Science.gov

Sample records for fuel benefits challenges

  1. Orion: challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    1998-09-01

    ORION is a practical proposal for removing the 150,000 pieces of manmade space debris in the 1- to 10-cm size range now orbiting the Earth below 1500 km altitude which threaten large space systems in low Earth orbit. It is based on using the thrust produced by pulsed laser ablation of a thin layer on the debris surface to drop its perigee sufficiently for reentry and burnup. Applied when the object is rising between about 45 and 15-degree zenith angle, the necessary (Delta) v is of order 100 m/s. A laser of 30 kW average power at 10-ns pulsewidth and a 6-m mirror with adaptive optics can clear near-Earth space of these debris in 2 years of operation. Technical challenges faced by such a system include: heavy demands on detection, tracking and adaptive optics arising from the tiny optical cross section of the smallest debris and the required pointing accuracy and steering rate, stimulated Raman conversion and nonlinear refraction of the laser beam in the atmosphere, uncertainty of momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) for some materials, and high-average-power laser development. It is crucial that the system we propose be developed under international aegis, to insure that its installation does not increase international tensions. It should be viewed as a single-pay lifetime insurance policy for the World's space assets whose premium is less than 1% of the protected asset value, an excellent rate for such contracts.

  2. Used Nuclear Fuel: From Liability to Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear power has proven safe and reliable, with operating efficiencies in the U.S. exceeding 90%. It provides a carbon-free source of electricity (with about a 10% penalty arising from CO2 released from construction and the fuel cycle). However, used fuel from nuclear reactors is highly toxic and presents a challenge for permanent disposal -- both from technical and policy perspectives. The half-life of the ``bad actors'' is relatively short (of the order of decades) while the very long lived isotopes are relatively benign. At present, spent fuel is stored on-site in cooling ponds. Once the used fuel pools are full, the fuel is moved to dry cask storage on-site. Though the local storage is capable of handling used fuel safely and securely for many decades, the law requires DOE to assume responsibility for the used fuel and remove it from reactor sites. The nuclear industry pays a tithe to support sequestration of used fuel (but not research). However, there is currently no national policy in place to deal with the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel. This administration is opposed to underground storage at Yucca Mountain. There is no national policy for interim storage---removal of spent fuel from reactor sites and storage at a central location. And there is no national policy for liberating the energy contained in used fuel through recycling (separating out the fissionable components for subsequent use as nuclear fuel). A ``Blue Ribbon Commission'' has been formed to consider alternatives, but will not report until 2012. This paper will examine alternatives for used fuel disposition, their drawbacks (e.g. proliferation issues arising from recycling), and their benefits. For recycle options to emerge as a viable technology, research is required to develop cost effective methods for treating used nuclear fuel, with attention to policy as well as technical issues.

  3. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  4. Online Credit Recovery: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Teri; LaFrance, Jason

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are faced with selecting programs to support at-risk students in high schools across the United States. Increasingly, supplemental online learning is being selected as an innovative way to assist these students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand stakeholders' perceptions of the benefits and challenges of high…

  5. The challenges and benefits of lunar exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Three decades into the Space Age, the United States is experiencing a fundamental shift in space policy with the adoption of a broad national goal to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit and out into the Solar System. These plans mark a turning point in American space exploration, for they entail a shift away from singular forays to a long-term, evolutionary program of exploration and utilization of space. No longer limited to the technical and operational specifics of any one vehicle or any one mission plan, this new approach will involve a fleet of spacecraft and a stable of off-planet research laboratories, industrial facilities, and exploration programs. The challenges inherent in this program are immense, but so too are the benefits. Central to this new space architecture is the concept of using a lunar base for in-situ resource utilization, and for the development of planetary surface exploration systems, applicable to the Moon, Mars, and other planetary bodies in the Solar System. This paper discusses the technical, economic, and political challenges involved in this new approach, and details the latest thinking on the benefits that could come from bold new endeavors on the final frontier.

  6. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  7. Integrated fuel processor development challenges.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, Lee, S. H. D.; Kaun, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-09

    In the absence of a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, the success of the fuel cell system in the market will depend on fuel processors to enable the use of available fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, etc. The fuel processor includes several catalytic reactors, scrubbers to remove chemical species that can poison downstream catalysts or the fuel cell electrocatalyst, and heat exchangers. Most fuel cell power applications seek compact, lightweight hardware with rapid-start and load- following capabilities. Although packaging can partially address the size and volume, balancing the performance parameters while maintaining the fuel conversion (to hydrogen) efficiency requires careful integration of the unit operations and processes. Argonne National Laboratory has developed integrated fuel processors that are compact and light, and that operate efficiently. This paper discusses some of the difficulties encountered in the development process, focusing on the factors/components that constrain performance, and areas that need further research and development.

  8. The all electric airplane-benefits and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.; Hood, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    The all electric aircraft considered in the present investigation is an aircraft which has digital flight crucial controls, electromechanical actuators, and electrical secondary power. There are no hydraulic or pneumatic systems. The characteristics of an all electric aircraft are related to reduced acquisition cost, reduced weight, reduced fuel consumption, increased reliability, reduced support equipment, simpler maintenance, an expanded flight envelope, and improved survivability. An additional benefit is the dramatically increased design flexibility and mission adaptability. However, the implementation of the all electric aircraft concept requires the resolution of a number of major technology issues. Issues in the digital flight controls area are related to achieving the required levels of safety and reliability in a cost effective manner. Other challenges which have to be met are concerned with electromechanical actuators, environmental control and ice protection systems, and engine technology.

  9. Organisational Blogs: Benefits and Challenges of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical link between blogs and organisational learning. It aims to provide a set of practical guidelines on how to overcome the challenges of implementing an organisational blog. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review will be used to examine blogs and their association towards…

  10. Campus Challenge - Part 2: Benefits and Challenges of BACnet

    DOE PAGES

    Masica, Ken

    2016-01-15

    Additional challenges of implementing a BACnet network in a large campus environment are explored in this article: providing BACnet campus connectivity, protecting BACnet network traffic, and controlling the resulting broadcast traffic. An example of BACnet implementation is also presented, unifying concepts presented in this and Part One of the article.

  11. Risk-benefit perception: The research challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    1987-01-01

    Factors predisposing to perception of repositories as risky include the nuclear track record of secrecy and ineptitude, the overconfidence of some pro-nukes and the premature commercialization of an immature technology. Then, in parallel, we have the AEC-DOE track record including a bureaucratic approach involving premature policy decisions and continual changes in nuclear waste policy as demanded by Congress. The confusion of nuclear power with nuclear weapons is encouraged by those whose goal is to get rid of nuclear power. Media coverge feeds on controversy and a crisis, is a major factor in public perception of N-power and repositories as risky. Beyond their actual physical effects, there is the signal value of accidents such as Browns Ferry, Chernobyl, the Hanford tank leaks, Challenger, and TMI. These accidents have signaled that either the managers and operators don't understand the technology well enough to manage it, or worse yet, that the technology itself may not be manageable. With wodefully inadequate science and technology eduation, US citizens are unprepared to make decisions about management and uses of technology or to conduct their own risk evaluations. All of the above is occurring against the backdrop of the widespread and pervasive decline of trust in government and institutions in the past 25 years. And finally, there is Murphy's Law - everyone has some personal knowledge that whatever can go wrong will go wrong some day. In this social context, the tilt is toward perception of repositories as risky.

  12. Objectives, Strategies, and Challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Brent Dixon; David Shropshire; Robert Hill; Roald Wigeland; Erich Schneider; J. D. Smith

    2005-04-01

    This paper will summarize the objectives, strategies, and key chemical separation challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The major objectives are as follows: Waste management - defer the need for a second geologic repository for a century or more, Proliferation resistance - be more resistant than the existing PUREX separation technology or uranium enrichment, Energy sustainability - turn waste management liabilities into energy source assets to ensure that uranium ore resources do not become a constraint on nuclear power, and Systematic, safe, and economic management of the entire fuel cycle. There are four major strategies for the disposal of civilian spent fuel: Once-through - direct disposal of all discharged nuclear fuel, Limited recycle - recycle transuranic elements once and then direct disposal, Continuous recycle - recycle transuranic elements repeatedly, and Sustained recycle - same as continuous except previously discarded depleted uranium is also recycled. The key chemical separation challenges stem from the fact that the components of spent nuclear fuel vary greatly in their influence on achieving program objectives. Most options separate uranium to reduce the weight and volume of waste and the number and cost of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can also be used as reactor fuel. Most options provide means to recycle transuranic (TRU) elements - plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (Cm). Plutonium must be recycled to obtain repository, proliferation, and energy recovery benefits. U.S. non-proliferation policy forbids separation of plutonium by itself; therefore, one or more of the other transuranic elements must be kept with the plutonium; neptunium is considered the easiest option. Recycling neptunium also provides repository benefits. Americium recycling is also required to obtain repository benefits. At the present time, curium recycle provides relatively little benefit; indeed

  13. The challenge of funding hospital employee retirement benefits.

    PubMed

    Román, Christina

    2012-12-01

    Hospitals face a difficult challenge in meeting existing benefits obligations to employees while maintaining financial reserves to invest in electronic health records, quality improvement, and more effective integration of care. Although they may no longer be able to afford offering employees defined-benefit plans, many forward-looking healthcare organizations are finding ways to keep their commitments without sacrificing the balance sheet. One such organization is Scripps Health in San Diego, whose innovative benefits packages have contributed to its being ranked 56th in Fortune's "100 Best Companies to Work For" list in 2012. PMID:23252235

  14. Environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, David; Hörmandinger, Günter

    The potential environmental benefits of using fuel cells in cars, buses and stationary combined heat and power (CHP) plants of different sizes have not been well-researched. This environmental analysis was conducted for the UK on a `full fuel cycle' basis, encompassing all greenhouse gas and regulated pollutant emissions for the supply chain and end-use technology under consideration. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) with methanol or natural gas reformers were analysed for cars, SPFCs and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) with on-board hydrogen for buses. CHP plants were PAFCs or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each option was compared with one or more conventional technologies. In all cases fuel cell technologies have substantially reduced emissions in comparison with conventional technologies. Regulated emissions are lowest, by up to two orders of magnitude, and those that do occur are primarily in the fuel supply chain. The fuel cell technologies are more efficient in all cases, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced broadly in line with energy savings. Methane emissions increase due to fuel switching, e.g. from petrol to natural gas powered buses, but from a very low base. The study pinpoints some areas in which alternative approaches could be made - the methods for generating and transporting hydrogen have a significant bearing on energy consumption and emissions. However, it is clear that from an overall emissions perspective the use of fuel cells in transport and power generation is highly beneficial.

  15. Faculty Perception on International Students in Turkey: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine faculty perceptions on international students with respect to benefits and challenges of having them in a liberal arts university located in Istanbul, Turkey. The research data were collected through evaluation of pertinent documents of the school and interviews with sixteen faculty members…

  16. Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…

  17. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  18. Santini memorial lecture: Space Challenges and Opportunities for Human Benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarymovych, Michael I.

    2012-06-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Age the public was fascinated by the great challenges that needed to be overcome, but also inspired by the potential benefits that might arise from the utilization of space systems. This lecture examines the major technological breakthroughs that were necessary for many of the key space programs to succeed, and postulates the immediate and future benefits to humanity that became evident as a result of these advances. A dozen programs ranging from Sputnik and Apollo to the Global Navigation Satellite System are reviewed in view of the technical challenges in elements such as propulsion, power, structures, computing, guidance and control, spectrum management and payloads. Challenges in the cost of space launch, large structures, debris mitigation, humans in space and commercial promise are discussed and opportunities for improvements in the future are postulated.

  19. Social media and physicians: Exploring the benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Sirous; Watson, Jason; Partridge, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare professionals' use of social media platforms, such as blogs, wikis, and social networking web sites has grown considerably in recent years. However, few studies have explored the perspectives and experiences of physicians in adopting social media in healthcare. This article aims to identify the potential benefits and challenges of adopting social media by physicians and demonstrates this by presenting findings from a survey conducted with physicians. A qualitative survey design was employed to achieve the research goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 physicians from around the world who were active users of social media. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The study revealed six main reasons and six major challenges for physicians adopting social media. The main reasons to join social media were as follows: staying connected with colleagues, reaching out and networking with the wider community, sharing knowledge, engaging in continued medical education, benchmarking, and branding. The main challenges of adopting social media by physicians were also as follows: maintaining confidentiality, lack of active participation, finding time, lack of trust, workplace acceptance and support, and information anarchy. By revealing the main benefits as well as the challenges of adopting social media by physicians, the study provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to better understand the scope and impact of social media in healthcare, and assists them to adopt and harness social media effectively, and maximize the benefits for the specific needs of the clinical community. PMID:25038200

  20. Social media and physicians: Exploring the benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Sirous; Watson, Jason; Partridge, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare professionals' use of social media platforms, such as blogs, wikis, and social networking web sites has grown considerably in recent years. However, few studies have explored the perspectives and experiences of physicians in adopting social media in healthcare. This article aims to identify the potential benefits and challenges of adopting social media by physicians and demonstrates this by presenting findings from a survey conducted with physicians. A qualitative survey design was employed to achieve the research goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 physicians from around the world who were active users of social media. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The study revealed six main reasons and six major challenges for physicians adopting social media. The main reasons to join social media were as follows: staying connected with colleagues, reaching out and networking with the wider community, sharing knowledge, engaging in continued medical education, benchmarking, and branding. The main challenges of adopting social media by physicians were also as follows: maintaining confidentiality, lack of active participation, finding time, lack of trust, workplace acceptance and support, and information anarchy. By revealing the main benefits as well as the challenges of adopting social media by physicians, the study provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to better understand the scope and impact of social media in healthcare, and assists them to adopt and harness social media effectively, and maximize the benefits for the specific needs of the clinical community.

  1. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (<100C) compared to PAFCs (>200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC

  2. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (<100C) compared to PAFCs (>200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC

  3. Miniaturized biological and electrochemical fuel cells: challenges and applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Ghobadian, Sasan; Goodrich, Payton J; Montazami, Reza; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-09-14

    This paper discusses the fundamentals and developments of miniaturized fuel cells, both biological and electrochemical. An overview of microfluidic fuel cells, miniaturized microbial fuel cells, enzymatic biofuel cells, and implanted biofuel cells in an attempt to provide green energy and to power implanted microdevices is provided. Also, the challenges and applications of each type of fuel cell are discussed in detail. Most recent developments in fuel cell technologies such as novel catalysts, compact designs, and fabrication methods are reviewed.

  4. Microscale microbial fuel cells: Advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seokheun

    2015-07-15

    The next generation of sustainable energy could come from microorganisms; evidence that it can be seen with the given rise of Electromicrobiology, the study of microorganisms' electrical properties. Many recent advances in electromicrobiology stem from studying microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which are gaining acceptance as a future alternative "green" energy technology and energy-efficient wastewater treatment method. MFCs are powered by living microorganisms with clean and sustainable features; they efficiently catalyse the degradation of a broad range of organic substrates under natural conditions. There is also increasing interest in photosynthetic MFCs designed to harness Earth's most abundant and promising energy source (solar irradiation). Despite their vast potential and promise, however, MFCs and photosynthetic MFCs have not yet successfully translated into commercial applications because they demonstrate persistent performance limitations and bottlenecks associated with scaling up. Instead, microscale MFCs have received increasing attention as a unique platform for various applications such as powering small portable electronic elements in remote locations, performing fundamental studies of microorganisms, screening bacterial strains, and toxicity detection in water. Furthermore, the stacking of miniaturized MFCs has been demonstrated to offer larger power densities than a single macroscale MFC in terms of scaling up. In this overview, we discuss recent achievements in microscale MFCs as well as their potential applications. Further scientific and technological challenges are also reviewed.

  5. Empowering patients through social media: the benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the range of social media platforms used by patients and examines the benefits and challenges of using these tools from a patient perspective. A literature review was performed to investigate the use of social media technology by patients. The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms "social media" and "patient." The search was conducted in September 2012 and yielded 765 abstracts. Initially, 63 abstracts were selected. All articles dating from 2004 through 2012 were included. Only 12 articles were found to be relevant for the purposes of the review. The results of this research found that there appears to be an increase in the use of social media by patients across the healthcare spectrum. The research indicates a promising future for the use of social media by patients; however, evidence related to the efficacy and effectiveness of social media is currently limited. Various challenges have also been identified relating to privacy and security concerns, usability, the manipulation of identity, and misinformation. The use of social media technology is an emerging trend for patients who are seeking health information. Conclusions are that such technology holds promise for improving patient engagement and empowerment and community building. Social media has a future in healthcare, especially with regard to patient engagement and empowerment; however, there are several challenges to overcome before the technology can achieve its potential.

  6. Empowering patients through social media: the benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the range of social media platforms used by patients and examines the benefits and challenges of using these tools from a patient perspective. A literature review was performed to investigate the use of social media technology by patients. The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms "social media" and "patient." The search was conducted in September 2012 and yielded 765 abstracts. Initially, 63 abstracts were selected. All articles dating from 2004 through 2012 were included. Only 12 articles were found to be relevant for the purposes of the review. The results of this research found that there appears to be an increase in the use of social media by patients across the healthcare spectrum. The research indicates a promising future for the use of social media by patients; however, evidence related to the efficacy and effectiveness of social media is currently limited. Various challenges have also been identified relating to privacy and security concerns, usability, the manipulation of identity, and misinformation. The use of social media technology is an emerging trend for patients who are seeking health information. Conclusions are that such technology holds promise for improving patient engagement and empowerment and community building. Social media has a future in healthcare, especially with regard to patient engagement and empowerment; however, there are several challenges to overcome before the technology can achieve its potential. PMID:24550564

  7. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  8. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described. PMID:26052848

  9. A Vulnerability-Benefit Analysis of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delman, E. M.; Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although we can anticipate continued improvements in our understanding of future climate impacts, the central challenge of climate change is not scientific, but rather political and economic. In particular, international climate negotiations center on how to share the burden of uncertain mitigation and adaptation costs. We expose the relative economic interests of different countries by assessing and comparing their vulnerability to climate impacts and the economic benefits they derive from the fossil fuel-based energy system. Vulnerability refers to the propensity of humans and their assets to suffer when impacted by hazards, and we draw upon the results from a number of prior studies that have quantified vulnerability using multivariate indices. As a proxy for benefit, we average CO2 related to each country's extraction of fossil fuels, production of CO2 emissions, and consumption of goods and services (Davis et al., 2011), which should reflect benefits accrued in proportion to national economic dependence on fossil fuels. We define a nondimensional vulnerability-benefit ratio for each nation and find a large range across countries. In general, we confirm that developed and emerging economies such as the U.S., Western Europe, and China rely heavily on fossil fuels and have substantial resources to respond to the impacts of climate change, while smaller, less-developed economies such as Sierra Leone and Vanuatu benefit little from current CO2 emissions and are much more vulnerable to adverse climate impacts. In addition, we identify some countries with a high vulnerability and benefit, such as Iraq and Nigeria; conversely, some nations exhibit both a low vulnerability and benefit, such as New Zealand. In most cases, the ratios reflect the nature of energy-climate policies in each country, although certain nations - such as the United Kingdom and France - assume a level of responsibility incongruous with their ratio and commit to mitigation policy despite

  10. Nanotechnology: Scientific challenges and societal benefits and risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romig, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    The field of nanotechnology is developing rapidly, as are its practical application in society. In this article, we give examples that demonstrate the enormous potential that exists for this new class of materials, and for devices with critical dimensions of less than 100 nm. We also identify some of the challenges that need to be faced in order to fully realize the practical benefits of nanotechnology, and discuss possible risks that may come with this new technology. In all cases, the unique advantage of nanotechnology can be traced back to nanoscale physical and chemical properties that are quite different from those encountered in more traditional microscopic (micro) or macroscopic (macro) materials and devices. Unique nanoscale properties and behaviors are already being used to increase energy efficiency, improve healthcare, and strengthen national security. However, while progress is rapid, many challenges remain. These include manufacturing at the nanoscale, integration of nanoscale materials and devices with more conventional technology, and predictive modeling that will allow nanotechnology to be engineered reliably into useful applications and products. Nanotechnology can be expected to have an increasing impact on human lives and society at large. As we strive to use nanotechnology to improve human life through better healthcare, cleaner environment, and improved national security, we must also work to detect and assess the negative impacts that nanotechnology science (or any new technology) might bring. We suggest that the conduct of should be allowed to proceed unimpeded, so that we can fully understand and appreciate the rules of nature at the nanometer scale. That said, scientific pursuits that involve self-replication in synthetic systems, encryption, defense technology, or the enhancement of human intelligence should be reviewed. The development of new technology from fundamental science and the process of deciding what new technology is to be

  11. Benefits and challenges of newborn hearing screening for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, B O; Luxon, L M; Wirz, S L

    2004-03-01

    The late detection of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) often has severe effects on linguistic, speech, cognitive and educational development in affected children. Since newborn hearing screening (NHS) allows most PCEHL to be detected early enough for optimal intervention, the prospects of its introduction in the developing world are reviewed in this paper. It is observed that a simple generalisation on the feasibility of NHS for the developing countries seems inappropriate in view of the diversities in the health and socio-economic status of these countries and the recent favourable reports of universal newborn hearing screening from the region. NHS empowers parents to make timely choices that will allow their hearing impaired children to be given a good start in life and be fully integrated into the wider community. It also compels attention towards the development of essential hearing healthcare services, besides the specific documented benefits. Existing child-healthcare structures such as the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI), baby friendly hospital initiatives (BFHI) and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provide opportunities for the introduction of some form of NHS in many of these countries where routine or systematic childhood hearing screening does not exist. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness and the uncertainty regarding the commitment from healthcare practitioners may present some challenges but these are not insurmountable. Pilot studies are necessary in each country to provide empirical data that will guide healthcare providers who wish to introduce such a programme at any level of healthcare delivery. PMID:15129939

  12. Top Benefits Challenges Facing School Business Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohling, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    What's the main factor coloring employee satisfaction? Many organizations' leaders think the answer is salary, yet in reality, employee benefits packages are one of the biggest incentives an employer can offer. Educational institutions have done well in providing benefits to employees. However, with an unpredictable economic climate and a complex…

  13. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  14. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  15. Benefits and Challenges of School-Based Crisis Response Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Offers a rationale for the importance of school-based intervention in crisis and emergency situations, outlining a model for crisis response policies and procedures. Discusses benefits to schools of developing a team to implement the model, obstacles that can impede full implementation, and strategies for minimizing identified obstacles. (SM)

  16. Online Distance Learning and Music Training: Benefits, Drawbacks and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoupidou, Theano

    2014-01-01

    This study examines online distance learning (ODL) as applied in music and music education programmes at different educational levels with a special focus on the digital tools employed in such programmes. It aims to provide an up-to-date snapshot of the current online courses focusing on the potential benefits and drawbacks of ODL from the…

  17. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  18. Wireless Intra-Spacecraft Communication: The Benefits and the Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Will H.; Armstrong, John T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of how intra-spacecraft wireless communication can be adopted to various subsystems of the spacecraft including C&DH (Command & Data Handling), Telecom, Power, Propulsion, and Payloads, and the interconnects between them. We discuss the advantages of intra-spacecraft wireless communication and the disadvantages and challenges and a proposal to address them.

  19. Borderland Spaces for Learning Partnership: Opportunities, Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennifer; Thomas, Greg; Diaz, Anita; Simm, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses case studies and secondary literature to critically examine how learning spaces inhabited by geographers might be used productively as borderland spaces for learning partnership. Borderland spaces are novel, challenging, permissive and liminal, destabilizing traditional power hierarchies. In these spaces, students gain confidence…

  20. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies: Current Challenges and Future Plans - 12558

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies office (FCT program) is to provide options for possible future changes in national nuclear energy programs. While the recent draft report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future stressed the need for organization changes, interim waste storage and the establishment of a permanent repository for nuclear waste management, it also recognized the potential value of alternate fuel cycles and recommended continued research and development in that area. With constrained budgets and great expectations, the current challenges are significant. The FCT program now performs R and D covering the entire fuel cycle. This broad R and D scope is a result of the assignment of new research and development (R and D) responsibilities to the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), as well as reorganization within NE. This scope includes uranium extraction from seawater and uranium enrichment R and D, used nuclear fuel recycling technology, advanced fuel development, and a fresh look at a range of disposal geologies. Additionally, the FCT program performs the necessary systems analysis and screening of fuel cycle alternatives that will identify the most promising approaches and areas of technology gaps. Finally, the FCT program is responsible for a focused effort to consider features of fuel cycle technology in a way that promotes nonproliferation and security, such as Safeguards and Security by Design, and advanced monitoring and predictive modeling capabilities. This paper and presentation will provide an overview of the FCT program R and D scope and discuss plans to analyze fuel cycle options and support identified R and D priorities into the future. The FCT program is making progress in implanting a science based, engineering driven research and development program that is evaluating options for a sustainable fuel cycle in the U.S. Responding to the BRC recommendations, any resulting legislative changes

  2. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  3. Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

  4. Nitrogen fertilization challenges the climate benefit of cellulosic biofuels

    DOE PAGES

    Ruan, Leilei; Bhardwaj, Ajay K.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cellulosic biofuels are intended to improve future energy and climate security. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly recommended to stimulate yields but can increase losses of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of reactive N, including nitrate. We measured soil N2O emissions and nitrate leaching along a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) high resolution N-fertilizer gradient for three years post-establishment. Results revealed an exponential increase in annual N2O emissions that each year became stronger (R2 > 0.9, P < 0.001) and deviated further from the fixed percentage assumed for IPCC Tier 1 emission factors. Concomitantly, switchgrass yields became less responsivemore » each year to N fertilizer. Nitrate leaching (and calculated indirect N2O emissions) also increased exponentially in response to N inputs, but neither methane (CH4) uptake nor soil organic carbon changed detectably. Overall, N fertilizer inputs at rates greater than crop need curtailed the climate benefit of ethanol production almost two-fold, from a maximum mitigation capacity of–5.71 ± 0.22 Mg CO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 56 kgNha–1 to only –2.97 ± 0.18 MgCO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 196 kgNha–1. In conclusion, minimizing N fertilizer use will be an important strategy for fully realizing the climate benefits of cellulosic biofuel production.« less

  5. Nitrogen fertilization challenges the climate benefit of cellulosic biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Leilei; Bhardwaj, Ajay K.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cellulosic biofuels are intended to improve future energy and climate security. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly recommended to stimulate yields but can increase losses of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of reactive N, including nitrate. We measured soil N2O emissions and nitrate leaching along a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) high resolution N-fertilizer gradient for three years post-establishment. Results revealed an exponential increase in annual N2O emissions that each year became stronger (R 2 > 0.9, P < 0.001) and deviated further from the fixed percentage assumed for IPCC Tier 1 emission factors. Concomitantly, switchgrass yields became less responsive each year to N fertilizer. Nitrate leaching (and calculated indirect N2O emissions) also increased exponentially in response to N inputs, but neither methane (CH4) uptake nor soil organic carbon changed detectably. Overall, N fertilizer inputs at rates greater than crop need curtailed the climate benefit of ethanol production almost two-fold, from a maximum mitigation capacity of -5.71 ± 0.22 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1 in switchgrass fertilized at 56 kg N ha-1 to only -2.97 ± 0.18 Mg CO2e ha-1 yr-1 in switchgrass fertilized at 196 kg N ha-1. Minimizing N fertilizer use will be an important strategy for fully realizing the climate benefits of cellulosic biofuel production.

  6. Nitrogen fertilization challenges the climate benefit of cellulosic biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Leilei; Bhardwaj, Ajay K.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cellulosic biofuels are intended to improve future energy and climate security. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly recommended to stimulate yields but can increase losses of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of reactive N, including nitrate. We measured soil N2O emissions and nitrate leaching along a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) high resolution N-fertilizer gradient for three years post-establishment. Results revealed an exponential increase in annual N2O emissions that each year became stronger (R 2 > 0.9, P < 0.001) and deviated further from the fixed percentage assumed for IPCC Tier 1 emission factors. Concomitantly, switchgrass yields became less responsive each year to N fertilizer. Nitrate leaching (and calculated indirect N2O emissions) also increased exponentially in response to N inputs, but neither methane (CH4) uptake nor soil organic carbon changed detectably. Overall, N fertilizer inputs at rates greater than crop need curtailed the climate benefit of ethanol production almost two-fold, from a maximum mitigation capacity of ‑5.71 ± 0.22 Mg CO2e ha‑1 yr‑1 in switchgrass fertilized at 56 kg N ha‑1 to only ‑2.97 ± 0.18 Mg CO2e ha‑1 yr‑1 in switchgrass fertilized at 196 kg N ha‑1. Minimizing N fertilizer use will be an important strategy for fully realizing the climate benefits of cellulosic biofuel production.

  7. Capacity building in emerging space nations: Experiences, challenges and benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Susan; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Liddle, Doug; Chizea, Francis; Leloglu, Ugur Murat; Helvaci, Mustafa; Bekhti, Mohammed; Benachir, Djouad; Boland, Lee; Gomes, Luis; Sweeting, Martin

    2010-09-01

    This paper focuses on ways in which space is being used to build capacity in science and technology in order to: Offer increasing support for national and global solutions to current and emerging problems including: how to improve food security; resource management; understanding the impacts of climate change and how to deal with them; improving disaster mitigation, management and response. Support sustainable economic development. We present some of the experiences, lessons learned and benefits gained in capacity building projects undertaken by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. and our partners from developing and mature space nations. We focus on the Turkish, Algerian and Nigerian know-how and technology transfer programmes which form part of the first Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) in orbit. From the lessons learned on Surrey's know-how and technology transfer partnership programmes, it is clear that space technology needs to be implemented responsibly as part of a long-term capacity building plan to be a sustainable one. It needs to be supported with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional development, including community participation, human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems. In taking this on board, DMC has resulted in a strong international partnership combining national objectives, humanitarian aid and commerce. The benefits include: Ownership of space-based and supporting ground assets with low capital expenditure that is in line with national budgets of developing nations. Ownership of data and control over data acquisition. More for the money via collaborative consortium. Space related capacity building in organisations and nations with the goal of sustainable development. Opportunities for international collaboration, including disaster management and relief.

  8. Benefits and Challenges of Conducting Psychotherapy by Telephone.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Gretchen A; Ingram, Cobi W; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2011-12-01

    Telephone-delivered psychotherapy has increased utility as a method of service delivery in the current world, where a number of barriers, including economic hardships and limited access to care, may prevent people from receiving the treatment they need. This method of service provision is practical and has the potential to reach large numbers of underserved people in a cost-effective manner. The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art of telephone-delivered psychotherapy and to identify improvements and possible solutions to challenges. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate high client acceptance and positive outcomes with this method of delivering psychotherapy. Nonetheless, psychotherapists wishing to deliver psychotherapy by telephone face a number of challenges, including a lack of control over the environment, potential compromises of privacy and confidentiality, developing therapeutic alliance without face-to-face contact, ethical and legal issues in providing psychotherapy by telephone, handling crisis situations at a distance, and psychotherapist adjustment to conducting psychotherapy in an alternative manner. There remains a need for further research, including direct comparisons of face-to-face psychotherapy with telephone-delivered psychotherapy and feasibility of telephone delivery of psychotherapies other than cognitive behavioral therapy.

  9. Low Accelerating Voltage, X-ray Microanalysis: Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcswiggen, P.; Mori, N.; Takakura, M.; Nielsen, C.

    2011-12-01

    The development of the field emission (FE) electron gun has made it possible to generate extremely high, electron densities and as a result, an electron beam that is one-half to one-tenth the diameter of the conventional thermionic emission electron gun using a W filament or a LaB6 tip. In addition, with a Schottky thermal, field emission (TFE) electron gun, sufficient beam currents can be provided for trace element microanalyses. Now the challenge is to be able to take advantage of this smaller electron beam to provide X-ray analyses of comparable size areas. Using the typical operating conditions for X-ray microanalyses (15-20kV accelerating voltage), the electron beam scattering within the sample results in an analysis that is of a much larger area. However working at a low accelerating voltage, the amount of scatter is greatly reduced, resulting in an analytical area that can be about the size of the electron beam. The optimum accelerating voltage that will produce the smallest analytical volume is typically around 5-7 kV. At lower accelerating voltages, the size of the analytical area is controlled by the size of the electron beam, which increases with decreasing accelerating voltage. At higher accelerating voltages, the analytical area is controlled by the amount of scattering within the sample, which in turn is controlled by the accelerating voltage and the average atomic number of the material. The higher the accelerating voltage, the more scatter. Using a TFE electron gun at low accelerating voltages means it is possible to analyze areas in the range of 0.1 μm. However, working at low accelerating voltages can produce a new set of challenges when trying to obtain the best quality quantitative analyses. One problem comes from the fact that there are few X-ray lines available when using lower accelerating voltages. This is particularly problematic when using energy dispersive spectrometers (EDS), less so with wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS). With

  10. Benefits and challenges of electronic surveillance in nursing home research.

    PubMed

    Sifford, K Susan; Bharucha, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and frailty associated with dementia renders residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities particularly vulnerable to physical and emotional harm. Resident-to-resident violence affects not only the target of the aggression, but also the aggressor, as well as the formal and informal caregivers who must intervene. To date, little research has been conducted on resident-to-resident violence despite preliminary but emerging evidence that it is a common (and likely growing) problem in LTC settings. Exploration of this phenomenon presents multiple pragmatic and ethical challenges. This article presents a rationale for implementing newer technological methods to collect data in investigations of resident-to-resident violence associated with dementia. The advantages and disadvantages of electronic surveillance in LTC research and the ethical principles involved are discussed, and an argument is developed for using electronic surveillance in both the shared, as well as private, spaces of the facility. PMID:20128538

  11. Recent Trials Challenge the Benefits of Omega-3.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S

    2015-01-01

    Recent randomized trials and subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the value of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in cardiovascular disease risk reduction. This lecture will review the clinical trials published between 2010 and 2014 that failed to show benefits of n-3 fatty acids, and one meta-analysis from 2012 that used a controversial statistical approach to conclude no effect. The question of the extent to which n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces risk for cardiovascular disease remains open. Future studies must be properly powered, use doses of n-3 fatty acids significantly higher than those provided in background diets, focus on patient populations with low n-3 fatty acid tissue levels, treat for longer periods of time, and consider the effects of these agents in the great majority of patients who are not on guideline-directed therapeutic regimens. The strong evidence-base from prospective cohort studies and the ever-deepening understanding of the cellular effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids together support the need for these nutrients in reducing cardiovascular risk. Short-term findings from randomized controlled trials need to be interpreted in the light of all the evidence.(Presented at the 1907th Meeting, October 27, 2015).

  12. Commentary: Unexpected Benefits that Challenge the Orthodoxy of DBS Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The case of Ms. L. provides a wonderful opportunity to highlight the underlying value commitments that often deeply influence decisionmaking in medicine and more specifically in innovative neurosurgical procedures. In order to give a fair opinion on how Dr. Impf, as clinician and researcher, should act, a much richer and thicker understanding of the actual perspectives of the stakeholders would be necessary. Because this is not available, I highlight three important elements: the terms under which the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is implanted, the proper goals of a healthcare team, and the fallacy of a "natural" or immutable self. These elements are brought together in this case by a set of unexpected effects on the patient that were not intended and that are judged and categorized differently by various stakeholders within the case. In the end, I hope that there was full transparency and agreement about obligations, responsibilities, and outcomes prior to the implantation of the DBS between the physician and patient. Further, it is important to remember that just because a result is serendipitous does not mean that it should be discounted as a proper benefit. Finally, each person authors variations on their own self that are molded by environment and social networks. If Ms. L. continues to demonstrate an ability to author a desired self, the DBS is no more inappropriate a tool than many other artifacts that are used regularly by others to mold themselves. PMID:27634727

  13. Commentary: Unexpected Benefits that Challenge the Orthodoxy of DBS Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The case of Ms. L. provides a wonderful opportunity to highlight the underlying value commitments that often deeply influence decisionmaking in medicine and more specifically in innovative neurosurgical procedures. In order to give a fair opinion on how Dr. Impf, as clinician and researcher, should act, a much richer and thicker understanding of the actual perspectives of the stakeholders would be necessary. Because this is not available, I highlight three important elements: the terms under which the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is implanted, the proper goals of a healthcare team, and the fallacy of a "natural" or immutable self. These elements are brought together in this case by a set of unexpected effects on the patient that were not intended and that are judged and categorized differently by various stakeholders within the case. In the end, I hope that there was full transparency and agreement about obligations, responsibilities, and outcomes prior to the implantation of the DBS between the physician and patient. Further, it is important to remember that just because a result is serendipitous does not mean that it should be discounted as a proper benefit. Finally, each person authors variations on their own self that are molded by environment and social networks. If Ms. L. continues to demonstrate an ability to author a desired self, the DBS is no more inappropriate a tool than many other artifacts that are used regularly by others to mold themselves.

  14. Benefits of an Integrated Fuel Cycle on Repository Effective Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.; Hunter, I.; Vinoche, R.; Clement, G.; Louvet, T.; Bruyere, J.

    2006-07-01

    Today, the Yucca Mountain repository is limited by legislation to a maximum capacity of 70,000 metric tons of initial heavy metal (MTiHM), of which 63,000 MTiHM is reserved for civilian nuclear used fuel. Various sources have estimated the 'real' or 'technical' capacity of Yucca Mountain could be around 125,000 MTiHM. Whatever the actual number is, it will be significantly less than the anticipated total volume of used fuel expected to be generated in the US by 2100. This paper briefly reviews the design constraints of the Yucca Mountain repository and shows the potential gains in capacity by early recycling of used fuel from US commercial reactors using an evolutionary COEX process (co-extraction of uranium and plutonium) design. To optimize the Yucca Mountain loading, two important constraints need to be addressed: heat load and physical volume. For heat load there is a long-term issue with actinides (primarily plutonium and americium) and a short-term issue with fission products (primarily cesium and strontium). We present a new way to increase the capacity of Yucca Mountain by increasing the unit loading of the repository - early recycling approach. For the once-through option and the early recycling solution, drift loading factors are calculated, looking at both volume and heat. The resulting densification factor (ratio of drift loading factor of treatment high level waste residues to used fuel) is 4 using COEX technology. In simple terms, the total length of Yucca Mountain tunnels needed to dispose of 63,000 MTiHM of used fuel (legal limit) could be used to dispose of the residues from the treatment of 252,000 MTiHM of used fuel. (authors)

  15. Providing Undergraduate Science Partners for Elementary Teachers: Benefits and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Camille A.; Umoja, Aminata

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate college “science partners” provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K–5 teachers in a university–school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed “participatory reform”; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views. PMID:19723818

  16. Haptics in Robot-Assisted Surgery: Challenges and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Enayati, Nima; De Momi, Elena; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is transforming the current surgical practice, not only by improving the conventional surgical methods but also by introducing innovative robot-enhanced approaches that broaden the capabilities of clinicians. Being mainly of man-machine collaborative type, surgical robots are seen as media that transfer pre- and intraoperative information to the operator and reproduce his/her motion, with appropriate filtering, scaling, or limitation, to physically interact with the patient. The field, however, is far from maturity and, more critically, is still a subject of controversy in medical communities. Limited or absent haptic feedback is reputed to be among reasons that impede further spread of surgical robots. In this paper, objectives and challenges of deploying haptic technologies in surgical robotics are discussed, and a systematic review is performed on works that have studied the effects of providing haptic information to the users in major branches of robotic surgery. It attempts to encompass both classical works and the state-of-the-art approaches, aiming at delivering a comprehensive and balanced survey both for researchers starting their work in this field and for the experts. PMID:26960228

  17. Providing undergraduate science partners for elementary teachers: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Camille A; Umoja, Aminata; DeHaan, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate college "science partners" provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K-5 teachers in a university-school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed "participatory reform"; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views.

  18. Haptics in Robot-Assisted Surgery: Challenges and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Enayati, Nima; De Momi, Elena; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is transforming the current surgical practice, not only by improving the conventional surgical methods but also by introducing innovative robot-enhanced approaches that broaden the capabilities of clinicians. Being mainly of man-machine collaborative type, surgical robots are seen as media that transfer pre- and intraoperative information to the operator and reproduce his/her motion, with appropriate filtering, scaling, or limitation, to physically interact with the patient. The field, however, is far from maturity and, more critically, is still a subject of controversy in medical communities. Limited or absent haptic feedback is reputed to be among reasons that impede further spread of surgical robots. In this paper, objectives and challenges of deploying haptic technologies in surgical robotics are discussed, and a systematic review is performed on works that have studied the effects of providing haptic information to the users in major branches of robotic surgery. It attempts to encompass both classical works and the state-of-the-art approaches, aiming at delivering a comprehensive and balanced survey both for researchers starting their work in this field and for the experts.

  19. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  20. Investigating the Benefits and Challenges of Using Laptop Computers in Higher Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin Holding; Lauricella, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits and challenges using laptop computers (hereafter referred to as laptops) inside and outside higher education classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 156 university students (54 males, 102 females) enrolled in either education or communication studies. Benefits of…

  1. Fuel Ethanol Coproducts – Growing Challenges and Opportunities for Fueling America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a nation, we face many challenges, including growing population, industrialization, as well as material and energy consumption. Coupled with these is an increasing reliance on fossil fuels, whose markets have historically been quite volatile, the energy security needs of North America continue t...

  2. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  3. Benefits of modern refinery information systems for manufacturing cleaner fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Revolutionary changes in quality specifications (number, complexity, uncertainty, economic sensitivity) for reformulated gasolines (RFG) and low-sulfur diesels (LSD) are being addressed by powerful, new, computer integrated manufacturing technology for Refinery Information Systems and Advanced Process Control (RIS/APC). This paper shows how the five active RIS/APC functions -- performance measurement, optimization, scheduling, control and integration -- are used to manufacture new, clean fuels competitively. With current industry spending for this field averaging 2 to 3 cents/bbl crude, many refineries can capture 50 to 100 cents/bbl if the technology is properly employed and sustained throughout refining operations, organizations, and businesses.

  4. Bioconversion of Natural Gas to Liquid Fuel. Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M. L.; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Moreover, methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. Our review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  5. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  7. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE RESEARCH IN A SCHOOL SETTING

    PubMed Central

    GUIDRY, VIRGINIA T.; LOWMAN, AMY; HALL, DEVON; BARON, DOTHULA; WING, STEVE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students’ academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants’ immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health. PMID:25085828

  8. Challenges and benefits of conducting environmental justice research in a school setting.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Virginia T; Lowman, Amy; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Wing, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring health effects at three low-resource public middle schools near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina. We evaluated perceived benefits and challenges of study involvement by interviewing school staff and community liaisons who facilitated data collection. Reported benefits included enhancement of students' academic environment and increased community environmental awareness; challenges were associated mainly with some participants' immaturity. Leadership from a strong community-based organization was crucial to recruitment, yet our approach entailed minimal focus on EJ, which may have limited opportunities for community education or organizing for environmental health.

  9. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  10. Operational and environmental benefits of oxy-fuel combustion in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, L.M. ); Pavlack, T.T. . Linde Division); Rich, L. )

    1993-07-01

    A number of patented, field-tested 100% oxy-fuel burner systems have been developed which provide fuel savings, reduced emissions (CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]) and improved operational performances. These systems can be applied to high-temperature continuous and batch reheat furnaces, soaking pits and ladle preheaters. Fuel consumption and carbon dioxide and NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced by 40 to 60%. Burner design (including nonwater cooled models), commercial experience, measured and projected emissions reductions, and additional operating benefits associated with new and retrofitted applications are described.

  11. Future nuclear fuel cycles: Prospect and challenges for actinide recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warin, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear power has the worldwide potential to curtail the dependence on fossil fuels and thereby to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting energy independence. How we deal with nuclear radioactive waste is crucial in this context. In France, the public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Governments to prepare and pass the 1991 and 2006 Acts, requesting in particular the study of applicable solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste. This necessitates High Active Long Life element (such as the Minor Actinides MA) recycling, since the results of fuel cycle R&D could significantly change the challenges for the storage of nuclear waste. HALL recycling can reduce the heat load and the half-life of most of the waste to be buried to a couple of hundred years, overcoming the concerns of the public related to the long-life of the waste and thus aiding the "burying approach" in securing a "broadly agreed political consensus" of waste disposal in a geological repository. This paper presents an overview of the recent R and D results obtained at the CEA Atalante facility on innovative actinide partitioning hydrometallurgical processes. For americium and curium partitioning, these results concern improvements and possible simplifications of the Diamex-Sanex process, whose technical feasibility was already demonstrated in 2005. Results on the first tests of the Ganex process (grouped actinide separation for homogeneous recycling) are also discussed. In the coming years, next steps will involve both better in-depth understanding of the basis of these actinide partitioning processes and, for the new promising

  12. Benefits, Challenges, and Perceptions of the Multiple Article Dissertation Format in Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca Arlene; West, Richard E.; Rich, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study used survey data to investigate the benefits, challenges, perceptions, and current practices of the multiple article dissertation format in instructional technology. Online surveys were sent to current students, alumni, faculty, and department representatives of instructional technology programs, and data were analysed using qualitative…

  13. Implementing Portfolio-Based Language Assessment in LINC Programs: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Although earlier research has examined the potential of portfolios as assessment tools, research on the use of portfolios in the context of second-language education in Canada has been limited. The goal of this study was to explore the benefits and challenges of implementing a portfolio-based language assessment (PBLA) model in Language…

  14. Collaborative Research between Community Development Practitioners and University Based Researchers: Challenges and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mildred E.; Hinrichs, Clare; Schneyer, Judith; Joyce, Lucy

    A research project identified the challenges and benefits of collaborative research between extension agents and researchers. Its methodology was a critical review of the collaborative research approach used in a case study examining the usefulness of social capital in promoting rural landscape sustainability in two counties in the Hudson River…

  15. Military Veterans Face Challenges in Accessing Educational Benefits at Florida Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rivka; Hill, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Florida's community colleges are seeing an influx of students who face unique challenges. They are the men and women who served in the military after the attacks of September 11, 2001, and who are now attending college on the new Post-9/11 GI Bill, with its greatly enhanced educational benefits, and on the expanded, old Montgomery GI Bill, which…

  16. Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

  17. The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the…

  18. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  19. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  20. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and middle…

  1. Statistical aspects in comparative benefit-risk assessment: challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical statisticians.

    PubMed

    Quartey, George; Wang, Jixian

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment is a fundamental element of drug development with the aim to strengthen decision making for the benefit of public health. Appropriate benefit-risk assessment can provide useful information for proactive intervention in health care settings, which could save lives, reduce litigation, improve patient safety and health care outcomes, and furthermore, lower overall health care costs. Recent development in this area presents challenges and opportunities to statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. We review the development and examine statistical issues in comparative benefit-risk assessment. We argue that a structured benefit-risk assessment should be a multi-disciplinary effort involving experts in clinical science, safety assessment, decision science, health economics, epidemiology and statistics. Well planned and conducted analyses with clear consideration on benefit and risk are critical for appropriate benefit-risk assessment. Pharmaceutical statisticians should extend their knowledge to relevant areas such as pharmaco-epidemiology, decision analysis, modeling, and simulation to play an increasingly important role in comparative benefit-risk assessment.

  2. System-Agnostic Clinical Decision Support Services: Benefits and Challenges for Scalable Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Orton, Charles; Lobach, David F

    2010-01-01

    System-agnostic clinical decision support (CDS) services provide patient evaluation capabilities that are independent of specific CDS systems and system implementation contexts. While such system-agnostic CDS services hold great potential for facilitating the widespread implementation of CDS systems, little has been described regarding the benefits and challenges of their use. In this manuscript, the authors address this need by describing potential benefits and challenges of using a system-agnostic CDS service. This analysis is based on the authors’ formal assessments of, and practical experiences with, various approaches to developing, implementing, and maintaining CDS capabilities. In particular, the analysis draws on the authors’ experience developing and leveraging a system-agnostic CDS Web service known as SEBASTIAN. A primary potential benefit of using a system-agnostic CDS service is the relative ease and flexibility with which the service can be leveraged to implement CDS capabilities across applications and care settings. Other important potential benefits include facilitation of centralized knowledge management and knowledge sharing; the potential to support multiple underlying knowledge representations and knowledge resources through a common service interface; improved simplicity and componentization; easier testing and validation; and the enabling of distributed CDS system development. Conversely, important potential challenges include the increased effort required to develop knowledge resources capable of being used in many contexts and the critical need to standardize the service interface. Despite these challenges, our experiences to date indicate that the benefits of using a system-agnostic CDS service generally outweigh the challenges of using this approach to implementing and maintaining CDS systems. PMID:21603281

  3. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    There is a global effort to expand the use of alternative fuels due to their several benefits such as improving air quality with reducing some criteria emissions, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. This dissertation is focused on investigating the impact of two popular alternative fuels, biodiesel and natural gas (NG), on emissions from heavy-duty engines. Biodiesel is one of the most popular renewable fuels with diesel applications. Although biodiesel blends are reported to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbon emissions; there is uncertainty on their impact on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This dissertation evaluated the effect of biodiesel feedstock, biodiesel blend level, engine technology, and driving conditions on NOx emissions. The results showed that NOx emissions increase with 20% and higher biodiesel blends. Also, in this study some strategies were proposed and some fuel formulations were found for mitigating NOx emissions increases with biodiesel. The impact of 5% biodiesel on criteria emissions specifically NOx was also fully studied in this thesis. As a part of the results of this study, 5% animal-based biodiesel was certified for use in California based on California Air Resources Board emissions equivalent procedure. NG is one of the most prominent alternative fuels with larger reserves compared to crude oil. However, the quality of NG depends on both its source and the degree to which it is processed. The current study explored the impact of various NG fuels, ranging from low methane/high energy gases to high methane/low energy gases, on criteria and toxic emissions from NG engines with different combustion and aftertreatment technologies. The results showed stronger fuel effects for the lean-burn technology bus. Finally, this thesis investigated the impact of changing diesel fuel composition on the criteria emissions from a variety of heavy-duty engine

  4. Operational and environmental benefits of oxy-fuel combustion in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, L.M.; Pavlack, T.T.; Rich, L.

    1995-03-01

    Due to the high flame temperature of conventional oxygen-fuel burners, these burners have typically not been used in reheat furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical. Praxair has developed a number of burners and associated control systems that have been successfully operated in a variety of reheat furnaces beginning in 1980. The burners have also recently been used for ladle preheating. All burners have been operated with 100% oxygen. The patented burners have designs that result in flame temperatures equivalent to conventional air-fuel burners. Flexible flame patterns are possible, resulting in uniform temperature distribution. In addition, the low flame temperature combined with minimal nitrogen in the furnace results in very low NO{sub x} emissions. The design of the control systems insure safe and reliable operation. In the following sections, oxygen-fuel combustion will be described, with a discussion of fuel savings and other benefits. Unique designs will be discussed along with the features which make them applicable to reheat applications and which result in lower emissions. Other equipment provided with the burners to complete the oxy-fuel combustion system will be described briefly. There will also be a short discussion of how both the fuel and oxygen price can affect the economics of fuel saving. Results from the commercial retrofit installations in continuous and batch reheat furnaces, soaking pits and ladle preheaters will be described. Finally, NO{sub x} emissions data will be discussed.

  5. Data available for evaluating the risks and benefits of MTBE and ethanol as alternative fuel oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Cushing, Colleen A; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2003-10-01

    The wide-scale use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline has resulted in substantial public controversy and action to ban or control its use due to perceived impacts on water quality. Because oxygenates are still required under federal law, considerable research has focused on ethanol as a substitute for MTBE. In this article, we summarize the currently available literature on the air and water quality risks and benefits of MTBE versus ethanol as alternative fuel oxygenates. We find that MTBE-fuel blends are likely to have substantial air quality benefits; ethanol-fuel blends appear to offer similar benefits, but these may be at least partially negated because of ethanol's propensity to increase emissions and ambient concentrations of some air contaminants. Releases of gasoline containing either MTBE or ethanol could have an impact on some drinking water sources, although the impacts associated with MTBE tend to relate to aesthetics (i.e., taste and odor), whereas the impacts associated with ethanol generally relate to health risk (i.e., greater exposure to gasoline constituents such as benzene). It is likely that these water quality impacts will be outweighed by the air quality benefits associated with MTBE and perhaps ethanol use, which affect a much larger population. A lack of data on environmental exposures and associated health impacts hinders the completion of a comprehensive quantitative risk-benefit analysis, and the available air and water quality data should be evaluated in a broader risk-management context, which considers the potential life-cycle impacts, costs, and feasibility associated with alternative fuel oxygenates.

  6. The Benefits and Challenges of Preconsent in a Multisite, Pediatric Sickle Cell Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Nimmer, Mark; Czachor, Jason; Turner, Laura; Thomas, Bobbe; Woodford, Ashley L; Carpenter, Karli; Gonzalez, Victor; Liem, Robert I; Ellison, Angela; Casper, T Charles; Brousseau, David C

    2016-09-01

    Enrollment of patients in sickle cell intervention trials has been challenging due to difficulty in obtaining consent from a legal guardian and lack of collaboration between emergency medicine and hematology. We utilized education and preconsent in a pediatric multisite sickle cell intervention trial to overcome these challenges. Overall, 48 patients were enrolled after being preconsented. Variable Institutional Review Board policies related to preconsent validity and its allowable duration decreased the advantages of preconsent at some sites. The utility of preconsent for future intervention trials largely depends on local Institutional Review Board policies. Preeducation may also benefit the consent process, regardless of site differences. PMID:27081930

  7. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  8. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions. PMID:16889378

  9. Toward a second generation fuel efficient supersonic cruise aircraft performance characteristics and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachal, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The need for greatly improved fuel efficiency and off-design subsonic characteristics is discussed. Engine-airframe matching studies are presented which show the benefits of a configuration designed for much lower supersonic drag levels (blended wing-fuselage) and how well this airframe matches with the new advanced variable-cycle engines. The benefits of advanced takeoff procedures and systems together with the co-annular noise effect in achieving low noise levels with a small cruise-sized engine are discussed. It is concluded that the technology advances when carefully integrated through detailed engine-airframe matching studies on a validated baseline airplane lead to a much improved supersonic cruise aircraft, i.e., more range, less fuel consumption, noise flexibility and satisfactory off-design characteristics.

  10. Higher education experiences of students with autism spectrum disorder: challenges, benefits and support needs.

    PubMed

    Van Hees, Valérie; Moyson, Tinneke; Roeyers, Herbert

    2015-06-01

    The transition into higher education constitutes a precarious life stage for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research on how students with ASD navigate college life is needed for the development of adequate support. This study investigated the challenges and support needs of 23 students with ASD in higher education through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed following the principles of Grounded Theory. Students faced difficulties with new situations and unexpected changes, social relationships, problems with information processing and time management and had doubts about disclosure. Facing these challenges simultaneously in the domains of education, student life and daily (independent) living, had a major impact on students' well being. Besides these challenges, students also reported benefits that contributed to success in the three domains. They pointed out to a set of recommendations for support. These findings are linked with previous research and implications for higher education institutions are extrapolated on the basis of these findings. PMID:25448918

  11. Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastler, Dan

    The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

  12. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    SciTech Connect

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  13. Challenges and benefits in implementing shared inter-agency assessment across the UK: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emma; Cameron, Kirsteen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, each of the four countries in the UK has attempted to resolve continuing difficulties with duplication of assessment and lack of shared information in community care, by developing approaches to shared assessment. Relevant literature reviews have previously focused on challenges to partnership working between health and social care, and on different approaches to assessment. The literature review described here differs in three key respects. Firstly, the literature was selected on the basis that it addressed shared assessment specifically. Secondly, it included evidence from the four countries within the UK, providing a cross-national basis to the evidence. Thirdly, this study was undertaken to identify whether benefits from shared assessment were evident, in addition to the challenges. While the evidence of benefits at this stage is relatively limited, it is clear that some have emerged, including two relating directly to relevant policy objectives: improved communication, service user and carer involvement; improved partnership and joined up working. As approaches to shared assessment are currently under review in Scotland, England and Wales, and implementation underway in Northern Ireland, and in light of the economic recession and demographic challenges, consideration of key aspects of the evidence may be timely.

  14. Early access programs: Benefits, challenges, and key considerations for successful implementation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanjaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Early access programs, (EAPs) are adopted by an increasing number of pharma companies due to several benefits offered by these programs. EAPs offer ethical, compliant, and controlled mechanisms of access to investigational drugs outside of the clinical trial space and before the commercial launch of the drug, to patients with life-threatening diseases having no treatment options available. In addition to the development of positive relationships with key opinion leaders (KOL), patients, advocacy groups and regulators, the data captured from the implementation of EAPs supports in the formulation of global commercialization strategies. This white paper outlines various circumstances to be considered for the implementation of EAPs named patient programs, the regulatory landscape, the benefits and challenges associated with implementing these programs and the key considerations for their successful implementation. PMID:26955570

  15. Early access programs: Benefits, challenges, and key considerations for successful implementation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sanjaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Early access programs, (EAPs) are adopted by an increasing number of pharma companies due to several benefits offered by these programs. EAPs offer ethical, compliant, and controlled mechanisms of access to investigational drugs outside of the clinical trial space and before the commercial launch of the drug, to patients with life-threatening diseases having no treatment options available. In addition to the development of positive relationships with key opinion leaders (KOL), patients, advocacy groups and regulators, the data captured from the implementation of EAPs supports in the formulation of global commercialization strategies. This white paper outlines various circumstances to be considered for the implementation of EAPs named patient programs, the regulatory landscape, the benefits and challenges associated with implementing these programs and the key considerations for their successful implementation. PMID:26955570

  16. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  17. Collecting Patient Data from Sensor-Based Systems: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gashgari, Horeya; Attallah, Nora; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Al Moammary, Eman; Almeshari, Meshari; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the use of sensor-based technology in the collection of healthcare data from health consumers and/or patients. A literature search was conducted in November 2015 through the PubMed database. A total of 4,800 articles were retrieved using the terms "sensors-based systems in healthcare" and "sensor monitoring in healthcare". After scanning the articles, and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were found relevant and included in the review. This study highlights the benefits and challenges when using sensor-based systems in the collection of health consumer and/or patient information. Some of the benefits in the collection of data are remote monitoring features and the real-time data collection features. Some of the challenges are privacy, security, and sensitivity to technology issues. Future work should evaluate the quality of the research evidence on sensor-based technologies and how such information impacts quality of care. PMID:27350461

  18. Collecting Patient Data from Sensor-Based Systems: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gashgari, Horeya; Attallah, Nora; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Al Moammary, Eman; Almeshari, Meshari; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the use of sensor-based technology in the collection of healthcare data from health consumers and/or patients. A literature search was conducted in November 2015 through the PubMed database. A total of 4,800 articles were retrieved using the terms "sensors-based systems in healthcare" and "sensor monitoring in healthcare". After scanning the articles, and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were found relevant and included in the review. This study highlights the benefits and challenges when using sensor-based systems in the collection of health consumer and/or patient information. Some of the benefits in the collection of data are remote monitoring features and the real-time data collection features. Some of the challenges are privacy, security, and sensitivity to technology issues. Future work should evaluate the quality of the research evidence on sensor-based technologies and how such information impacts quality of care.

  19. Benefits, Challenges, and Potential Utility of a Gait Database for Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Boulton, Andrew; Bowling, Frank; Reeves, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Gait analysis is a useful tool in understanding movement impairments, which impact on patient well-being. The use of gait analysis in patients with diabetes has led to improvements in health care including the treatment and prevention of ulceration and development of targeted exercise interventions. The current convention when analyzing gait is to address specific complications of diabetes, controlling for potential influencing conditions within a study sample to understand the effects of the few specific complications chosen for analysis. Databases allow for the storage of data in a structured format, allowing easy access to large quantities of data in a consistent, comparable manner. A database of gait analyses of patients with diabetes has the potential to include far greater sample sizes for statistical analyses, allowing multiple influencing factors to be assessed simultaneously, and relationships identified between multiple influencing factors. However, a database of this type would encounter ethical and methodological challenges in its implementation, which are discussed. This article introduces some of the potential benefits, challenges, and utility of a gait database for diabetes patients. We highlight that, whereas the creation of a database within this clinical population would be a complex process both ethically and practically, huge potential benefits could be gained, overcoming some of the limitations faced by traditional isolated gait analysis studies.

  20. Timely Diagnosis for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review on Benefits and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Bruno; Padovani, Alessandro; Scheltens, Philip; Rossi, Andrea; Dell’Agnello, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Timely diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) refers to a diagnosis at the stage when patients come to the attention of clinicians because of concerns about changes in cognition, behavior, or functioning and can be still free of dementia and functionally independent. Objectives: To comprehensively review existing scientific evidence on the benefits and potential challenges of making a timely diagnosis of AD. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline, Embase) and bibliographies for studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 2 June 2014 on the consequences of a timely diagnosis of AD. Results: Nine studies were identified that investigated the consequences of diagnosing AD at the initial stages; none were specifically focused on prodromal AD. A timely diagnosis potentially offers the opportunities of early intervention, implementation of coordinated care plans, better management of symptoms, patient safety, cost savings, and postponement of institutionalization. Barriers to making a timely diagnosis include stigma, suicide risk, lack of training, diagnostic uncertainty, shortage of specialized diagnostic services, and the reluctance of healthcare providers to make a diagnosis when no effective disease-modifying options are available. Conclusions: Despite its potential benefits, few published studies have explored the advantages or risks of a timely diagnosis of AD. In light of the cultural shift toward diagnosis at the initial stage of the disease continuum, when the patient does not yet have dementia, more investigations are needed to evaluate the benefits and address the barriers that may impede making a timely AD diagnosis. PMID:26484931

  1. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819

  2. Multinational medical support to operations: challenges, benefits and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Cordell, R F

    2012-03-01

    This paper considers the strategic aspects of medical support to military operations as delivered through multi-national collaboration. The military medical services are in essence a people organisation; the purpose of the organisation is primarily to support the people engaged in military operations, and also the people providing healthcare to them. Increasingly, supporting the latter also includes preparation for the ethical dilemmas that they will face. Providing health advice and healthcare on operations is now usually undertaken on a multinational basis, in order to generate sufficient medical capacity to meet the requirement with assets of the appropriate (and NATO mandated) capability. This will be an enduring feature, particularly in light of increasing costs of providing high quality healthcare and the operational and logistic challenges of delivering this capability in adverse environments, and in the context of medical personnel being a limited resource. The key to overcoming the challenges, often the result of the "people issues" such as cultural differences, is to recognise the value that the inherent diversity of multinational healthcare provision brings. The benefit is realised through sharing best practice, and the lessons from challenges met, as well as through burden sharing, and to understand that challenges are most commonly the result of misunderstandings, such as those inherent in language differences. The advice for those bringing a multinational team together includes considering the implications of culture (noting differences in national and military perspectives, and in medical processes such as clinical governance), to ensure effective communication, and to utilise feedback to confirm understanding. It is important not to prejudge or denigrate others. Share information and knowledge, provide positive reinforcement when things go well, and recognise that there will inevitably be challenges and use these as an opportunity to learn. Above

  3. Fuel cells for transportation: Status, opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, A.C.; Leonard, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues will become important drivers influencing technology in the years ahead. For example, air quality legislation and regulation - locally, regionally, and globally - will continue to play an increasing role in influencing decisions made in choosing a particular energy source. Health concerns related to ambient fine particles and the ongoing debate on global climate change and the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are two examples of the nexus between energy and the environment. Additionally, as conventional sources of energy and petroleum become depleted and as political issues remain, desires for energy diversity and energy security will require a menu of technologies and fuels. It is recognized that many of the renewable and environmentally benign fuels and energy sources are expensive and that economics will play a key role in dictating which of these is going to be most successful. For example, generating hydrogen from wind or solar is expensive compared to conventional technologies and price competition is likely to be more intense in the area of electricity de-regulation. However, the cost of conventional fuels are also increasing because of a desire to clean them up or a desire to change their chemical and physical properties through partial oxidation or steam reforming. These additional treatments lead to increased costs so that the gap between the {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} fuels and cleaning up conventional fuels becomes much narrower.

  4. Recent progress and continuing challenges in bio-fuel cells. Part I: enzymatic cells.

    PubMed

    Osman, M H; Shah, A A; Walsh, F C

    2011-03-15

    Recent developments in bio-fuel cell technology are reviewed. A general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, is provided. New materials and methods for the immobilisation of enzymes and mediators on electrodes, including the use of nanostructured electrodes are considered. Fuel, mediator and enzyme materials (anode and cathode), as well as cell configurations are discussed. A detailed summary of recently developed enzymatic fuel cell systems, including performance measurements, is conveniently provided in tabular form. The current scientific and engineering challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability. In a companion review (Part II), new developments in microbial fuel cell technologies are reviewed in the context of fuel sources, electron transfer mechanisms, anode materials and enhanced O(2) reduction.

  5. Electrocatalyst approaches and challenges for automotive fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Debe, Mark K

    2012-06-06

    Fuel cells powered by hydrogen from secure and renewable sources are the ideal solution for non-polluting vehicles, and extensive research and development on all aspects of this technology over the past fifteen years has delivered prototype cars with impressive performances. But taking the step towards successful commercialization requires oxygen reduction electrocatalysts--crucial components at the heart of fuel cells--that meet exacting performance targets. In addition, these catalyst systems will need to be highly durable, fault-tolerant and amenable to high-volume production with high yields and exceptional quality. Not all the catalyst approaches currently being pursued will meet those demands.

  6. Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: a Partial Solution to the Challenge and the Benefits it Produces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givan, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    Science is supposed to be about talent devoid of the bias’ and judgments generated by background, gender, ethnicity or any culturally determined discriminators. The scientific, academic, corporate and government communities have a vested interest in developing models, practices and policies that significantly increase the number of U.S. graduates in scientific disciplines. Additionally, it is crucial that these graduates possess the essential competencies and creative problem solving skills to compete in the current global economy. The stakeholders (corporations, researchers, educational practitioners, policymakers and funders) who have the common goal of producing highly qualified scientists must commit to collaborate in developing innovative strategies and solutions to this complex challenge. Volumes of research data from a variety of sources such the social and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, National Science Foundation and non-profit groups have been and are available for use enabling us to rise to the challenge we have been charged with, and are responsible for the outcome. A proposed solution to part of the challenge and discussion of the impacts of increasing diversity in science will be discussed in this paper. The paper will address one element of the issue - strategies for the recruitment and retention of under-represented groups in science focusing on the historical and current culture, climate and barriers encountered by minorities as they progress through the educational system and career pathways. The paper will examine the benefits of diversity to the individual and society as a whole.

  7. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  8. A COMPARISON OF CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH SLUDGE REMOVAL & TREATMENT & DISPOSAL AT SEVERAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE LOCATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    PERES, M.W.

    2007-01-09

    Challenges associated with the materials that remain in spent fuel storage pools are emerging as countries deal with issues related to storing and cleaning up nuclear fuel left over from weapons production. The K Basins at the Department of Energy's site at Hanford in southeastern Washington State are an example. Years of corrosion products and piles of discarded debris are intermingled in the bottom of these two pools that stored more 2,100 metric tons (2,300 tons) of spent fuel. Difficult, costly projects are underway to remove radioactive material from the K Basins. Similar challenges exist at other locations around the globe. This paper compares the challenges of handling and treating radioactive sludge at several locations storing spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  10. Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis: Benefits and Challenges of Simulating Human Performance

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    To date, there has been considerable work on dynamic event trees and other areas related to dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The counterpart to these efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) has centered on the development of specific methods to account for the dynamic nature of human performance. In this paper, the author posits that the key to dynamic HRA is not in the development of specific methods but in the utilization of cognitive modeling and simulation to produce a framework of data that may be used in quantifying the likelihood of human error. This paper provides an overview of simulation approaches to HRA; reviews differences between first, second, and dynamic generation HRA; and outlines potential benefits and challenges of this approach.

  11. Financial viability, benefits and challenges of employing a nurse practitioner in general practice.

    PubMed

    Helms, Christopher; Crookes, Jo; Bailey, David

    2015-04-01

    This case study examines the financial viability, benefits and challenges of employing a primary healthcare (PHC) nurse practitioner (NP) in a bulk-billing healthcare cooperative in the Australian Capital Territory. There are few empirical case reports in the Australian literature that demonstrate financial sustainability of this type of healthcare professional in primary healthcare. This case study demonstrates that the costs of employing a PHC-NP in general practice are offset by direct and indirect Medicare billings generated by the PHC-NP, resulting in a cost-neutral healthcare practitioner. The success of this model relies on bidirectional collaborative working relationships amongst general practitioners and NPs. PHC-NPs should have a generalist scope of practice and specialist expertise in order to maximise their utility within the general practice environment. PMID:25528465

  12. Financial viability, benefits and challenges of employing a nurse practitioner in general practice.

    PubMed

    Helms, Christopher; Crookes, Jo; Bailey, David

    2015-04-01

    This case study examines the financial viability, benefits and challenges of employing a primary healthcare (PHC) nurse practitioner (NP) in a bulk-billing healthcare cooperative in the Australian Capital Territory. There are few empirical case reports in the Australian literature that demonstrate financial sustainability of this type of healthcare professional in primary healthcare. This case study demonstrates that the costs of employing a PHC-NP in general practice are offset by direct and indirect Medicare billings generated by the PHC-NP, resulting in a cost-neutral healthcare practitioner. The success of this model relies on bidirectional collaborative working relationships amongst general practitioners and NPs. PHC-NPs should have a generalist scope of practice and specialist expertise in order to maximise their utility within the general practice environment.

  13. Social Media in the Dental School Environment, Part A: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations for Use.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-10-01

    Social media consist of powerful tools that impact not only communication but relationships among people, thus posing an inherent challenge to the traditional standards of who we are as dental educators and what we can expect of each other. This article examines how the world of social media has changed dental education. Its goal is to outline the complex issues that social media use presents for academic dental institutions and to examine these issues from personal, professional, and legal perspectives. After providing an update on social media, the article considers the advantages and risks associated with the use of social media at the interpersonal, professional, and institutional levels. Policies and legal issues of which academic dental institutions need to be aware from a compliance perspective are examined, along with considerations and resources needed to develop effective social media policies. The challenge facing dental educators is how to capitalize on the benefits that social media offer, while minimizing risks and complying with the various forms of legal constraint. PMID:26427774

  14. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    PubMed

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.

  15. Benefits and Challenges of Delivering Tele-rehabilitation Services to Rural Veterans.

    PubMed

    Cary, Michael P; Spencer, Michelle; Carroll, Ansuya; Hand, Deborah H; Amis, Kristopher; Karan, Elizabeth; Cannon, Rebecca F; Morgan, Michelle S; Hoenig, Helen M

    2016-09-01

    Veterans residing in underserved rural areas face many barriers to accessing high-quality rehabilitation services. This article describes the benefits and challenges of using technology for delivery of rehabilitation services to rural Veterans using TeleHOME, an innovative tele-rehabilitation program. TeleHOME enables rehabilitation providers to remotely assess the Veteran's functional abilities and needs in his or her own home where these tasks must be performed. This technology increases the ability of all team members to contribute to interdisciplinary care, but also requires greater levels of team integration. One month after the completion of the TeleHOME project, we met with clinicians to discuss their perceptions of whether and how use of the technology affected interdisciplinary care processes, and what approaches were used to meet team-based goals. TeleHOME can improve access to rehabilitation services for rural Veterans, but will also bring about novel integrative care processes that may improve the effectiveness of such services. Recommendations to overcome challenges to optimize the implementation and delivery of TeleHOME services as well as to better inform clinicians working with rural Veterans are discussed. PMID:27580283

  16. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    PubMed

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers. PMID:21393103

  17. Long-term hand tele-rehabilitation on the PlayStation 3: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Burdea, Grigore C; Jain, Abhishek; Rabin, Bryan; Pellosie, Richard; Golomb, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions for the hand have shown benefits for children with Hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy or traumatic brain injury. Longer interventions are facilitated if training is provided in the patient's home, due to easier access to care and reduced impact on school or work activities. Providing remote rehabilitation over lengthy periods of time has however its own challenges. This paper presents two pediatric patients with hemiplegia, who practiced virtual hand rehabilitation games using a modified PlayStation 3 and 5DT sensing gloves. Despite severe initial hand spasticity, and occasional technology shortcomings, the subjects practiced for about 14 months, and 6 months, respectively. Game performance data for the second patient is presented. Follow-up evaluations 14 months from the removal of the PlayStation 3 from the home of the child with cerebral palsy showed that the patient had good retention in terms of grasp strength, hand function and bone health. Challenges of long-term home tele-rehabilitation are also discussed. PMID:22254686

  18. Social Media in the Dental School Environment, Part A: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations for Use.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-10-01

    Social media consist of powerful tools that impact not only communication but relationships among people, thus posing an inherent challenge to the traditional standards of who we are as dental educators and what we can expect of each other. This article examines how the world of social media has changed dental education. Its goal is to outline the complex issues that social media use presents for academic dental institutions and to examine these issues from personal, professional, and legal perspectives. After providing an update on social media, the article considers the advantages and risks associated with the use of social media at the interpersonal, professional, and institutional levels. Policies and legal issues of which academic dental institutions need to be aware from a compliance perspective are examined, along with considerations and resources needed to develop effective social media policies. The challenge facing dental educators is how to capitalize on the benefits that social media offer, while minimizing risks and complying with the various forms of legal constraint.

  19. Outlook for benefits of sediment microbial fuel cells with two bio‐electrodes

    PubMed Central

    De Schamphelaire, Liesje; Rabaey, Korneel; Boeckx, Pascal; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-01-01

    Summary The benefits of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) go beyond energy generation for low‐power applications. Aside from producing electrical energy, SMFCs can enhance the oxidation of reduced compounds at the anode, thus bringing about the removal of excessive or unwanted reducing equivalents from submerged soils. Moreover, an SMFC could be applied to control redox‐dependent processes in sediment layers. Several cathodic reactions that may drive these sediment oxidation reactions are examined. Special attention is given to two biologically mediated cathodic reactions, respectively employing an oxygen reduction and a manganese cycle. Both reactions imply a low cost and a high electrode potential and are of interest for reactor‐type MFCs as well as for SMFCs. PMID:21261866

  20. Benefits and challenges of linking green infrastructure and highway planning in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Daniel J; Jordan, Lauren M

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  1. Benefits and Challenges of Linking Green Infrastructure and Highway Planning in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Daniel J.; Jordan, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  2. Benefits and challenges of linking green infrastructure and highway planning in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Daniel J; Jordan, Lauren M

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  3. Involving Community Health Workers in the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities Research Projects: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Weier, Rory C; Hohl, Sarah D; Thompson, Beti; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the benefits and challenges of including community health workers (CHWs) in health disparities research can improve planning and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Representatives from 18 projects from the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative completed an online questionnaire about the benefits and challenges of involving CHWs in their research. Eight emergent themes were classified into two categories: 1) Personal qualities and background CHWs bring to research including community knowledge and cultural sensitivity to improve recruitment and effectiveness of interventions; and 2) Workplace demands of CHWs including human resource policies and processes, research skills/background (training needs), and oversight despite distance. These findings demonstrate the benefits of involving CHWs in research and draw attention to the hiring, training, and oversight of CHWs and subsequent challenges. Additional research is needed to understand interactions between project staff and CHWs better and to identify best practices to involve CHWs in research. PMID:27524766

  4. Changing the Way NASA Airborne Science Data Are Managed: Challenges and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    For many years NASA has supported the collection of in-situ and remotely sensed science data through the use of airborne platforms. The Airborne Science Program, as part of NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD), currently supports and manages these investigations. The data collected under this program have many uses including, but certainly not limited to, calibration and validation of satellite based measurements and retrieval algorithms, testing new sensor technologies, and measuring the vertical and horizontal distribution of atmospheric constituents. In the past, management of the data was typically the responsibility of the individual principal investigators. Along the way many highly customized strategies for dealing with data discovery, access, distribution, formatting, and preservation issues were developed. In an effort to assure that airborne science data are managed in a more coherent and uniform manner across the program, airborne missions are now being required to adhere to the NASA Earth science data policy and a specific set of Level 1 data management requirements derived from that policy. These requirements include use of NASA ESD-approved data formats and metadata specifications, elimination of periods of exclusive access, and the transfer of data products to a NASA ESD-assigned Data Center. In addition, the manner in which each mission plans to meet these requirements must be documented in a data management plan. The good news is that there is a significant Earth science data management infrastructure in place that can be leveraged to help meet these requirements. However, much of this infrastructure was developed to support satellite missions. Since airborne data are different than satellite data in many ways, this presents some challenges. This presentation will describe the challenges as well as the benefits of this new data management policy.

  5. Integrating early child development programs into health and nutrition services in Bangladesh: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Nahar, Baitun; Huda, Syed Nazmul; Tofail, Fahmida

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries of the world with the highest population density. The Bangladesh government recognizes the educational and financial benefits of early childhood development (ECD) and has incorporated ECD into the national plan of action. However, ECD activities are not fully established in the country and there have been few evaluations. In this paper, we present ECD programs that are integrated into health and nutrition services in Bangladesh. We present four evaluation reports of such programs and we also include seven published research projects showing evidence that such integrations are feasible. We provide short reviews on coverage, methodology, and effects of the published reports and share our experience of challenges faced and steps taken to solve them. Overall, very few programs are based on scientific evidence and fewer are even evaluated. The research projects so far conducted are promising and there is sufficient evidence on feasibility of integrating ECD activities into nutrition and health programs. Suggestions are made on measures to overcome the implementation problems and on suitable methods to establish high-quality ECD programs in Bangladesh and in other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24571219

  6. Integrating early child development programs into health and nutrition services in Bangladesh: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Nahar, Baitun; Huda, Syed Nazmul; Tofail, Fahmida

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries of the world with the highest population density. The Bangladesh government recognizes the educational and financial benefits of early childhood development (ECD) and has incorporated ECD into the national plan of action. However, ECD activities are not fully established in the country and there have been few evaluations. In this paper, we present ECD programs that are integrated into health and nutrition services in Bangladesh. We present four evaluation reports of such programs and we also include seven published research projects showing evidence that such integrations are feasible. We provide short reviews on coverage, methodology, and effects of the published reports and share our experience of challenges faced and steps taken to solve them. Overall, very few programs are based on scientific evidence and fewer are even evaluated. The research projects so far conducted are promising and there is sufficient evidence on feasibility of integrating ECD activities into nutrition and health programs. Suggestions are made on measures to overcome the implementation problems and on suitable methods to establish high-quality ECD programs in Bangladesh and in other low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  8. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  9. Examination of the costs, benefits and enery conservation aspects of the NASA aircraft fuel conservation technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The costs and benefits of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program are discussed. Consideration is given to a present worth analysis of the planned program expenditures, an examination of the fuel savings to be obtained by the year 2005 and the worth of this fuel savings relative to the investment required, a comparison of the program funding with that planned by other Federal agencies for energy conservation, an examination of the private industry aeronautical research and technology financial posture for the period FY 76 - FY 85, and an assessment of the potential impacts on air and noise pollution. To aid in this analysis, a computerized fleet mix forecasting model was developed. This model enables the estimation of fuel consumption and present worth of fuel expenditures for selected commerical aircraft fleet mix scenarios.

  10. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients’ sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. Future directions The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in

  11. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  12. Benefits and Challenges of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Integration in Québec English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabah, Jihan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' and educational consultants' perceptions of ICT integration in Québec English Schools, specifically with regards to the benefits and challenges of ICT integration therein. 23 teachers and educational consultants from seven different school boards participated in the focus group sessions. Results revealed higher…

  13. How Benefits and Challenges of Personal Response System Impact Students' Continuance Intention? A Taiwanese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, C. Rosa; Tao, Yu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To address four issues observed from the latest Personal Response System (PRS) review by Kay and LeSage (2009), this paper investigates, through a systematic research, how the derived benefits and challenges of PRS affect the satisfaction and continuance intention of college students in Taiwan. The empirical study samples representative college…

  14. Business Education Students' Evaluation of the Benefits and Challenges Confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme in Edo and Delta States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumese, H. A.; Ediagbonya, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students' evaluation of the benefits and challenges confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for…

  15. Benefits and Challenges of Technology in High Schools: A Voice from Educational Leaders with a Freire Echo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Wiebe, Sean; Gabriel, Martha; McAuley, Alexander; Campbell, Barbara; MacDonald, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the perceptions of school leaders pertaining to the benefits and challenges of technology in high schools located on Prince Edward Island (PEI) (Canada). For this qualitative study, we interviewed 11 educational leaders representing the PEI Department of Education, principals, vice-principals, and…

  16. What Challenges and Benefits Can Non-Formal Law and Language Integrated Learning Bring to University Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabekova, Atabekova; Gorbatenko, Rimma; Belousov, Aleksandr; Grebnev, Ruslan; Sheremetieva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the ways in which non-formal content and language integrated learning within university studies can affect students' academic progress. The research has included theoretical and empirical studies. The article focuses on the observation of students' learning process, draws attention to challenges and benefits students experienced…

  17. The Challenges and Benefits of Using Computer Technology for Communication and Teaching in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, J. P.; Hinds, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s not only revolutionized the exchange of ideas and information within the scientific community, but also provided educators with a new array of teaching, informational, and promotional tools. Use of computer graphics and animation to explain concepts and processes can stimulate classroom participation and student interest in the geosciences, which has historically attracted students with strong spatial and visualization skills. In today's job market, graduates are expected to have knowledge of computers and the ability to use them for acquiring, processing, and visually analyzing data. Furthermore, in addition to promoting visibility and communication within the scientific community, computer graphics and the Internet can be informative and educational for the general public. Although computer skills are crucial for earth science students and educators, many pitfalls exist in implementing computer technology and web-based resources into research and classroom activities. Learning to use these new tools effectively requires a significant time commitment and careful attention to the source and reliability of the data presented. Furthermore, educators have a responsibility to ensure that students and the public understand the assumptions and limitations of the materials presented, rather than allowing them to be overwhelmed by "gee-whiz" aspects of the technology. We present three examples of computer technology in the earth sciences classroom: 1) a computer animation of water table response to well pumping, 2) a 3-D fly-through animation of a fault controlled valley, and 3) a virtual field trip for an introductory geology class. These examples demonstrate some of the challenges and benefits of these new tools, and encourage educators to expand the responsible use of computer technology for teaching and communicating scientific results to the general public.

  18. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  19. Operational Challenges of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12550

    SciTech Connect

    Nichol, M.

    2012-07-01

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain used fuel repository program and a continuing climate of uncertainty in the national policy for nuclear fuel disposition, the likelihood has increased that extended storage, defined as more than 60 years, and subsequent transportation of used nuclear fuel after periods of extended storage may become necessary. Whether at the nation's 104 nuclear energy facilities, or at one or more consolidated interim storage facilities, the operational challenges of extended storage and transportation will depend upon the future US policy for Used Fuel Management and the future Regulatory Framework for EST, both of which should be developed with consideration of their operational impacts. Risk insights into the regulatory framework may conclude that dry storage and transportation operations should focus primarily on ensuring canister integrity. Assurance of cladding integrity may not be beneficial from an overall risk perspective. If assurance of canister integrity becomes more important, then mitigation techniques for potential canister degradation mechanisms will be the primary source of operational focus. If cladding integrity remains as an important focus, then operational challenges to assure it would require much more effort. Fundamental shifts in the approach to design a repository and optimize the back-end of the fuel cycle will need to occur in order to address the realities of the changes that have taken place over the last 30 years. Direct disposal of existing dual purpose storage and transportation casks will be essential to optimizing the back end of the fuel cycle. The federal used fuel management should focus on siting and designing a repository that meets this objective along with the development of CIS, and possibly recycling. An integrated approach to developing US policy and the regulatory framework must consider the potential operational challenges that they would create. Therefore, it should be integral to

  20. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  1. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  2. An assessment of the benefits of the use of NASA developed fuel conservative technology in the US commercial aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost and benefits of a fuel conservative aircraft technology program proposed by NASA are estimated. NASA defined six separate technology elements for the proposed program: (a) engine component improvement (b) composite structures (c) turboprops (d) laminar flow control (e) fuel conservative engine and (f) fuel conservative transport. There were two levels postulated: The baseline program was estimated to cost $490 million over 10 years with peak funding in 1980. The level two program was estimated to cost an additional $180 million also over 10 years. Discussions with NASA and with representatives of the major commercial airframe manufacturers were held to estimate the combinations of the technology elements most likely to be implemented, the potential fuel savings from each combination, and reasonable dates for incorporation of these new aircraft into the fleet.

  3. The public health benefits of reducing fine particulate matter through conversion to cleaner heating fuels in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Haney, Jay; Douglas, Sharon; Ito, Kazuhiko; Caputo, Steven; Matte, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, both New York State and City issued regulations to reduce emissions from burning heating oil. To assess the benefits of these programs in New York City, where the density of emissions and vulnerable populations vary greatly, we simulated the air quality benefits of scenarios reflecting no action, partial, and complete phase-out of high-sulfur heating fuels using the Community MultiScale Air Quality (CMAQ) model conducted at a high spatial resolution (1 km). We evaluated the premature mortality and morbidity benefits of the scenarios within 42 city neighborhoods and computed benefits by neighborhood poverty status. The complete phase-out scenario reduces annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by an estimated 0.71 μg/m(3) city-wide (average of 1 km estimates, 10-90th percentile: 0.1-1.6 μg/m(3)), avoiding an estimated 290 premature deaths, 180 hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and 550 emergency department visits for asthma each year. The largest improvements were seen in areas of highest building and population density and the majority of benefits have occurred through the partial phase out of high-sulfur heating fuel already achieved. While emissions reductions were greatest in low-poverty neighborhoods, health benefits are estimated to be greatest in high-poverty neighborhoods due to higher baseline morbidity and mortality rates.

  4. Benefits of a Graduate Business Degree: Students' Perspectives and Universities' Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marion Stanton; Allen, Lida Cherie

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,499 graduate business students at 7 colleges and universities investigated perceptions of potential benefits of an advanced degree, and their relationships with degree type, school size/type, and student characteristics. Five perceived benefits included research and analytical skills, competitive advantage, monetary reward, career…

  5. The challenges and opportunities for integration of solar syngas production with liquid fuel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, James T.; McNaughton, Robbie K.; Pye, John; Saw, Woei; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2016-05-01

    Reforming of methane is practiced on a vast scale globally for the production of syngas as a precursor for the production of many commodities, including hydrogen, ammonia and synthetic liquid fuels. Solar reforming can reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of syngas production by up to about 40% by using solar thermal energy to provide the endothermic heat of reaction, traditionally supplied by combustion of some of the feed. This has the potential to enable the production of solar derived synthetic fuels as drop in replacements for conventional fuels with significantly lower CO2 intensity than conventional gas to liquids (GTL) processes. However, the intermittent nature of the solar resource - both diurnal and seasonal - poses significant challenges for such a concept, which relies on synthesis processes that typically run continuously on very stable feed compositions. We find that the integration of solar syngas production to a GTL process is a non-trivial exercise, with the ability to turn down the capacity of the GTL synthesis section, and indeed to suspend operations for short periods without significant detriment to product quality or process operability, likely to be a key driver for the commercial implementation of solar liquid fuels. Projected costs for liquid fuel synthesis suggest that solar reforming and small scale gas to liquid synthesis can potentially compete with conventional oil derived transport fuels in the short to medium term.

  6. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  7. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (AMFA, Public Law 100--494) offers incentives in the form of fuel economy credits to manufacturers who produce vehicles capable of using natural gas or alcohol fuels. Specifically, Section 6 of AMFA allows manufacturers to count 1 gallon of alcohol fuel or 1 gallon equivalent of natural gas as only 0.15 gallon of fuel'' when calculating the manufacturer's corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) number. Substitution of natural gas or alcohol fuels for gasoline in the transportation sector is likely to affect the prices of natural gas and distillate oil, which are important sources of energy for home heating. Therefore, Section 9 of AMFA calls for a study of the impact of the manufacturing incentives provision on the cost of home heating. This report provides that analysis. It evaluates and quantifies the possible effects of the CAFE provisions in terms of the following: (1) numbers of alternative- and dual-fuel vehicles that might be built as a result of this provision; (2) consumption of alcohol and natural gas by these vehicles; (3) whether the alcohol or compressed natural gas (CNG) is likely to be derived from domestic resources; (4) the effects on domestic natural gas and home heating oil prices; and, (5) the resulting impact on home heating costs. Only the impacts of manufacturing incentives for dedicated and dual-fuel alcohol-powered automobiles and dedicated and dual-fuel natural-gas-powered automobiles, as described in Section 6 of AMFA, are considered in this study. This report also contributes to the Department of Energy's comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States. The DOE Altemative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues.

  8. Appendix B: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  9. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  10. All Around the Block: The Benefits and Challenges of a Non-traditional School Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael D.; Canady, Robert Lynn

    1996-01-01

    Block schedules offer many advantages, including increased usable instructional time, increased opportunities to use alternative instructional strategies, and fewer homework assignments and class changes for students. Challenges include maintaining student attention, providing balanced schedules, retaining major concepts, and accommodating…

  11. The benefits and challenges of the Family Health Strategy in Brazilian Primary Health care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Luciano José; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze what contributions the Family Health Strategy has made towards the development of primary healthcare in Brazil, and what challenges it faces. A literature review was conducted and articles were analyzed from three dimensions: political/institutional, organizational, and technical/healthcare. In the first dimension, the Family Health Strategy was found to have helped expand primary healthcare, the institutionalization of evaluations, and the promotion of equity. The main challenges identified were funding, the training, education, and management of personnel, and cross-sectoral action. In terms of organization, the benefits include a broader supply of services, access to health services through organized initiatives for specific diseases or age groups, and more comprehensive healthcare. The challenges involve access, the entry point, integration with the healthcare network, planning, and social participation. As for technical/healthcare considerations, the main benefits identified were the fostering of multidisciplinary working practices, family focus, reception, rapport, humanization, community orientation, production of care, and performance. The challenges for its improvement are associated with complex factors and require greater political/institutional effort.

  12. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

  13. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  14. Implementing Structured English Immersion in Arizona: Benefits, Costs, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez-Canche, Manuel; Moll, Luis C.

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted telephone interviews with 26 randomly selected English Language Coordinators from 26 Arizona school districts with enrollment patterns that were representative of the state as whole. Three primary questions were posed to the respondents: (a) How is the 4-hour ELD block being implemented?; (b) What are the benefits of the…

  15. Religious Challenges to School Voucher and Tax Benefit/Scholarship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2016-01-01

    A key component of current school reform efforts focuses on increasing parental choice through voucher systems and programs that provide tax benefits for contributions to scholarship programs for private school tuition. Indeed, proposals to adopt such programs have been or currently are being considered in four-fifths of the states, and about half…

  16. Service-Learning in Supply Chain Management: Benefits, Challenges and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical approach in which students are assigned a course-related project in a not-for-profit organization, and are tasked to apply course content to execute the project. While the benefits are multifarious, only recently have supply chain management (SCM) courses adapted this innovative teaching methodology. The…

  17. The Challenges Associated with High Burnup and High Temperature for UO2 TRISO-Coated Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; John Maki

    2005-02-01

    The fuel service conditions for the DOE Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be challenging. All major fuel related design parameters (burnup, temperature, fast neutron fluence, power density, particle packing fraction) exceed the values that were qualified in the successful German UO2 TRISO-coated particle fuel development program in the 1980s. While TRISO-coated particle fuel has been irradiated at NGNP relevant levels for two or three of the design parameters, no data exist for TRISO-coated particle fuel for all five parameters simultaneously. Of particular concern are the high burnup and high temperatures expected in the NGNP. In this paper, where possible, we evaluate the challenges associated with high burnup and high temperature quantitatively by examining the performance of the fuel in terms of different known failure mechanisms. Potential design solutions to ameliorate the negative effects of high burnup and high temperature are also discussed.

  18. Challenges in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness and the mortality benefits controversy.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Kristin L

    2009-10-23

    Randomized, controlled trials are the gold standard study design. However, ethical constraints and practical considerations may necessitate other types of studies for evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness in the elderly--a high priority group for annual vaccination in many countries. Observational studies therefore comprise the bulk of the vaccine effectiveness evidence in older persons, but these types of studies can be susceptible to selection bias and residual confounding. All observational studies should utilize strategies to minimize the impact of bias and confounding. Recent studies questioning the plausibility of reported mortality benefits among vaccinated elderly persons may themselves be based on assumptions that are susceptible to important limitations and multiple biases. Future studies that incorporate prospectively collected information on functional status, life expectancy, and other types of data may provide additional insights into these concerns. At present, even after taking into account the potential for residual bias and confounding, most studies confirm the benefits of vaccination among the elderly for reducing hospitalization and death.

  19. Higher Education Experiences of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Challenges, Benefits and Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hees, Valérie; Moyson, Tinneke; Roeyers, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The transition into higher education constitutes a precarious life stage for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research on how students with ASD navigate college life is needed for the development of adequate support. This study investigated the challenges and support needs of 23 students with ASD in higher education through…

  20. The Benefits and Challenges of Becoming Cross-Culturally Competent Counseling Psychologists. Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul

    2006-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…

  1. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  2. The Benefits and Challenges of Special Education Positions in Rural Settings: Listening to the Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ann B.; Gravelle, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Special education teachers, through a national survey conducted in 55 rural districts, provided information on the positive and negative aspects of teaching in rural schools. The 203 special educators were asked what they liked best about their position and what they found challenging. Some of the themes identified in the analysis centered on…

  3. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Arce, Francisco; Constant, Louay; Loughran, David S.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research show that high school dropouts are more likely than graduates to commit crimes, abuse drugs and alcohol, have children out of wedlock, earn low wages, be unemployed, and suffer from poor health. The ChalleNGe program, currently operating in 27 states, is a residential program coupled with post-residential mentoring that seeks…

  4. Activity-Based Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institution: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-based costing (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…

  5. Benefits and Challenges of the Passport Broadcast Intervention in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Shaunfield, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Creative activities are a challenge for long-term care facilities. The Passport intervention uses web-based video technology to provide long-term care residents with a virtual travel experience. Passport broadcasts were conducted and staff and residents were interviewed about the experience. A thematic analysis of interviews was used to discern…

  6. Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Opara, Elizabeth I.; Chohan, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy. PMID:25340982

  7. Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits.

    PubMed

    Opara, Elizabeth I; Chohan, Magali

    2014-10-22

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy.

  8. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  9. The challenges and benefits of using participant observation to understand the social interaction of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Observation methods have been used in both communication and interaction research. Qualitative interpretive approaches are rare where participants have complex communication needs. Issues for qualitative researchers utilizing participant observation research methods have been well documented, but a similar discussion is lacking where the participants are people with severe intellectual disability. Observational data collected from a study of adults with severe intellectual disabilities in interaction with their social network members were scrutinized to identify challenges and benefits of participant observation. Challenges identified include the consent process, changing roles, and researcher intrusion. The use of participant observation with adults with severe intellectual disabilities allows for unexpected insights and provides context and credence for other lines of inquiry. Participant observation may be useful with other groups of people.

  10. The Controversy, Challenges, and Potential Benefits of Putative Female Germline Stem Cells Research in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zezheng; Sun, Mengli; Liang, Xia; Li, Jia; Zhou, Fangyue; Zhong, Zhisheng; Zheng, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    The conventional view is that female mammals lose their ability to generate new germ cells after birth. However, in recent years, researchers have successfully isolated and cultured a type of germ cell from postnatal ovaries in a variety of mammalian species that have the abilities of self-proliferation and differentiation into oocytes, and this finding indicates that putative germline stem cells maybe exist in the postnatal mammalian ovaries. Herein, we review the research history and discovery of putative female germline stem cells, the concept that putative germline stem cells exist in the postnatal mammalian ovary, and the research progress, challenge, and application of putative germline stem cells in recent years. PMID:26788065

  11. The Controversy, Challenges, and Potential Benefits of Putative Female Germline Stem Cells Research in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zezheng; Sun, Mengli; Liang, Xia; Li, Jia; Zhou, Fangyue; Zhong, Zhisheng; Zheng, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    The conventional view is that female mammals lose their ability to generate new germ cells after birth. However, in recent years, researchers have successfully isolated and cultured a type of germ cell from postnatal ovaries in a variety of mammalian species that have the abilities of self-proliferation and differentiation into oocytes, and this finding indicates that putative germline stem cells maybe exist in the postnatal mammalian ovaries. Herein, we review the research history and discovery of putative female germline stem cells, the concept that putative germline stem cells exist in the postnatal mammalian ovary, and the research progress, challenge, and application of putative germline stem cells in recent years. PMID:26788065

  12. Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1995-06-01

    From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

  13. Moving Toward Space Internetworking via DTN: Its Operational Challenges, Benefits, and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkley, Erik; Burleigh, Scott; Gladden, Roy; Malhotra, Shan; Shames, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The international space community has begun to recognize that the established model for management of communications with spacecraft - commanded data transmission over individual pair-wise contacts - is operationally unwieldy and will not scale in support of increasingly complex and sophisticated missions such as NASA's Constellation project. Accordingly, the international Inter-Agency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) ichartered a Space Internetworking Strategy Group (SISG), which released its initial recommendations in a November 2008 report. The report includes a recommendation that the space flight community adopt Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) to address the problem of interoperability and communication scaling, especially in mission environments where there are multiple spacecraft operating in concert. This paper explores some of the issues that must be addressed in implementing, deploying, and operating DTN as part of a multi-mission, multi-agency space internetwork as well as benefits and future operational scenarios afforded by DTN-based space internetworking.

  14. [ALEMTUZUMAB: BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF A NEW THERAPY IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS].

    PubMed

    Illés, Zsolt; Sejbaek, Tobias; Csépány, Tünde

    2015-05-30

    The widening spectrum of MS treatment is partially due to increasing knowledge about the pathogenesis of MS. The humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52, alemtuzumab has been approved in Europe for the treatment of MS, which results in long-term depletion of B and T cells due to complement- and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. Based on phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, alemtuzumob decreases the risk of sustained neurological deficit and progression compared to high-dose subcutaneous interferon-β1a in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS, either treatment-naïve or with breakthrough disease. We review advantages and benefits of the treatment, discuss safety concerns, and present a case to describe practical issues.

  15. The benefits of a fast reactor closed fuel cycle in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, R.; Hesketh, K.

    2013-07-01

    The work has shown that starting a fast reactor closed fuel cycle in the UK, requires virtually all of Britain's existing and future PWR spent fuel to be reprocessed, in order to obtain the plutonium needed. The existing UK Pu stockpile is sufficient to initially support only a modest SFR 'closed' fleet assuming spent fuel can be reprocessed shortly after discharge (i.e. after two years cooling). For a substantial fast reactor fleet, most Pu will have to originate from reprocessing future spent PWR fuel. Therefore, the maximum fast reactor fleet size will be limited by the preceding PWR fleet size, so scenarios involving fast reactors still require significant quantities of uranium ore indirectly. However, once a fast reactor fuel cycle has been established, the very substantial quantities of uranium tails in the UK would ensure there is sufficient material for several centuries. Both the short and long term impacts on a repository have been considered in this work. Over the short term, the decay heat emanating from the HLW and spent fuel will limit the density of waste within a repository. For scenarios involving fast reactors, the only significant heat bearing actinide content will be present in the final cores, resulting in a 50% overall reduction in decay energy deposited within the repository when compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle. Over the longer term, radiological dose becomes more important. Total radiotoxicity (normalised by electricity generated) is lower for scenarios with Pu recycle after 2000 years. Scenarios involving fast reactors have the lowest radiotoxicity since the quantities of certain actinides (Np, Pu and Am) eventually stabilise. However, total radiotoxicity as a measure of radiological risk does not account for differences in radionuclide mobility once in repository. Radiological dose is dominated by a small number of fission products so is therefore not affected significantly by reactor type or recycling strategy (since the

  16. Updated fuel consumption estimates for benefit-cost analysis of transportation alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, F.; McFarland, W.F.

    1994-08-01

    Extensive research has been completed on the fuel efficiency of different types of vehicles, but this information is either out-of-date or scattered in many sources and available in different formats. In this research study, the ARFCOM computer program was used to develop an improved fuel consumption data set representing typical vehicles currently operating on highways in the U.S.A. Using this data set updated statistical equations for the MicroBENCOST computer program were developed. These new equations were used in the MicroBENCOST computer program with example problems to demonstrate the use of the data set.

  17. Meaningful use of health information technology: evidence suggests benefits and challenges lie ahead.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Michael F; Poon, Eric

    2011-12-01

    Less than 3 years into the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, measurable results are emerging. For example, in the first 11 months during which healthcare providers ("eligible professionals") and acute care hospitals ("eligible hospitals") had the opportunity to demonstrate stage 1 "Meaningful Use" of Healthcare Information Technology (HIT), more than 20,000 "eligible professionals" and 750 "eligible hospitals" have done so. In the current issue of The American Journal of Managed Care, we showcase examples of HITECH's potential impact, as well as illustrate the opportunities and challenges ahead. Two studies in this issue illustrate how HIT can improve the capacity of our healthcare system to manage chronic illnesses. The study by Vollmer et al describes how an interactive voice recognition system can improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among individuals with asthma in a large health maintenance organization. Shelley's study shows that the combination of electronic medical records, clinical decision support, and performance feedback can improve the rate of blood pressure control in patients with hypertension who receive care in community health centers. Together, these studies provide hope that the nation's investment in HIT could one day yield clinical dividends. Three other studies in this issue suggest that success for HIT will require attention to both technological and sociological factors. The study by Millery et al attributes the success of an HIT-based intervention to a multi-faceted approach that involves a combination of decision support tools, systematic provider feedback, implementation support, and leadership. Results from Abramson's study suggest that the full error-reduction potential of e-prescribing may only be reached with the combination of on-line clinical decision support and support for clinicians. The study by

  18. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U-10Mo nuclear fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G.; King, J.; Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J.

    2015-05-01

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium-molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellularmore » measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries.« less

  19. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U-10Mo nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G.; King, J.; Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J.

    2015-05-01

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium-molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellular measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries.

  20. The benefits of an advanced fast reactor fuel cycle for plutonium management

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, W.H.; McFarlane, H.F.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    The United States has no program to investigate advanced nuclear fuel cycles for the large-scale consumption of plutonium from military and civilian sources. The official U.S. position has been to focus on means to bury spent nuclear fuel from civilian reactors and to achieve the spent fuel standard for excess separated plutonium, which is considered by policy makers to be an urgent international priority. Recently, the National Research Council published a long awaited report on its study of potential separation and transmutation technologies (STATS), which concluded that in the nuclear energy phase-out scenario that they evaluated, transmutation of plutonium and long-lived radioisotopes would not be worth the cost. However, at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting in June, 1996, the STATS panelists endorsed further study of partitioning to achieve superior waste forms for burial, and suggested that any further consideration of transmutation should be in the context of energy production, not of waste management. 2048 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program for the short-term disposition of excess fissile material and a `focus area` for safe, secure stabilization, storage and disposition of plutonium, but has no current programs for fast reactor development. Nevertheless, sufficient data exist to identify the potential advantages of an advanced fast reactor metallic fuel cycle for the long-term management of plutonium. Advantages are discussed.

  1. Viewing health care delivery as science: challenges, benefits, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Goeschel, Christine A

    2010-10-01

    The need for health services research is likely to rise rapidly as the population ages, health care costs soar, and therapeutic and diagnostic choices proliferate. Building an effective and efficient health care delivery system is a national priority. Yet the national health care quality report concludes that we lack the ability to monitor progress toward even basic quality and patient safety goals effectively. The gap between the need to improve and our ability to do so exists in part because we fail to view the delivery of health care as science, we lack national improvement priorities, and we lack a national infrastructure to achieve our stated goals. We discuss key challenges implicit in correcting these failures and recommend actions to expedite progress.

  2. Challenges and Benefits of Direct Policy Search in Advancing Multiobjective Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Zatarain-Salazar, Jazmin; Hermann, John; Pianosi, Francesca; Reed, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Optimal management policies for water reservoir operation are generally designed via stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). Yet, the adoption of SDP in complex real-world problems is challenged by the three curses of dimensionality, of modeling, and of multiple objectives. These three curses considerably limit SDP's practical application. Alternatively, in this study, we focus on the use of evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS), a simulation-based optimization approach that combines direct policy search, nonlinear approximating networks and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to design Pareto approximate operating policies for multi-purpose water reservoirs. Our analysis explores the technical and practical implications of using EMODPS through a careful diagnostic assessment of the EMODPS Pareto approximate solutions attained and the overall reliability of the policy design process. A key choice in the EMODPS approach is the selection of alternative formulations of the operating policies. In this study, we distinguish the relative performance of two widely used nonlinear approximating networks, namely Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Functions, and we further compare them with SDP. Besides, we comparatively assess state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability. Our diagnostic results show that RBFs solutions are more effective that ANNs in designing Pareto approximate policies for several water reservoir systems. They also highlight that EMODPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg MOEA, are statistically superior for the class of problems considered.

  3. Benefits and challenges of starting a new therapeutic apheresis service in a resource-constrained setting.

    PubMed

    Arogundade, Fatiu A; Sanusi, Abubakr A; Oguntola, Stephen O; Omotoso, Bolanle A; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M; Akinsola, Adewale; Balogun, Rasheed A

    2014-08-01

    Therapeutic apheresis (TA) refers to a group of extracorporeal blood treatment modalities with clinical indications for which the clinicians' knowledge, availability and applicability vary widely worldwide. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), the most common TA technique, is neither readily available nor affordable in many parts of Africa. This article focuses on the challenges of starting a TPE program in a resource-constrained economy and the result of a survey of Nigerian nephrology professionals on TPE. A critical appraisal of published manuscripts from Nigeria on TA was undertaken to assess uses, methods, and challenges encountered followed by a survey of the perceptions of Nigerian nephrology professionals on TPE. Survey results: 56.7% of respondents had very little or no knowledge of TPE; 40.5% moderate and only 2.7% admitting to having a good knowledge. Only 18.9% of respondents have ever participated or observed a TPE procedure with the remaining 81.1% not having any exposure to the procedure. A vast majority of the respondents 97.3% felt they needed better exposure and training in TPE and its applications. Among consultants, 56% had little knowledge, 88% had never participated or observed the TPE procedure, and 94% felt they needed better exposure and training. There is significant limitation in accessibility, availability, and use of TPE in Nigeria; knowledge of TPE and its applications is minimal among nephrology professionals. Efforts should be concentrated on improving the knowledge and availability of TPE in resource-constrained economy like Nigeria. Centers that would be able to manage cases requiring TA should be developed. PMID:24832211

  4. Recycled water for stream flow augmentation: benefits, challenges, and the presence of wastewater-derived organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Megan H; Gurr, Christopher J; Reinhard, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Stream flow augmentation with recycled water has the potential to improve stream habitat and increase potable water supply, but the practice is not yet well understood or documented. The objectives of this report are to present a short review illustrated by a case study, followed by recommendations for future stream flow augmentation projects. Despite the fact that wastewater discharge to streams is commonplace, a water agency pursuing stream flow augmentation with recycled water will face unique challenges. For example, recycled water typically contains trace amounts of organic wastewater-derived compounds (OWCs) for which the potential ecological risks must be balanced against the benefits of an augmentation project. Successful stream flow augmentation with recycled water requires that the lead agency clearly articulate a strong project rationale and identify key benefits. It must be assumed that the public will have some concerns about water quality. Public acceptance may be better if an augmentation project has co-benefits beyond maintaining stream ecosystems, such as improving water system supply and reliability (i.e. potable use offset). Regulatory or project-specific criteria (acceptable concentrations of priority OWCs) would enable assessment of ecosystem impacts and demonstration of practitioner compliance. Additional treatment (natural or engineered) of the recycled water may be considered. If it is not deemed necessary or feasible, existing recycled water quality may be adequate to achieve project goals depending on project rationale, site and water quality evaluation, and public acceptance. PMID:23041295

  5. Teaching Outside the Box: Challenging Gifted Students with Polar Sciences Without Benefit of a Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the high-stakes-testing world of one-size-fits-most educational practices, it is often the needs of the most able students that are unmet, yet these high ability learners can benefit greatly from exploration in the area of polar science. With school schedules and budgets already stretched to the breaking point and Common Core (CCSS) subjects are the focus, very few resources remain for topics considered by some as unimportant. Polar and climate science are prime examples. Here, a council member of Polar Educators International and Gifted Education Teacher, shares resources and ideas to engage this unique group of students and others. She draws from experiences and knowledge gained through ANDRILL's Arise Educator program, IPY Oslo and Montreal PolarEDUCATOR workshops, and Consortium for Ocean Leadership's Deep Earth Academy. Topics include School-wide Enrichment through use of ANDRILL's Flexhibit material and participation in Antarctica Day, afterschool Deep Freeze clubs that presented in public outreach venues for polar science events at the Maryland Science Center in Baltimore and NYC's Museum of Natural History, group project work using IODP core data from Antarctica, interaction with polar scientists via Skype, and other projects.

  6. The benefits and challenges of a fitness and lifestyle enhancement program for correctional officers.

    PubMed

    Jetté, M; Sidney, K

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the benefits and difficulties encountered in the development of an on-site exercise and lifestyle enhancement program for correctional officers. 25 male correctional officers participated in a 6.5-week strength and aerobic training program integrated with penitentiary duties. 21 officers were available for retesting. The program was associated with decreases in body weight, skinfold thickness, cholesterol levels and increases in HDL-cholesterol, chest girth, strength scores and muscular endurance. Resting heart rates and systolic blood pressures were reduced but there was no significant change in maximal oxygen consumption. Furthermore, there were favourable changes in smoking and alcohol consumption, sleeping patterns, nutritional habits and tolerance of stress. These results are probably typical of what can be expected from a program of this type. We conclude that a brief at-work exercise and health enhancement program can exert positive but modest influences on the fitness, health and lifestyle of correctional officers, without undermining security of the institution. However, if this type of program is to achieve beneficial effects on health and fitness, a number of difficulties must be addressed. PMID:2009486

  7. Systematic review of fibrinolytic-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention: Potential benefits and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Afilalo, Jonathan; Roy, Arup Michael; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is defined as the administration of fibrinolytic therapy and/or glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors to minimize myocardial ischemia time while waiting for PCI. A pooled meta-analysis suggested that facilitated PCI was associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity compared with nonfacilitated PCI. OBJECTIVE: The heterogeneous and complex trials of facilitated PCI were systematically reviewed to identify where this strategy may be beneficial and deserving of further research. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, the Internet and conference proceedings were searched to obtain relevant trials. Human studies that randomly assigned patients to fibrinolytic-facilitated PCI (administration of fibrinolytic therapy alone or in combination with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors before angiography) versus nonfacilitated PCI were included. RESULTS: Nine trials encompassing 3836 patients were reviewed. The facilitated PCI strategy was fibrinolytic therapy alone in seven trials and half-dose fibrinolytic therapy plus GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in two trials. In patients who had fibrinolysis less than 2 h after symptom onset (mainly in the prehospital setting) and/or slightly delayed PCI 3 h to 24 h after fibrinolysis, facilitated PCI was associated with the greatest Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 flow and a trend toward reduced mortality. Overall, facilitated PCI was associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage and reinfarction. Combining half-dose fibrinolytic therapy and GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduced reinfarction but increased major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Facilitated PCI cannot be recommended outside of experimental protocols at this time. Further research should focus on selecting patients with higher benefit-to-risk ratios and performing prehospital fibrinolysis with optimal antiplatelet or antithrombin therapy, as well as slightly delayed PCI in patients who are stable or

  8. Challenge to promote change: both young and older adults benefit from contextual interference

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Lisa; Vancleef, Kathleen; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Beets, Iseult A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Current society has to deal with major challenges related to our constantly increasing population of older adults. Since, motor performance generally deteriorates at older age, research investigating the effects of different types of training on motor improvement is particularly important. Here, we tested the effects of contextual interference (CI) while learning a bimanual coordination task in both young and older subjects. Both age groups acquired a low and high complexity task variant following either a blocked or random practice schedule. Typical CI effects, i.e., better overall performance during acquisition but detrimental effects during retention for the blocked compared with the random groups, were found for the low complexity task variant in both age groups. With respect to the high complexity task variant, no retention differences between both practice schedules were found. However, following random practice, better skill persistence (i.e., from end of acquisition to retention) over a 1 week time interval was observed for both task complexity variants and in both age groups. The current study provides clear evidence that the effects of different practice schedules on learning a complex bimanual task are not modulated by age. PMID:26321950

  9. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U–10Mo nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G.; King, J.; Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J.

    2015-07-15

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium–molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellular measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A technique is developed to score U–10Mo FIB-SEM image quality using CellProfiler. • The pass/fail metric is based on image illumination, focus, and area scratched. • Automated image analysis is performed in pipeline fashion to characterize images. • Fission gas void, interaction layer, and grain boundary coverage data is extracted. • Preliminary characterization results demonstrate consistency of the algorithm.

  10. Neural alpha dynamics in younger and older listeners reflect acoustic challenges and predictive benefits.

    PubMed

    Wöstmann, Malte; Herrmann, Björn; Wilsch, Anna; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-01-28

    Speech comprehension in multitalker situations is a notorious real-life challenge, particularly for older listeners. Younger listeners exploit stimulus-inherent acoustic detail, but are they also actively predicting upcoming information? And further, how do older listeners deal with acoustic and predictive information? To understand the neural dynamics of listening difficulties and according listening strategies, we contrasted neural responses in the alpha-band (∼10 Hz) in younger (20-30 years, n = 18) and healthy older (60-70 years, n = 20) participants under changing task demands in a two-talker paradigm. Electroencephalograms were recorded while humans listened to two spoken digits against a distracting talker and decided whether the second digit was smaller or larger. Acoustic detail (temporal fine structure) and predictiveness (the degree to which the first digit predicted the second) varied orthogonally. Alpha power at widespread scalp sites decreased with increasing acoustic detail (during target digit presentation) but also with increasing predictiveness (in-between target digits). For older compared with younger listeners, acoustic detail had a stronger impact on task performance and alpha power modulation. This suggests that alpha dynamics plays an important role in the changes in listening behavior that occur with age. Last, alpha power variations resulting from stimulus manipulations (of acoustic detail and predictiveness) as well as task-independent overall alpha power were related to subjective listening effort. The present data show that alpha dynamics is a promising neural marker of individual difficulties as well as age-related changes in sensation, perception, and comprehension in complex communication situations.

  11. The Health Benefits and Challenges of Exercise Training in Persons Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Lang, Donna J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In addition to the hallmark cognitive and functional impairments mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is also associated with an increased risk for the development of secondary complications, in particular cardio-metabolic disease. This is thought to be the result of various factors including physical inactivity and the metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches to improving brain health, physical health, and overall well-being have been promoted increasingly. Methods: We report on the health-related physical fitness (body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, and aerobic fitness) and lipid profile of persons living with schizophrenia and effective means to address the challenges of exercise training in this population. Results: There was a markedly increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease in 13 persons living with schizophrenia (Age = 31 ± 7 years) including low aerobic fitness (76% ± 34% of predicted), reduced HDL (60% of cohort), elevated resting heart rate (80% of cohort), hypertension (40% of cohort), overweight and obesity (69% of cohort), and abdominal obesity (54% of cohort). Individualized exercise prescription (3 times/week) was well tolerated, with no incidence of adverse exercise-related events. The exercise adherence rate was 81% ± 21% (Range 48%–100%), and 69% of the participants were able to complete the entire exercise training program. Exercise training resulted in clinically important changes in physical activity, aerobic fitness, exercise tolerance, blood pressure, and body composition. Conclusion: Persons living with schizophrenia appear to be at an increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease. An individualized exercise program has shown early promise for the treatment of schizophrenia and the various cognitive, functional, and physiological impairments that ultimately affect health and well-being. PMID:24961427

  12. Potential health benefit of reducing household solid fuel use in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Staff Mestl, Heidi Elizabeth; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin

    2006-12-15

    Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use has severe health effects. 60% of the Chinese population lives in rural areas, where most people rely on solid fuels for cooking and heating. We estimate exposure by combining information on the amount of time spent in different microenvironments and estimates of the particle concentrations (PM(10)) in these environments. According to our estimates, 70% of the exposure experienced by the rural population is due to indoor air pollution (IAP). The urban coal using population experience a 17% increase in exposure from IAP. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to quantify variability and uncertainty in the exposure, morbidity and mortality estimates. We find that applying Monte Carlo simulations reduces the estimated uncertainty compared to analytical methods based on approximate distributions and the central limit theorem. We find that annually about 4% (geometric S.D. sigma(g), 3.2) and 35% (sigma(g), 2.6) of the deaths in the urban and rural populations, respectively, could be avoided by switching to clean fuels. Upgrading the stoves in rural areas to the standard found in urban areas is estimated to reduce mortality by 23% (sigma(g), 3.1). Moreover, we estimate that chronic respiratory illness (CRI) in children can be reduced by, respectively, about 9% (sigma(g), 2.5) and 80% (sigma(g) 1.9) by switching to clean fuels in the urban and rural areas. Upgrading the stoves in rural areas is estimated to reduce CRI in children with about 58% (sigma(g) 2.3). For adults the reduction in CRI was estimated to be 6% (sigma(g) 2.4) and 45% (sigma(g) 1.8) for the urban and rural population following a fuel switch, and 31% (sigma(g) 2.4) for the rural population from stove improvements. Contrary to our expectations we find small gender differences in exposure. We ascribe that to comparable kitchen and living area concentrations and similar indoor occupation times for the genders. Young children and the elderly spend the most time indoors, and

  13. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are

  14. Benefits analysis for the production of fuels and chemicals using solar thermal energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-05-01

    Numerous possibilities exist for using high temperature solar thermal energy in the production of various chemicals and fuels (Sun Fuels). Research and development activities have focused on the use of feedstocks such as coal and biomass to provide synthesis gas, hydrogen, and a variety of other end-products. A Decision Analysis technique geared to the analysis of Sun Fuels options was developed. Conventional scoring methods were combined with multi-attribute utility analysis in a new approach called the Multi-Attribute Preference Scoring (MAPS) system. MAPS calls for the designation of major categories of attributes which describe critical elements of concern for the processes being examined. The six major categories include: Process Demonstration; Full-Scale Process, Feedstock; End-Product Market; National/Social Considerations; and Economics. MAPS calls for each attribute to be weighted on a simple scale for all of the candidate processes. Next, a weight is assigned to each attribute, thus creating a multiplier to be used with each individual value to derive a comparative weighting. Last, each of the categories of attributes themselves are weighted, thus creating another multiplier, for use in developing an overall score. With sufficient information and industry input, each process can be ultimately compared using a single figure of merit. After careful examination of available information, it was decided that only six of the 20 candidate processes were adequately described to allow a complete MAPS analysis which would allow direct comparisons for illustrative purposes. These six processes include three synthesis gas processes, two hydrogen and one ammonia. The remaining fourteen processes were subjected to only a partial MAPS assessment.

  15. NIOZ high-resolution moored temperature observations: benefits and new challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimatoribus, Andrea; Gostiaux, Louis; Cyr, Frederic; van Haren, Hans

    2016-04-01

    internal wave spectrum, modulation by submesoscale and mesoscale activity and seasonal variations. These features have been exploited for characterising the internal wave spectrum in the open ocean, for evaluating turbulence parameters above seamounts, and to characterise the statistics of temperature fluctuations. Main results include the observational demonstration of extreme inhomogeneity in space and intermittency in time of turbulence, and evidence of the importance of convective activity within strong geophysical turbulence. The data collected challenges the classical methods of turbulence parameters estimation in the ocean. Classical "Thorpe scale" methods have been adapted to the particular characteristics of the data, and efforts have been made to adapt other methods, providing higher detail on the vertical and temporal modulation of turbulence. The large datasets have also enabled the application on observational data of analysis methods previously used on laboratory data alone.

  16. NIOZ high-resolution moored temperature observations: benefits and new challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimatoribus, Andrea; Gostiaux, Louis; Cyr, Frederic; van Haren, Hans

    2016-04-01

    spectrum, modulation by submesoscale and mesoscale activity and seasonal variations. These features have been exploited for characterising the internal wave spectrum in the open ocean, for evaluating turbulence parameters above seamounts, and to characterise the statistics of temperature fluctuations. Main results include the observational demonstration of extreme inhomogeneity in space and intermittency in time of turbulence, and evidence of the importance of convective activity within strong geophysical turbulence. The data collected challenges the classical methods of turbulence parameters estimation in the ocean. Classical "Thorpe scale" methods have been adapted to the particular characteristics of the data, and efforts have been made to adapt other methods, providing higher detail on the vertical and temporal modulation of turbulence. The large datasets have also enabled the application on observational data of analysis methods previously used on laboratory data alone.

  17. Hybrid modeling for quality by design and PAT-benefits and challenges of applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    von Stosch, Moritz; Davy, Steven; Francois, Kjell; Galvanauskas, Vytautas; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Luebbert, Andreas; Mayer, Martin; Oliveira, Rui; O'Kennedy, Ronan; Rice, Paul; Glassey, Jarka

    2014-06-01

    This report highlights the drivers, challenges, and enablers of the hybrid modeling applications in biopharmaceutical industry. It is a summary of an expert panel discussion of European academics and industrialists with relevant scientific and engineering backgrounds. Hybrid modeling is viewed in its broader sense, namely as the integration of different knowledge sources in form of parametric and nonparametric models into a hybrid semi-parametric model, for instance the integration of fundamental and data-driven models. A brief description of the current state-of-the-art and industrial uptake of the methodology is provided. The report concludes with a number of recommendations to facilitate further developments and a wider industrial application of this modeling approach. These recommendations are limited to further exploiting the benefits of this methodology within process analytical technology (PAT) applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

  18. Perceived benefits and challenges of repeated exposure to high fidelity simulation experiences of first degree accelerated bachelor nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Vandyke, Olga; Smallwood, Christopher; Gonzalez, Kristen Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of first-degree entry-level accelerated bachelor nursing students regarding benefits and challenges of exposure to multiple high fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios, which has not been studied to date. These perceptions conformed to some research findings among Associate Degree, traditional non-accelerated, and second-degree accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students faced with one to two simulations. However, first-degree accelerated BSN students faced with multiple complex simulations perceived improvements on all outcomes, including critical thinking, confidence, competence, and theory-practice integration. On the negative side, some reported feeling overwhelmed by the multiple HFS scenarios. Evidence from this study supports HFS as an effective teaching and learning method for nursing students, along with valuable implications for many other fields. PMID:26260522

  19. Challenges faced when using radiocarbon measurements to estimate fossil fuel emissions in the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Allen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating the anthropogenic component of carbon dioxide emissions from direct atmospheric measurements is difficult, due to the large natural carbon dioxide fluxes. One way of determining the fossil fuel component of atmospheric carbon dioxide is the use of radiocarbon measurements. Whilst carbon reservoirs with a reasonably fast carbon exchange rate all have a similar radiocarbon content, fossil fuels are completely devoid of radiocarbon due to their age. Previous studies have 14CO2 (UK) this approach is compromised by the high density of 14CO2 emitting nuclear power plants. Of the 16 nuclear reactors in the UK, 14 are advanced gas cooled reactors, which have one of the highest 14CO2 emission rates of all reactor types. These radiocarbon emissions not only lead to a serious underestimation of the recently added fossil fuel CO2, by masking the depletion of 14C in CO2, but can in fact overshadow the depletion by a factor of 2 or more. While a correction for this enhancement can be applied, the emissions from the nuclear power plants are highly variable, and an accurate correction is therefore not straightforward. We present the first attempt to quantify UK fossil fuel CO2 emissions through the use of 14CO2. We employ a sampling strategy that makes use of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, in combination with nuclear industry emission estimates, to forecast "good" sampling times, in an attempt to minimize the correction due to emissions from the nuclear industry. As part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project, 14CO2measurements are performed at two measurement sites in the UK and Ireland, as well as during science flights around the UK. The measurement locations have been chosen with a focus on high emitting regions such as London and the Midlands. We discuss the unique challenges that face the determination of fossil fuel emissions through radiocarbon measurements in the UK and our sampling strategy to deal with them. In addition we

  20. Microbial fuel cells and osmotic membrane bioreactors have mutual benefits for wastewater treatment and energy production.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dianxun; Lu, Lu; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates that microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) can be mutually beneficial when integrated together for wastewater treatment. When connecting MFCs with OMBRs, the solute buildup increased conductivity and buffer capacity, which greatly increased MFC power density from 3 W/m(3) up to 11.5 W/m(3). In turn, the MFCs conditioned and reduced sludge production and therefore reduced forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling. The MFC-OMBR equipped with new thin-film composite (TFC) membrane showed excellent organic (>95%) and phosphorus removal (>99%) and therefore maintained effluent sCOD below 20 mg/L. However, the nitrogen removal was limited due to the negative surface charge of the thin-film composite membrane and solution chemistry, which led to higher flux of ammonium toward the OMBR draw solution. Further studies are needed to improve nitrogen removal, reduce fouling, and optimize system integration. PMID:27105032

  1. On the Benefits and Challenges of Multi-Point Analysis of Energetic Particle Injections in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. L.; Gabrielse, C.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Gkioulidou, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Energetic particle injections (EPIs) are the sudden enhancement of ~10s to ~100s of keV electrons and or ions in the near-Earth plasma sheet and inner magnetosphere. EPIs are known to be associated with substorm activity and reconnection in the magnetotail, though there are still many outstanding questions and competing theories concerning their exact nature (formation and evolution). Here, we focus on multipoint observations of EPIs at L < 10. We present several cases of individual or multiple EPI events observed by spacecraft from the THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, GOES, POES/MetOp, and LANL-GEO constellations. These cases have been chosen to showcase both the benefits of understanding EPIs as well as the challenges in interpreting multi-point observations of EPI events. EPIs are considered potentially important contributors to the seed populations of ring current particles and electrons in the outer radiation belt. Furthermore, due to the temperature anisotropy inherent in drifting bunches of enhanced fluxes of energetic ions and electrons, EPIs also potentially play an important role in electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and whistler-mode chorus wave growth and activity. Thus, it is beneficial to the inner magnetospheric community to study EPIs and better define their role in dynamics of the ring current and outer radiation belt particle populations. However, interpreting multi-point observations of EPIs includes a variety of challenges, which we also outline and discuss here using example cases for supporting evidence. These challenges include: determining the location and width of the injection boundary in MLT and how this may change as a function of L-shell; timing analysis of EPIs observed by multiple spacecraft and drift echoes observed by the same spacecraft considering global field mapping of pitch-angle dependent drift shells; and considerations of energy- and/or pitch angle-dependent boundaries (e.g., Alfven layers, the plasmapause, and bifurcated drift

  2. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits when Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15m Class System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Swanson, Gregory T.; Johnson, R. Keith; Hughes, Stephen; Calomino, Anthony; Gilles, Brian; Anderson, Paul; Bond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    stitching of F-TPS gores. Additionally, new approaches and hardware will be required for handling and ground testing of both individual tori and the fully assembled HIADs. There are also noteworthy benefits of scaling up the HIAD aeroshell to 15m-class system. Two complications in working with handmade textiles structures are the non-linearity of the materials and the role of human accuracy during fabrication. Larger, more capable, HIAD structures should see much larger operational loads, potentially bringing the structural response of the materials out of the non-linear regime and into the preferred linear response range. Also, making the reasonable assumption that the magnitude of fabrication accuracy remains constant as the structures grow, the relative effect of fabrication errors should decrease as a percentage of the textile component size. Combined, these two effects improve the predictive capability and the uniformity of the structural response for a 12-15m class HIAD. In this paper, the challenges and associated mitigation plans related to scaling up the HIAD stacked-torus aeroshell to a 15m class system will be discussed. In addition, the benefits of enlarging the structure will be further explored.

  3. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-01-01

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive. PMID:22809320

  4. Addressing the challenges of solar thermal fuels via atomic-scale computational design and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpak, Alexie; Kucharski, Timothy; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    By reversibly storing solar energy in the conformations of photo-isomers, solar thermal fuels (STFs) provide a mechanism for emissions-free, renewable energy storage and conversion in a single system. Development of STFs as a large-scale energy technology has been hampered by technical challenges that beset the photo-isomers of interest: low energy density, storage lifetime, and quantum yield; UV absorption; and irreversible degradation upon repeated cycling. In this talk, we discuss our efforts to design new STFs that overcome these hurdles. We present computational results on various STFs based on our recently proposed photo-isomer/template STF concept [Kolpak and Grossman, Nano Letters 11, 3156 (2011)], as well as new experimental results on azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotube STFs. Our approach yields significant improvements with respect to STFs studied in the past, with energy densities similar to Li-ion batteries, storage lifetimes > 1 year, and increased quantum yield and absorption efficiency. Our strategy also suggests mechanisms for inhibiting photo-isomer degradation. With a large phase space yet to be explored, there remain numerous possibilites for property enhancement, suggesting that STFs could become a competitive renewable energy technology.

  5. Fuel Supply and Selection. CEFP Special Report No. 9. Energy Conservation: A New Challenge for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Isola, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates how fuel selection in large school systems can be based on life cycle costs for fuel and buildings as a total energy/cost package. Cites an example of how such cost data can be used to institute changes in school district fuel use. (Author/DN)

  6. Introducing peer worker roles into UK mental health service teams: a qualitative analysis of the organisational benefits and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of peer support as a component of mental health care, including the employment of Peer Workers (consumer-providers) by mental health service organisations, is increasingly common internationally. Peer support is strongly advocated as a strategy in a number of UK health and social care policies. Approaches to employing Peer Workers are proliferating. There is evidence to suggest that Peer Worker-based interventions reduce psychiatric inpatient admission and increase service user (consumer) empowerment. In this paper we seek to address a gap in the empirical literature in understanding the organisational challenges and benefits of introducing Peer Worker roles into mental health service teams. Methods We report the secondary analysis of qualitative interview data from service users, Peer Workers, non-peer staff and managers of three innovative interventions in a study about mental health self-care. Relevant data was extracted from interviews with 41 participants and subjected to analysis using Grounded Theory techniques. Organisational research literature on role adoption framed the analysis. Results Peer Workers were highly valued by mental health teams and service users. Non-peer team members and managers worked hard to introduce Peer Workers into teams. Our cases were projects in development and there was learning from the evolutionary process: in the absence of formal recruitment processes for Peer Workers, differences in expectations of the Peer Worker role can emerge at the selection stage; flexible working arrangements for Peer Workers can have the unintended effect of perpetuating hierarchies within teams; the maintenance of protective practice boundaries through supervision and training can militate against the emergence of a distinctive body of peer practice; lack of consensus around what constitutes peer practice can result in feelings for Peer Workers of inequality, disempowerment, uncertainty about identity and of being under

  7. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits when Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15m-Class System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gregory; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Gilles, Brian; Anderson, Paul; Bond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    , and stitching of F-TPS gores. Additionally, new approaches and hardware will be required for handling and ground testing of both individual tori and the fully assembled HIADs.There are also noteworthy benefits of scaling up the HIAD aeroshell to a 15m-class system. Two complications in working with handmade textile structures are the non-linearity of the material components and the role of human accuracy during fabrication. Larger, more capable, HIAD structures should see much larger operational loads, potentially bringing the structural response of the material components out of the non-linear regime and into the preferred linear response range. Also, making the reasonable assumption that the magnitude of fabrication accuracy remains constant as the structures grow, the relative effect of fabrication errors should decrease as a percentage of the textile component size. Combined, these two effects improve the predictive capability and the uniformity of the structural response for a 12-15m HIAD.In this presentation, a handful of the challenges and associated mitigation plans will be discussed, as well as an update on current 12m aeroshell manufacturing and testing that is addressing these challenges

  8. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits When Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15 Meter Class System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    structural webbing, initial inflation of tori, and stitching of F-TPS gores. Additionally, new approaches and hardware will be required for handling and ground testing of both individual tori and the fully assembled HIADs. There are also noteworthy benefits of scaling up the HIAD aeroshell to a 15m-class system. Two complications in working with handmade textile structures are the non-linearity of the material components and the role of human accuracy during fabrication. Larger, more capable, HIAD structures should see much larger operational loads, potentially bringing the structural response of the material components out of the non-linear regime and into the preferred linear response range. Also, making the reasonable assumption that the magnitude of fabrication accuracy remains constant as the structures grow, the relative effect of fabrication errors should decrease as a percentage of the textile component size. Combined, these two effects improve the predictive capability and the uniformity of the structural response for a 12-15-meter HIAD. In this presentation, a handful of the challenges and associated mitigation plans will be discussed, as well as an update on current manufacturing and testing that addressing these challenges.

  9. Challenges in Measuring Benefit of Clinical Research Training Programs--the ASH Clinical Research Training Institute Example.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lillian; Crowther, Mark; Byrd, John; Gitlin, Scott D; Basso, Joe; Burns, Linda

    2015-12-01

    The American Society of Hematology developed the Clinical Research Training Institute (CRTI) to address the lack of training in patient-oriented research among hematologists. As the program continues, we need to consider metrics for measuring the benefits of such a training program. This article addresses the benefits of clinical research training programs. The fundamental and key components are education and mentorship. However, there are several other benefits including promotion of collaboration, job and advancement opportunities, and promotion of work-life balance. The benefits of clinical research training programs need to be measured so that funders and society can judge if they are worth the investment in time and resources. Identification of elements that are important to program benefit is essential to measuring the benefit of the program as well as program planning. Future work should focus on the constructs which contribute to benefits of clinical research training programs such as CRTI.

  10. The Challenges and Benefits of Employing a Mobile Research Fellow to Facilitate Team Work on a Large, Interdisciplinary, Multi-Sited Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, Fraser; Punch, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years research funding has increasingly moved in favour of large, multi-partner, interdisciplinary and multi-site research projects. This article explores the benefits and challenges of employing a full-time research fellow to work across multiple field sites, with all the local research teams, on an international,…

  11. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  12. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive. PMID:22809320

  13. Preparing undergraduates for the future of scientific collaboration: Benefits, challenges and technological solutions in Distributed REU Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Anagnos, T.

    2012-12-01

    As research problems increasingly require multi-disciplinary approaches they naturally foster scientific collaborations between geographically distributed colleagues. This increasing trend in scientific research, the rapid evolution of communication technology, cognitive research into distance education, and the current generation of undergraduate students' eagerness to embrace and use technology, increases the relevance of distributed REU sites. Like traditional REU sites that host a cohort of students in one geographic location, distributed REU sites also seek to attract, nurture, and retain students in a STEM career pipeline. Distributed REU sites are unique in that some or all of the interns are geographically distributed during the research period. This arrangement allows the REU site to capitalize on distributed scientific resources such as field sites, research facilities, or human capital. At their core, distributed REU sites are fundamentally constructed of elements that have proven to be effective components of any undergraduate research experience. They also strive to develop and employ specialized programming that leverages collaboration tools through a cyberinfrastructure to enable interns to develop meaningful social and academic relationships with one another. Since 2006 the IRIS Consortium and NEES have facilitated separate, NSF funded, distributed REU Sites. Implementation and evaluations of these programs have revealed a number of successes and benefits. Longitudinal tracking indicates that distributed REU Sites are at least as successful as traditional sites in attracting, nurturing, and retaining students in a STEM career pipeline. A distributed arrangement also offers benefits over a traditional REU site, such as the flexibility to place interns at a variety of institutions with mentors making only an annual commitment to participate. This ensures that all mentors are eager to participate and are concerned with their intern's growth. It also

  14. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Status and Remaining Challenges for Manned Space-Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Will F.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fuel Cell has been used for manned space flight since the Gemini program. Its power output and water production capability over long durations for the mass and volume are critical for manned space-flight requirements. The alkaline fuel cell used on the Shuttle, while very reliable and capable for it s application, has operational sensitivities, limited life, and an expensive recycle cost. The PEM fuel cell offers many potential improvements in those areas. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently leading a PEM fuel cell development and test program intended to move the technology closer to the point required for manned space-flight consideration. This paper will address the advantages of PEM fuel cell technology and its potential for future space flight as compared to existing alkaline fuel cells. It will also cover the technical hurdles that must be overcome. In addition, a description of the NASA PEM fuel cell development program will be presented, and the current status of this effort discussed. The effort is a combination of stack and ancillary component hardware development, culminating in breadboard and engineering model unit assembly and test. Finally, a detailed roadmap for proceeding fiom engineering model hardware to qualification and flight hardware will be proposed. Innovative test engineering and potential payload manifesting may be required to actually validate/certify a PEM fuel cell for manned space flight.

  15. Opportunities and challenges for developing an oilseed to renewable jet fuel industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military and commercial aviation have expressed interest in using renewable aviation biofuels, with an initial goal of 1 billion gallons of drop-in aviation biofuels by 2018. While these fuels could come from many sources, hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) from vegetable oils have been demonstra...

  16. Space Shuttle main engine. NASA has not evaluated the alternate fuel turbopump costs and benefits. Report to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    NASA's plans to develop an alternate high pressure fuel turbopump for the Space Shuttle's main engines were assessed by the General Accounting Office as a part of the evaluation of the Space Shuttle Safety and Obsolescence Upgrade program. The objective was to determine whether NASA has adequately analyzed cost, performance, and benefits that are expected to result from this program in comparison to other alternatives before resuming development of the alternate pump, which was suspended in 1992. The alternate fuel pump is one of five improvements being developed or planned to significantly enhance safety margins of the engines.

  17. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  18. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  19. Challenge to aviation: Hatching a leaner pterosauer. [improving commercial aircraft design for greater fuel efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications in commercial aircraft design, particularly the development of lighter aircraft, are discussed as effective means of reducing aviation fuel consumption. The modifications outlined include: (1) use of the supercritical wing; (2) generation of the winglet; (3) production and flight testing of composite materials; and, (4) implementation of fly-by-wire control systems. Attention is also given to engineering laminar air flow control, improving cargo payloads, and adapting hydrogen fuels for aircraft use.

  20. 'Telling their stories' on a dual diagnosis training course: forensic mental health service users' perspective on their challenges, benefits and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Rani, Shobha; Byrne, Hanora

    2014-03-01

    A five day training course on dual diagnosis was developed by the authors in 2008 and delivered annually within the Irish forensic mental health service. Service users were invited to tell their stories on the training course. Literature suggests several therapeutic outcomes for service users such as raised self esteem, empowerment and new insight into their problems. However little is known from an Irish service users' perspective. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed at exploring the experiences of service users' telling their stories on a dual diagnosis training course. Data was collected using one-to-one interviews from seven service users. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Three themes emerged from the analysis: the benefits, the challenges for the service users and strategies for their future involvement. Service users reported psychological, personal and social benefits and there were perceived benefits for the learners. Public speaking, preparing for the talk and taking questions from the trainees were the main challenges. They suggested several strategies for overcoming challenges in the future courses. In this article, while the authors discuss the need for empowering service users and providing them with adequate support, there are also practical and useful suggestions for the course coordinators/nurse educators. Authors recognise that service user involvement requires extensive time and significant support in preparing and training for their participation which may impact upon resources.

  1. Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  2. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Browne, Michael C.

    2012-08-13

    Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

  3. Materials challenges toward proton-conducting oxide fuel cells: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pergolesi, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico

    2010-11-01

    The increasing world population and the need to improve quality of life for a large percentage of human beings are the driving forces for the search for sustainable energy production systems, alternative to fossil fuel combustion. Among the various types of alternative energy production technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (400-700 °C) show the advantage of possible use both for stationary and mobile energy production. To reach the goal of reducing the SOFC operating temperature, proton-conducting oxides are gaining wide interest as electrolyte materials. This critical review provides a broad overview of the most recent progresses obtained tailoring the properties of proton-conducting oxides for fuel cell applications, analyzing and comparing the different strategies proposed to match high-proton conductivity with good chemical stability (170 references). PMID:20818453

  4. Teachers' Views on Digital Educational Tools in English Language Learning: Benefits and Challenges in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Servet; Aytin, Kübra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear benefits provided by digital educational tools, Turkish teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) are often seen as failing to take advantage of computing technologies in the classroom. Deficiencies in terms of teachers' digital literacies are often faulted for this omission. The majority of studies concerning Turkish…

  5. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  6. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, J; Nielsen, J; Olsson, L

    2001-07-01

    With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars (pentoses, and hexoses) as well as to tolerate stress conditions. Through metabolic engineering, bacterial and yeast strains have been constructed which feature traits that are advantageous for ethanol production using lignocellulose sugars. After several rounds of modification/evaluation/modification, three main microbial platforms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis, and Escherichia coli, have emerged and they have performed well in pilot studies. While there are ongoing efforts to further enhance their properties, improvement of the fermentation process is just one of several factors-that needs to be fully optimized and integrated to generate a competitive lignocellulose ethanol plant.

  7. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, J; Nielsen, J; Olsson, L

    2001-07-01

    With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars (pentoses, and hexoses) as well as to tolerate stress conditions. Through metabolic engineering, bacterial and yeast strains have been constructed which feature traits that are advantageous for ethanol production using lignocellulose sugars. After several rounds of modification/evaluation/modification, three main microbial platforms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis, and Escherichia coli, have emerged and they have performed well in pilot studies. While there are ongoing efforts to further enhance their properties, improvement of the fermentation process is just one of several factors-that needs to be fully optimized and integrated to generate a competitive lignocellulose ethanol plant. PMID:11499926

  8. Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Samir M.

    Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

  9. Benefits and Challenges of Scaling Up Expansion of Marine Protected Area Networks in the Verde Island Passage, Central Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Horigue, Vera; Pressey, Robert L.; Mills, Morena; Brotánková, Jana; Cabral, Reniel; Andréfouët, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Locally-established marine protected areas (MPAs) have been proven to achieve local-scale fisheries and conservation objectives. However, since many of these MPAs were not designed to form ecologically-connected networks, their contributions to broader-scale goals such as complementarity and connectivity can be limited. In contrast, integrated networks of MPAs designed with systematic conservation planning are assumed to be more effective—ecologically, socially, and economically—than collections of locally-established MPAs. There is, however, little empirical evidence that clearly demonstrates the supposed advantages of systematic MPA networks. A key reason is the poor record of implementation of systematic plans attributable to lack of local buy-in. An intermediate scenario for the expansion of MPAs is scaling up of local decisions, whereby locally-driven MPA initiatives are coordinated through collaborative partnerships among local governments and their communities. Coordination has the potential to extend the benefits of individual MPAs and perhaps to approach the potential benefits offered by systematic MPA networks. We evaluated the benefits of scaling up local MPAs to form networks by simulating seven expansion scenarios for MPAs in the Verde Island Passage, central Philippines. The scenarios were: uncoordinated community-based establishment of MPAs; two scenarios reflecting different levels of coordinated MPA expansion through collaborative partnerships; and four scenarios guided by systematic conservation planning with different contexts for governance. For each scenario, we measured benefits through time in terms of achievement of objectives for representation of marine habitats. We found that: in any governance context, systematic networks were more efficient than non-systematic ones; systematic networks were more efficient in broader governance contexts; and, contrary to expectations but with caveats, the uncoordinated scenario was slightly more

  10. Benefits and Challenges of Scaling Up Expansion of Marine Protected Area Networks in the Verde Island Passage, Central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Horigue, Vera; Pressey, Robert L; Mills, Morena; Brotánková, Jana; Cabral, Reniel; Andréfouët, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Locally-established marine protected areas (MPAs) have been proven to achieve local-scale fisheries and conservation objectives. However, since many of these MPAs were not designed to form ecologically-connected networks, their contributions to broader-scale goals such as complementarity and connectivity can be limited. In contrast, integrated networks of MPAs designed with systematic conservation planning are assumed to be more effective--ecologically, socially, and economically--than collections of locally-established MPAs. There is, however, little empirical evidence that clearly demonstrates the supposed advantages of systematic MPA networks. A key reason is the poor record of implementation of systematic plans attributable to lack of local buy-in. An intermediate scenario for the expansion of MPAs is scaling up of local decisions, whereby locally-driven MPA initiatives are coordinated through collaborative partnerships among local governments and their communities. Coordination has the potential to extend the benefits of individual MPAs and perhaps to approach the potential benefits offered by systematic MPA networks. We evaluated the benefits of scaling up local MPAs to form networks by simulating seven expansion scenarios for MPAs in the Verde Island Passage, central Philippines. The scenarios were: uncoordinated community-based establishment of MPAs; two scenarios reflecting different levels of coordinated MPA expansion through collaborative partnerships; and four scenarios guided by systematic conservation planning with different contexts for governance. For each scenario, we measured benefits through time in terms of achievement of objectives for representation of marine habitats. We found that: in any governance context, systematic networks were more efficient than non-systematic ones; systematic networks were more efficient in broader governance contexts; and, contrary to expectations but with caveats, the uncoordinated scenario was slightly more

  11. Benefits and Challenges of Scaling Up Expansion of Marine Protected Area Networks in the Verde Island Passage, Central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Horigue, Vera; Pressey, Robert L; Mills, Morena; Brotánková, Jana; Cabral, Reniel; Andréfouët, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Locally-established marine protected areas (MPAs) have been proven to achieve local-scale fisheries and conservation objectives. However, since many of these MPAs were not designed to form ecologically-connected networks, their contributions to broader-scale goals such as complementarity and connectivity can be limited. In contrast, integrated networks of MPAs designed with systematic conservation planning are assumed to be more effective--ecologically, socially, and economically--than collections of locally-established MPAs. There is, however, little empirical evidence that clearly demonstrates the supposed advantages of systematic MPA networks. A key reason is the poor record of implementation of systematic plans attributable to lack of local buy-in. An intermediate scenario for the expansion of MPAs is scaling up of local decisions, whereby locally-driven MPA initiatives are coordinated through collaborative partnerships among local governments and their communities. Coordination has the potential to extend the benefits of individual MPAs and perhaps to approach the potential benefits offered by systematic MPA networks. We evaluated the benefits of scaling up local MPAs to form networks by simulating seven expansion scenarios for MPAs in the Verde Island Passage, central Philippines. The scenarios were: uncoordinated community-based establishment of MPAs; two scenarios reflecting different levels of coordinated MPA expansion through collaborative partnerships; and four scenarios guided by systematic conservation planning with different contexts for governance. For each scenario, we measured benefits through time in terms of achievement of objectives for representation of marine habitats. We found that: in any governance context, systematic networks were more efficient than non-systematic ones; systematic networks were more efficient in broader governance contexts; and, contrary to expectations but with caveats, the uncoordinated scenario was slightly more

  12. Research Stakeholders’ Views on Benefits and Challenges for Public Health Research Data Sharing in Kenya: The Importance of Trust and Social Relations

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of sharing research data within the international scientific community, but also of the ethical and social challenges this presents, particularly in the context of structural inequities and varied capacity in international research. Public involvement is essential to building locally responsive research policies, including on data sharing, but little research has involved stakeholders from low-to-middle income countries. Methods Between January and June 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in Kenya involving sixty stakeholders with varying experiences of research in a deliberative process to explore views on benefits and challenges in research data sharing. In-depth interviews and extended small group discussions based on information sharing and facilitated debate were used to collect data. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, and charting flow and dynamics in debates. Findings The findings highlight both the opportunities and challenges of communicating about this complex and relatively novel topic for many stakeholders. For more and less research-experienced stakeholders, ethical research data sharing is likely to rest on the development and implementation of appropriate trust-building processes, linked to local perceptions of benefits and challenges. The central nature of trust is underpinned by uncertainties around who might request what data, for what purpose and when. Key benefits perceived in this consultation were concerned with the promotion of public health through science, with legitimate beneficiaries defined differently by different groups. Important challenges were risks to the interests of study participants, communities and originating researchers through stigmatisation, loss of privacy, impacting autonomy and unfair competition, including through forms of intentional and unintentional 'misuse' of data. Risks were also seen for science. Discussion Given background structural

  13. Fuel ethanol production from L-arabinose: Constraints, challenges, current status and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, B.C.; Bothast, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Interest in fermentation of L-arabinose to ethanol has increased in recent years because corn fiber contains 11% L-arabinose and is available in sufficient quantities to serve as a low cost feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. Various L-arabinose utilizing yeasts were screened for cost feedstock to produce fuel ethanol of their ability to ferment L-arabinose to ethanol. Most yeasts produced L-arabitol instead ethanol. The optimal conditions for production of L-arabitol in high yield from L-arabinose alone, in mixed sugars and in corn fiber acid hydrolyzate by certain yeasts will be described. In addition, the fermentative performance of an ethanologenic recombinant organism on L-arabinose will be discussed. Current status of microbial fermentation of L-arabinose to ethanol, problems and prospects of ethanol production from L-arabinose by yeasts and future directions of research will be reviewed.

  14. Efficiency maximization in solar-thermochemical fuel production: challenging the concept of isothermal water splitting.

    PubMed

    Ermanoski, I; Miller, J E; Allendorf, M D

    2014-05-14

    Widespread adoption of solar-thermochemical fuel production depends on its economic viability, largely driven by the efficiency of use of the available solar resource. Herein, we analyze the efficiency of two-step cycles for thermochemical hydrogen production, with emphasis on efficiency. Owing to water thermodynamics, isothermal H2 production is shown to be impractical and inefficient, irrespective of reactor design or reactive oxide properties, but an optimal temperature difference between cycle steps, for which efficiency is the highest, can be determined for a wide range of other operating parameters. A combination of well-targeted pressure and temperature swing, rather than either individually, emerges as the most efficient mode of operation of a two-step thermochemical cycle for solar fuel production.

  15. The challenges and benefits of a genuine partnership between Music Therapy and Neuroscience: a dialog between scientist and therapist

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Wendy L.; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations between neuroscience and music therapy promise many mutual benefits given the different knowledge bases, experiences and specialist skills possessed by each discipline. Primarily, music therapists deliver music-based interventions on a daily basis with numerous populations; neuroscientists measure clinical changes in ways that provide an evidence base for progressing clinical care. Although recent developments suggest that partnerships between the two can produce positive outcomes for both fields, these collaborations are not considered mainstream. The following dialog between an experienced professional from each discipline explores the potential for collaboration, as well as the misconceptions that may be preventing further synergies from developing. PMID:25983683

  16. Quantification of uncertainty associated with United States high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions: updates, challenges and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Mendoza, D. L.; Geethakumar, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Vulcan Project has estimated United States fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the hourly time scale and at spatial scales below the county level for the year 2002. Vulcan is built from a wide variety of observational data streams including regulated air pollutant emissions reporting, traffic monitoring, energy statistics, and US census data. In addition to these data sets, Vulcan relies on a series of modeling assumptions and constructs to interpolate in space, time and transform non-CO2 reporting into an estimate of CO2 combustion emissions. The recent version 2.0 of the Vulcan inventory has produced advances in a number of categories with particular emphasis on improved temporal structure. Onroad transportation emissions now avail of roughly 5000 automated traffic count monitors allowing for much improved diurnal and weekly time structure in our onroad transportation emissions. Though the inventory shows excellent agreement with independent national-level CO2 emissions estimates, uncertainty quantification has been a challenging task given the large number of data sources and numerous modeling assumptions. However, we have now accomplished a complete uncertainty estimate across all the Vulcan economic sectors and will present uncertainty estimates as a function of space, time, sector and fuel. We find that, like the underlying distribution of CO2 emissions themselves, the uncertainty is also strongly lognormal with high uncertainty associated with a relatively small number of locations. These locations typically are locations reliant upon coal combustion as the dominant CO2 source. We will also compare and contrast Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions estimates against estimates built from DOE fuel-based surveys at the state level. We conclude that much of the difference between the Vulcan inventory and DOE statistics are not due to biased estimation but mechanistic differences in supply versus demand and combustion in space/time.

  17. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  18. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  19. Health benefits from reducing indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use in China--three abatement scenarios.

    PubMed

    Mestl, Heidi Elizabeth Staff; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin

    2007-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), indoor air pollution (IAP) from the use of solid fuels in households in the developing world is responsible for more than 1.6 million premature deaths each year, whereof 0.42 million occur in China alone. We argue that the methodology applied by WHO--the so-called fuel-based approach--underestimates the health effects, and suggest an alternative method. Combining exposure-response functions and current mortality and morbidity rates, we estimate the burden of disease of IAP in China and the impacts of three abatement scenarios. Using linear exposure-response functions, we find that 3.5 [0.8-14.7 95% CI] million people die prematurely due to IAP in China each year. The central estimate constitutes 47% of all deaths in China. We find that modest changes in the use of cooking fuels in rural households might have a large health impact, reducing annual mortality by 0.63 [0.1-3. 2 95% CI] million. If the indoor air quality (IAQ) standard set by the Chinese government (150 microg PM(10)/m(3)) was met in all households, we estimate that 0.9 [0.2-4.8] million premature deaths would be avoided in urban areas and 2.8 [0.7-12.4] million in rural areas. However, in urban areas this would require improvements to the outdoor air quality in addition to a complete fuel switch to clean fuels in households. We estimate that a fuel switch in urban China could prevent 0.7 [0.2-4.8] million premature deaths. The methodology for exposure assessment applied here is probably more realistic than the fuel-based approach; however, the use of linear exposure-response relationships most likely tends to overestimate the effects. The discrepancies between our results and the WHO estimates is probably also explained by our use of "all-cause mortality" which includes important causes of death like cardiovascular diseases, conditions known to be closely associated with exposure to particulate pollution, whereas the WHO estimate is limited to

  20. The Benefits and Challenges of Having AN Open and Free Basis Satellite Data Sharing Platform in Turkey: GEZGİN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Koru, Aziz; Sakarya, Ufuk; Tevrizoğlu, İsmail; Teke, Mustafa; Küpçü, Ramazan; Avenoğlu, Bülent; Demirkesen, Can; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Açıkgöz, İbrahim Serdar; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Ömer Kozal, Ali; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Berke, Erdinç; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Atıl, İlkay; Kaya, Derya; Uçmak, Pınar; Ersöz, Eda; Özen, Hilal

    2016-06-01

    Turkey is a county that experiences rapid socioeconomic development, which, in turn, leads to high urbanization rates due to migration of people from rural to urban areas, many large-scale development projects (e.g. highways, dams, housing and infrastructure), and environmental problems that adversely affect agriculture, such as soil erosion and deforestation. Furthermore, Turkey lies in a region prone to natural disasters, especially earthquakes, landslides, flooding and forest fires. Successfully overcoming these challenges requires continuous monitoring to enable rapid response as well as the development of effective socioeconomic policies. In this regard, space-based earth observation (EO) systems play a critical role in the rapid acquisiton and extraction of crucial information. The first launch of the first Turkish-designed satellite, RASAT, in 2011 led to the wide-spread exploitation of space-based resources by Turkish institutions through the dissemination of EO data on an open and free basis via the GEZGIN internet portal (http://www.gezgin.gov.tr). The push for data sharing was further instigated by the nationally funded project GEOPORTAL ("Satellite Image Processing and Geoportal Development Project") and European Union FP7 project EOPOWER ("Earth Observation for Economic Empowerment"), which strove to create conditions for sustainable economic development through the increased use of Earth observation products and services for environmental applications. In this work, the technical challenges involving processing and preparing raw satellite data for dissemination as well as software design of the GEZGIN Portal will be presented.

  1. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS-) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368-600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  2. Successes and Challenges in the Resale of Alternative Fuel Vehicles: July 2001 - March 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This report provides the outcome of Dorfman & O'Neal's effort to examine the resale market for automobiles as it relates to the resale of late-model, original equipment manufacture (OEM), alternative fuel vehicles. Auctions provide an exceptionally rapid, effective, and efficient market for the transfer of property between buyers and sellers at reasonable prices. The first automobile auction in the United States was successful because used cars were in reasonably constant supply, were uniformly packaged, and were easily graded for quality. Also, the auction had sufficient volume to significantly lower the handling and transaction costs for wholesalers and dealers. To this day, the automobile auction industry conducts business primarily with registered wholesalers and dealers. Except for the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) auctions and some consignment auctions, nearly all automobile auctions are closed to the public. The auction system represents a near-perfect market, validated by the lack of statistical price differences in value of specific model cars between various regions of the country. However, specialty cars may be subject to arbitrage. The buyer purchases the vehicle believing that it can be sold immediately at a profit in another region. A variety of vehicle pricing services are available to serve the consumer and the wholesale automobile industry. Each has a different philosophy for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data. ''The Automobile Lease Guide'' (ALG) is clearly the authority on vehicle residual values. Auction companies continue to apply automated technologies to lower transaction costs. Automated technologies are the only way to track the increasing number of transactions in the growing industry. Nevertheless, people-to-people relationships remain critical to the success of all auction companies. Our assessment is that everyone in the secondary automobile market is aware of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and is interested to

  3. Family meals: perceptions of benefits and challenges among parents of 8- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Rydell, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    The study purpose was to examine parental perceptions of the mealtime environment in families with school-aged children and identify strategies to improve the dietary quality of meals. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 107 parents (86% mothers, 14% fathers) of 8- to 10-year-old children who were recruited from afterschool child care programs/elementary schools. SAS (version 9.1) was used to produce descriptive frequencies of parental reports of positive and negative perceptions of mealtime. Parents reported frequent family meals; however, they indicated that family dinners were eaten at full-service restaurants, purchased from fast-food establishments, or picked up as takeout foods at least weekly (47.0%, 28.3%, and 23.8%, respectively). Conflicts about food were problematic for some families (40.2% on at least some days), and appeared to be related to children's food pickiness. Parents reported many benefits of family meals, including time for conversation, feelings of togetherness, shared nutrition, and ceremony. Areas where parents desired change included assistance with meal planning, food preparation, and clean-up; spending more time at meals; assistance with children's food pickiness; new recipes and meal ideas; and decreasing conflict at mealtimes. Findings suggest that interventions to increase family meal frequency and promote healthful foods at mealtimes should address promoting food acceptance among children, sharing responsibilities among parents and children for meal planning and preparation, decreasing conflict at meals, and eating out healthfully. PMID:18375230

  4. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World's Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-03-30

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pergolesi, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico

    2010-08-01

    High temperature proton conductor (HTPC) oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (400-700 °C). The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs.

  6. Multistream Laminar Flow: From a challenge in mixing to membraneless fuel cells and microreactors for cofactor regeneration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenis, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Over the last decade a wide variety of research efforts in microchemical systems, in which fluid flow is laminar, has developed. The original challenge of mixing in the absence of turbulence in this laminar flow regime has been overcome through various technical approaches including zig-zag or serpentine-shaped channels (Branebjerg, Beebe et al.), lamination (e.g. Manz, Jensen et al.), hydrodynamic focusing (Austin et al.), and integrated herringbone features (Stroock et al.). Others have grasped the opportunity to utilize multistream laminar flow for example for a T-sensor for blood analysis (Weigl et al.) and in microfabrication or cell studies (Whitesides et al.). This presentation will highlight the development of (i) a membraneless fuel cell, and (ii) a microreactor for cofactor regeneration that utilize multistream laminar flow. Various performance-determining characteristics and engineering improvements will be discussed.

  7. A case study of the implementation of an ergonomics improvement committee in a Brazilian hospital--Challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Bolis, Ivan; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the creation of an improvement committee (IC) to implement policies aimed at improving working conditions in a public health institution in the city of São Paulo. Suggestions were proposed for future implementations of this organizational mechanism, pursuant to the presentation of the process of its formation and the main results achieved. The findings led to the conclusion that good outcomes require autonomy and support from management, and the adoption of effective measures to improve and legitimize the improvement committee's existence. Another important issue is facilitating worker involvement and creating a locus for dialog among people with different visions within the organization. Thus, two approaches converge: a top-down approach in which policies are defined and improvement actions are actually implemented based on a general outlook of the production and work system, and a bottom-up approach specific to employees who are also engaged in improvement policies and in putting them into practice. It is also possible to point out problems and opportunities arising from actual work situations to the higher levels of management. This kind of approach fits with macroergonomics, because it integrates strategy, organization and work issues. It is possible to discuss the benefits of this approach for companies and provide conditions for workers to engage effectively in these processes. In conclusion, these proposals can be considered from an emancipatory perspective, given that different actors should be able to codetermine working conditions and work content, thus directly influencing their individual and collective experiences. The support and commitment of upper management are essential elements of success in maximizing the effectiveness of this organizational approach.

  8. An evaluation of the benefits and challenges of video consulting between general practitioners and residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Wade, Victoria; Whittaker, Frank; Hamlyn, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    This research evaluated a project that provided video consultations between general practitioners (GPs) and residential aged care facilities (RACFs), with the aim of enabling faster access to medical care and avoidance of unnecessary hospital transfers. GPs were paid for video consultations at a rate equivalent to existing insurance reimbursement for supporting telehealth services. Evaluation data were gathered by direct observation at the project sites, semi-structured interviews and video call data from the technical network. Three pairs of general practices and RACFs were recruited to the project. 40 video consultations eligible for payment occurred over a 6 month period, three of which were judged to have avoided hospital attendance. The process development and change management aspects of the project required substantially more effort than was anticipated. This was due to problems with RACF technical infrastructure, the need for repeated training and awareness raising in RACFs, the challenge of establishing new clinical procedures, the short length of the project and broader difficulties in the relationships between GPs and RACFs. Video consulting between GPs and RACFs was clinically useful and avoided hospital attendance on a small scale, but further focus on process development is needed to embed this as a routine method of service delivery. PMID:26556062

  9. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students' LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. PMID:27543636

  10. Integral Healthcare: The Benefits and Challenges of Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine with a Conventional Healthcare Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Christina L.

    2009-01-01

    Today’s medicine is in the midst of an undeniable crisis. Calls to reform healthcare are in the forefront of economic and political discussions worldwide. Economic pressures reduce the amount of time physicians can spend with patients contributing to burnout among medical staff and endangering the patient iatrogenically. Politicians are getting involved as the public is calling for more affordable healthcare. A new paradigm must be embraced in order to address all aspects of this dilemma. It is clear that science and technology have resulted in vastly improved understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, but the emphasis on science and technology to the exclusion of other elements of healing has also served to limit the development of a model that humanizes healthcare. The healing of a patient must include more than the biology and chemistry of their physical body; by necessity, it must include the mental, emotional and spiritual aspects. Because of these challenges, the development of an integral healthcare system that is rooted in appropriate regulation and supported by rigorous scientific evidence is the direction that many models of integrative healthcare are moving towards in the 21st century. PMID:21614160

  11. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students' LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students.

  12. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students’ LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. PMID:27543636

  13. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  14. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  15. The challenge of documenting water quality benefits of conservation practices: a review of USDA-ARS's conservation effects assessment project watershed studies.

    PubMed

    Tomer, M D; Locke, M A

    2011-01-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project was established to quantify water quality benefits of conservation practices supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2004, watershed assessment studies were begun in fourteen agricultural watersheds with varying cropping systems, landscapes, climate, and water quality concerns. This paper reviews USDA Agricultural Research Service 'Benchmark' watershed studies and the challenge of identifying water quality benefits in watersheds. Study goals included modeling and field research to assess practices, and evaluation of practice placement in watersheds. Not all goals were met within five years but important lessons were learned. While practices improved water quality, problems persisted in larger watersheds. This dissociation between practice-focused and watershed-scale assessments occurred because: (1) Conservation practices were not targeted at critical sources/pathways of contaminants; (2) Sediment in streams originated more from channel and bank erosion than from soil erosion; (3) Timing lags, historical legacies, and shifting climate combined to mask effects of practice implementation; and (4) Water quality management strategies addressed single contaminants with little regard for trade-offs among contaminants. These lessons could help improve conservation strategies and set water quality goals with realistic timelines. Continued research on agricultural water quality could better integrate modeling and monitoring capabilities, and address ecosystem services.

  16. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor

  17. Conductive Education: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Conductive education (CE) is an intensive, holistic approach to the education of people with physical disabilities that recognizes that teaching and learning are related to the emotional, cognitive, and physical aspects of individuals. Despite its popularity in the United States and throughout the world, research has not demonstrated a clear…

  18. Photocatalytic conversion of CO(2) into renewable hydrocarbon fuels: state-of-the-art accomplishment, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenguang; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-07-16

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels, an artificial photosynthesis, is based on the simulation of natural photosynthesis in green plants, whereby O2 and carbohydrates are produced from H2 O and CO2 using sunlight as an energy source. It couples the reductive half-reaction of CO2 fixation with a matched oxidative half-reaction such as water oxidation, to achieve a carbon neutral cycle, which is like killing two birds with one stone in terms of saving the environment and supplying future energy. The present review provides an overview and highlights recent state-of-the-art accomplishments of overcoming the drawback of low photoconversion efficiency and selectivity through the design of highly active photocatalysts from the point of adsorption of reactants, charge separation and transport, light harvesting, and CO2 activation. It specifically includes: i) band-structure engineering, ii) nanostructuralization, iii) surface oxygen vacancy engineering, iv) macro-/meso-/microporous structuralization, v) exposed facet engineering, vi) co-catalysts, vii) the development of a Z-scheme system. The challenges and prospects for future development of this field are also present.

  19. Sharing the tracks to good tucker: identifying the benefits and challenges of implementing community food programs for Aboriginal communities in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Murray, Margaret; Bonnell, Emily; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer; Barbour, Liza; MacDonald, Catherine; Palermo, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a significant issue in the Victorian Aboriginal population, contributing to the health disparity and reduced life expectancy. Community food programs are a strategy used to minimise individual level food insecurity, with little evidence regarding their effectiveness for Aboriginal populations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of community food programs operating for Aboriginal people in Victoria and their perceived influence on food access and nutrition. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff (n=23) from a purposive sample of 18 community food programs across Victoria. Interviews explored the programs' operation, key benefits to the community, challenges and recommendations for setting up a successful community food program. Results were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach and revealed three main themes regarding key factors for the success of community food programs: (1) community food programs for Aboriginal people should support access to safe, affordable, nutritious food in a socially and culturally acceptable environment; (2) a community development approach is essential for program sustainability; and (3) there is a need to build the capacity of community food programs as part of a strategy to ensure sustainability. Community food programs may be an effective initiative for reducing food insecurity in the Victorian Aboriginal population.

  20. Genetic Evaluation and Use of Chromosome Microarray in Patients with Isolated Heart Defects: Benefits and Challenges of a New Model in Cardiovascular Care

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Benjamin M.; Freeze, Samantha L.

    2016-01-01

    . We also provide perspective regarding the benefits and challenges that lie ahead for this model in the clinical setting. PMID:27379245

  1. Genetic Evaluation and Use of Chromosome Microarray in Patients with Isolated Heart Defects: Benefits and Challenges of a New Model in Cardiovascular Care.

    PubMed

    Helm, Benjamin M; Freeze, Samantha L

    2016-01-01

    also provide perspective regarding the benefits and challenges that lie ahead for this model in the clinical setting. PMID:27379245

  2. Balancing benefits and costs in a 4°C world: the need for and challenges of natural-social science dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Making wise policy decisions regarding mitigation, adaptation and geoengineering requires fair assessments of the risks of both action and inaction. Such assessments necessitate dialogue between natural and social scientists. Recent attempts by the U.S. government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC) for use in balancing the benefits and costs of proposed mitigatory regulations highlight some of the challenges involved. Among them: (1) Scale: The costs and benefits of adaptation decisions generally take place locally, while the benefits of mitigation accrue globally. Most studies to inform adaptation decision have, quite reasonably, taken place at the local scale, but this has left globally aggregate estimates of climate risk in a fairly tenuous state, engaging only a handful of economists. More accurate assessments, needed for making critical policy decisions as we approach a 4°C world, will require both better top-down analyses and a better framework for integrating bottom-up analyses. (2) Historical validation: Integrated assessment models have not been subject to validation studies, such as the historical runs used to test physical climate models. Conducting such studies for impact analyses will require the integration and further development of statistical analyses of the human impact of past and ongoing climate change. If models don't work for a 0.8°C world, there's no reason to think they'll work for a 4°C world. (3) Looking beyond a 4°C world: A world that reaches 4°C in this century may exceed it in the next century; and even if temperature is stabilized, understanding the economic impacts of 4°C warming will require more than the current approach of extrapolating from 2°C impacts. Natural scientists and social scientists need to work together to estimate damage calibration points for considerably warmer conditions. Recent work on the loss of physiologically habitable regions in a >8°C warmer world is a rare step in this direction (Sherwood

  3. Management of Legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel Wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: The Challenges and Innovative Solutions Implemented - 13301

    SciTech Connect

    Schruder, Kristan; Goodwin, Derek

    2013-07-01

    AECL's Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) Project was initiated in 2004 to retrieve, transfer, and stabilize an identified inventory of degraded research reactor fuel that had been emplaced within in-ground 'Tile Hole' structures in Chalk River Laboratories' Waste Management Area in the 1950's and 60's. Ongoing monitoring of the legacy fuel storage conditions had identified that moisture present in the storage structures had contributed to corrosion of both the fuel and the storage containers. This prompted the initiation of the FPS Project which has as its objective to design, construct, and commission equipment and systems that would allow for the ongoing safe storage of this fuel until a final long-term management, or disposition, pathway was available. The FPS Project provides systems and technologies to retrieve and transfer the fuel from the Waste Management Area to a new facility that will repackage, dry, safely store and monitor the fuel for a period of 50 years. All equipment and the new storage facility are designed and constructed to meet the requirements for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities in Canada. (authors)

  4. The electrolyte challenge for a direct methanol-air polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating at temperatures up to 200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savinell, Robert; Yeager, Ernest; Tryk, Donald; Landau, Uziel; Wainright, Jesse; Gervasio, Dominic; Cahan, Boris; Litt, Morton; Rogers, Charles; Scherson, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Novel polymer electrolytes are being evaluated for use in a direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at temperatures in excess of 100 C. The evaluation includes tests of thermal stability, ionic conductivity, and vapor transport characteristics. The preliminary results obtained to date indicate that a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell is feasible. For example, Nafion 117 when equilibrated with phosphoric acid has a conductivity of at least 0.4 Omega(exp -1)cm(exp -1) at temperatures up to 200 C in the presence of 400 torr of water vapor and methanol vapor cross over equivalent to 1 mA/cm(exp 2) under a one atmosphere methanol pressure differential at 135 C. Novel polymers are also showing similar encouraging results. The flexibility to modify and optimize the properties by custom synthesis of these novel polymers presents an exciting opportunity to develop an efficient and compact methanol fuel cell.

  5. Pediatric research posing a minor increase over minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit: challenging 45 CFR 46.406.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Subpart D of the Common Rule establishes 4 categories of research that may be conducted on children. One category, 45 CFR 46.406, permits research posing a minor increase over minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit but expected to yield vital knowledge about the subjects' disorder or condition. To include other children in research posing a minor increase over minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit requires federal review and approval of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under 45 CFR 46.407. It is widely held that children generally should not be exposed to more than minimal risk in research without the prospect of direct benefit. To justify deviating from this norm, as 406 allows, two claims must be true: (1) When there is vital knowledge to be gained from studying children, it is permissible to expose some children to a minor increase over minimal risk with no prospect of direct benefit; (2) It is permissible for locally reviewed and approved research to expose only children with the disorder or condition under investigation to greater risk with no prospect of direct benefit. The justification for (1) appears to be grounded in the magnitude of benefit to society combined with the need to study children. This article demonstrates that, even if the necessity and magnitude of benefit to society justify exposing children to increased risk, the decision to categorically restrict participation in such research to children with the disorder or condition under investigation (unless the study is federally reviewed and approved) is not justified. Subpart D should be revised.

  6. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  7. Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92

    SciTech Connect

    Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  9. An external peer review of the U.S. Department of Energy`s assessment of ``damages and benefits of the fuel cycles: Estimation methods, impacts, and values``. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-09

    The need for better assessments of the ``external`` benefits and costs of environmental effects of various fuel cycles was identified during the development of the National Energy Strategy. The growing importance of this issue was emphasized by US Department of Energy (DOE) management because over half of the states were already pursuing some form of social costing in electricity regulation and a well-established technical basis for such decisions was lacking. This issue was identified as a major area of controversy--both scientifically and politically--in developing energy policies at the state and national level. In 1989, the DOE`s Office of Domestic and International Energy Policy commissioned a study of the external environmental damages and benefits of the major fuel cycles involved in electric power generation. Over the next 3-year period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Resources for the Future conducted the study and produced a series of documents (fuel cycle documents) evaluating the costs of environmental damages of the coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, hydroelectric, and nuclear fuel cycles, as well as the Background Document on methodological issues. These documents described work that took almost 3 years and $2.5 million to complete and whose implications could be far reaching. In 1992, the Secretary of Energy sought advice on the overall concepts underlying the studies and the means employed to estimate environmental externalities. He asked the Secretary of Energy`s Advisory Board to undertake a peer review of the fuel cycle studies and encouraged the Board to turn to outside expertise, as needed.

  10. The Stability Challenge on the Pathway to Low and Ultra‐Low Platinum Loading for Oxygen Reduction in Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cherevko, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the influence of catalyst loading on rates of platinum degradation in acidic electrolyte at room temperature. A piezoelectric printer is used to deposit spotted arrays of a commercially available catalyst comprised of Pt nanoparticles on a porous carbon support. The kinetically controlled oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity at different loadings is measured using an electrochemical scanning flow cell (SFC), and found to be quite stable over the range of loadings studied. This behaviour, however, contrasts sharply with rates of both transient and quasi‐steady‐state platinum dissolution. These are shown using downstream inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS) analytics, to increase as loading becomes lower. This dichotomy between activity and stability has direct implications for the development of improved catalyst materials, as well as for the achievement of current targets for reduced loadings of noble metals for fuel cells and other energy storage devices. PMID:27525211

  11. Production of fuels and chemicals from waste by microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher W; LaBelle, Edward V; May, Harold D

    2013-06-01

    The demand for chemicals and fuels will continue to grow simultaneously with the costly requirement to treat solid waste, wastewater, and regarding climate change, carbon dioxide. A dual benefit is at hand if waste could be converted to valuable chemicals. The application of stable chemical producing microbiomes adapted to these waste streams may turn this challenge into an opportunity.

  12. Universal access: the benefits and challenges in bringing integrated HIV care to isolated and conflict affected populations in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel P; Mills, Clair; Hamel, Catherine; Ford, Nathan; Pottie, Kevin

    2009-01-07

    The Pool region of the Republic of Congo is an isolated, conflict-affected area with under-resourced and poorly functioning health care services. Despite significant AIDS-related mortality and morbidity in this area, and a national level commitment to universal HIV care, HIV has been largely neglected. In 2005 Médecins Sans Frontières decided to introduce HIV care activities. However, in this setting of high basic health care needs, limited medical resources and competing medical priorities, a vertical HIV programme was not suitable. This paper describes the process of integrating HIV care and treatment into basic health services, the clinical outcomes of 222 patients started on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and the benefits to communities and health care systems. Key lessons learned include the use of multi-skilled human resources, the step-wise implementation of HIV activities, the initial engagement of an HIV experienced staff member, the use of simplified and adapted testing, clinical and monitoring protocols and drug regimens, the introduction of more complex monitoring tools to simplify clinical management decisions and intensive staff education regarding the benefits of HIV integration. This project in a rural and remote conflict-affected setting demonstrates that integrated HIV programs can save lives and play a key role in helping to achieve universal access to ART in Africa.

  13. Benefits/fringes under better control

    SciTech Connect

    Mantho, M.

    1995-07-01

    Fringe benefits, e.g., health insurance for employees in the fuel oil industry are discussed. It was concluded that only 12% of the companies had cut benefits but that these benefits were costing less. This would seem to indicate that the cost of these benefits was being controlled better perhaps by more sharing of these costs.

  14. Opportunities and challenges to capturing the multiple potential benefits of REDD+ in a traditional transnational savanna-woodland region in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Olsson, E Gunilla A; Ouattara, Syna

    2013-04-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations intends to offer developing countries financial incentives to reduce the rates of deforestation and forest degradation for reducing global CO2 emissions. This is combined with building carbon stocks in existing wooded ecosystems and fostering other soil, biodiversity and water conservation objectives. Successful application of REDD+ to the Xylophone Triangle of West Africa faces substantial challenges and risks to both meeting REDD+ objectives and to the local people's rights and livelihoods. The transnationality of the culturally coherent area requires collaboration of three national governments. The opportunities, however, are great to capitalize on the region's biodiversity, the well-developed traditional ecological knowledge and the use of local medicinal plants as an integral part of the agro-ecosystem. Possibilities open to, not only sequester carbon, but also to increase the resilience of the ecosystem and of independent rural livelihoods in the face of climate change and globalization.

  15. Exploiting Nutritional Value of Staple Foods in the World’s Semi-Arid Areas: Risks, Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Ilaria; Frazzoli, Chiara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop and an important food resource in terms of nutritional as well as social-economic values, especially in semi-arid environments. Cultivar selection and processing methods have been observed to impact on composition and functional and nutritional value of sorghum. Amino acid imbalance, cyanogenic glycosides, endogenous anti-nutrients, mycotoxins and toxic elements are among factors impairing its nutritional value. This paper reviews possible approaches (varieties selection, production practices, cooking processes) to improve the benefits-to-risks balance of sorghum meal, to mitigate the risk of deficiencies and/or imbalances and to improve effects on human nutrition. Opportunity for avoiding dietary diversification in high sorghum consumers is also discussed, e.g., tryptophan and niacin deficits potentially related to pellagra, or unavailability of proteins and divalent cations (e.g., Fe, Zn) due to the antinutrient activity of phytic acid and tannins. As potential candidate for production investments, the role of sorghum in preserving biological diversity is also considered. PMID:27417755

  16. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  17. Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. PMID:21726264

  18. Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes.

  19. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  20. The potential and challenges of thin-film electrolyte and nanostructured electrode for yttria-stabilized zirconia-base anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Ho-Sung; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Kim, Byung-Kook; Je, Hae-June; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2014-02-01

    Thin-film electrolytes and nanostructured electrodes are essential components for lowering the operation temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, reliably implementing thin-film electrolytes and nano-structure electrodes over a realistic SOFC platform, such as a porous anode-support, has been extremely difficult. If these components can be created reliably and reproducibly on porous substrates as anode supports, a more precise assessment of their impact on realistic SOFCs would be possible. In this work, structurally sound thin-film and nano-structured SOFC components consisting of a nano-composite NiO-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode interlayer, a thin YSZ and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) bi-layer electrolyte, and a nano-structure lanthanum strontium cobaltite (LSC)-base cathode, are sequentially fabricated on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support using thin-film technology. Using an optimized cell testing setup makes possible a more exact investigation of the potential and challenges of thin-film electrolyte and nanostructured electrode-based anode-supported SOFCs. Peak power densities obtained at 500 °C surpass 500 mW cm-2, which is an unprecedented low-temperature performance for the YSZ-based anode-supported SOFC. It is found that this critical, low-temperature performance for the anode-supported SOFC depends more on the electrode performance than the resistance of the thin-film electrolyte during lower temperature operation.

  1. Multiple Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  2. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and

  3. Critical assessment of power trains with fuel-cell systems and different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhlein, B.; von Andrian, S.; Grube, Th; Menzer, R.

    Legal regulations (USA, EU) are a major driving force for intensifying technological developments with respect to the global automobile market. In the future, highly efficient vehicles with very low emission levels will include low-temperature fuel-cell systems (PEFC) as units of electric power trains. With alcohols, ether or hydrocarbons used as fuels for these new electric power trains, hydrogen as PEFC fuel has to be produced on board. These concepts including the direct use of methanol in fuel-cell systems, differ considerably in terms of both their development prospects and the results achieved so far. Based on process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains, as well as on assumptions for electric power trains and vehicle configurations, different fuel-cell performances and fuel processing units for octane, diesel, methanol, ethanol, propane and dimethylether have been evaluated as fuels. The possible benefits and key challenges for different solutions of power trains with fuel-cell systems/on-board hydrogen production and with direct methanol fuel-cell (DMFC) systems have been assessed. Locally, fuel-cell power trains are almost emission-free and, unlike battery-powered vehicles, their range is comparable to conventional vehicles. Therefore, they have application advantages cases of particularly stringent emission standards requiring zero emission. In comparison to internal combustion engines, using fuel-cell power trains can lead to clear reductions in primary energy demand and global, climate-relevant emissions providing the advantage of the efficiency of the hydrogen/air reaction in the fuel cell is not too drastically reduced by additional conversion steps of on-board hydrogen production, or by losses due to fuel supply provision.

  4. Challenges of Implementing New Technologies for Sustainable Energy. Opening address at the Sixth Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, London, 13-16 September 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Koch, Hans

    To meet the commitments made in Kyoto, energy-related CO 2 emissions would have to fall to almost 30% below the level projected for a "Business-As-Usual" scenario. Meeting this goal will require a large-scale shift toward climate-friendly technologies such as fuel cells, which have a large long-term potential for both stationary generation and transportation. The deployment of a technology is the last major stage in the process of technological shift. Climate-friendly technologies are not being deployed at a sufficient rate or in sufficient amount to allow IEA countries to meet their targets. Hence, if technology is to play an important roll in reducing emissions within the Kyoto time frame (2008-2012) and beyond, immediate and sustained action to accelerate technology deployment will be required. Obstacles in the way of the deployment of technologies that are ready or near-ready for normal use have come to be referred to as market barriers. The simplest yet most significant form of market barrier to a new technology is the out-of-pocket cost to the user relative to the cost of technologies currently in use. Some market barriers also involve market failure, where the market fails to take account of all the costs and benefits involved, such as omitting external environmental costs, and therefore retard the deployment of more environmentally sustainable technologies. Other barriers include poor information dissemination, excessive and costly regulations, slow capital turnover rates, and inadequate financing. Efforts by governments to alleviate market barriers play an important role to complement private-sector activities, and there are many policies and measures each government could take. In addition, international technology collaboration can help promote the best use of available R&D resources and can contribute to more effective deployment of the result of research and development by sharing costs, pooling information and avoiding duplication of efforts.

  5. Fuel cells feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, D.; Charng, T.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic status of fuel cells is assessed with emphasis on their potential benefits to the Deep Space Network. The fuel cell, what it is, how it operates, and what its outputs are, is reviewed. Major technical problems of the fuel cell and its components are highlighted. Due to these problems and economic considerations it is concluded that fuel cells will not become commercially viable until the early 1990s.

  6. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

  7. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  8. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels that are produced from biobased materials are a good alternative to petroleum based fuels. They offer several benefits to society and the environment. Producing second generation biofuels is even more challenging than producing first generation biofuels due the complexity of the biomass and issues related to producing, harvesting, and transporting less dense biomass to centralized biorefineries. In addition to this logistic challenge, other challenges with respect to processing steps in converting biomass to liquid transportation fuel like pretreatment, hydrolysis, microbial fermentation, and fuel separation still exist and are discussed in this review. The possible coproducts that could be produced in the biorefinery and their importance to reduce the processing cost of biofuel are discussed. About $1 billion was spent in the year 2012 by the government agencies in US to meet the mandate to replace 30% existing liquid transportation fuels by 2022 which is 36 billion gallons/year. Other countries in the world have set their own targets to replace petroleum fuel by biofuels. Because of the challenges listed in this review and lack of government policies to create the demand for biofuels, it may take more time for the lignocellulosic biofuels to hit the market place than previously projected. PMID:25937989

  9. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Balan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels that are produced from biobased materials are a good alternative to petroleum based fuels. They offer several benefits to society and the environment. Producing second generation biofuels is even more challenging than producing first generation biofuels due the complexity of the biomass and issues related to producing, harvesting, and transporting less dense biomass to centralized biorefineries. In addition to this logistic challenge, other challenges with respect to processing steps in converting biomass to liquid transportation fuel like pretreatment, hydrolysis, microbial fermentation, and fuel separation still exist and are discussed in this review. The possible coproducts that could be producedmore » in the biorefinery and their importance to reduce the processing cost of biofuel are discussed. About $1 billion was spent in the year 2012 by the government agencies in US to meet the mandate to replace 30% existing liquid transportation fuels by 2022 which is 36 billion gallons/year. Other countries in the world have set their own targets to replace petroleum fuel by biofuels. Because of the challenges listed in this review and lack of government policies to create the demand for biofuels, it may take more time for the lignocellulosic biofuels to hit the market place than previously projected.« less

  10. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…

  11. The Benefits and Challenges of Kinship Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The outcomes for children in kinship care are generally seen as positive in terms of identity formation, stability of placement, behavioural and mental health outcomes, enabling siblings to live together and child protection. However, there is some disquiet about the length of time children stay with relatives; agencies are not sure about how best…

  12. Medicaid Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Eligibility Benefits Cost Sharing Waivers Long Term Services and Supports Delivery Systems Quality of Care Data and Systems Enrollment Strategies Access to Care Program Integrity Financing and ... type, amount, duration, and scope of services within broad federal guidelines. States are required to ...

  13. Green Flight Challenge Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Monday, October 3, 2011, NASA's Centennial Challenges program awarded the largest prize in aviation history, created to inspire the development of more fuel-efficient aircraft and spark the star...

  14. Solving Aviation Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video highlights the challenges NASA aeronautics researchers are tackling to reduce aircraft noise, emissions, fuel consumption, and the innovative ways they're helping to debut NextGen, a rev...

  15. Coal and biomass to fuels and power.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert H; Liu, Guangjian; Kreutz, Thomas G; Larson, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Systems with CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) that coproduce transportation fuels and electricity from coal plus biomass can address simultaneously challenges of climate change from fossil energy and dependence on imported oil. Under a strong carbon policy, such systems can provide competitively clean low-carbon energy from secure domestic feedstocks by exploiting the negative emissions benefit of underground storage of biomass-derived CO(2), the low cost of coal, the scale economies of coal energy conversion, the inherently low cost of CO(2) capture, the thermodynamic advantages of coproduction, and expected high oil prices. Such systems require much less biomass to make low-carbon fuels than do biofuels processes. The economics are especially attractive when these coproduction systems are deployed as alternatives to CCS for stand-alone fossil fuel power plants. If CCS proves to be viable as a major carbon mitigation option, the main obstacles to deployment of coproduction systems as power generators would be institutional.

  16. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  17. 77 FR 72337 - Apps for Vehicles Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Apps for Vehicles Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... Vehicles: improving safety and fuel efficiency through technology innovation''. DATES: See, 1. Key Challenge Dates & Deadlines in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The Apps for Vehicles Challenge...

  18. Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Levi T. Thompson

    2008-08-08

    Fuel cells are being developed to power cleaner, more fuel efficient automobiles. The fuel cell technology favored by many automobile manufacturers is PEM fuel cells operating with H2 from liquid fuels like gasoline and diesel. A key challenge to the commercialization of PEM fuel cell based powertrains is the lack of sufficiently small and inexpensive fuel processors. Improving the performance and cost of the fuel processor will require the development of better performing catalysts, new reactor designs and better integration of the various fuel processing components. These components and systems could also find use in natural gas fuel processing for stationary, distributed generation applications. Prototype fuel processors were produced, and evaluated against the Department of Energy technical targets. Significant advances were made by integrating low-cost microreactor systems, high activity catalysts, π-complexation adsorbents, and high efficiency microcombustor/microvaporizers developed at the University of Michigan. The microreactor system allowed (1) more efficient thermal coupling of the fuel processor operations thereby minimizing heat exchanger requirements, (2) improved catalyst performance due to optimal reactor temperature profiles and increased heat and mass transport rates, and (3) better cold-start and transient responses.

  19. Shale Gas: Development Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, Mark D.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    The use of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technologies has enabled the production of immense quantities of natural gas, to date principally in North America but increasingly in other countries around the world. The global availability of this resource creates both opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed in a timely and effective manner. There seems little question that rapid shale gas development, coupled with fuel switching from coal to natural gas for power generation, can have beneficial effects on air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security in many countries. In this context, shale gas resources represent a critically important transition fuel on the path to a decarbonized energy future. For these benefits to be realized, however, it is imperative that shale gas resources be developed with effective environmental safeguards to reduce their impact on land use, water resources, air quality, and nearby communities.

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  1. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  2. Fuel Cell Activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cells have a long history in space applications and may have potential application in aeronautics as well. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that directly transforms the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant into electrical energy. Alkaline fuel cells have been the mainstay of the U.S. space program, providing power for the Apollo missions and the Space Shuttle. However, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer potential benefits over alkaline systems and are currently under development for the next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Furthermore, primary and regenerative systems utilizing PEM technology are also being considered for future space applications such as surface power and planetary aircraft. In addition to these applications, the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the feasibility of the use of both PEM and solid oxide fuel cells for low- or zero-emission electric aircraft propulsion. These types of systems have potential applications for high altitude environmental aircraft, general aviation and commercial aircraft, and high attitude airships. NASA Glenn has a unique set of capabilities and expertise essential to the successful development of advanced fuel cell power systems for space and aeronautics applications. NASA Glenn's role in past fuel cell development programs as well as current activities to meet these new challenges will be presented

  3. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks. PMID:22329051

  4. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks.

  5. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that there was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive information to

  6. Liquid fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  7. Liquid fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  8. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  9. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  10. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  11. Performance Benefits for Wave Rotor-Topped Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.; Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The benefits of wave rotor-topping in turboshaft engines, subsonic high-bypass turbofan engines, auxiliary power units, and ground power units are evaluated. The thermodynamic cycle performance is modeled using a one-dimensional steady-state code; wave rotor performance is modeled using one-dimensional design/analysis codes. Design and off-design engine performance is calculated for baseline engines and wave rotor-topped engines, where the wave rotor acts as a high pressure spool. The wave rotor-enhanced engines are shown to have benefits in specific power and specific fuel flow over the baseline engines without increasing turbine inlet temperature. The off-design steady-state behavior of a wave rotor-topped engine is shown to be similar to a conventional engine. Mission studies are performed to quantify aircraft performance benefits for various wave rotor cycle and weight parameters. Gas turbine engine cycles most likely to benefit from wave rotor-topping are identified. Issues of practical integration and the corresponding technical challenges with various engine types are discussed.

  12. Biomass energy development in California: Accomplishments and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.G.

    1994-12-31

    The recent and rapid growth of biomass power development in California has created the largest contiguous biomass fueled electrical generating capacity in U.S. This growth has been fostered by resource availability, federal (PURPA) incentives, and the entrepeneurial response of independent power producers. California`s environment has benefited from reduced air emissions, wildfire suppression, landfill reduction and the sequestering of carbon. The state has benefited economically through capital investment, employment for several thousand, and the generation of over $100 million in state and local tax revenues. Along with the benefits have come serious challenges brought about largely due to changes in the utility and regulatory environment. These changes threaten the continued existence and economic viability of the developed biomass power industry in California and threatens to establish national precedents. Specific issues are identified and recommended actions are presented.

  13. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  14. INTERIM STORAGE AND LONG TERM DISPOSAL OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2006-08-22

    Aluminum clad research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is currently being consolidated in wet storage basins (pools). Approximately 20 metric tons (heavy metal) of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) is being consolidated for treatment, packaging, interim storage, and preparation for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The storage and disposal of Al-SNF are subject to requirements that provide for safety and acceptable radionuclide release. The options studied for interim storage of SNF include wet storage and dry storage. Two options have also been studied to develop the technical basis for the qualification and repository disposal of aluminum spent fuel. The two options studied include Direct Disposal and Melt-Dilute treatment. The implementation of these options present relative benefits and challenges. Both the Direct Disposal and the Melt-Dilute treatment options have been developed and their technical viability assessed. Adaptation of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of spent fuel offers the benefits of converting the spent fuel into a proliferation resistant form and/or significantly reducing the volume of the spent fuel. A Mobile Melt-Dilute system concept has emerged to realize these benefits and a prototype system developed. The application of the melt-dilute technology for the treatment of legacy nuclear materials has been evaluated and also offers the promise for the safe disposal of these materials.

  15. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  16. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 °C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 °C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 °C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design ‘fixes’, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  17. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  18. New developments in RTR fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.

    2013-07-01

    As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

  19. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications.

  20. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications. PMID:26606182

  1. Thoria-based cermet nuclear fuel : sintered microsphere fabrication by spray drying.

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.A.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Chandrmouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Kuchibhotla, S.; Downar, T.J.

    2002-01-09

    Cermet nuclear fuels have been demonstrated to have significant potential to enhance fuel performance because of low internal fuel temperatures and low stored energy. The combination of these benefits with the inherent proliferation resistance, high burnup capability, and favorable neutronic properties of the thorium fuel cycle produces intriguing options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This paper describes aspects of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project with two primary goals: (1) Evaluate the feasibility of implementing the thorium fuel cycle in existing or advanced reactors using a zirconium-matrix cermet fuel, and (2) Develop enabling technologies required for the economic application of this new fuel form. Spray drying is a physical process of granulating fine powders that is used widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, ceramic, and food industries. It is generally used to produce flowable fine powders. Occasionally it is used to fabricate sintered bodies like cemented carbides, but it has not, heretofore, been used to produce sintered microspheres. As a physical process, it can be adapted to many powder types and mixtures and thus, has appeal for nuclear fuels and waste forms of various compositions. It also permits easy recycling of process ''wastes'' and minimal chemical waste streams that can arise in chemical sol/gel processing. On the other hand, for radioactive powders, it presents safety challenges for processing these materials in powder form and in achieving microspheres of high density and perfection.

  2. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  3. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  4. Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2011-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

  5. Silicon carbide composite for light water reactor fuel assembly applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, Ken; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of using SiCf-SiCm composites in light water reactor (LWR) fuel designs was evaluated. The evaluation was motivated by the desire to improve fuel performance under normal and accident conditions. The Fukushima accident once again highlighted the need for improved fuel materials that can maintain fuel integrity to higher temperatures for longer periods of time. The review identified many benefits as well as issues in using the material. Issues perceived as presenting the biggest challenges to the concept were identified to be flux gradient induced differential volumetric swelling, fragmentation and thermal shock resistance. The oxidation of silicon and its release into the coolant as silica has been identified as an issue because existing plant systems have limited ability for its removal. Detailed evaluation using available literature data and testing as part of this evaluation effort have eliminated most of the major concerns. The evaluation identified Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) channel, BWR fuel water tube, and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) guide tube as feasible applications for SiC composite. A program has been initiated to resolve some of the remaining issues and to generate physical property data to support the design of commercial fuel components.

  6. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  7. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2016-07-12

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  8. FY2015 ceramic fuels development annual highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James

    2015-09-22

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2015 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY15 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  9. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  10. Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2003-01-23

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  12. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  13. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  14. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  15. Commercial Nuclear Fuel Leasing - The Relationships to Nonproliferation and Repository Site Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pentz, D.L.; Stoll, R.H.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the authors' concept of nuclear fuel leasing - - commercially-based and market-driven - - for nuclear power plant (NPP) facilities. Key issues currently affecting further development of this fuel leasing concept are examined, including issues of nonproliferation contribution and spent fuel management. If the nuclear power renaissance is to be realized in conjunction with a serious effort to reduce the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions from increasing electricity demand, nuclear fuel leasing is an important option for the current fuel cycle by its ability to extend the positive benefits of the current nonproliferation regime to countries where the scale of small programs and the complexities of the geology make final disposition so challenging. The authors believe that a principal focus on commercial options for nuclear fuel leasing is essential in order to make these options sustainable and acceptable, especially in countries wanting to build nuclear power plants to meet energy demands in an internationally acceptable way and to meet international concerns for preventing further proliferation of nuclear weapons technology and for reducing climate change effects. The authors are unaware of any public documents that describe market-priced and commercially-driven examples for fuel leasing. This paper discusses the main elements and issues for commercial fuel leasing based on detailed examinations of several conceptual models during the past eight years. (authors)

  16. Innovating team-based outpatient mental health care in the Veterans Health Administration: Staff-perceived benefits and challenges to pilot implementation of the Behavioral Health Interdisciplinary Program (BHIP).

    PubMed

    Barry, Catherine N; Abraham, Kristen M; Weaver, Kendra R; Bowersox, Nicholas W

    2016-05-01

    In the past decade, the demand for Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health care has increased rapidly. In response to the increased demand, the VHA developed the Behavioral Health Interdisciplinary Program (BHIP) team model as an innovative approach to transform VHA general outpatient mental health delivery. The present formative evaluation gathered information about pilot implementation of BHIP to understand the struggles and successes that staff experienced during facility transitions to the BHIP model. Using a purposive, nonrandom sampling approach, we conducted 1-on-1, semistructured interviews with 37 licensed and nonlicensed clinical providers and 13 clerical support staff assigned to BHIP teams in 21 facilities across the VHA. Interviews revealed that having actively involved facility mental health leaders, obtaining adequate staffing for teams to meet the requirements of the BHIP model, creating clear descriptions and expectations for team member roles within the BHIP framework, and allocating designated time for BHIP team meetings challenged many VHA sites but are crucial for successful BHIP implementation. Despite the challenges, staff reported that the transition to BHIP improved team work and improved patient care. Staff specifically highlighted the potential for the BHIP model to improve staff working relationships and enhance communication, collaboration, morale, and veteran treatment consistency. Future evaluations of the BHIP implementation process and BHIP team functioning focusing on patient outcomes, organizational outcomes, and staff functioning are recommended for fully understanding effects of transitioning to the BHIP model within VHA general mental health clinics and to identify best practices and areas for improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Marketing wood waste for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C. )

    1995-01-01

    The value of waste wood to the buyer is the price at the plant gate with value reduced by any transportation costs and value increased by applicable tax credits. To assure the buyer of competitiveness fuels can be priced as a percentage of the competing fuel price. For example, wood can be priced at 80% of coal prices on a Btu basis. In addition to fuel price, there are several other benefits associated with the use of wood fuels. The fuel is renewable, locally supplied, and usually available from more than one source. It also may be stockpiled for several months. These advantages give the buyer better security than than purchasing fuel from a distant, impersonal source that is more likely to increase prices or withhold fuel for various reasons. 3 tabs.

  18. Fuel Cycle Performance of Thermal Spectrum Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Worrall, Andrew; Todosow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors may offer potential benefits, such as enhanced operational flexibility. However, it is vital to understand the holistic impact of small modular reactors on the nuclear fuel cycle and fuel cycle performance. The focus of this paper is on the fuel cycle impacts of light water small modular reactors in a once-through fuel cycle with low-enriched uranium fuel. A key objective of this paper is to describe preliminary reactor core physics and fuel cycle analyses conducted in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Options Campaign. Challenges with small modular reactors include: increased neutron leakage, fewer assemblies in the core (and therefore fewer degrees of freedom in the core design), complex enrichment and burnable absorber loadings, full power operation with inserted control rods, the potential for frequent load-following operation, and shortened core height. Each of these will impact the achievable discharge burn-up in the reactor and the fuel cycle performance. This paper summarizes the results of an expert elicitation focused on developing a list of the factors relevant to small modular reactor fuel, core, and operation that will impact fuel cycle performance. Preliminary scoping analyses were performed using a regulatory-grade reactor core simulator. The hypothetical light water small modular reactor considered in these preliminary scoping studies is a cartridge type one-batch core with 4.9% enrichment. Some core parameters, such as the size of the reactor and general assembly layout, are similar to an example small modular reactor concept from industry. The high-level issues identified and preliminary scoping calculations in this paper are intended to inform on potential fuel cycle impacts of one-batch thermal spectrum SMRs. In particular, this paper highlights the impact of increased neutron leakage and reduced number of batches on the achievable burn-up of the reactor. Fuel cycle performance

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  20. Benefits Outgrow Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses employee benefits offered to various manufacturing industry workers, especially for chemical professionals. Indicates that in the chemicals and allied products industry, such benefits averaged more than 30 percent of payroll in 1971. (CC)

  1. Fuel cells: Hydrogen induced insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2016-06-01

    Coupling high ionic and low electronic conductivity in the electrolyte of low-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells remains a challenge. Now, the electronic conductivity of a perovskite electrolyte, which has high proton conductivity, is shown to be heavily suppressed when exposed to hydrogen, leading to high fuel cell performance.

  2. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  3. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    PubMed

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process. PMID:24191344

  4. [Benefit assessment of drugs].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Thomas; Vervölgyi, V; Wieseler, B

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, new drugs are subject to a benefit assessment at the time of their market access. This "early benefit assessment" is the method primarily used for the benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany. While for the authorization of a drug a positive risk-benefit ratio is sufficient, early benefit assessment examines whether the new drug has an added benefit compared with other therapies, and thus differs significantly from authorization. For the evaluation, the manufacturer is required to submit a dossier, which must contain all the relevant studies. Early benefit assessment is very transparent in international comparisons, because all the relevant data and the evaluation report will be published. The assessment is carried out with regard to the evidence-based standard of care (the "appropriate comparator"). If the new drug is found to have an additional benefit, the extent of this added benefit is assessed. In addition, groups of patients should be identified with the particular extent of the added benefit. Therefore, subgroup analyses have to be carried out frequently. Often, for new drugs, only registration studies are available. General requirements for such studies (e.g., placebo comparison, endpoints) and decisions regarding the approval process (e.g., dosage regimens) can affect the level of confidence of these studies in the benefit assessment. Joint scientific advice by regulatory authorities and HTA (health technology assessment) agencies are provided to solve this problem. However, this is not possible without additional expense for the pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25566842

  5. National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC); (NREL) National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam

    2014-03-11

    This presentation gives an overview of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC), describes how NFCTEC benefits the hydrogen and fuel cell community, and introduces a new fuel cell cost/price aggregation project.

  6. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  7. 'Strategic approach' can reveal benefits.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Speaking at last October's Healthcare Estates 2010 conference in Manchester, Peter Haggarty, assistant director, Health Facilities Scotland, outlined some of the key steps and priorities for large healthcare providers seeking to establish and implement an effective asset management strategy, focusing particularly on work ongoing in this area in the Scottish public health service. While any radical change to a large healthcare organisation's existing asset management practices could be "challenging", both for the organisation itself, and for its staff, with "sufficient planning, persistence, and support", such changes could, he told delegates, often result in "unanticipated benefits". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  8. Fuel Cell Research at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of NASA GRC (Glenn Research Center) initiatives and challenges in fuel cell technology. The research and development of fuel cells and regenerative fuel cell systems for a wide variety of applications, including earth-based and planetary aircraft, spacecraft, planetary surface power, and terrestrial use are discussed.

  9. The benefits of biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, N.D.

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses the economic, environmental, and national security advantages of using biofuels instead of petroleum products in vehicles. Smog and carbon monoxide, two of the most trouble-some urban air pollutants, are largely caused by combustion of conventional petroleum based fuels. Topics include sustainable transportation fuels, emphasis on ethanol, the process of producing biofuels, and the growing market for biofuels. 1 tab.

  10. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  11. Research fuels local economies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local economies have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.

  12. Current Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; B. W. Dixon; A. Goldmann; R. N. Hill; J. J. Jacobson; G. E. Matthern; J. D. Smith; A. M. Yacout

    2006-03-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes mining, enrichment, nuclear power plants, recycling (if done), and residual waste disposition. The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has four program objectives to guide research on how best to glue these pieces together, as follows: waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety. We have developed a comprehensive set of metrics to evaluate fuel cycle options against the four program objectives. The current list of metrics is long-term heat, long-term dose, radiotoxicity and weapons usable material. This paper describes the current metrics and initial results from comparisons made using these metrics. The data presented were developed using a combination of “static” calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This work aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. The results from a series of dynamic simulations evaluating these options are included in this report. The model interface includes a few “control knobs” for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future. The results from the simulations show that the future is dark (uncertain) and that the system is sluggish with slow time response times to changes (i.e., what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants). Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would increase our

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  14. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  15. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Evaluation to Inform R&D Planning

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; H. Ludewig; W. Halsey; J. Gehin; R. Jubin; J. Buelt; S. Stockinger; K. Jenni; B. Oakley

    2014-04-01

    An Evaluation and Screening (E&S) of nuclear fuel cycle options has been conducted in fulfilment of a Charter specified for the study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy. The E&S study used an objective and independently reviewed evaluation process to provide information about the potential benefits and challenges that could strengthen the basis and provide guidance for the research and development(R&D) activities undertaken by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Office. Using the nine evaluation criteria specified in the Charter and associated evaluation metrics and processes developed during the E&S study, a screening was conducted of 40 nuclear fuel cycle evaluation groups to provide answers to the questions: (1) Which nuclear fuel cycle system options have the potential for substantial beneficial improvements in nuclear fuel cycle performance, and what aspects of the options make these improvements possible? (2)Which nuclear material management approaches can favorably impact the performance of fuel cycle options? (3)Where would R&D investment be needed to support the set of promising fuel cycle system options and nuclear material management approaches identified above, and what are the technical objectives of associated technologies?

  16. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  17. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  18. Seven challenges for neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Markram, Henry

    Summary Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuro-science has to become “big science” – we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with “rungs” linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such “data ladders” will help us to meet the third challenge – the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  19. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  20. FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

    2001-05-01

    On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by monitoring carbon via

  1. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  2. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  3. Patterns of stove use in the context of fuel-device stacking: rationale and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Masera, Omar

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of clean fuel and stove programs that achieve sustained use and tangible health, environmental, and social benefits to the target populations remains a key challenge. Realization of these benefits has proven elusive because even when the promoted fuels-stoves are used in the long term they are often combined (i.e., "stacked") with the traditional ones to fulfill all household needs originally met with open fires. This paper reviews the rationale for stacking in terms of the roles of end uses, cooking tasks, livelihood strategies, and the main patterns of use resulting from them. It uses evidence from case studies in different countries and from a 1-year-long field study conducted in 100 homes in three villages of Central Mexico; outlining key implications for household fuel savings, energy use, and health. We argue for the implementation of portfolios of clean fuels, devices and improved practices tailored to local needs to broaden the use niches that stove programs can cover and to reduce residual open fire use. This allows to integrate stacking into diagnosis tools, program monitoring, evaluation schemes, and implementation strategies and establish critical actions that researchers and project planners can consider when faced with actual or potential fuel-device stacking. PMID:25724593

  4. Patterns of stove use in the context of fuel-device stacking: rationale and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Masera, Omar

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of clean fuel and stove programs that achieve sustained use and tangible health, environmental, and social benefits to the target populations remains a key challenge. Realization of these benefits has proven elusive because even when the promoted fuels-stoves are used in the long term they are often combined (i.e., "stacked") with the traditional ones to fulfill all household needs originally met with open fires. This paper reviews the rationale for stacking in terms of the roles of end uses, cooking tasks, livelihood strategies, and the main patterns of use resulting from them. It uses evidence from case studies in different countries and from a 1-year-long field study conducted in 100 homes in three villages of Central Mexico; outlining key implications for household fuel savings, energy use, and health. We argue for the implementation of portfolios of clean fuels, devices and improved practices tailored to local needs to broaden the use niches that stove programs can cover and to reduce residual open fire use. This allows to integrate stacking into diagnosis tools, program monitoring, evaluation schemes, and implementation strategies and establish critical actions that researchers and project planners can consider when faced with actual or potential fuel-device stacking.

  5. Clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Questions for this month's clinical challenge are based on articles in this issue. The clinical challenge is endorsed by the RACGP Quality Improvement and Continuing Professional Development (QI&CPD) program and has been allocated four Category 2 points (Activity ID:59922). Answers to this clinical challenge are available immediately following successful completion online at http://gplearning.racgp.org.au. Clinical challenge quizzes may be completed at any time throughout the 2014-16 triennium; therefore, the previous months' answers are not published. Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the most appropriate statement as your answer. PMID:27606376

  6. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bullinger

    2006-02-03

    This 6th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from October 1st through December 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction. Hypothesis remains the same. We will be able to dry lignite an increment to benefit the performance of and reduce emissions from a coal burning electric power generating station.

  7. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  8. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  9. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  10. Modeling fuel succession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Brett; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Beck, Jen; van Wagtendonk, Kent A.

    2009-01-01

    Surface fuels data are of critical importance for supporting fire incident management, risk assessment, and fuel management planning, but the development of surface fuels data can be expensive and time consuming. The data development process is extensive, generally beginning with acquisition of remotely sensed spatial data such as aerial photography or satellite imagery (Keane and others 2001). The spatial vegetation data are then crosswalked to a set of fire behavior fuel models that describe the available fuels (the burnable portions of the vegetation) (Anderson 1982, Scott and Burgan 2005). Finally, spatial fuels data are used as input to tools such as FARSITE and FlamMap to model current and potential fire spread and behavior (Finney 1998, Finney 2006). The capture date of the remotely sensed data defines the period for which the vegetation, and, therefore, fuels, data are most accurate. The more time that passes after the capture date, the less accurate the data become due to vegetation growth and processes such as fire. Subsequently, the results of any fire simulation based on these data become less accurate as the data age. Because of the amount of labor and expense required to develop these data, keeping them updated may prove to be a challenge. In this article, we describe the Sierra Nevada Fuel Succession Model, a modeling tool that can quickly and easily update surface fuel models with a minimum of additional input data. Although it was developed for use by Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon National Parks, it is applicable to much of the central and southern Sierra Nevada. Furthermore, the methods used to develop the model have national applicability.

  11. The Unfocused Focus Group: Benefit or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…

  12. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  13. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  14. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  15. HYDROGEN DELIVERY: INFRASTRUCTURE, CHALLENGES, AND MATERIALS NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Gardiner, Monterey

    2009-01-01

    Current domestic energy policy is aimed at encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as hydrogen for use as a renewable and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based fuels for transportation and stationary power. The purpose of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is to provide insight and input on hydrogen delivery infrastructure research. Ongoing research has identified materials R&D challenges required to support this infrastructure. A few of these challenges are summarized with emphasis placed on materials.

  16. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  18. A Raman-Based Portable Fuel Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Fuel is the single most import supply during war. Consider that the US Military is employing over 25,000 vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most fuel is obtained locally, and must be characterized to ensure proper operation of these vehicles. Fuel properties are currently determined using a deployed chemical laboratory. Unfortunately, each sample requires in excess of 6 hours to characterize. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a portable fuel analyzer capable of determine 7 fuel properties that allow determining fuel usage. The analyzer uses Raman spectroscopy to measure the fuel samples without preparation in 2 minutes. The challenge, however, is that as distilled fractions of crude oil, all fuels are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components that boil at similar temperatures, and performance properties can not be simply correlated to a single component, and certainly not to specific Raman peaks. To meet this challenge, we measured over 800 diesel and jet fuels from around the world and used chemometrics to correlate the Raman spectra to fuel properties. Critical to the success of this approach is laser excitation at 1064 nm to avoid fluorescence interference (many fuels fluoresce) and a rugged interferometer that provides 0.1 cm-1 wavenumber (x-axis) accuracy to guarantee accurate correlations. Here we describe the portable fuel analyzer, the chemometric models, and the successful determination of these 7 fuel properties for over 100 unknown samples provided by the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and US Army.

  19. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Making the decision to breastfeed Secrets to breastfeeding success The benefits ...

  20. Challenges and Benefits of Chemical Information Service in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mary E.; Curtis, Jan M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses chemical information services offered in industrial chemical libraries, based on experiences at the 3M Library. Topics include qualifications of chemical information professionals; corporate culture; clients; services, including reference, current awareness, confidentiality, and end-user support; and information resources, including…

  1. Implementing Structured English Immersion in Arizona: Benefits, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Arizona's most recent English Language Learner (ELL) legislation, starting in the school year 2008-2009, requires all such students be educated through a specific Structured English Immersion (SEI) model: the 4-hour English Language Development (ELD) block. The basic premise behind this particular model is that ELL students…

  2. Robotic navigation for catheter ablation: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Philip; Natale, Andrea; Di Biase, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Manual radio frequency (RF) ablation to restore a normal cardiac rhythm requires significant skill, manual dexterity and experience. In response to this, ablation methods and technologies have evolved rapidly in the past decade, including the development of remote navigation technologies. Today, two principal methods of remote navigation are available. One utilizes magnetic field vectors to navigate proprietary catheters, the other maneuvers standard catheters robotically. The main advantages of remote navigation include improved catheter stability, reduced fluoroscopy times and decreased total radiation exposure to both the patient and the operator. The main limitations include cost and longer procedure times. Remote magnetic navigation appears to have the best safety profile; however, its efficacy in creating lesions may be lower, which has been attributed to the soft-tip catheter used. Remote robotic navigation on the other hand, which uses regular catheter tips, is associated with a slightly higher overall complication rate, but higher efficacy. This article reviews the pros and cons of remote navigation for ablation of both atrial and ventricular substrates. Finally, it attempts to predict the direction of this field in the coming years.

  3. Providing Undergraduate Science Partners for Elementary Teachers: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Camille A.; Umoja, Aminata; DeHaan, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate college "science partners" provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K-5 teachers in a university-school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed…

  4. The Benefits and Challenges of Registered Apprenticeship: The Sponsors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert; Eyster, Lauren; Chambers, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) of the U.S. Department of Labor oversees the registered apprenticeship system by issuing standards, monitoring state agencies, and promoting registered apprenticeship. Registered apprenticeship program "sponsors" are individual employers or groups of employers (sometimes in collaboration with…

  5. Multicore Challenges and Benefits for High Performance Scientific Computing

    DOE PAGES

    Nielsen, Ida M. B.; Janssen, Curtis L.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, performance gains in processors were achieved largely by improvements in clock speeds and instruction level parallelism. Thus, applications could obtain performance increases with relatively minor changes by upgrading to the latest generation of computing hardware. Currently, however, processor performance improvements are realized by using multicore technology and hardware support for multiple threads within each core, and taking full advantage of this technology to improve the performance of applications requires exposure of extreme levels of software parallelism. We will here discuss the architecture of parallel computers constructed from many multicore chips as well as techniques for managing the complexitymore » of programming such computers, including the hybrid message-passing/multi-threading programming model. We will illustrate these ideas with a hybrid distributed memory matrix multiply and a quantum chemistry algorithm for energy computation using Møller–Plesset perturbation theory.« less

  6. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  7. The Health Benefits of Exercise (Part 1 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A panel of eight experts discuss the cardiovascular, lipoprotein, weight control, and psychological benefits of exercise on health. The challenge of motivating people to exercise regularly is explored. (Author/MT)

  8. The Chemistry os Spent Nuclear Fuel From X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F.A. Fortner; A.J. Kropf; J.C. Cunnane

    2006-09-21

    Present and future nuclear fuel cycles will require an understanding of the complex chemistry of trace fission products and transuranium actinides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Because of the unique analytical challenges presented by SNF to the materials scientist, many of its fundamental physical and chemical properties remain poorly understood, especially on the microscopic scale. Such an understanding of the chemical states of radionuclides in SNF would benefit development of technologies for fuel monitoring, fuel performance improvement and modeling, fuel reprocessing, and spent fuel storage and disposal. We have recently demonstrated the use of synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine crystal chemical properties of actinides and fission products in extracted specimens of SNF. Information obtained includes oxidation state, chemical bond coordination, and quantitative elemental concentration and distribution. We have also used XAS in a scanning mode to obtain x-ray spectral micrographs with resolution approaching 1 micron. A brief overview of the technique will be presented, along with findings on uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium, and molybdenum in commercial PWR SNF specimens.

  9. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  10. A Glucose Fuel Cell for Implantable Brain–Machine Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Benjamin I.; Kedzierski, Jakub T.; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an implantable fuel cell that generates power through glucose oxidation, producing steady-state power and up to peak power. The fuel cell is manufactured using a novel approach, employing semiconductor fabrication techniques, and is therefore well suited for manufacture together with integrated circuits on a single silicon wafer. Thus, it can help enable implantable microelectronic systems with long-lifetime power sources that harvest energy from their surrounds. The fuel reactions are mediated by robust, solid state catalysts. Glucose is oxidized at the nanostructured surface of an activated platinum anode. Oxygen is reduced to water at the surface of a self-assembled network of single-walled carbon nanotubes, embedded in a Nafion film that forms the cathode and is exposed to the biological environment. The catalytic electrodes are separated by a Nafion membrane. The availability of fuel cell reactants, oxygen and glucose, only as a mixture in the physiologic environment, has traditionally posed a design challenge: Net current production requires oxidation and reduction to occur separately and selectively at the anode and cathode, respectively, to prevent electrochemical short circuits. Our fuel cell is configured in a half-open geometry that shields the anode while exposing the cathode, resulting in an oxygen gradient that strongly favors oxygen reduction at the cathode. Glucose reaches the shielded anode by diffusing through the nanotube mesh, which does not catalyze glucose oxidation, and the Nafion layers, which are permeable to small neutral and cationic species. We demonstrate computationally that the natural recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid around the human brain theoretically permits glucose energy harvesting at a rate on the order of at least 1 mW with no adverse physiologic effects. Low-power brain–machine interfaces can thus potentially benefit from having their implanted units powered or recharged by glucose fuel cells. PMID

  11. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGES

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  12. Stationary Fuel Cell Evaluation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-05-01

    This powerpoint presentation discusses its objectives: real world operation data from the field and state-of-the-art lab; collection; analysis for independent technology validation; collaboration with industry and end users operating stationary fuel cell systems and reporting on technology status, progress and technical challenges. The approach and accomplishments are: A quarterly data analysis and publication of first technical stationary fuel cell composite data products (data through June 2012).

  13. The Biorefinery--Challenges, Opportunities, and an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, William N.; Masters, Anthony; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Biomass provides the only sustainable source of organic carbon for the production of chemicals used in manufacturing and as liquid transportation fuels. In this article, the authors examine some of the challenges that society faces in the transition from a global economy in which transportation fuels are derived from fossil fuels to one in which…

  14. Stepfamily Education: Benefits of a Group-Formatted Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Torres, Eliza; Higginbotham, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    This program evaluation was conducted by interviewing 40 low-income participants in a relationship education (RE) program for stepfamilies to determine specific benefits of a group-formatted intervention. The benefits that were most often identified were learning from others and having personal stepfamily challenges normalized. Participants also…

  15. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  16. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  17. Fossil Energy: Drivers and Challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, Julio

    2007-04-01

    Concerns about rapid economic growth, energy security, and global climate change have created a new landscape for fossil energy exploration, production, and utilization. Since 85% of primary energy supply comes from fossil fuels, and 85% of greenhouse gas emissions come from fossil fuel consumption, new and difficult technical and political challenges confront commercial, governmental, and public stakeholders. As such, concerns over climate change are explicitly weighed against security of international and domestic energy supplies, with economic premiums paid for either or both. Efficiency improvements, fuel conservation, and deployment of nuclear and renewable supplies will help both concerns, but are unlikely to offset growth in the coming decades. As such, new technologies and undertakings must both provide high quality fossil energy with minimal environmental impacts. The largest and most difficult of these undertakings is carbon management, wherein CO2 emissions are sequestered indefinitely at substantial incremental cost. Geological formations provide both high confidence and high capacity for CO2 storage, but present scientific and technical challenges. Oil and gas supply can be partially sustained and replaced through exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels such as tar-sands, methane hydrates, coal-to-liquids, and oil shales. These fuels provide enormous reserves that can be exploited at current costs, but generally require substantial energy to process. In most cases, the energy return on investment (EROI) is dropping, and unconventional fuels are generally more carbon intensive than conventional, presenting additional carbon management challenges. Ultimately, a large and sustained science and technology program akin to the Apollo project will be needed to address these concerns. Unfortunately, real funding in energy research has dropped dramatically (75%) in the past three decades, and novel designs in fission and fusion are not likely to provide any

  18. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  19. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  20. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Davey, John R; Spendalow, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

  1. Status of hydrogen fuel cell electric buses worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Eudy, Leslie; Singer, Gregg; Jermer, Boris; Asselin-Miller, Nick; Wessel, Silvia; Patterson, Timothy; Marcinkoski, Jason

    2014-12-01

    This review summarizes the background and recent status of the fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration projects in North America and Europe. Key performance metrics include accumulated miles, availability, fuel economy, fuel cost, roadcalls, and hydrogen fueling. The state-of-the-art technology used in today's fuel cell bus is highlighted. Existing hydrogen infrastructure for refueling is described. The article also presents the challenges encountered in these projects, the experiences learned, as well as current and future performance targets.

  2. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  3. Fuel cell energy service Enron`s commerical program

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Enron, the premier provider of clean fuels worldwide, has launched a unique energy service based on fuel cell technology. The goal of this program is to bring the benefits of fuel cell power to the broad commercial marketplace. Enron`s Energy Service is currently based on a 200 kilowatt phosphoric acid power plant manufactured by ONSI Corporation. This plant is fueled by natural gas or propane, and exhibits superior performance. Enron offers a `no hassle` package that provides customers with immediate benefits with no upfront capital or technical risks. This paper describes Enron`s fuel cell commercial program.

  4. The Effect of Compression Ratio, Fuel Octane Rating, and Ethanol Content on Spark-Ignition Engine Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Leone, Thomas G; Anderson, James E; Davis, Richard S; Iqbal, Asim; Reese, Ronald A; Shelby, Michael H; Studzinski, William M

    2015-09-15

    Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in the United States and elsewhere are required to meet increasingly challenging regulations on fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions. New vehicle trends to improve efficiency include higher compression ratio, downsizing, turbocharging, downspeeding, and hybridization, each involving greater operation of spark-ignited (SI) engines under higher-load, knock-limited conditions. Higher octane ratings for regular-grade gasoline (with greater knock resistance) are an enabler for these technologies. This literature review discusses both fuel and engine factors affecting knock resistance and their contribution to higher engine efficiency and lower tailpipe CO2 emissions. Increasing compression ratios for future SI engines would be the primary response to a significant increase in fuel octane ratings. Existing LDVs would see more advanced spark timing and more efficient combustion phasing. Higher ethanol content is one available option for increasing the octane ratings of gasoline and would provide additional engine efficiency benefits for part and full load operation. An empirical calculation method is provided that allows estimation of expected vehicle efficiency, volumetric fuel economy, and CO2 emission benefits for future LDVs through higher compression ratios for different assumptions on fuel properties and engine types. Accurate "tank-to-wheel" estimates of this type are necessary for "well-to-wheel" analyses of increased gasoline octane ratings in the context of light duty vehicle transportation. PMID:26237538

  5. The Effect of Compression Ratio, Fuel Octane Rating, and Ethanol Content on Spark-Ignition Engine Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Leone, Thomas G; Anderson, James E; Davis, Richard S; Iqbal, Asim; Reese, Ronald A; Shelby, Michael H; Studzinski, William M

    2015-09-15

    Light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in the United States and elsewhere are required to meet increasingly challenging regulations on fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions. New vehicle trends to improve efficiency include higher compression ratio, downsizing, turbocharging, downspeeding, and hybridization, each involving greater operation of spark-ignited (SI) engines under higher-load, knock-limited conditions. Higher octane ratings for regular-grade gasoline (with greater knock resistance) are an enabler for these technologies. This literature review discusses both fuel and engine factors affecting knock resistance and their contribution to higher engine efficiency and lower tailpipe CO2 emissions. Increasing compression ratios for future SI engines would be the primary response to a significant increase in fuel octane ratings. Existing LDVs would see more advanced spark timing and more efficient combustion phasing. Higher ethanol content is one available option for increasing the octane ratings of gasoline and would provide additional engine efficiency benefits for part and full load operation. An empirical calculation method is provided that allows estimation of expected vehicle efficiency, volumetric fuel economy, and CO2 emission benefits for future LDVs through higher compression ratios for different assumptions on fuel properties and engine types. Accurate "tank-to-wheel" estimates of this type are necessary for "well-to-wheel" analyses of increased gasoline octane ratings in the context of light duty vehicle transportation.

  6. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  7. Teacher Retirement Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert; Podgursky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis is forcing many employers, from General Motors to local general stores, to take a hard look at the costs of the compensation packages they offer employees. For public school systems, this will entail a consideration of fringe benefit costs, which in recent years have become an increasingly important component of…

  8. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  9. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  10. More Benefits of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  11. Space for Mankind's Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Puttkamer, Jesco, Ed.; McCullough, Thomas J., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of the first international Congress on "Space for Mankind's Benefit" organized by the Huntsville Association of Technical Societies and held November 15-19, 1971, at Huntsville, Alabama. Following introductory statements, a total of 45 articles read in 10 sessions are incorporated. The session headings are: Man in…

  12. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  13. Inclusion: Who Really Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2009-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of 2003, schools across the nation are mandated to educate students within the regular educational environment. What impact does this merger have on students and teachers? Who really benefits from this merger of regular education and special education? This article discusses the attitudes of general education teachers…

  14. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  15. Graphene-modified electrodes for enhancing the performance of microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Heyang; He, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is an emerging material with superior physical and chemical properties, which can benefit the development of microbial fuel cells (MFC) in several aspects. Graphene-based anodes can enhance MFC performance with increased electron transfer efficiency, higher specific surface area and more active microbe-electrode-electrolyte interaction. For cathodic processes, oxygen reduction reaction is effectively catalyzed by graphene-based materials because of a favorable pathway and an increase in active sites and conductivity. Despite challenges, such as complexity in synthesis and property degeneration, graphene-based electrodes will be promising for developing MFCs and other bioelectrochemical systems to achieve sustainable water/wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

  16. Accelerator Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Heidet, Florent; Haj Tahar, Malek

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of several accelerator–reactor interface issues and nuclear fuel cycle applications of acceleratordriven subcritical systems. The systems considered here have the primary goal of energy production, but that goal is accomplished via a specific application in various proposed nuclear fuel cycles, such as breed-and-burn of fertile material or burning of transuranic material. Several basic principles are reviewed, starting from the proton beam window including the target, blanket, reactor core, and up to the fuel cycle. We focus on issues of interest, such as the impact of the energy required to run the accelerator and associated systemsmore » on the potential electricity delivered to the grid. Accelerator-driven systems feature many of the constraints and issues associated with critical reactors, with the added challenges of subcritical operation and coupling to an accelerator. Reliable accelerator operation and avoidance of beam trips are critically important. One interesting challenge is measurement of blanket subcriticality level during operation. We also review the potential benefits of accelerator-driven systems in various nuclear fuel cycle applications. Ultimately, accelerator-driven subcritical systems with the goal of transmutation of transuranic material have lower 100,000-year radioactivity than a critical fast reactor with recycling of uranium and plutonium.« less

  17. Accelerator Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Heidet, Florent; Haj Tahar, Malek

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of several accelerator–reactor interface issues and nuclear fuel cycle applications of acceleratordriven subcritical systems. The systems considered here have the primary goal of energy production, but that goal is accomplished via a specific application in various proposed nuclear fuel cycles, such as breed-and-burn of fertile material or burning of transuranic material. Several basic principles are reviewed, starting from the proton beam window including the target, blanket, reactor core, and up to the fuel cycle. We focus on issues of interest, such as the impact of the energy required to run the accelerator and associated systems on the potential electricity delivered to the grid. Accelerator-driven systems feature many of the constraints and issues associated with critical reactors, with the added challenges of subcritical operation and coupling to an accelerator. Reliable accelerator operation and avoidance of beam trips are critically important. One interesting challenge is measurement of blanket subcriticality level during operation. We also review the potential benefits of accelerator-driven systems in various nuclear fuel cycle applications. Ultimately, accelerator-driven subcritical systems with the goal of transmutation of transuranic material have lower 100,000-year radioactivity than a critical fast reactor with recycling of uranium and plutonium.

  18. Accelerator-Reactor Coupling for Energy Production in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidet, Florent; Brown, Nicholas R.; Haj Tahar, Malek

    This article is a review of several accelerator-reactor interface issues and nuclear fuel cycle applications of accelerator-driven subcritical systems. The systems considered here have the primary goal of energy production, but that goal is accomplished via a specific application in various proposed nuclear fuel cycles, such as breed-and-burn of fertile material or burning of transuranic material. Several basic principles are reviewed, starting from the proton beam window including the target, blanket, reactor core, and up to the fuel cycle. We focus on issues of interest, such as the impact of the energy required to run the accelerator and associated systems on the potential electricity delivered to the grid. Accelerator-driven systems feature many of the constraints and issues associated with critical reactors, with the added challenges of subcritical operation and coupling to an accelerator. Reliable accelerator operation and avoidance of beam trips are critically important. One interesting challenge is measurement of blanket subcriticality level during operation. We also review the potential benefits of accelerator-driven systems in various nuclear fuel cycle applications. Ultimately, accelerator-driven subcritical systems with the goal of transmutation of transuranic material have lower 100,000-year radioactivity than a critical fast reactor with recycling of uranium and plutonium.

  19. Are Unemployed Husbands Fueling Divorce Rates?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160129.html Are Unemployed Husbands Fueling Divorce Rates? Finding challenges common belief that women entering ... the workforce is not a major factor in divorce. But a husband's ability to keep a full- ...

  20. Benefits of slush hydrogen for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan; Zubrin, Robert; Hardy, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the benefits of using slush hydrogen instead of normal boiling point liquid hydrogen as a fuel for several space missions. Vehicles considered in the study included the Space Shuttle/Shuttle-C, LEO to GEO transfer vehicles, Lunar and Mars transfer vehicles, and cryogenic depots in low Earth orbit. The advantages of using slush hydrogen were expressed in terms of initial mass differences at a constant payload, payload differences at a constant tank volume, and increases in fuel storage time for cryogenic depots. Both chemical oxygen/hydrogen and hydrogen nuclear thermal rocket propulsion were considered in the study. The results indicated that slush hydrogen offers the potential for significant decreases in initial mass and increases in payload for most missions studied. These advantages increase as the mission difficulty, or energy, increases.

  1. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  2. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  3. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  4. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Walneuski

    2004-09-16

    ChevronTexaco has successfully operated a 200 kW PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant at the corporate data center in San Ramon, California for the past two years and seven months following installation in December 2001. This site was chosen based on the ability to utilize the combined heat (hot water) and power generation capability of this modular fuel cell power plant in an office park setting . In addition, this project also represents one of the first commercial applications of a stationary fuel cell for a mission critical data center to assess power reliability benefits. This fuel cell power plant system has demonstrated outstanding reliability and performance relative to other comparably sized cogeneration systems.

  6. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  7. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  8. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  9. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable U.S. Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  10. The challenges of big data.

    PubMed

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest.

  11. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  12. Conclusion: challenges for the future

    PubMed Central

    North, D. Warner

    1993-01-01

    The title “Challenges for the Future” implies the challenge to summarize a very complex meeting. Of necessity, I will present a personal impression. My interest is in risk assessment, which I define as a process for summarizing science in support of decision making. Risk assessment is sometimes regarded as arcane numerology, a rigid process of computing risk numbers in which much available science is unused. I am a strong advocate for the broader definition of risk assessment. It is encouraging to learn how much science is becoming available for use in risk assessment for gasoline, its components, and alternative fuels. PMID:17539103

  13. The benefits of bioventing

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Bioventing, a variation of soil vapor extraction (SVE), has been used in recent years as an in-situ soil remediation method. SVE is applicable to the remediation of soils contaminated by solvents, gasoline and other relatively high vapor pressure compounds that can be volatilized to subsurface soil gas. Bioventing adapts SVE to treat relatively non-volatile materials, such as diesel fuel oil. Bioventing also is useful for reducing the cost of air pollution abatement for in-situ treatment of biodegradable volatile materials, such as gasoline and non-halogenated solvents.

  14. Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary; Fenbert, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a benefits assessment at Memphis (MEM), Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) and New York's John F. Kennedy (JFK) airports using the TRCM tool. Results from simulations using the TRCM-generated runway configuration schedule are compared with results using historical schedules. For the 12 days of data used in this analysis, the transit time (arrival fix to spot on airport movement area for arrivals, or spot to departure fix for departures) for MEM departures is greater (7%) than for arrivals (3%); for JFK, there is a benefit for arrivals (9%) but not for departures (-2%); for DFW, arrivals show a slight benefit (1%), but this is offset by departures (-2%). Departure queue length benefits show fewer aircraft in queue for JFK (29%) and MEM (11%), but not for DFW (-13%). Fuel savings for surface operations at MEM are seen for both arrivals and departures. At JFK there are fuel savings for arrivals, but these are offset by increased fuel use for departures. In this study, no surface fuel benefits resulted for DFW. Results suggest that the TRCM algorithm requires modifications for complex surface traffic operations that can cause taxi delays. For all three airports, the average number of changes in flow direction (runway configuration) recommended by TRCM was many times greater than the historical data; TRCM would need to be adapted to a particular airport's needs, to limit the number of changes to acceptable levels. The results from this analysis indicate the TRCM tool can provide benefits at some high-capacity airports. The magnitude of these benefits depends on many airport-specific factors and would require adaptation of the TRCM tool; a detailed assessment is needed prior to determining suitability for a particular airport.

  15. Polyvalent fuel treatment facility (TCP): shearing and dissolution of used fuel at La Hague facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brueziere, J.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.; Durand, L.; Bertrand, N.

    2013-07-01

    Although many used nuclear fuel types have already been recycled, recycling plants are generally optimized for Light Water Reactor (LWR) UO{sub x} fuel. Benefits of used fuel recycling are consequently restricted to those fuels, with only limited capacity for the others like LWR MOX, Fast Reactor (FR) MOX or Research and Test Reactor (RTR) fuel. In order to recycle diverse fuel types, an innovative and polyvalent shearing and dissolving cell is planned to be put in operation in about 10 years at AREVA's La Hague recycling plant. This installation, called TCP (French acronym for polyvalent fuel treatment) will benefit from AREVA's industrial feedback, while taking part in the next steps towards a fast reactor fuel cycle development using innovative treatment solutions. Feasibility studies and R/Development trials on dissolution and shearing are currently ongoing. This new installation will allow AREVA to propose new services to its customers, in particular in term of MOX fuel, Research Test Reactors fuel and Fast Reactor fuel treatment. (authors)

  16. Fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, S.L.

    1983-09-20

    A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making the composition safer for use as a charcoal lighter or as a fuel for e.g. patio lamps.

  17. Roadmap to an Engineering-Scale Nuclear Fuel Performance & Safety Code

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A; Clarno, Kevin T; Hansen, Glen A

    2009-09-01

    Developing new fuels and qualifying them for large-scale deployment in power reactors is a lengthy and expensive process, typically spanning a period of two decades from concept to licensing. Nuclear fuel designers serve an indispensable role in the process, at the initial exploratory phase as well as in analysis of the testing results. In recent years fuel performance capabilities based on first principles have been playing more of a role in what has traditionally been an empirically dominated process. Nonetheless, nuclear fuel behavior is based on the interaction of multiple complex phenomena, and recent evolutionary approaches are being applied more on a phenomenon-by-phenomenon basis, targeting localized problems, as opposed to a systematic approach based on a fundamental understanding of all interacting parameters. Advanced nuclear fuels are generally more complex, and less understood, than the traditional fuels used in existing reactors (ceramic UO{sub 2} with burnable poisons and other minor additives). The added challenges are primarily caused by a less complete empirical database and, in the case of recycled fuel, the inherent variability in fuel compositions. It is clear that using the traditional approach to develop and qualify fuels over the entire range of variables pertinent to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy on a timely basis with available funds would be very challenging, if not impossible. As a result the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy has launched the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) approach to revolutionize fuel development. This new approach is predicated upon transferring the recent advances in computational sciences and computer technologies into the fuel development program. The effort will couple computational science with recent advances in the fundamental understanding of physical phenomena through ab initio modeling and targeted phenomenological testing to leapfrog many fuel

  18. The closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  19. Benefits of an International Database for UF6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, R A; Whitaker, J M; Murphy, J; Oakberg, J

    2008-06-30

    A reasonable expectation regarding the nuclear energy renaissance is that the location of fuel cycle nuclear materials throughout the world will be known. We ask--would an international system for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders provide the effective assurances expected for international fuel supply and of the international fuel centers? This paper introduces the question and discusses the potential benefits of tracking UF{sub 6} cylinders through the development of an international database. The nonproliferation benefits of an international database for UF{sub 6} cylinders being used in the fuel cycle include an enhanced capability to reconcile nuclear material imports and exports. Currently, import and export declarations only require the reporting of total 'rolled up' quantities of nuclear materials contained in all items--not the quantities of materials in individual items like individual UF{sub 6} cylinders. The database could provide supplier countries with more assurance on the location of the UF{sub 6} cylinders they export. Additionally, a comprehensive database on all declared cylinders would be a valuable resource in detecting and recognizing undeclared cylinders. The database could potentially be administered by the IAEA and be accessible to authorized countries around the world. During the nuclear renaissance, the general public, as well as the participants will expect transparency and quality information about movement of nuclear fuel cycle nuclear materials. We will discuss the potential benefits of such a database for the suppliers, inspectorates, and general public.

  20. Solid oxidized fuel cells seals leakage setup and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.

    2004-01-01

    As the world s reserves of fossil fuels are depleted, the U.S. Government, as well as other countries and private industries, is researching solutions for obtaining power, answers that would be more efficient and environmentally friendly. For a long time engineers have been trying to obtain the benefits of clean electric power without heavy batteries or pollution-producing engines. While some of the inventions proved to be effective (i.e. solar panels or windmills) their applications are limited due to dependency on the energy source (i.e. sun or wind). Currently, as energy concerns increase, research is being carried out on the development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The United States government is taking a proactive role in expanding the technology through the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, which is coordinated by the Department of Energy. into an electrical energy. This occurs by the means of natural tendency of oxygen and hydrogen to chemically react. While controlling the process, it is possible to harvest the energy given off by the reaction. SOFCs use currently available fossil fuels and convert a variety of those fuels with very high efficiency (about 40% more efficient than modem thermal power plants). At the same time they are almost entirely nonpolluting and due to their size they can be placed in remote areas. The main fields where the application of the fuel cells appears to be the most useful for are stationary energy sources, transportation, and military applications. structure and materials must be resolved. All the components must be operational in harsh environments including temperatures reaching 800 C and cyclic thermal- mechanical loading. Under these conditions, the main concern is the requirement for hermetic seals to: (1) prevent mixing of the fuel and oxidant within the stack, (2) prevent parasitic leakage of the fuel from the stack, (3) prevent contamination of the anode by air leaking into the stack, (4

  1. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012. America's Partner in Power

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, Sandra; Gangi, Jennifer; Skukowski, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    This report, compiled by Fuel Cells 2000 with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program, profiles a select group of nationally recognizable companies and corporations that are deploying or demonstrating fuel cells. These businesses are taking advantage of a fuel cell's unique benefits, especially for powering lift trucks and providing combined heat and power to their stores and administrative offices.

  2. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  4. Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler.

    PubMed

    You, Changfu; Xu, Xuchang

    2008-04-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible.

  5. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  6. Percarbonate as a naturally buffering catholyte for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Forrestal, Casey; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-11-01

    Sustainable cathode development has been a challenge for the emerging microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology. This study presents a simple catholyte called sodium percarbonate to serve as a new type of electron acceptor for MFCs. Lab scale comparisons showed sodium percarbonate cathode obtained comparable power density (9.6W/m(3)) with traditional air-cathode and potassium ferricyanide, but percarbonate showed multiple additional benefits that no other catholyte had demonstrated. Percarbonate has a sustaining natural buffering capacity that can counter pH fluctuations seen in many other systems, and the peroxide produced prevents bio-fouling problems associated with air-cathodes. It is also safer to use and has the lowest cost among popular cathode options based on per mole of electron transferred, which makes it a good candidate for modular system scale up.

  7. Annualized TASAR Benefits for Virgin America Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  8. Structures, performance, benefit, cost study. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft engine structures were studied to identify the advanced structural technologies that would provide the most benefits to future aircraft operations. A series of studies identified engine systems with the greatest potential for improvements. Based on these studies, six advanced generic structural concepts were selected and conceptually designed. The benefits of each concept were quantitatively assessed in terms of thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, cost, maintenance cost, fuel burned and direct operating cost plus interest. The probability of success of each concept was also determined. The concepts were ranked and the three most promising were selected for further study which consisted of identifying and comprehensively outlining the advanced technologies required to develop these concepts for aircraft engine application. Analytic, fabrication, and test technology developments are required. The technology programs outlined emphasize the need to provide basic, fundamental understanding of technology to obtain the benefit goals.

  9. The benefit of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melonie; Hong, Sang W; Kang, Min-Suk; Carlisle, Nancy B; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2013-04-01

    Recent research using change-detection tasks has shown that a directed-forgetting cue, indicating that a subset of the information stored in memory can be forgotten, significantly benefits the other information stored in visual working memory. How do these directed-forgetting cues aid the memory representations that are retained? We addressed this question in the present study by using a recall paradigm to measure the nature of the retained memory representations. Our results demonstrated that a directed-forgetting cue leads to higher-fidelity representations of the remaining items and a lower probability of dropping these representations from memory. Next, we showed that this is made possible by the to-be-forgotten item being expelled from visual working memory following the cue, allowing maintenance mechanisms to be focused on only the items that remain in visual working memory. Thus, the present findings show that cues to forget benefit the remaining information in visual working memory by fundamentally improving their quality relative to conditions in which just as many items are encoded but no cue is provided. PMID:23208769

  10. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C.; Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael

    2012-07-01

    burn TRU in a thermal spectrum, while satisfying top-level operational and safety constraints. Various assembly designs have been proposed to assess the TRU burning potential of Th-based fuel in PWRs. In addition to typical homogeneous loading patterns, heterogeneous configurations exploiting the breeding potential of thorium to enable multiple cycles of TRU irradiation and burning have been devised. The homogeneous assembly design, with all pins featuring TRU in Th, has the benefit of a simple loading pattern and the highest rate of TRU transmutation, but it can be used only for a few cycles due to the rapid rise in the TRU content of the recycled fuel, which challenges reactivity control, safety coefficients and fuel handling. Due to its simple loading pattern, such assembly design can be used as the first step of Th implementation, achieving up to 3 times larger TRU transmutation rate than conventional U-MOX, assuming same fraction of MOX assemblies in the core. As the next step in thorium implementation, heterogeneous assemblies featuring a mixed array of Th-U and Th-U-TRU pins, where the U is in-bred from Th, have been proposed. These designs have the potential to enable burning an external supply of TRU through multiple cycles of irradiation, recovery (via reprocessing) and recycling of the residual actinides at the end of each irradiation cycle. This is achieved thanks to a larger breeding of U from Th in the heterogeneous assemblies, which reduces the TRU supply and thus mitigates the increase in the TRU core inventory for the multi-recycled fuel. While on an individual cycle basis the amount of TRU burned in the heterogeneous assembly is reduced with respect to the homogeneous design, TRU burning rates higher than single-pass U-MOX fuel can still be achieved, with the additional benefits of a multi-cycle transmutation campaign recycling all TRU isotopes. Nitride fuel, due its higher density and U breeding potential, together with its better thermal properties

  11. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  12. Fuel savings and emissions reductions from light duty fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, J.; Ohi, J. M.; Hudson, D. V., Jr.

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cell vehicles (FCV's) operate efficiently, emit few pollutants, and run on nonpetroleum fuels. Because of these characteristics, the large-scale deployment of FCV's has the potential to lessen U.S. dependence on foreign oil and improve air quality. This study characterizes the benefits of large-scale FCV deployment in the light duty vehicle market. Specifically, the study assesses the potential fuel savings and emissions reductions resulting from large-scale use of these FCV's and identifies the key parameters that affect the scope of the benefits from FCV use. The analysis scenario assumes that FCV's will compete with gasoline-powered light trucks and cars in the new vehicle market for replacement of retired vehicles and will compete for growth in the total market. Analysts concluded that the potential benefits from FCV's, measured in terms of consumer outlays for motor fuel and the value of reduced air emissions, are substantial.

  13. Fuel savings and emissions reductions from light duty fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J; Ohi, J M; Hudson, Jr, D V

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) operate efficiently, emit few pollutants, and run on nonpetroleum fuels. Because of these characteristics, the large-scale deployment of FCVs has the potential to lessen US dependence on foreign oil and improve air quality. This study characterizes the benefits of large-scale FCV deployment in the light duty vehicle market. Specifically, the study assesses the potential fuel savings and emissions reductions resulting from large-scale use of these FCVs and identifies the key parameters that affect the scope of the benefits from FCV use. The analysis scenario assumes that FCVs will compete with gasoline-powered light trucks and cars in the new vehicle market for replacement of retired vehicles and will compete for growth in the total market. Analysts concluded that the potential benefits from FCVs, measured in terms of consumer outlays for motor fuel and the value of reduced air emissions, are substantial.

  14. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  15. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  16. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  17. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Tikare, Veena; Bartel, Timothy; Besmann, Theodore M; Stan, Marius; Van Uffelen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We review the state of modeling and simulation of nuclear fuels with emphasis on the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2. The hierarchical scheme presented represents a science-based approach to modeling nuclear fuels by progressively passing information in several stages from ab initio to continuum levels. Such an approach is essential to overcome the challenges posed by radioactive materials handling, experimental limitations in modeling extreme conditions and accident scenarios and small time and distance scales of fundamental defect processes. When used in conjunction with experimental validation, this multiscale modeling scheme can provide valuable guidance to development of fuel for advanced reactors to meet rising global energy demand.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Chartier, Alan; Gueneau, Christine; Mattsson, Ann E.; Tikare, Veena; Bartel, Timothy; Besmann, T. M.; Stan, Marius; Van Uffelen, Paul

    2010-10-01

    We review the state of modeling and simulation of nuclear fuels with emphasis on the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2. The hierarchical scheme presented represents a science-based approach to modeling nuclear fuels by progressively passing information in several stages from ab initio to continuum levels. Such an approach is essential to overcome the challenges posed by radioactive materials handling, experimental limitations in modeling extreme conditions and accident scenarios, and the small time and distance scales of fundamental defect processes. When used in conjunction with experimental validation, this multiscale modeling scheme can provide valuable guidance to development of fuel for advanced reactors to meet rising global energy demand.

  20. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  1. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator, and (ii) an additive selected from the group consisting of alkenyl substituted succinimide, alkenyl substituted succinamide and mixtures thereof. The alkenyl substituent contains about 12-36 carbon atoms, the additive being made by the process comprising (a) isomerizing the double bond of an ..cap alpha..-olefin containing about 12-36 carbon atoms to obtain a mixture of internal olefins, (b) reacting the mixture of internal olefins with maleic acid, anhydride or ester to obtain an intermediate alkenyl substituted succinic acid, anhydride or ester, and (c) reacting the intermediate with ammonia to form a succinimide, succinamide or mixture thereof. The combination is present in an amount sufficient to minimize the coking characteristics of such fuel, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel.

  2. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  3. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  4. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B.; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C.; Nemeth, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  5. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community.

  6. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  7. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  8. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  9. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  10. Great social benefits.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1991-06-01

    The Integrated Project (IP), originated by the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) was started in China in 1984. The 2nd phase covered 210,000 people in 8 townships in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and others in Liaoning, Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces, in 1987-1989. 2 pilot areas, monitored by representatives from IPPF's East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region in September 1990, showed significant gains in contraceptive prevalence as well as health benefits and community acceptance. The IP consists of integrated family planning, maternal and child health and parasite control for rural areas. In Tumotezuo County, Inner Mongolia, the village of Bashi with 2526 people was mobilized to construct its own health clinic with a delivery room and a maternal and child health unit, where night classes were held for women. Because of antihelminthic treatment, installation of water pipes and toilets, parasites were controlled. Neighboring towns benefited by treatment of common disorders such as anemia and rickets. In the pilot areas there have been no maternal deaths in 3 years, and declines in perinatal mortality from 33.3 to 17.9/1000, and in infant mortality from 35.1 to 21.5/1000. Incidence of roundworm infection fell from 27.8 to 7.6%, Contraceptive prevalence, already high at 91.8%, rose to 93.7% among the Han majority, and from 65.9 to 77.2% in minorities. Family planning was spread by using the "core household" approach. The large household of the village leader, with 13 women of childbearing age, subscribed to several periodicals on family planning and farm and home economics, so people learned how to become well off by raising vegetables and pigs, and how to limit family size with the correct concept of a happy healthy family.

  11. Refactoring and Its Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerraju, R. P. S. P.; Rao, A. Srinivasa; Murali, G.

    2010-10-01

    Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. It improves internal code structure without altering its external functionality by transforming functions and rethinking algorithms. It is an iterative process. Refactoring include reducing scope, replacing complex instructions with simpler or built-in instructions, and combining multiple statements into one statement. By transforming the code with refactoring techniques it will be faster to change, execute, and download. It is an excellent best practice to adopt for programmers wanting to improve their productivity. Refactoring is similar to things like performance optimizations, which are also behavior- preserving transformations. It also helps us find bugs when we are trying to fix a bug in difficult-to-understand code. By cleaning things up, we make it easier to expose the bug. Refactoring improves the quality of application design and implementation. In general, three cases concerning refactoring. Iterative refactoring, Refactoring when is necessary, Not refactor. Mr. Martin Fowler identifies four key reasons to refractor. Refactoring improves the design of software, makes software easier to understand, helps us find bugs and also helps in executing the program faster. There is an additional benefit of refactoring. It changes the way a developer thinks about the implementation when not refactoring. There are the three types of refactorings. 1) Code refactoring: It often referred to simply as refactoring. This is the refactoring of programming source code. 2) Database refactoring: It is a simple change to a database schema that improves its design while retaining both its behavioral and informational semantics. 3) User interface (UI) refactoring: It is a simple change to the UI which retains its semantics. Finally, we conclude the benefits of Refactoring are: Improves the design of software, Makes software

  12. Radiotoxicity Characterization of Multi-Recycled Thorium Fuel - 12394

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Wenner, M.; Fiorina, C.; Huang, M.; Petrovic, B.; Krepel, J.

    2012-07-01

    advantages compared to the U cycle, such as the smaller actinide radiotoxicity and decay heat for up to 25,000 years after irradiation. In order for these benefits to materialize, the capability to reprocess and remotely manufacture industrial amounts of recycled fuel appears to be the key. Westinghouse is proposing the implementation of a thorium based fuel cycle to burn the TRU contained in the current UNF. The general approach and the potential of thorium as TRU burner is described in other papers presented at this conference. The focus of this paper is to analyze the long-term potential of thorium, once the legacy TRU has been exhausted and the thorium reactor system will become self-sufficient. Therefore, a comparison of Th closed cycle, in fast and thermal neutron energy ranges, vs. U closed cycle, in the fast energy range, has been undertaken. The results presented focus on selected backend and front-end metrics: isotopic actinide composition and potential implications on ingested radiotoxicity, decay heat and gamma heat. The evaluation confirms potential substantial improvements in the backend of the fuel cycle by transitioning to a thorium closed cycle. These benefits are the result of a much lower TRU content, in particular Pu-241, Am-241 and Pu-240, characterizing the Th vs. U actinide inventories, and the ensuing process waste to be disposed. On the other hand, the larger gamma activity of Th recycled fuel, consisting predominantly of hard gammas from U-232's decay products, is a significant challenge for fuel handling, transportation and manufacturing but can be claimed as beneficial for the proliferation resistance of the fuel. It is worth remembering that in our perspective the Th closed cycle and the U closed cycle will follow a transmutation phase which will likely take place over several decades and dictate the technologies required. These will likely include remote fuel manufacturing, regardless of the specific system adopted for the transmutation, which

  13. EOSDIS Customer Support Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; Boquist, C. L.

    2006-05-01

    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The observations collected by these missions are kept at geographically distributed data centers. EOSDIS manages over four petabytes of data accessed by over 200,000 distinct users last year. The data centers distributed more than 37 million Earth science data products during 2005 to a diverse customer community. An important goal for these data centers is to provide an adequate service at a uniform level for the user community to ensure we get the most benefit from our investment in space resources. This paper discusses the challenges, the ways the data centers coordinate among themselves to provide service, and recent results of measuring customer satisfaction with this service.

  14. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  15. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-matrix fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Willit, J.L.; Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; McPheeters, C.C.; Laidler, J.J.

    1996-08-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment process described in this paper builds on our experience in treating spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). The work is also to some degree, a spin-off from applying electrometallurgical treatment to spent fuel from the Hanford single pass reactors (SPRs) and fuel and flush salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in treating EBR-II fuel, we recover the actinides from a uranium-zirconium fuel by electrorefining the uranium out of the chopped fuel. With SPR fuel, uranium is electrorefined out of the aluminum cladding. Both of these processes are conducted in a LiCl-KCl molten-salt electrolyte. In the case of the MSRE, which used a fluoride salt-based fuel, uranium in this salt is recovered through a series of electrochemical reductions. Recovering high-purity uranium from an aluminum-matrix fuel is more challenging than treating SPR or EBR-II fuel because the aluminum- matrix fuel is typically -90% (volume basis) aluminum.

  16. Benefit Plans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

    Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement (including…

  17. Benefit Plans in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.

    This study describes the present status of benefit planning in the junior colleges, discusses the principles governing benefit plans, and raises questions regarding the development of sound benefit plans in light of the needs of individual faculty and staff as well as of the goals of the institution. The base of the study was a questionnaire…

  18. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  19. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  20. Future Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Tough new environmental laws, coupled with fluctuating oil prices, are likely to prompt hundreds of school systems to examine alternative fuels. Literature reviews and interviews with 45 government, education, and industry officials provided data for a comparative analysis of gasoline, diesel, natural gas, methanol, and propane. (MLF)

  1. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  2. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  3. Fuel cells make their CPI moves

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.R.; Nawaz, M.; Chen, T.P.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cells convert fuel gas and air electrochemically into power. The natural propensity of fuel gas at the anode side to react with air at the cathode side forces either the fuel gas or oxygen to ionize. The migration of the formed ions through the electrolyte induces an electric current, producing power. A bipolar plate segregates the reactant gases and provides an electrical connection between adjacent cells. The overall electrical efficiency of a fuel cell is 45--70% (LHV, or low heating value). The cogeneration efficiency, which also credits the additional steam and hot water produced, is 70--90% (LHV). These efficiencies are the highest of all available power-generation technologies. Most importantly, fuel cells can achieve these high efficiencies even at plant capacities as small as a few hundred kilowatts. Fuel cells are essentially pollution-free because they do not involve combustion. There are no waste-water discharges from fuel cell plants. These attributes make fuel cells ideal candidates for a new trend in power generation called distributed power generation. With distributed generation, many small scale factories, hospitals, shopping malls, hotels, airports, gas and water-pumping stations, office buildings, and other power consumers can produce their own electricity. The paper describes the three major types of fuel cells, their benefits, and their estimated cost to the chemical processing industry.

  4. Online evaluation programs: benefits and limitations.

    PubMed

    Burhansstipanov, Linda; Clark, Richard E; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Petereit, Daniel G; Eschiti, Valerie; Krebs, Linda U; Pingatore, Noel L

    2012-04-01

    Patient navigation programs are increasing throughout the USA, yet some evaluation measures are too vague to determine what and how navigation functions. Through collaborative efforts an online evaluation program was developed. The goal of this evaluation program is to make data entry accurate, simple, and efficient. This comprehensive program includes major components on staff, mentoring, committees, partnerships, grants/studies, products, dissemination, patient navigation, and reports. Pull down menus, radio buttons, and check boxes are incorporated whenever possible. Although the program has limitations, the benefits of having access to current, up-to-date program data 24/7 are worth overcoming the challenges. Of major benefit is the ability of the staff to tailor summary reports to provide anonymous feedback in a timely manner to community partners and participants. The tailored data are useful for the partners to generate summaries for inclusion in new grant applications. PMID:22447646

  5. Online Evaluation Programs: Benefits and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Richard E.; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Petereit, Daniel G.; Eschiti, Valerie; Krebs, Linda U.; Pingatore, Noel L.

    2012-01-01

    Patient navigation programs are increasing throughout the USA, yet some evaluation measures are too vague to determine what and how navigation functions. Through collaborative efforts an online evaluation program was developed. The goal of this evaluation program is to make data entry accurate, simple, and efficient. This comprehensive program includes major components on staff, mentoring, committees, partnerships, grants/studies, products, dissemination, patient navigation, and reports. Pull down menus, radio buttons, and check boxes are incorporated whenever possible. Although the program has limitations, the benefits of having access to current, up-to-date program data 24/7 are worth overcoming the challenges. Of major benefit is the ability of the staff to tailor summary reports to provide anonymous feedback in a timely manner to community partners and participants. The tailored data are useful for the partners to generate summaries for inclusion in new grant applications. PMID:22447646

  6. Harvest and utilization of chemical energy in wastes by microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-05-21

    Organic wastes are now increasingly viewed as a resource of energy that can be harvested by suitable biotechnologies. One promising technology is microbial fuel cells (MFC), which can generate electricity from the degradation of organic pollutants. While the environmental benefits of MFC in waste treatment have been recognized, their potential as an energy producer is not fully understood. Although progresses in material and engineering have greatly improved the power output from MFC, how to efficiently utilize the MFC's energy in real-world scenario remains a challenge. In this review, fundamental understandings on the energy-generating capacity of MFC from real waste treatment are provided and the challenges and opportunities are discussed. The limiting factors restricting the energy output and impairing the long-term reliability of MFC are also analyzed. Several energy storage and in situ utilization strategies for the management of MFC's energy are proposed, and future research needs for real-world application of this approach are explored.

  7. The use of hydrogen for aircraft propulsion in view of the fuel crisis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, S.

    1973-01-01

    In view of projected decreases in available petroleum fuels, interest has been generated in exploiting the potential of liquid hydrogen (LH2) as an aircraft fuel. Cost studies of LH2 production show it to be more expensive than presently used fuels. Regardless of cost considerations, LH2 is viewed as an attractive aircraft fuel because of the potential performance benefits it offers. Accompanying these benefits, however, are many new problems associated with aircraft design and operations; for example, problems related to fuel system design and the handling of LH2 during ground servicing. Some of the factors influencing LH2 fuel tank design, pumping, heat exchange, and flow regulation are discussed.

  8. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W; Moody, K J; Bradley, K S; Lorenzana, H E

    2011-02-18

    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount, and

  9. Fuels from microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Many species of aquatic plants can provide a source of renewable energy. Some species of microalgae, in particular, produce lipids -- oils that can be extracted and converted to a diesel fuel substitute or to gasoline. Since 1979 the Aquatic Species Program element of the Biofuels Program, has supported fundamental and applied research to develop the technology for using this renewable energy resource. This document, produced by the Solar Technical Information Program, provides an overview of the DOE/SERI Aquatic Species Program element. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the program and to the microalgae. Chapter 2 is an overview of the general principles involved in making fuels from microalgae. It also outlines the technical challenges to producing economic, high-energy transportation fuels. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the Algal Production and Economic Model (APEM). This model was developed by researchers within the program to identify aspects of the process critical to performance with the greatest potential to reduce costs. The analysis using this model has helped direct research sponsored by the program. Finally, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the Aquatic Species Program and describes current research. 28 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  11. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  12. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  13. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  14. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  15. Supplemental fuel vapor system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, P.M.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a supplemental fuel system utilizing fuel vapor. It comprises: an internal combustion engine including a carburetor and an intake manifold; a fuel tank provided with air vents; a fuel conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank and in communication with liquid fuel in the tank and a second end connected to the carburetor; the fuel conduit delivering the liquid fuel to the carburetor from the fuel tank; a fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank at a location displaced from contact with the liquid fuel and a second end connected to a carbon canister; a PCV conduit having a first end connected to a pollution control valve and a second end connected to the intake manifold; and, an intermediate fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel vapor conduit and a second end connected to the PCV conduit; wherein the air vents continuously provide air to the tank to mix with the liquid fuel and form fuel vapor. The fuel vapor drawn from the fuel tank by vacuum developed in the intake manifold and flows through the fuel vapor conduit. The intermediate fuel vapor conduit and the intake manifold to combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine so as to supplement fuel delivered to the engine by the fuel conduit. The liquid fuel and the fuel vapor constantly delivered to the engine during normal operation.

  16. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  17. Challenges Facing Teachers New to Working in Schools Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halicioglu, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the potential challenges facing teachers moving abroad for the first time, both professional challenges in their school and personal challenges in their private life. It suggests that such teachers embarking on a professional adventure overseas would benefit from careful consideration of the kind of school they will thrive…

  18. Aircraft fuel conservation technology. Task force report, September 10, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An advanced technology program is described for reduced fuel consumption in air transport. Cost benefits and estimates are given for improved engine design and components, turboprop propulsion systems, active control systems, laminar flow control, and composite primary structures.

  19. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  20. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.