halos destroy the discs of dwarf galaxies? B. Fuchs and O. Esquivel; 'Dark galaxies' and local very metal-poor gas-rich galaxies: possible interrelations S. Pustilnik; Morphology and environment of dwarf galaxies in the local universe H. Ann; Arecibo survey of HI emission from disk galaxies at redshift z 0.2 B. Catinella, M. Haynes, J. Gardner, A. Connolly and R. Giovanelli; AGES observations of

  10. Optimization of immunostaining on flat-mounted human corneas.

    PubMed

    Forest, Fabien; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe; Dumollard, Jean-Marc; Peoc'h, Michel; Perrache, Chantal; He, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    In the literature, immunohistochemistry on cross sections is the main technique used to study protein expression in corneal endothelial cells (ECs), even though this method allows visualization of few ECs, without clear subcellular localization, and is subject to the staining artifacts frequently encountered at tissue borders. We previously proposed several protocols, using fixation in 0.5% paraformaldehyde (PFA) or in methanol, allowing immunostaining on flatmounted corneas for proteins of different cell compartments. In the present study, we further refined the technique by systematically assessing the effect of fixative temperature. Last, we used optimized protocols to further demonstrate the considerable advantages of immunostaining on flatmounted intact corneas: detection of rare cells in large fields of thousands of ECs and epithelial cells, and accurate subcellular localization of given proteins. The staining of four ubiquitous proteins, ZO-1, hnRNP L, actin, and histone H3, with clearly different subcellular localizations, was analyzed in ECs of organ-cultured corneas. Whole intact human corneas were fixed for 30 min in 0.5% paraformaldehyde or pure methanol at four temperatures (4 °C for PFA, -20 °C for methanol, and 23, 37, and 50 °C for both). Experiments were performed in duplicate and repeated on three corneas. Standardized pictures were analyzed independently by two experts. Second, optimized immunostaining protocols were applied to fresh corneas for three applications: identification of rare cells that express KI67 in the endothelium of specimens with Fuch's endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), the precise localization of neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) in normal ECs and of the cytokeratin pair K3/12 and CD44 in normal epithelial cells, and the identification of cells that express S100b in the normal epithelium. Temperature strongly influenced immunostaining quality. There was no ubiquitous protocol, but nevertheless, room temperature may

  11. Hot spots, hot moments and time-span of changes in drivers and their responses on carbon cycling in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomelleri, E.; Forkel, M.; Fuchs, R.; Jung, M.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Weber, U.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a complete quantitative assessment of the annual to decadal variability, hotspots of changes and the temporal magnitude of regional trends and variability for the main drivers of carbon cycle like climate and land use and their responses for Europe. For this purpose we used an harmonized climatic data set (ERA Interim and WATCH) and an historical land-use change reconstruction (HILDAv1, Fuchs in prep.). Both the data sets cover the period 1900-2010 and have a 0.25 deg spatial resolution. As driver response we used two different empirically up-scaled GPP fields: the first (MTE) obtained by the application of model trees (Jung et al. 2009) and a second (LUE) based on a light use efficiency model (Tomelleri in prep.). Both the approaches are based on the up-scaling of Fluxnet observations. The response fields have monthly temporal resolution and are limited to the period 1982-2011. We estimated break-points in time series of driver and response variables based on the method of Bai and Perron (2003) to identify changes in trends. This method was implemented in Verbesselt et al. 2010 and applied by deJong et al. 2011 to detect phenological and abrupt changes and trends in vegetation activity based on satellite-derived vegetation index time series. The analysis of drivers and responses allowed to identify the dominant factors driving the biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange. The synchronous analysis of climatic drivers and land use change allowed us to explain most of the temporal and spatial variability showing that in the regions and time period where the most land use change occurred the climatic drivers are not sufficient to explain trends and oscillation in carbon cycling. The comparison of our analysis for the up-scaling methods shows some agreement: we found inconsistency in the spatial and temporal patterns in regions where the Fluxnet network is less dense. This can be explained by the conceptual difference in the up

  12. Mineral Dilution and Shallow Groundwater Dynamics as Motor to Drive Fluid Migration in the Deep Crystalline Crust - Interpretation of Hydraulic Investigations From the 9,101 m Super Deep German Continental Drillhole -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Graesle, W.

    2002-12-01

    The results of 16 years of research at the scientific drilling test site KTB Oberpfalz show that fluid flow and open hydraulic fractures exist down to 9,101m (Kessels, 1991; Huenges et. al., 1997). This means that in this seismically low active area, crustal dynamics produces stress accumulation and related fracturing (Zoback et. al. 1993). Two major fractured fault zones cross the KTB main hole at about 4,000 m and 7,100m depth. Hydraulic communication between the KTB main hole and the 4,000 m deep pilot hole shows that the upper 400 m thick fracture zone has a good transmissivity and a very low fracture porosity (Kessels and KÂ\\x81ck, 1995). The distance between both holes was 200m. The isotopic components of the fluid recovered from this zone indicate a west - east fluid flow from a topographic lower sedimentary area to the higher hilly area of the KTB site (M”ller et. al. 1997). To explain this phenomenon, the existence of a permanent, density driven dilution motor pushing such a flow is suggested. With such a system it is possible to explain fluid flow in the deep crust against the higher potential of the groundwater surface. By means of a simple convection model it can be shown that the density driven dilution motor can create a more effective hydraulic potential than a motor driven by precipitation and the related hydraulic head of the groundwater surface. Furthermore, with common geothermal gradients, the geothermal convection motor is weak compared with the fluid density effects discussed here. References: KESSELS, W. (1991): Objectives and execution of hydraulic experiments in the KTB-Oberpfalz borehole within the long-term measurement and test programme, Scientific Drilling 2, S. 287-298. ZOBACK, D., APEL, R., BAUMGÂŽRTNER, J., BRUDY, M., EMMERMANN, R, ENGESER, B., FUCHS, K., KESSELS, W., RISCHMšLLER, H., RUMMEL, F., VERNIK, L. (1993): Upper-crustal strength inferred from stress measurements to 6 km depth in the KTB borehole, Nature, 365, S

  13. Incorporation of an evolutionary algorithm to estimate transfer-functions for a parameter regionalization scheme of a rainfall-runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    (Whitley et al., 1994), which might be understood as the idea that acquired characteristics during the lifetime of an individual can be transferred between generations. A hierarchical objective function is used for the model evaluation. This enables model preemption (Tolson et al., 2010) and reduces the amount of model evaluations in the early stages of optimization. References: • Samaniego, L., Kumar, R., Attinger, S. (2010): Multiscale parameter regionalization of a grid-based hydrologic model at the mesoscale, Water Resour. Res., doi: 10.1029/2008WR007327 • Kling, H., Stanzel, P., Fuchs, M., and Nachtnebel, H. P. (2014): Performance of the COSERO precipitation-runoff model under non-stationary conditions in basins with different climates, Hydrolog. Sci. J., doi:10.1080/02626667.2014.959956. • C. Ryan, J.J. Collins, Ji, Collins, M. O'Neil (1998): Evolving Programs for an Arbitrary Language, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1391, Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Genetic Programming. • B.A. Tolson, S. Razavi, L.S. Matott, N.R. Thomson, A. MacLean, F.R. Seglenieks (2010): Reducing the computational cost of automatic calibration through model preemption, Water Resour. Res., 46, W11523, doi:10.1029/2009WR008957. • D. Whitley, S. Gordon, K. Mathias (1994): Lamarckian evolution, the Baldwin effect, and function optimization, in Parallel Problem Solving from Nature (PPSN) III, Y. Davidor, H.-P. Schwefel, and R. Manner, Eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 6-15.

  14. Chladniite: A New Mineral Honoring the Father of Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Steele, I. M.; Keil, K.; Leonard, B. F.; Endress, M.

    1993-07-01

    cell. A total of 17 lines were observed in the powder pattern. Chladniite is hexagonal, R 3(bar), a = 14.967 angstroms, c = 42.595 angstroms, beta = 120 degrees. Attempts to determine the structure of chladniite are in progress. Chladniite is named for Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827), who is widely regarded as the "Father of Meteoritics." After his initial training as a lawyer, Chladni turned his attention to science, particularly problems in acoustics. He was not, however, able to obtain a permanent position and embarked upon the life of a nomad, traveling among the great cities of Europe lecturing about acoustics. During these travels, he eventually gained an interest in meteoritics. It was Chladni's pioneering book of 1794 that, for the first time, presented strong evidence for an extraterrestrial origin of meteoritic stones and irons [5]. In addition, Chladni argued that meteorites must have been the building blocks of all planets and argued that a large iron core must exist inside the Earth. During his extensive travels, Chladni also established a meteorite collection that can still be seen at Humboldt University in Berlin. It is appropriate that a mineral be named in his honor as we approach the 200th anniversary of the publication of his monumental work. References: [1] McCoy et al. (1993) Meteoritics, in press. [2] Fuchs et al. (1967) GCA, 21, 1711-1719. [3] Araki and Moore (1981) Am. Mineral., 66, 827-842. [4] Livingstone (1980) Min. Mag., 43, 833-836. [5] Chladni (1794) Riga, J. F. Hartknoch (in German); reprinted (with introduction by G. Hoppe) by Akad. Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig K.-G. (1982) (in German).

  15. Experiment and modeling: Ignition of aluminum particles with a carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Salil

    developed to describe the experiments. Experiments with different jet velocities in air environment were performed to validate the model. The interaction of the laser beam with particles is particle size dependent and a narrow range of particle sizes (around 3.4 microm) is heated most effectively. Therefore, the heat transfer model needs to be analyzed only for the particles with this specific size, which greatly simplifies the interpretation of experiments. Describing heating of a micron sized metal particle involves the transition regime heat transfer. A modified Fuchs model was used to describe the heat transfer in this study. In addition to dry air environment, the experimental technique was also used with other oxidizing environments, including O2, H2O, CO2 and mixtures thereof. It was observed that particle size capable of maintaining a vapor phase flame is a function of the environment. Arrhenius model kinetics parameters for Al ignition in O2, CO2 and H2O environments were determined.

  16. A Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial of Ultrathin Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) versus DSAEK.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Mor M; Kruit, Pieter J; Remeijer, Lies; van Rooij, Jeroen; Van der Lelij, Allegonda; Wijdh, Robert H J; van den Biggelaar, Frank J H M; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

    2016-11-01

    To compare visual acuity, refraction, endothelial cell density (ECD), and complications after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and ultrathin DSAEK (UT-DSAEK). A multicenter, prospective, double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial. From 66 patients with irreversible corneal endothelial dysfunction dues to Fuchs' dystrophy who enrolled from 4 tertiary medical centers in the Netherlands, 66 eyes were studied. Participants were centrally randomized to undergo either UT-DSAEK or DSAEK, based on preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), recipient central corneal thickness, patient age, and recruitment center. Donor corneas were precut by a single cornea bank. Participants underwent ophthalmic examinations preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after the operation, including manifest refraction, BSCVA using an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, and endothelium imaging. BSCVA 12 months postoperatively. Preoperative BSCVA did not differ between patients undergoing DSAEK (0.35 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.27-0.43]; n = 32) and UT-DSAEK (0.37 logMAR [95% CI 0.31-0.43]; n = 34; P = 0.8). BSCVA was significantly better after UT-DSAEK compared with that after DSAEK at 3 months (0.17 logMAR [95% CI 0.13-0.21], n = 31 vs. 0.28 logMAR [95% CI 0.23-0.33], n = 31; P = 0.001), 6 months (0.14 logMAR [95% CI 0.10-0.18], n = 30 vs. 0.24 logMAR [95% CI 0.20-0.28], n = 30; P = 0.002), and 12 months (0.13 logMAR [95% CI 0.09-0.17], n = 33 vs. 0.20 logMAR [95% CI 0.15-0.25], n = 29; P = 0.03). Refraction, ECD loss (40% at 3 months; P < 0.001), donor loss (DSAEK n = 2 vs. UT-DSAEK n = 3 [relative risk {RR} 1.4 {95% CI 0.24-7.5}; P = 0.7]), and graft dislocation (DSAEK n = 5 vs. UT-DSAEK n = 5 [RR 1.0 {95% CI 0.34-3.33}; P = 0.9]) did not differ between UT-DSAEK and DSAEK. Donor thickness was significantly thinner for UT-DSAEK (101 μm [95% CI 93

  17. DynaPop-X: A population dynamics model applied to spatio-temporal exposure assessment - Implementation aspects from the CRISMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Steinnocher, Klaus; Humer, Heinrich; Huber, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    .K., Hunter, G.J. (2007) A spatio-temporal population model to support risk assessment and damage analysis for decision-making. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(8), 935-953. Aubrecht, C., Fuchs, S., Neuhold, C. (2013a) Spatio-temporal aspects and dimensions in integrated disaster risk management. Natural Hazards, 68(3), 1205-1216. Aubrecht, C., Özceylan, D., Steinnocher, K., Freire, S. (2013b) Multi-level geospatial modeling of human exposure patterns and vulnerability indicators. Natural Hazards, 68(1), 147-163. Bhaduri, B. (2008) Population distribution during the day. In S. Shekhar & X. Hui, eds., Encyclopedia of GIS. Springer US, 880-885. Cockings, S., Martin, D. & Leung, S. (2010) Population 24/7: building space-time specific population surface models. In M. Haklay, J. Morley, & H. Rahemtulla, eds., Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 18th Annual conference. GISRUK 2010. London, UK, 41-47. Freire, S., Aubrecht, C. (2012) Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12(11), 3533-3543.

  18. A Prospective Analysis of Meat Mutagens and Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ngoan Tran; Michels, Fernanda Alessandra Silva; Song, Mingyang; Zhang, Xuehong; Bernstein, Adam M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.; Sinha, Rashmi; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana

    2016-01-01

    investigation. Citation: Le NT, Michels FA, Song M, Zhang X, Bernstein AM, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS, Ogino S, Chan AT, Sinha R, Willett WC, Wu K. 2016. A prospective analysis of meat mutagens and colorectal cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1529–1536; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP238 PMID:27105317

  19. Sub 2 nm Particle Characterization in Systems with Aerosol Formation and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang

    size distributions were discrete, suggesting the formation of stable clusters that may be intermediate phases between initial chemical reactions and downstream particle growth. The evolution of incipient cluster size distributions further provided information on the gaseous precursor reaction kinetics, which matched well with the data obtained through other techniques. Part 2. The size distributions and their evolution measured by the DMAs help explain the physical pathways of aerosol formation. The chemical analysis of the incipient particles is an important counterpart to the existing characterization method. The chemical compositions of charged species were measured online with an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF). The tandem arrangement of the high-resolution DMA and the APi-TOF realized the simultaneous measurement of the mobility and the mass of combustion-generated natively charged particles, which enabled their chemical and physical formation pathways to be derived. The results showed that the initial stages of particle formation were strongly influenced by chemically ionized species during combustion, and that incipient particles composed of pure oxides did not exist. The effective densities of the incipient particles were much lower than those of bulk materials, due to their amorphous structures and different chemical compositions. Measuring incipient particles with high-resolution DMAs is limited because a DMA classifies charged particles only, while the charging characteristics of sub 2 nm particles are not well understood. The charge fraction of combustion-generated incipient particles was measured by coupling a charged particle remover and a condensation particle counter. A high charge fraction was observed, confirming the strong interaction among chemically ionized species and formed particles. The combustion system was modeled by using a unimodal aerosol dynamics model combined with Fuchs' charging theory, and

  20. Size effects and charge transport in metals: Quantum theory of the resistivity of nanometric metallic structures arising from electron scattering by grain boundaries and by rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Raul C.; Arenas, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    We discuss recent progress regarding size effects and their incidence upon the coefficients describing charge transport (resistivity, magnetoresistance, and Hall effect) induced by electron scattering from disordered grain boundaries and from rough surfaces on metallic nanostructures; we review recent measurements of the magneto transport coefficients that elucidate the electron scattering mechanisms at work. We review as well theoretical developments regarding quantum transport theories that allow calculating the increase in resistivity induced by electron-rough surface scattering (in the absence of grain boundaries) from first principles—from the parameters that describe the surface roughness that can be measured with a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). We evaluate the predicting power of the quantum version of the Fuchs-Sondheimer theory and of the model proposed by Calecki, abandoning the method of parameter fitting used for decades, but comparing instead theoretical predictions with resistivity measured in thin films where surface roughness has also been measured with a STM, and where electron-grain boundary scattering can be neglected. We also review the theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes (MS) [Phys. Rev. B 1, 1382 (1970)] used for decades, and discuss its severe conceptual difficulties that arise out of the fact that: (i) MS employed plane waves to describe the electronic states within the metal sample having periodic grain boundaries, rather than the Bloch states known since the thirties to be the solutions of the Schrödinger equation describing electrons propagating through a Krönig-Penney [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 130, 499 (1931)] periodic potential; (ii) MS ignored the fact that the wave functions describing electrons propagating through a 1-D disordered potential are expected to decay exponentially with increasing distance, a fact known since the work of Anderson [Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958)] in 1958 for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in

  1. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    , 243-282.]. This importance in immune regulation is best addressed using Matzinger's model of the immune response - The Danger Theory of Immunity [Matzinger, P., Fuchs, E.J., 1996. Beyond self and non-self: immunity is a conversation, not a war. J. NIH Res. 8, 35-39.]. Matzinger suggests that an immune system model based on the differentiation between "self and non-self" does not easily account for the changes that occur in the organism with growth and development. Why, for example does an organism not self-destruct when the immune system encounters the myriad of new peptides generated at puberty? Instead, she proposes a model of immune function based on the ability to detect and address dangers. This model states that the basic function of all cells of the organism is appropriately timed death "from natural causes". This type of cell death, or apoptosis, generates no stress signals. If, on the other hand, a cell is "murdered" by an infectious agent or dies an untimely death due to necrosis or ischemia, the cell undergoes a stress response with the liberation of stress protein-peptide complexes into the extracellular environment upon cell lysis. Not only do they serve as a "danger signal" to alert the immune system to the death of a cell under stress, but their role as protein carriers allows the immune effector cells to survey the peptides released by this stressed cell and to activate against new or unrecognized peptides carried by the stress protein. Matzinger bases the Danger Theory of Immunity on three "Laws of Lymphotics". These laws state that: (1) resting T lymphocytes require both antigen stimulation by an antigen-presenting cell (APC) and co-stimulation with a danger signal to become activated; (2) the co-stimulatory signal must be received through the APC; and (3) T cells receiving only antigen stimulation without the co-stimulatory signal undergo apoptosis. The Danger Theory gives a simple model for both tolerance and activation. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  2. A Prospective Analysis of Meat Mutagens and Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoan Tran; Michels, Fernanda Alessandra Silva; Song, Mingyang; Zhang, Xuehong; Bernstein, Adam M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Sinha, Rashmi; Willett, Walter C; Wu, Kana

    2016-10-01

    , Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS, Ogino S, Chan AT, Sinha R, Willett WC, Wu K. 2016. A prospective analysis of meat mutagens and colorectal cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1529-1536; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP238.

  3. visCOS: An R-package to evaluate model performance of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Wesemann, Johannes; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    pivotal tool in model evaluation. They allow inferences about different systematic model-shortcomings and are an efficient way for communicating these in practice (Schulz et al., 2015). The evaluation and construction of such water balances is implemented with the presented package. During the (manual) calibration of a model or in the scope of model development, many model runs and iterations are necessary. Thus, users are often interested in comparing different model results in a visual way in order to learn about the model and to analyse parameter-changes on the output. A method to illuminate these differences and the evolution of changes is also included. References: • Gupta, H.V.; Wagener, T.; Liu, Y. (2008): Reconciling theory with observations: elements of a diagnostic approach to model evaluation, Hydrol. Process. 22, doi: 10.1002/hyp.6989. • Klemeš, V. (1986): Operational testing of hydrological simulation models, Hydrolog. Sci. J., doi: 10.1080/02626668609491024. • Kling, H.; Stanzel, P.; Fuchs, M.; and Nachtnebel, H. P. (2014): Performance of the COSERO precipitation-runoff model under non-stationary conditions in basins with different climates, Hydrolog. Sci. J., doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.959956. • Schulz, K., Herrnegger, M., Wesemann, J., Klotz, D. Senoner, T. (2015): Kalibrierung COSERO - Mur für Pro Vis, Verbund Trading GmbH (Abteilung STG), final report, Institute of Water Management, Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, 217pp. • Zambrano-Bigiarini, M; Bellin, A. (2010): Comparing Goodness-of-fit Measures for Calibration of Models Focused on Extreme Events. European Geosciences Union (EGU), Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, EGU2012-11549-1.

  4. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    to the low rate of photolysis experienced and instead OH from photolysis of HONO (measured during ClearfLo using the LOPAP technique) [5], ozonolysis of alkenes and the reaction of HO2 with NO dominated the oxidative capacity of this urban location. Summertime observations coincided with the London 2012 Olympics. During this observational period, a number of high pollution events were observed where meteorological conditions favoured sustained, elevated ozone production (peaking at 100 ppbv). Radical concentrations were elevated during these episodes, with [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] peaking at ~ 0.16, 14 and 10 pptv respectively. The influence of HO2 and RO2 radicals on ozone production during these episodes will be presented along with a comparison of factors influencing modelled radical concentrations during the summer and wintertime. [1] Fuchs, H. et al., Review of Scientific Instruments, 79, 084104, 2008 [2] Heard, D.E. et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 13, L18112, 2004 [3] Ren, X. et al., Atmospheric Environment, 40, S252-S263, 2006 [4] Kanaya, Y. et al., Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 112, D21312, 2007 [5] Kleffmann, J. et al., Atmospheric Environment, 40, 3640-3652, 2006

  5. From dry to saturated thermal conductivity: mixing-model correction charts and new conversion equations for sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Schütz, Felina; Förster, Andrea; Förster, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    satisfying. To improve the fit of the models, correction equations are calculated based on the statistical data. In addition, the application of correction equations allows a significant improvement of the accuracy of bulk TC data calculated. However, the "corrected" geometric mean constitutes the only model universally applicable to different types of sedimentary rocks and, thus, is recommended for the calculation of bulk TC. Finally, the statistical analysis also resulted in lithotype-specific conversion equations, which permit a calculation of the water-saturated bulk TC from dry-measured TC and porosity (e.g., well-log-derived porosity). This approach has the advantage that the saturated bulk TC could be calculated readily without application of any mixing model. The expected errors with this approach are in the range between 5 and 10 % (Fuchs et al., 2013).

  6. Millennial oscillations in greenland dust and Eurasian Aeolian records - a paleosol-loess perspective (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis-Didier

    2017-04-01

    Greenland ice cores, and a critical study of their source variations, reconciles these records with those observed on the Eurasian continent. This allows demonstrating the link between European and Chinese loess sequences, dust records in Greenland, and variations of the North Atlantic sea ice extent. The sources of the emitted and transported dust material are variable and relate to different environments corresponding to present desert areas in Asia, but also hidden regions related to lower sea level stands, dry rivers, or zones close to the frontal moraines of the main Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in Europe. As a conclusion of this presentation, I address the short term past climatic changes as preserved in the continental eolian records, in line with the Hans Oeschger medal description. Furthermore one can anticipate such study to be at the origin of more sophisticated and elaborated investigations of millennial and sub-millennial continental climate variability on the Northern Hemisphere. The overview presented during this presentation would not have been possible without the help and close collaboration of many colleagues among whom are Niklas BOERS, Adriana SIMA, Anders SVENSSON, Matthias BIGLER, France LAGROIX, Samuel TAYLOR, Pierre ANTOINE, Christine HATTE, Michael GHIL, George KUKLA, Sigfus JOHNSEN, Markus FUCHS, Andreas LANG, Gilles BERGAMETTI, Beatrice MARTICORENA and Ludwig ZOELLER.

  7. Analysis of Patients' X-ray Exposure in 146 Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tim-Ole; Reinhardt, Martin; Fuchs, Jochen; Gosch, Dieter; Surov, Alexey; Stumpp, Patrick; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2017-09-01

    significantly extends FT, but has little effect on the overall dose of the intervention. Due to the significantly higher X-ray exposure, the use of a CBCT as well as PRG-placements using CT should be limited to clinically absolutely necessary exceptions with strict indication. Key Points   · Fluoroscopically-guided PRG placements are interventions with low X-ray exposure.. · X-ray exposure from fluoroscopy is lower using flat panel detector systems as compared to image intensifier systems.. · The concomitant placement of an oro- or nasogastric probe extends the fluoroscopy time.. · Gastric probe placement is worthwhile to prevent the premature use of the significantly radiation-intensive CT.. · The use of the C-arm CT or the CT increases the beam exposure by 26 or 33 times, respectively.. · The PRG placement using C-arm CT and CT should only be performed in exceptional cases.. Citation Format · Petersen TO, Reinhardt M, Fuchs J et al. Analysis of Patients' X-ray Exposure in 146 Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomies. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 820 - 827. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Biomimicry issues: the quest for sensing molecules at the origin of life using molecularly imprinter polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Bakas, Idriss; Salmi, Zakaria; Mazerie, Isabelle; Floner, Didier; Geneste, Florence; Guerrouache, Mohamed

    of detection of analytes can be decreased down to sub-nanomolar by controlling the MIP layers thickness. Finally, it is shown that such an approach offers potentials and opportunities for miniaturization to fulfill workspace constraints inherent to space exploration. Indeed, electrode arrays grafted with MIPs are prepared for portable sensor devices design. This work undoubtedly highlights molecularly imprinting in tandem with electrochemical detection as a very promising approach for sensing organic matter in a fast, highly sensitive and specific way. MIP-based biomimetic materials and their applications of as recognition layers within sensors are increasingly considered and it is expected that MIP will become a generic sensing technology This work is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) References: [1] C. Ayela, F. Roquet, L. Valera, C. Granier, L. Nicu, M. Pugnière, M. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22 (2007) 3113. [2] M.A. Sephton, M.R. Sims, R.W. Court, D. Luong, D.C. Cullen, Planetary and Space Science 86 (2013) 66. [3] S. Lepinay, K. Khémara, M.-C. Millot, B. Carbonnier, Chem. Pap. 66 (2012) 340. [4] Y. Fuchs, O. Soppera, K. Haupt, Anal. Chim. Acta, 717 (2012) 7. [5] C. Malitesta, E. Mazzotta, R. A. Picca, A. Poma, I. Chianella, S. A. Piletsky, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 402 (2012) 1827

  9. Trans-ethyl methyl ether, the struggle for the detection of a complex molecule in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, G. W.; Fuchs, U.; Giesen, T. F.; Wyrowski, F.

    Many large and complex molecules of prebiotic importance have been found as constituents of interstellar clouds but their detection remains difficult and sometimes doubtful (Snyder et al. 2005). The complex spectrum of trans-ethyl methyl ether (EME) has been investigated in the laboratory (Fuchs et al. 2003) up to 350 GHz and is now known with high frequency precision, see Figure 1. In this work we present an extensive search for EME towards G34.26, NGC6334(I), Orion KL, SgrB2(N) and W51e2 in the 1 to 3 mm wavelength region. These sources have previously been shown to have a rich chemistry of complex molecules. The IRAM 30m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain and the SEST 15m radio telescope in La Silla, Chile have been used for the observations. We looked at 5 - 11 frequency bands where EME has strong transitions. All sources were examined using long integration times up to 220 min (on+off), elevations greater 40◦ and under good weather conditions. For our analysis of the data we used the method of rotational-temperature-diagrams but also the myXCLASS (written by Peter Schilke) extension program to the GILDAS (Grenoble Image and Line Data Analysis Software) software which enabled us to simulate spectra of several molecules including their linewidth and intensities at the same time, see Figure 2. With this program a consistency check of molecular abundances and overall composition is possible even in dense spectra with many overlapping lines. The effect of the source size on the measured intensities has been considered and cross checks with other important molecules such as methanol, ethanol and di-methyl ether have been performed. Charnley et al. (2001) assigned one line in W51 e1/e2 and one line in Orion KL at 160.1 GHz, as well as a line in SgrB2(N) at 79.6 GHz to trans-ethyl methyl ether. From their isolated measurements, the column density of EME was estimated to be in the range 1014-1015 cm-2 in Sgr B2(N) corresponding to a fractional abundance of 10

  10. Isochron burial dating of the Haslau terrace of the Danube (Vienna Basin) and interlaboratory comparison of sample preparation in Vienna and Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Neuhuber, Stephanie; Decker, Kurt; Braucher, Régis; Fiebig, Marcus; Braun, Mihály; Lachner, Johannes; Aster Team

    2017-04-01

    demonstrate that the laboratory background is safe for in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al extraction at both Vienna and Budapest laboratories and that the different geochemical digestion and purification schemes applied by the two laboratories for the extraction of 10Be and 26Al lead to similar results. A preliminary (not corrected) isochron burial age of ˜2.4 Ma was calculated for the higher sedimentary unit of the Haslau terrace on the basis of the slope of the isochron. This age is significantly older than the Middle Pleistocene age previously estimated. Further age determinations are nevertheless necessary to decide whether this preliminary age is accurate or not. Thanks to OTKA PD83610, OMAA 90öu17; LP2012-27/2012. INSU/CNRS, the ANR through the program "EQUIPEX Investissement d'Avenir" and IRD. References: [1] Decker et al., 2005. QSR 24, 307-322. [2] Salcher et al., 2012. Tectonics 31, 1-20. [3] Balco and Rovey, 2008. AJS 908, 1083-1114 [4] Fuchs and Grill, 1984. Geologische Karte von Wien und Umgebung (1:200.000) [5] http://www.geochem.hu/kozmogen/Lab_en.html

  11. The Batagay permafrost mega thaw slump: an environmental archive of the Late Pleistocene continental climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashastina, Kseniia; Kienast, Frank; Römermann, Christine; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Diekmann, Bernhard; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Palaeoenvironmental data preserved in permafrost contribute in our understanding of climate changes and their influence on the biocenoses during the Late Quaternary. Here we present cryolithological and palaeoecological results of studies carried out on a newly described permafrost exposure near Batagay about 50 km from Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic, Russia, the town with the most continental climate recorded in the northern hemisphere. According to Günther et al. (2015), this unique exposure is the biggest mega thaw slump measured so far with the dimensions 800 m wide and 73 m deep. Only sparse data on the exposure are so far published in few articles (Novgorodov et al., 2013; Kunitsky et al., 2013; Ashastina et al., in press; Murton et al., 2016). The site is situated inWest Beringia, the Late Quaternary landmasscovered by tundra steppe and inhabited by diverse mega herbivores. We analyzed sedimentological data, plant macro- and micro-fossils together with insect remains in order to reconstruct the changes in the biome. The temporal frame for the accumulation of the sequence is provided by radiocarbon and optical stimulated luminescence dating, according to which the formation of the sequence started in the late Middle Quaternary. The features of permafrost accumulation and sedimentation give us an opportunity to propose the landscape changes responding to the climatic pulses of Pleistocene at this particular place. The shifts in vegetation from taiga to steppe associations are in a line with stadial and intersadial events. We propose a scheme of permafrost state and vegetation changes and merge it with climate variation during Late Quaternary. Ashastina, K., Schirrmeister, L., Fuchs, M., Kienast, F.: Pleistocene climate characteristics in the most continental part of the northern hemisphere: insights from cryolithological features of the Batagay mega thaw slump in the Siberian Yana Highlands. Climate of the Past, in press. doi: 10.5194/cp-2016-84. Günther, F

  12. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    , Chatterji A, Winkler R G, Gompper G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464103 [7]Laurati M et al 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464104 [8]Harrer C J, Winter D, Horbach J, Fuchs M and Voigtmann T 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464105 [9]De Puit R J and Squires T M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464106 [10]De Puit R J and Squires T M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464107 [11]Contreras-Aburto C and Nägele G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464108 [12]Palberg T, Köller T, Sieber B, Schweinfurth H, Reiber H and Nägele G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464109 [13]Papadopoulos P, Deng X and Vollmer D 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464110 [14]Schmitz R and Dünweg B 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464111 [15]Zhou J and Schmid F 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464112 [16]Smallenburg F, Vutukuri H R, Imhof A, van Blaaderen A and Dijkstra M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464113 [17]Vissers T, Wysocki A, Rex M, Löwen H, Royall C P, Imhof A and van Blaaderen A 2011 Soft Matter 7 2352 [18]Glanz T and Löwen H 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464114 [19]Kohl M, Ivlev A, Brand P, Morfill G E and Löwen H 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464115 [20]Hanes R D L and Egelhaaf S U 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464116 [21]Mazilu M, Rudhall A, Wright E M and Dholakia K 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464117 [22]Dillmann P, Maret G and Keim P 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464118 [23]Wilms D et al 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464119 [24]Kreuter C, Siems U, Henseler P, Nielaba P, Leiderer P and Erbe A 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464120 [25]Malijevsky A and Jackson G 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464121 [26]Statt A, Winkler A, Virnau P and Binder K 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464122 [27]Oğuz E C, Löwen H, Reinmüller A, Schöpe H J, Palberg T and Messina R 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464123 [28]Oettel M 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464124 [29]Zeng Y and van Klitzing R 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464125 [30]Bonilla-Capilla B, Ramirez-Saito A

  13. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    ,000 years. Nature,419(6903):207-214. Severinghaus, J. P., Sowers, T., Brook, E. J., Alley, R. B., and Bender, M. L. (1998). Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice. Nature, 391:141-146. Schwander, J., Sowers, T., Barnola, J., Blunier, T., Fuchs, A., and Malaizé, B. (1997). Age scale of the air in the summit ice: implication for glacial-interglacial temperature change. J. Geophys. Res-Atmos., 102(D16):19483-19493.

  14. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80: 3086-3094. Mayer, R.E., Bofill-Mas, S., Egle, L., Reischer, G.H., Schade, M., Fernandez-Cassi, X, Fuchs, W., Mach, R. L., Lindner, G., Kirschner, A., Gaisbauer, M., Piringer, H., Blaschke, A.P., Girones, R., Zessner, M., Sommer, R., Farnleitner, A.H. 2015. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution, Water Research 90: 265-276. Schijven, J., Derx, J., de Roda Husman, A. M., Blaschke, A. P., Farnleitner, A. H. 2015. QMRAcatch: Microbial quality simulation of water resources including infection risk assessment. J.Environ.Qual. 44, 1491-1502

  15. In-situ single particle composition analysis of free tropospheric ice nuclei and ice residues in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Thomas, Klimach; Stephan, Mertes; Ludwig, Schenk; Udo, Kästner; Frank, Stratmann; Joachim, Curtius; Piotr, Kupiszewski; Ernest, Weingartner; Emanuel, Hammer; Paul, Vochezer; Martin, Schnaiter; Stephan, Borrmann

    2014-05-01

    measurement time. The main part of the chemical compounds of these IPR were also organic material mixed with metals or with mineral compounds. We also found a smaller part of particles which consisted of pure mineral components (about 48 %). Lead was also found in the IPR measured behind Ice-CVI (~14 %) as well as in the background aerosol (~0.04 %). Black carbon particles were only found in the background aerosol. Because of the topography of the JFJ, air masses can reach the station only from the northwestern or southeastern direction (Hammer et al., 2013). Back trajectory calculations show that during our measurements the air masses were dominated mainly by long-distance transport from North America over Great Britain and France. This may explain the lower abundance of mineral dust in the ice residues compared to the previous studies. Brands, M., Kamphus, M., Böttger, T., Schneider, J., Drewnick, F., Roth, A., Curtius, J., Voigt, C., Borbon, A., Beekmann, M., Bourdon, A., Perrin, T. and Borrmann, S. (2011) Aerosol Sci. Technol., 45, 46-64. Cozic, J., Mertes, S., Verheggen, B., Cziczo, D. J., Gallavardin, S. J., Walter, S., Baltensperger, U. and Weingartner, E. (2008) J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D15209. Cziczo, D. J., Stetzer. O., Worringen, A., Ebert, M., Weinbruch, S., Kamphus, M., Gallavardin, S. J., Curtius, J., Borrmann, S., Froyd, K. D., Mertes, S., Möhler, O., Lohmann, U. (2009) Nature Geoscience, 2, 333-336 Hammer, E., Bukowiecki, N., Gysel, M., Jurányi, Z., Hoyle, C. R., Vogt, R., Baltensperger, U. and Weingartner, E. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 20419-20462 Kamphus, M., Ettner-Mahl, M., Klimach, T., Drewnick, F, Keller, L., Cziczo, D. J., Mertes, S., Borrmann, S. and Curtius1, J. (2010) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8077-8095. Kupiszewski, P., Weingartner, E., Färber, R., Gysel, M., Hammer, E., Fuchs, C., Baltensperger, U., Vochezer, P., Schnaiter, M., Linke, C., Toprak, E., Mertes, S., Schneider, J., Schmidt, S. (2013) European Aerosol Conference

  16. Electron Scattering at Surfaces of Epitaxial Metal Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Jasmeet Singh

    and without thin epitaxial TiN(001) wetting layers and are studied for structure, crystalline quality, surface morphology, density and composition by a combination of x-ray diffraction theta-2theta scans, o-rocking curves, pole figures, reciprocal space mapping, Rutherford backscattering, x-ray reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy. The TiN(001) surface suppresses Cu and Ag dewetting, yielding lower defect density, no twinning, and smaller surface roughness than if grown on MgO(001). Textured polycrystalline Cu(111) layers 25-50-nm-thick are deposited on a stack of 7.5-nm-Ta on SiO2/Si(001), and subsequent in situ annealing at 350°C followed by sputter etching in Ar plasma yields Cu layers with independently variable thickness and grain size. Cu nanowires, 75 to 350 nm wide, are fabricated from Cu layers with different average grain size using a subtractive patterning process. In situ electron transport measurements at room temperature in vacuum and at 77 K in liquid nitrogen for single-crystal Cu and Ag layers is consistent with the Fuchs-Sondheimer (FS) model and indicates specular scattering at the metal-vacuum boundary with an average specularity parameter p = 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. In contrast, layers measured ex situ show diffuse surface scattering due to sub-monolayer oxidation. Also, addition of Ta atoms on Cu(001) surface perturbs the smooth interface potential and results in completely diffuse scattering at the Cu-Ta interface, and in turn, a higher resistivity of single-crystal Cu layers. In situ exposure of Cu(001) layers to O2 between 10 -3 and 105 Pa-s results in a sequential increase, decrease and increase of the electrical resistance which is attributed to specular surface scattering for clean Cu(001) and for surfaces with a complete adsorbed monolayer, but diffuse scattering at partial coverage and after chemical oxidation. Electron transport measurements for polycrystalline Cu layers and wires show a 10-15% and 7-9% decrease in

  17. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    (Edinburgh), D Y H Chui (Mainz), D Deb (Graz), C Dellago (Vienna), J Dhont (Jülich), P Dillmann (Konstanz), G Dominguez (Leipzig), M Duits (Enschede), B Dünweg (Mainz), F Ebert (Konstanz), S Egelhaaf (Düsseldorf), E Eggen (Utrecht), R Eichhorn (Bielefeld), E Eiser (Cambridge), H B Eral (Enschede), A Erbe (Konstanz), L Filion (Utrecht), G Foffi (Lausanne), J Fornleitner (Vienna), K Franzrahe (Konstanz), D Frenkel (Cambridge), M Fuchs (Konstanz), G Fytas (Heraklion), P Garstecki (Warsaw), I Gazuz (Konstanz), N Geerts (Amsterdam), G Gompper (Jülich), E Gonzalez-Tovar (San Luis Potosi), I Götze (Jülich), S Grandner (Berlin), L Gránásy (London), C Gutsche (Leipzig), D Hajnal (Mainz), R Hanes (Düsseldorf), A Härtel (Düsseldorf), P Henseler (Konstanz), C Hertlein (Stuttgart), C Holm (Mainz), J Hoogenboom (Barcelona), P Hopkins (Bristol), J Horbach (Cologne), C-C Huang (Jülich), K Huang (Göttingen), S Huißmann (Düsseldorf), M Humar (Ljubljana), S Iacopini (Mainz), A Imhof (Utrecht), A Ivlev (Garching), K Jacobs (Saarbrücken), J Jakobi (Hannover), O Jansen (Düsseldorf), M Jenkins (Düsseldorf), J Jordanovic (Berlin), S Jungblut (Mainz), M Kahn (Vienna), T Kalwarczyk (Warsaw), K Kegler (Leipzig), P Keim (Konstanz), Z Keqin (Singapore), U F Keyser (Leipzig), T Köller (Mainz), K Kremer (Mainz), M Krüger (Konstanz), A Kuijk (Utrecht), P Lang (Jülich), M Laurati (Düsseldorf), W Lechner (Vienna), H Lehle (Stuttgart), P Leiderer (Konstanz), H Lekkerkerker (Utrecht), P Lettinga (Jülich), A Libal (San Mart), B Lonetti (Jülich), N J Lorenz (Mainz), H Löwen (Düsseldorf), H Maleki (Mainz), J-G Malherbe (Paris), M Marechal (Utrecht), G Maret (Konstanz), C Mayer (Rome), S Mazoyer (Konstanz), M McPhie (Jülich), M Medina-Noyola (San Luis Potosi), A Melzer (Greifswald), A Menéndez-Manjón (Hannover), R Messina (Düsseldorf), H Michiel (Utrecht), P Mishra (Düsseldorf), J Mixteco (Guanajuato), B Moser (Düsseldorf), G Nägele (Jülich), R R Netz (Munich), P Nielaba (Konstanz

  18. A novel heat engine for magnetizing superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, T. A.; Hong, Z.; Zhu, X.; Krabbes, G.

    2008-03-01

    The potential of bulk melt-processed YBCO single domains to trap significant magnetic fields (Tomita and Murakami 2003 Nature 421 517-20 Fuchs et al 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2107-9) at cryogenic temperatures makes them particularly attractive for a variety of engineering applications including superconducting magnets, magnetic bearings and motors (Coombs et al 1999 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 968-71 Coombs et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 2312-5). It has already been shown that large fields can be obtained in single domain samples at 77 K. A range of possible applications exist in the design of high power density electric motors (Jiang et al 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 1164-8). Before such devices can be created a major problem needs to be overcome. Even though all of these devices use a superconductor in the role of a permanent magnet and even though the superconductor can trap potentially huge magnetic fields (greater than 10 T) the problem is how to induce the magnetic fields. There are four possible known methods: (1) cooling in field; (2) zero field cooling, followed by slowly applied field; (3) pulse magnetization; (4) flux pumping. Any of these methods could be used to magnetize the superconductor and this may be done either in situ or ex situ. Ideally the superconductors are magnetized in situ. There are several reasons for this: first, if the superconductors should become demagnetized through (i) flux creep, (ii) repeatedly applied perpendicular fields (Vanderbemden et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 (17)) or (iii) by loss of cooling then they may be re-magnetized without the need to disassemble the machine; secondly, there are difficulties with handling very strongly magnetized material at cryogenic temperatures when assembling the machine; thirdly, ex situ methods would require the machine to be assembled both cold and pre-magnetized and would offer significant design difficulties. Until room temperature superconductors can be prepared, the

  19. A RELICT Spinel Grain in an Allende Ferromagnesian Chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, K.; Fujita, T.; Kitamura, M.; Nakamura, N.; Yurimoto, H.

    1993-07-01

    . A depletion of Mo relative to other refractory metals may have resulted from high- temperature oxidation [6]. Chondrule R-11 exhibits both similarities (spinel and plagioclase chemistry; Group II REE pattern) and differences (fassaite chemistry; existence of refractory Pt-group metal nuggets and melilite) with respect to POIs [3] carrying isotopically fractionated Mg. Refractory Pt-group metal nuggets in CAIs are considered to have been produced during high-temperature events (at least 1300 degrees C) before total condensation of Fe in the early solar nebula [8-10]. In analogy with the formation history with CAIs, we suggest that one of the refractory siderophile precursor components of Allende chondrules is a high-temperature condensate from the nebular gas and is associated with refractory oxide and silicates. References: [1] Misawa K. and Nakamura N. (1988) GCA, 52, 1669. [2] Misawa K. and Nakamura N. (1988) Nature, 334, 47. [3] Sheng Y. J. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 581. [4] Grossman J. N. et al. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 619, Univ. of Arizona. [5] MacPherson G. J. and Grossman L. (1984) GCA, 48, 29. [6] Fegley B. Jr. and Palme H. (1985) EPSL, 72, 311. [7] Wark D. A. and Lovering J. F. (1976) LS VII, 912. [8] Palme H. and Wlotzka F. (1976) EPSL, 33, 45. [9] El Goresy A. et al. (1978) Proc. LPSC 9th, 1279. [10] Blander M. and Fuchs L. H. (1980) Proc. LPSC 11th, 929.

  20. Closure of Tethys and early stages of Himalayan evolution: constraints from the detrital record, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, D.; Najman, Y.; Godin, L.; Parrish, R.; Horstwood, M.; Green, O.; Bown, P.; Garzanti, E.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    , R. I., Stephenson, B., and McCarron, J., 1997, Geological Magazine, 134 (3), 297-316. [6]Rowley, D.B., 1998. Journal of Geology 106, 229-235. [7] Hodges, K. V., 2000, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 112, (3), 324-350. [8] Garzanti, E., Baud, A., and Mascle, G., 1987, Geodinamica Acta, 1, (4-5), 297-312. [9] Nicora, A., Garzanti, E., Fois, E., 1987, Riv. It. Peleont. Strat., 92, 439-496. [10] Fuchs, G., Willems, H., 1990, Jahrbuche Geologische Bundenstalt, 133, 259-273. [11] Critelli, S., and Garzanti, E., 1994, Sedimentary Geology, 89, (3-4), 265-284. [12] Zhu, B., Kidd, W. S. F., Rowley, D., Currie, B., and Shafique, N., 2005, Journal of Geology, 113, 265-285. [13] Najman, Y., unpublished data. [14] Wen, D.-R., Liu, D., Chung, S-L., Chu, M-F., Ji, J., Zhang, Q., Song, B., Lee, T-Y., Yeh, M-W. and Lo, C-H., 2008, Chemical Geology, 252, 191-201.

  1. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    Persson, K Osvay, C-G Wahlström, D C Carroll, P McKenna, A Flacco and V Malka Proton acceleration by moderately relativistic laser pulses interacting with solid density targets Erik Lefebvre, Laurent Gremillet, Anna Lévy, Rachel Nuter, Patrizio Antici, Michaël Carrié, Tiberio Ceccotti, Mathieu Drouin, Julien Fuchs, Victor Malka and David Neely Holographic visualization of laser wakefields P Dong, S A Reed, S A Yi, S Kalmykov, Z Y Li, G Shvets, N H Matlis, C McGuffey, S S Bulanov, V Chvykov, G Kalintchenko, K Krushelnick, A Maksimchuk, T Matsuoka, A G R Thomas, V Yanovsky and M C Downer The scaling of proton energies in ultrashort pulse laser plasma acceleration K Zeil, S D Kraft, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, T Kluge, J Metzkes, T Richter, R Sauerbrey and U Schramm Plasma cavitation in ultraintense laser interactions with underdense helium plasmas P M Nilson, S P D Mangles, L Willingale, M C Kaluza, A G R Thomas, M Tatarakis, R J Clarke, K L Lancaster, S Karsch, J Schreiber, Z Najmudin, A E Dangor and K Krushelnick Radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin foils Andrea Macchi, Silvia Veghini, Tatyana V Liseykina and Francesco Pegoraro Target normal sheath acceleration: theory, comparison with experiments and future perspectives Matteo Passoni, Luca Bertagna and Alessandro Zani Generation of a highly collimated, mono-energetic electron beam from laser-driven plasma-based acceleration Sanyasi Rao Bobbili, Anand Moorti, Prasad Anant Naik and Parshotam Dass Gupta Controlled electron acceleration in the bubble regime by optimizing plasma density Meng Wen, Baifei Shen, Xiaomei Zhang, Fengchao Wang, Zhangying Jin, Liangliang Ji, Wenpeng Wang, Jiancai Xu and Kazuhisa Nakajima A multidimensional theory for electron trapping by a plasma wake generated in the bubble regime I Kostyukov, E Nerush, A Pukhov and V Seredov Investigation of the role of plasma channels as waveguides for laser-wakefield accelerators T P A Ibbotson, N Bourgeois, T P Rowlands-Rees, L S Caballero, S I

  2. PREFACE: Symmetries and Integrability of Difference Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doliwa, Adam; Korhonen, Risto; Lafortune, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    to integrability. The first section contains a paper by T Hamamoto and K Kajiwara on hypergeometric solutions to the q-Painlevé equation of type A4(1). Discrete geometry. In this category there are three papers. J Cielinski offers a geometric definition and a spectral approach on pseudospherical surfaces on time scales, while A Doliwa considers generalized isothermic lattices. The paper by U Pinkall, B Springborn and S Weiss mann is concerned with a new doubly discrete analogue of smoke ring flow and the real time simulation of fluid flow. Integrable systems in statistical physics. Under this heading there is a paper by R J Baxter on corner transfer matrices in statistical mechanics, and a paper by S Boukraa, S Hassani, J-M Maillard, B M McCoy, J-A Weil and N Zenine where the authors consider Fuchs-Painlevé elliptic representation of the Painlevé VI equation. KP lattices and differential-difference hierarchies. In this section we have seven articles. C R Gilson, J J C Nimmo and Y Ohta consider quasideterminant solutions of a non-Abelian Hirota-Miwa equation, while B Grammaticos, A Ramani, V Papageorgiou, J Satsuma and R Willox discuss the construction of lump-like solutions of the Hirota-Miwa equation. J Hietarinta and C Viallet analyze the factorization process for lattice maps searching for integrable cases, the paper by X-B Hu and G-F Yu is concerned with integrable discretizations of the (2+1)-dimensional sinh-Gordon equation, and K Kajiwara, M Mazzocco and Y Ohta consider the Hankel determinant formula of the tau-functions of the Toda equation. Finally, V G Papageorgiou and A G Tongas study Yang-Baxter maps and multi-field integrable lattice equations, and H-Y Wang, X-B Hu and H-W Tam consider the two-dimensional Leznov lattice equation with self-consistent sources. Quantum integrable systems. This category contains a paper on q-extended eigenvectors of the integral and finite Fourier transforms by N M Atakishiyev, J P Rueda and K B Wolf, and an article by S

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics (2nd edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, G.

    2004-07-01

    Quantum mechanics is usually defined in terms of some loosely connected axioms and rules. Such a foundation is far from the beauty of, e.g., the `principles' underlying classical mechanics. Motivated, in addition, by notorious interpretation problems, there have been numerous attempts to modify or `complete' quantum mechanics. A first attempt was based on so-called hidden variables; its proponents essentially tried to expel the non-classical nature of quantum mechanics. More recent proposals intend to complete quantum mechanics not within mechanics proper but on a `higher (synthetic) level'; by means of a combination with gravitation theory (R Penrose), with quantum information theory (C M Caves, C A Fuchs) or with psychology and brain science (H P Stapp). I think it is fair to say that in each case the combination is with a subject that, per se, suffers from a very limited understanding that is even more severe than that of quantum mechanics. This was acceptable, though, if it could convincingly be argued that scientific progress desperately needs to join forces. Quantum mechanics of a closed system was a beautiful and well understood theory with its respective state being presented as a point on a deterministic trajectory in Liouville space---not unlike the motion of a classical N-particle system in its 6N-dimensional phase-space. Unfortunately, we need an inside and an outside view, we need an external reference frame, we need an observer. This unavoidable partition is the origin of most of the troubles we have with quantum mechanics. A pragmatic solution is introduced in the form of so-called measurement postulates: one of the various incompatible properties of the system under consideration is supposed to be realized (i.e. to become a fact, to be defined without fundamental dispersion) based on `instantaneous' projections within some externally selected measurement basis. As a result, the theory becomes essentially statistical rather than deterministic

  4. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja

    , Ebner C, Eng P, Friedrichs F, Fuchs T, Hamelmann E, Hartwig-Bade D, Hering T, Huttegger I, Jung K, Klimek L, Kopp MV, Merk H, Rabe U, Saloga J, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Schuster A, Schwerk N, Sitter H, Umpfenbach U, Wedi B, Wöhrl S, Worm M, Kleine-Tebbe J. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases - S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD). Allergo J Int 2014;23:282-319.

  5. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    degeneration when taking the limit. He then illustrates this phenomenon in several theories describing statistical lattice models including the n → 0 limit of the O(n ) model and the Q → 1 limit of the Q-state Potts model. Creutzig and Ridout review the continuum approach to logarithmic CFT, using the percolation (boundary) CFT to detail the connection between module structure and logarithmic singularities in correlators before describing their proposed solution to the thorny issue of generalising modular data and Verlinde formulae to the logarithmic setting. They illustrate this proposal using the three best-understood examples of logarithmic CFTs: the (1, 2) models, related to symplectic fermions; the fractional level WZW model on , related to the beta gamma ghosts; and the WZW model on GL(1|1). The analysis in each case requires that the spectrum be continuous; C2-cofinite models are only recovered as orbifolds. Flohr and Koehn consider the characters of the irreducible modules in the spectrum of a CFT and discuss why these only span a proper subspace of the space of torus vacuum amplitudes in the logarithmic case. This is illustrated explicitly for the (1, 2) triplet model and conclusions are drawn for the action of the modular group. They then note that the irreducible characters of this model also admit fermionic sum forms which seem to fit well into Nahmrsquo;s well-known conjecture for rational theories. Quasi-particle interpretations are also introduced, leading to the conclusion that logarithmic C2-cofinite theories are not so terribly different to rational theories, at least in some respects. Fuchs, Schweigert and Stigner address the problem of constructing local logarithmic CFTs starting from the chiral theory. They first review the construction of the local theory in the non-logarithmic setting from an angle that will then generalise to logarithmic theories. In particular, they observe that the bulk space can be understood as a certain coend. The authors then

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    pace of research within the last year, iron-based superconductors have revealed several unique properties such as a high upper critical field and a robustness to impurities. Participation of five 3d-orbitals in the Fermi levels also means that the electronic structure is complex compared with the cuprates. So, we now have a new family of superconductors and it is worth stressing that we have only just begun looking at the many varieties of candidate materials containing an iron square lattice. At this time we do not know whether a material with a critical temperature greater than 100 K exists, or if completely new properties are to be found. However, as a research community we should go ahead with hope and 'strike while the iron is hot'—this saying is always true! This focus issue of New Journal of Physics was put together to provide a broad-based, free-to-read snapshot of the current state of research in this rapidly emerging field. The papers included cover many aspects related to material exploration, physical analysis, and the theory of these materials, and, as editors, we thank the authors for their fine contributions, and the many referees for their considerable efforts that have ensured fast publication. As an aside, the first special issue on this SUBject was published in November 2008 in the Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (vol 77, supplement c) as the proceedings of the International Symposium on Iron-Pnictide Superconductors held in Tokyo on 29-30 June 2008. We would like to encourage the community to read both issues. On a final note we would like to acknowledge the staff of New Journal of Physics for all of their efficient work in bringing this collection to fruition. Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors Contents Microwave response of superconducting pnictides: extended s+/- scenario O V Dolgov, A A Golubov and D Parker Orbital and spin effects for the upper critical field in As-deficient disordered Fe pnictide superconductors G Fuchs, S