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Sample records for fuel injection pump

  1. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for delivering fuel to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a pump housing with a fuel chamber therein to which fuel is supplied from a fuel tank; means for compressing fuel in the pump chamber and delivering the compressed fuel to the engine cylinders with such means including a pump plunger adapted to be reciprocated so as to introduce fuel into the pump chamber and to pressurize the introduced fuel; spill means for spilling to a low-pressure side on a fuel tank side the compressed fuel which was pressurized in the pump chamber to be delivered from the pump chamber to the engine cylinders, the spill mechanism including a spill passage communicating with the pump chamber and including a solenoid valve located in the spill passage for opening and closing the spill passage with predetermined timing; escape for allowing the compressed fuel pressurized in the pump chamber to escape to the low-pressure side of the fuel tank side.

  2. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  3. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Luscomb, D.A.

    1984-05-22

    A fuel injection pump including a plunger and a piston movably disposed in a pumping chamber, means for initiating fuel injection and means for terminating fuel injection, the plunger periodically pressurizing fuel in a pressure chamber and the piston spaced from the plunger and allowing a metering chamber to fill with a metered quantity of fuel to be injected to an engine. The means for initiating injection comprises a pilot valve having a solenoid to selectively operate between either of two states and a control valve movable between first and second positions in response to the state of pilot valve, the first position filling the metering chamber with the metered quantity of fuel. The pilot valve determines the fuel quantity to be delivered to the engine relative to a signal from an electronic controller. An accumulator is pressurized during each cycle of the plunger to provide pressurized fuel during a metering phase. A variable orifice adjusts the rate of flow during the time fuel is being metered to metering chamber.

  4. Fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, P.

    1985-04-02

    A fuel injection pump of the rotary distributor type includes a cam actuated plunger housing in a bore and an adjustable fuel control member which varies the amount of fuel supplied to the bore. The pump also includes a timing piston connected to the cam, the piston being biased by a spring against the action of fuel under pressure. In order to vary the timing under certain conditions a control piston serves as an abutment for the spring and the application of pressure to the control piston is controlled by a valve which has a valve element coupled to a throttle member of the pump the valve having a housing which is secured on the exterior of the pump.

  5. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  6. Governor for fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yogome, Y.; Itsuki, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shimizu, T.; Hamada, H.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes double-lever type governor for a fuel injection pump comprising: a governor case; a governor lever and a tension lever rotatably supported in the case and operatively associated with each other; a start spring interposed between the governor lever and the tension lever securing a start fuel increment stroke in the governor lever; a fuel regulating rack connected to the governor lever; a supporting shaft mounted in the case supporting both the governor lever and the tension lever for rotation; and a locking mechanism which connects both levers at the time when the start fuel increment stroke of the governor lever becomes zero or approximately zero to be eliminated.

  7. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  8. Fuel injection pump of the distribution type

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, T.; Sumitani, S.; Tani, T.; Miyaki, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-07-08

    A distribution type fuel injection pump is described for delivering fuel to each of the combustion chambers in an internal combustion engine consisting of: pump housing means including a pumping head in which a pumping chamber is defined; first fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the pumping chamber; fuel pressurizing means for applying pressure to the fuel in the pumping chamber; distributor means for distributing and delivering the fuel, which has been pressurized in the pumping chamber, to each of the combustion chambers in the engine; control plunger means actuated by the fuel pressure in the pumping chamber and including a control cylinder bore defined in the pumping head and a control plunger fitted into the control cylinder bore, the control cylinder bore being partitioned into a first chamber to which the fuel pressure in the pumping chamber is transmitted and which serves to apply this pressure to one end of the control plunger, and a second chamber defined by the other end of the control plunger; second fuel supply means for supplying an adjusted amount of fuel to the second chamber and including a control passage connected to the second chamber and an electromagnetic valve for opening and closing the control passage; and escaping means for allowing the fuel to escape from the second chamber when the fuel pressure in the second chamber becomes higher than a certain value.

  9. Fuel injection pump with spill control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, having a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plungers have outward fuel intake strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. Bumping plunger timing means relatively angularly adjusts the cam ring and rotor adjusting the pumping plunger timing. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The improvement described here wherein the spill valve means comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor connected to the charge pump and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore. The spill control mechanism comprises first means for rotating each rotary spill valve member in unison with the rotor and in synchronism with the reciprocable movement of the pumping plungers for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The pumping plunger timing means and the first means provide for separate relative angular adjustment of the cam ring and rotor and relative angular adjustment of the rotary spill valve member of at least the one rotary spill valve and the rotor.

  10. Fuel system for rotary distributor fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Kelly, W.W.

    1993-06-01

    In a fuel injection pump having a drive shaft, a pump rotor driven by the drive shaft, reciprocating pumping means with periodic intake and pumping strokes to periodically receive an intake charge of fuel and deliver fuel at high pressure for fuel injection is described; a distributor head with a plurality of angularly spaced distributor outlets, the pump rotor providing a distributor rotor with a distributor port connected to the pumping means, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for sequential registration of the distributor port with the distributor outlets for distributing said high pressure delivery of fuel thereto; a fuel system for supplying fuel to the pumping means, having an end chamber at one end of the pump rotor and a fuel supply pump driven by the drive shaft and having an inlet and outlet, the supply pump outlet being connected to the end chamber for supplying fuel thereto, and a pressure regulator for regulating the fuel pressure in the end chamber; and a control valve connected between the pumping means and the end chamber and selectively opened during the intake strokes to supply fuel to the pumping means from the end chamber and during the pumping strokes to spill fuel from the pumping means into the end chamber to terminate said high pressure delivery of fuel; the improvement wherein the fuel system comprises a fuel return passage connected in series with the end chamber downstream thereof, wherein the pressure regulator is mounted in the return passage for regulating the upstream fuel pressure, including the upstream fuel pressure within the end chamber, and is connected for conducting excess fuel for return to the supply pump inlet, and wherein the supply pump is driven by the drive shaft to supply fuel at a rate exceeding the rate of said high pressure delivery of fuel for fuel injection and to provide excess fuel flow continuously through the end chamber and return passage to the pressure regulator.

  11. Rotary distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Dordjevic, I.; Higgins, M.C.; Salzgeber, D.E.

    1993-07-20

    In a fuel injection pump having a pump body and distributor rotor in coaxial alignment, the pump body is described having a pumping chamber provided by an annular arrangement of pumping plunger bores with axes extending generally radially outwardly from the axis of the distributor rotor, a pumping plunger mounted in each plunger bore for reciprocation, annular cam means surrounding the annular arrangement of plunger bores for reciprocating the pumping plungers to provide alternating intake and pumping strokes thereof for respectively supplying intake charges of fuel to the pumping chamber and delivering high pressure charges of fuel from the pumping chamber for fuel injection, a distributor head with a plurality of distributor outlets, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for distributing the high pressure charges of fuel to the distributor outlets; the improvement wherein the pump body and distributor rotor have a central coaxial bore extending there through and providing a valve bore intersecting the annular arrangement of plunger bores, the pump body providing an annular valve seat around the central bore between one end thereof away from the distributor rotor and the intersection of the valve bore and annular arrangement of plunger bores, an elongated valve member mounted in the valve bore having a sealing head at one end thereof engageable with the annular valve seat and extending from the sealing head toward the other end of the central bore, a fuel supply chamber connected to the one end of the central bore for supplying fuel to the pumping chamber, valve actuating means comprising an electromagnet at the other end of the valve member from the sealing head and operable when energized to shift the valve member in one axial direction thereof to one of its the positions, and means for shifting the valve member in the opposite axial direction thereof to its other position when the electromagnet is deenergized.

  12. Fuel injection pump having voltage variation compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, E.; Miyaki, M.; Norimatsu, H.; Hobo, N.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Konishi, Y.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel injection pump is described for internal combustion engine, comprising: an enclosure; pump means including a plunger rotatingly and reciprocally movable in the enclosure to define a compression chamber of variable volume, the pump means coupling the compression chamber to a fuel inlet during an intake stroke of the plunger and connecting the compression chamber to a fuel outlet during a compression stroke of the plunger to thereby initiate injection of fuel to the outlet, the pump means being responsive to the speed of rotation of the engine to pressurize the fuel in the inlet; means for detecting the speed of the engine; a source of voltage having a tendency to vary; solenoid valve means operable when a voltage is applied thereto from the source for providing a pressure relief action of the fuel in the compression chamber to terminate the injection of fuel; a memory storing trimming data in locations addressable as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed; and control means for detecting the voltage of the source and responsive to the initiation of the fuel injection for determining the basic timing at which the fuel injection is to be terminated, reading trimming data out of the memory as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed, correcting the basic timing in accordance with the trimming data and applying the voltage of the source to the solenoid valve means at the corrected timing to thereby terminate the fuel injection.

  13. Positive displacement electronic fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the plunger, spill port type, including a single plunger reciprocably and rotatably mounted in a plunger barrel, an engine driven camshaft having gear means and a number of camlobes thereon for reciprocating and rotating the plunger a number of times for each revolution of the camshaft through a number of pumping upstrokes and fuel intake downstrokes for injecting fuel sequentially into a number of engine cylinders. The plunger barrel defines a fuel fill-spill chamber at the end of the plunger connected to a solenoid valve controlled spill port for pressurization of the chamber during the upstroke of the plunger upon closure of the spill port by the valve, the plunger having a number of internal axially spaced passages connected to the chamber for filling the chamber with fuel on the fuel intake upstroke of the plunger or alternately directing fuel from the chamber to a fuel injection nozzle during pressurization of the chamber, means connecting one of the internal passages to a fuel supply passage and another passage to a fuel injection nozzle line past a check valve in the other passage. The passages are spaced such that rotation and reciprocation of the plunger through one stroke connects the chamber to one passage which disconnecting the chamber from the other passage, and vice-versa during the next successive stroke of the plunger, the other passage being connected successively one at a time to each injection line in the engine upon rotation of the camshaft, the engine having at least four cylinders, and the camshaft having four camlobes on a single cam, the lobes each being 90% in extent with a peak and an essentially long flat surface inbetween peaks providing a slower upstroke of the plunger than the downstroke thereby providing a longer time for injection than for fuel intake.

  14. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Nozaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.

    1986-05-06

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described which consists of: a plunger barrel; a plunger received within the plunger barrel for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion for suction, pressure delivery and distribution of fuel; a pair of cut-off ports formed in the plunger and the plunger barrel at a predetermined axial location and registrable with each other to spill pressurized fuel in the plunger into a zone under lower pressure; a communication passageway communicating a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof with the zone under lower pressure; a fuel suction passage extending between the pump working chamber and the zone under lower pressure; the communication passageway extending between the pump working chamber and an intermediate portion of the fuel suction passage; a solenoid valve arranged across the communication passageway for blocking same; and control means for controlling means for controlling the solenoid valve to cause same to selectively assume an open position and a closed position; wherein while the plunger moves toward the pump working chamber, the solenoid valve is closed by the control means to start injection of fuel present in the pump working chamber, and upon registration of the cut-off ports with each other, the fuel injection is terminated; the solenoid valve including a valve body disposed opposite an end face of the one end of the plunger; the control means including means for selectively energizing or deenergizing the solenoid for causing the valve body to selectively assume the closed position or the open position.

  15. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inoue, A.

    1987-03-24

    A fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having fuel injection nozzles, comprising: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity. It has a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity; a plurality of delivery valves each disposed such that fuel pressurized by the plunger is supplied to the engine through the delivery valve; and injection pipes connected, respectively, to the delivery valves to feed pressurized fuel discharged from the respective delivery valves; the delivery valves each being adapted to maintain a residual pressure within a corresponding one of the injection pipes at a value that enables to attain injection initiation pressure within an extent of rotation of the cam means corresponding to the first angular region.

  16. Distributor-type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Nozaki, S.

    1987-10-06

    A distributor-type fuel injection pump is described comprising: (a) a pump body including a rear portion and a head portion. The rear portion has a first bore and the head portion has a second bore extending in alignment with the first bore; (b) a drive shaft rotatably mounted in the first bore via at least two bearings; (c) a feed pump disposed in the pump body adjacent to the rear portion and connected in driven relation to the drive shaft, there being defined between the feed pump and the head portion a cam chamber; (d) a plunger slidably mounted in the second bore and defining between the second bore a pump working chamber; (e) a cam disposed in the cam chamber and connecting the drive shaft with the plunger so as to cause the latter to take rotational and reciprocating motions simultaneously, in unision with the rotation of the drive shaft; (f) a magnetic valve disposed on the head portion for opening and closing a fuel passage communicating with the pump working chamber; (g) a pair of oil seals mounted around the drive shaft and disposed on opposite sides of the feed pump; (h) the rear portion further having a first passageway communicating with the first bore between the two bearings for introducing a lubrication oil into a space defined between the first bore, the drive shaft and the bearings; (i) the drive shaft having at least one second oil passageway extending diametrically therethrough and opening at opposite ends to one of the bearings, and a third oil passageway extending axially therein and communicating the second oil passageway with the cam chamber; and (j) a bypass passage bypassing the cam chamber and communicating a discharge side of the feed pump with an inlet side of the fuel passage of the magnetic valve.

  17. Cut-off fuel exhaust mechanism in fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeuchi, H.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump having an exhaust means for exhausting fuel from the fuel pump at the time of cut-off of fuel flow through the pump, comprising: a pump body for positioning in a pump space for containing fuel to be pumped, the pump body having a fuel passage extending thereinto from the pump space and a valve means in the fuel passage; a plunger barrel mounted in the pump body and having a plunger bore therein and a fuel intake port extending through the plunger barrel from a position opposite the inner end of the fuel passage into the plunger bore; a plunger rotatably and slidably mounted in the plunger bore and defining a pressurizing chamber at the inner end of the plunger bore; the plunger barrel having an oil passage extending from the end within which the pressurizing chamber is defined to the periphery of the plunger barrel; the pump body having a lead hole therethrough from a position opposite the end of the oil passage at the periphery of the plunger barrel to the outside of the pump body, and further having an oil chamber extending thereinto from a position on the pump body near the end of the oil passage and an exhaust passage extending from the inner part of the oil chamber to the outside of the pump body and opening into the pump space; a valve housing mounted on the pump body over the end of the lead hole and the opening into the oil chamber and having a valve guide hole therein opening into the oil chamber and having a valve seat around the end thereof and having an oil induction hole therethrough from a position opposite the end of the lead hole and into the valve guide hole.

  18. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.

    1987-08-11

    A fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; and cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity, and a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity, and a third angular region preceding the first angular region, for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a velocity higher than the first velocity, but lower than the second velocity.

  19. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  20. Distribution and regularity of injection from a multicylinder fuel-injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of performance test conducted on a six-cylinder commercial fuel-injection pump that was adjusted to give uniform fuel distribution among the cylinders at a throttle setting of 0.00038 pound per injection and a pump speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The throttle setting and pump speed were then varied through the operating range to determine the uniformity of distribution and regularity of injection.

  1. Fuel injection pump device and method for settling the same

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, A.; Itoh, K.; Oikawa, H.; Vehara, K.

    1988-07-05

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump device which comprises: a delivery valve communicated with a pressurizing chamber formed in a housing, loaded by a spring and communicated with a fuel injection nozzle; a plunger with its one end facing the pressurizing chamber and the other end operatively connected with a cam which is driven by an engine; a fuel chamber provided so as to surround the plunger in the housing; an oil passage formed in the plunger so that its one end communicates to the pressurizing chamber and the other end communicates to the fuel chamber; a control sleeve slidably mounted on the outer periphery of the plunger in the fuel chamber; a control groove provided on the outer peripheral surface of the plunger for communicating the pressurizing chamber and fuel chamber to each other by way of the oil passages or for interrupting the same. The control groove has at least longitudinally directed edges and inclined edges provided with relation to the axis of the plunger; control ports provided on the control sleeve and communicating the control groove to the fuel chamber when a fuel injection is completed; an injection quantity control member supported on the housing for controlling a fuel injection quantity; an injection timing control member for moving the control sleeve in the axial direction of the plunger; fuel injection control means for controlling the injection quantity control member and the injection timing control member in accordance with signals from operating state information sources, the fuel injection means is composed so as to advance the injection timing control member on the basis of the information of the engine in a high speed region from the operating state information sources.

  2. Distributor-type fuel injection pump with preliminary injection control device

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, S.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-01-13

    A distributor-type fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, the fuel injection pump comprising: (a) a housing having a fuel chamber defined therein; (b) fuel supply means for supplying fuel to the fuel chamber under pressure dependent upon engine r.p.m.; (c) a barrel mounted within the housing and having a distribution hole communicating with the engine cylinder; (d) a plunger mounted within the barrel for axial and rotary motion therein and defining jointly with the barrel a pump working chamber communicating with the fuel chamber. The plunger has a main discharge port communicating at one end with the pump working chamber and alignable with the distribution hole for effecting a main fuel injection, and a preliminary discharge port communicating with the pump working chamber and alignable with the distribution hole before the alignment of the main discharge port with the distribution hole, thereby effecting a preliminary fuel injection before the main injection; and (e) means operatively connected with the plunger and actuatable in response to pressure within the fuel chamber, for controlling fuel injection timing. The control means includes a first means, actuatable in response to the pressure within the fuel chamber, for effecting the preliminary fuel injection when the pressure within the fuel chamber is at less than a predetermined value, and a second means, actuatable in response to the pressure within the fuel chamber, for preventing the preliminary fuel injection when the pressure within the fuel chamber is above the predetermined value.

  3. Distributor-type fuel injection pump having injection rate control function for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, S.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a distributor-type fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and a plurality of fuel injection valves for injecting fuel into respective ones of the cylinders. The fuel injection pump includes a plunger arranged for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion in response to rotation of the engine to perform pressure delivery and distribution of fuel into the cylinders of the engine. The plunger has a first portion and a second portion having different diameters from each other, a first pump working chamber defined by the first portion, and a second pump working chamber defined by the second portion. Fuel delivery passageways are arranged for communication with the first pump working chamber and lead to respective ones of the fuel injection valves of the engine. A communication passageway is arranged for communicating the second pump working chamber with the fuel delivery passageways and a drain passageway is arranged for communicating the communication passageway with a zone under a lower pressure of the pump.

  4. Preloaded compliant linkage for fuel injection pump rack

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbon, E.S.; Krosney, M.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes in a fuel injection pump system for an internal combustion engine. The improvement comprising: a compliant linkage in the pump rack means positioned between a first portion of the pump rack means engaged by the gear and a second portion thereof which is connected to the plunger means. The linkage comprising a precompressed spring urging the first and second portions of the pump rack means apart from each other with a force greater than the value of load forces acting on the rack means during normal operation in the absence of abnormally strong transient load forces, but less than the driving force produced by the stepper output shaft; whereby the spring remains in its normal precompressed state during normal operation; is additionally compressed when transient load forces occur so as to permit continue normal operation of the gear even though the second portion of the rack means is arrested; and returns to its normal precompressed state when the transient local forces disappear, thus permitting the second portion of the pump rack means to assume its proper controlled position. Herein the first portion of the rack means is pivotable about an axis normal to the length of the pump rack means and is biased toward the gear by a spring.

  5. Fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, T.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Abe, S.; Natsuyama, Y.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a body having a cylinder bore, low pressure chamber, an overflow passage coupled to the cylinder bore and communicating with the low pressure chamber, and a feed passage formed in the cylinder bore and open to the cylinder bore; a plunger slidably housed in the cylinder bore to define a high pressure chamber therein; valve means for opening and closing the overflow passage to the cylinder bore according to a fuel pressure acting thereon, the valve means opening to cause undischarged surplus fuel to spill from the high pressure chamber through the overflow passage; a piezoelectric actuator attached to the body to expand and contract according to a voltage applied thereto to vary the fuel pressure in the control chamber and thereby open and close the valve means to control a fuel supply; and means for opening and closing the feed passage, the opening and closing means opening the feed passage to feed the low pressure fuel in the low pressure chamber to the control chamber through the overflow passage, the high pressure chamber and the feed passage on an intake action of the plunger and then closing the feed passage on an intake action of the plunger, and then closing the feed passage to hold the pressure in the control chamber at a desired value.

  6. Injection timing control device for distributor-type fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuranaka, T.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an injection timing control device for combination with a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, the pump being of the type having a suction space filled with fuel under pressure variable as a function of the rotational speed of the engine, a pumping and distributing plunger, and a roller holder carrying rollers circumferentially arranged and disposed in camming engagement with the plunger the injection timing control device comprising: a cylinder; a timer piston slidably received within the cylinder. The timer piston is coupled to the roller holder such that displacement thereof causes a corresponding change in the cicumferential position of the roller holder,; a first chamber defined at one end of the timer piston; a second chamber defined at one end of the timer piston; a second chamber defined at an opposite end of the timer piston.

  7. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  8. The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson; Gardiner, A W

    1923-01-01

    Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.

  9. Multi-fuel compression-ignition engine and fuel injection pump therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Pien, P.C.

    1990-06-18

    This patent describes a multi-fuel compression-ignition combustion engine. It includes a first source of primary fuel, a second source of secondary fuel, injection pump means including a body means having a bore therein, plunger means including a body means having a bore therein, plunger means movably mounted within the bore, the plunger means having an end portion defining with a portion of the bore a mixing chamber, first supply means for supplying primary fuel from the first source to the mixing chamber, second supply means for supplying secondary fuel from the second source to the mixing chamber so that the primary and secondary fuels are mixed in the mixing chamber to provide a mixture of the primary and secondary fuels.

  10. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  11. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  12. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  13. Diesel fuel injection pump with electronically controlled fuel spilling and cutoff and recirculation venting of split fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ito, Y.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for a diesel engine. The pump consists of a number of intercommunicating parts. The first part is a housing containing a bore. Analogously, the patent describes a plunger slidably fitted in the bore for reciprocation with respect to housing in response to engine rotation, the bore defining a high pressure chamber at one end of the plunger. A first electromagnetic valve for shutting off fuel to the pump when the engine is not running, is also described and characterized as having an inlet adapted to be connected to a source of fuel at a relatively low pressure and an outlet. Connected to the outlet of the first electromagnetic valve is the upstream end of a fuel supply passage. The downstream end of the fuel supply leads to the high pressure chamber. A means for communicating the high pressure chamber with a fuel injection line substantially only when the plunger is moving in a second direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber is represented. Similarly, a means for selectively communicating the high pressure chamber with a vent passage in order to control the amount of fuel delivered during each fuel injection is described and is characterized as a principal feature of this patent. This selective modality of communication consists of two components. The first component is a second electromagnetic valve having an inlet connected to the high pressure chamber and an outlet connected to the fuel supply passage. The second component is a means for selectively opening the second electromagnetic valve to communicate the high pressure chamber with the fuel supply passage for a predetermined minimum time in response to the closing of the first electromagnetic valve.

  14. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  15. Controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjusting member of a fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eheim, F.; Hofer, G.; Konrath, K.; Straubel, M.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a controlling device for a fuel-quantity adjustment element of a fuel injection pump including an adjusting lever pivotable around a shaft. The adjusting lever is coupled with a fuel-quantity adjusting element, a drag lever pivotable around the shaft of the adjusting lever. The drag lever communicates with the adjusting lever by way of a coupling element. An adjustable governor spring assembly is arranged to act on the drag lever, a stop for stopping the drag lever, further including a device for generating rpm-dependent force transmittable to the drag lever by means of an actuating element thereof and counter to the governor spring assembly, whereby the drag lever and the adjusting lever are coupled for movement together at least at the end of each relative movement effected by the actuating element. The actuating element acts directly upon the drag lever and the adjusting lever during deflection by way of a predetermined relative adjustment distance between the drag lever and the adjusting lever for adjustment by the actuating element, at least one spring arranged between the adjusting lever and a fixed support. At least one spring acts on the adjusting lever to force the adjusting lever into contact with an adjustable stop which is adjustable in dependence from the operating parameters of the combustion engine.

  16. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Kato, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-06-10

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for supplying fuel from a fuel tank to at least one combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: an injector housing defining therein a pressure cylinder bore, an injection cylinder bore and a timing cylinder bore connected in series with the pressure cylinder bore; a pressure plunger, fitted in the pressure cylinder bore and having one end defining, in the pressure cylinder bore, a pressure pump chamber communicating with the injection cylinder bore and the timing cylinder bore; first fuel supply means for supplying fuel from the fuel tank to the pressure pump chamber; pressurizing means for reciprocating the pressure plunger in the pressure cylinder bore in synchronism with the engine operation so as to pressurize fuel in the pressure pump chamber; an injection plunger, having a diameter smaller than the pressure plunger, fitted in the injection cylinder bore and having two ends defining, in the injection cylinder bore, an injection pump chamber and a first communicating chamber communicating with the pressure pump chamber; second fuel supply means for adjusting the quantity of the fuel from the fuel tank in accordance with engine operation conditions so as to supply the adjusted fuel quantity to the injection pump chamber; injection valve means for injecting the fuel into the fuel pump chamber toward a combustion chamber of the engine when the pressure in the pressure pump chamber is applied to the injection plunger through the first communicating chamber, and the fuel pressure in the injection pump chamber reaches a predetermined injection pressure.

  17. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Nozaki, S.; Yamada, K.

    1986-08-12

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a suction space filled with fuel under pressure variable as a function of the rotational speed of the engine; a plunger driven by the engine for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion to effect suction of fuel from the suction space into a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof, pressure delivery of fuel from the pump working chamber and distribution of the fuel into cylinders of the engine; suction ports formed in the plunger and identical in number with the cylinders of the engine. The suction ports with the pump working chamber; a first communication passageway communicating the suction space with the pump working chamber; a second communication passageway having a restriction therein. The second communication passageway is disposed to sequentially register with the suction ports as the plunger rotates for communicating the suction space with each of the suction ports that registers with the second communication passageway; a solenoid valve disposed to selectively open and close the first communication passageway; a selector valve operable to assume, independently of the opening and closing action of the solenoid valve, a first valve position wherein the first communication passageway is closed and simultaneously the second communication passageway is opened, at the start of the engine, and a second valve position wherein the second communication passageway is closed and simultaneously the first communication passageway is is opened, during operation of the engine other than at the start of the engine; and control means operable in response to operating conditions of the engine to control the solenoid valve to alternately open and close so as to achieve required fuel injection quantity and required injection timing.

  18. Method for building or repairing rotary injection fuel pump piston cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.J. Jr.; Ash, E.G.

    1986-06-17

    A rotary fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine including a housing with inlet and outlet passages, a rotor having a longitudinal axis journaled in the housing having a rotor body with angularly spaced radially extending bores and a fuel passage in communication with the inner ends of the bores having inlet and outlet ports which communicate alternately with the inlet and outlet passages during rotation of the rotor for alternately conducting fuel to and from the bores respectively, a plunger assembly for each bore comprising a pump plunger reciprocally mounted in the bore to sequentially receive charges of fuel from and deliver them to the inlet and outlet passages respectively, and a plunger operating roller and roller shoe at the outer end of the plunger having a radial position relative to the axis of the rotor, a cam ring with an inner cam contour surrounding the rotor in the plane of revolution of the rollers engageable therewith to translate the cam contour into reciprocal movement of the plungers, and a plunger stroke limit mechanism for limiting the outward stroke of the plungers and thereby regulate the quantity of fuel injected during each inward pumping stroke thereof, a timing advance connector connected to the cam ring for changing the radial position of the lobes in the plane of revolution of the rollers relative to the rollers to thereby advance or retard the fuel injection depending upon the position of the cam ring, a timing means controlling the movement of a hydraulic timing piston mounted in a cylinder which moves the connector.

  19. Fuel injection pump having a compact spill-port timing control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, T.; Miyaki, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-03-04

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump. This pump consists of a compression chamber adapted to be coupled to a source of fuel; fuel injection nozzles; a rotary plunger rotatably driven by an internal combustion engine, the plunger including means for defining a common passageway connected at one end to the compression chamber, the plunger further including means for defining angularly spaced apart spill ports branching off the common passageway to an outside surface thereof and a fuel delivery port branching off the common passageway, the fuel delivery port being selectively movable into and out of alignment with each one of the nozzles by rotation of the plunger; a magnetized rotary ring including means for defining a spill groove extending along the inner wall thereof, the ring being mounted on the plunger and rotatable, with respect to the plunger, between at least a first angular position, the ring consists of a cylindrical structure having differently magnetized equally divided arcuate sections, the groove being formed on the inner wall of the cylindrical structure and substantially axially extending from one end of the structure; spring means for biasing the ring toward one of the first and second angular positions; a stationary core surrounding the ring; and a coil wound on the core for generating a rotative thrust on the ring for selectively moving the ring between the first and second angular positions in response to a control signal.

  20. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  1. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Iwanaga, T.; Fujisawa, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for a diesel engine comprising: condition detection means for detecting operating conditions of the diesel engine including a rotational position thereof; low pressure fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a low pressure at an output port thereof; high pressure fuel pump means, having a pump chamber communicating with the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means, and plunger means reciprocable within the pump chamber for introducing fuel from the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means into the pump chamber during a movement in a predetermined direction of the plunger means and for pressurizing the introduced fuel during a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction so that pressurized fuel is delivered from the high pressure fuel pump means at an output port thereof; common rail fuel storage means, connected to the output port of the high pressure fuel pump means, for storing pressurized fuel delivered from the high pressure pump therein at a substantially continuous pressure.

  2. Diesel fuel injection pump with electromagnetic fuel spilling valve having pilot valve providing high responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, F.; Ito, Y.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-04-01

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described having a plurality of cylinders coupled to a crankshaft, the fuel injection system consisting of: a housing with a cylindrical bore formed therein; an input shaft mounted coaxially with the bore and rotatable in a predetermined phase relation with the crankshaft of the engine; a plunger slidably mounted in the bore, one end of the plunger defining with the bore a high pressure chamber, and another end of the plunger being rotationally engaged with the input shaft but being free to move axially with respect to the input shaft; means for axially reciprocating the plunger in the bore according to the rotational position of the plunger; means for communicating the high pressure chamber selectively with respective cylinders of the engine according to the rotational position of the plunger substantially only when the plunger is moving in a delivery stroke, axially in a direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber; a valve body having an internal chamber communicating with the high pressure chamber, with a vent passage leading from the internal chamber for venting the high pressure chamber; a valve element located in the internal chamber and having an orifice, one side of the orifice communicating with the high pressure chamber; and an electromagnetically operated pilot valve which is selectively electromagnetically driven when electrical energy is supplied thereto so as to close a normally open passage which vents a space on the other side of the orifice remote from the high pressure chamber.

  3. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  4. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nakatsuka, H.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-12-09

    A fuel injection nozzle is described which is adapted to be connected to a fuel injection pump and which serves to inject fuel into a combustion chamber in an internal combustion engine. The nozzle consists of: a body in which a suction passage and an accumulating chamber are defined, the suction passage being adapted to be connected with a fuel injection pump and the accumulating chamber being connected with the suction passage; a non-return valve means for allowing the fuel to flow from the suction passage to the accumulating chamber but prohibiting the fuel from flowing from the accumulating chamber to the suction passage; a needle valve means for injecting the fuel stored in the accumulating chamber into a combustion chamber in an engine, the needle valve means including a nozzle needle arranged coaxially and in series with the valve with end portions thereof being adjacent; a damping plunger coaxially fitted into the valve member in the manner that the damping plunger is urged toward the nozzle needle and has one end protruding into the damping chamber and engageable by the nozzle needle, throttle means disposed in the through hole in the damping plunger, for restricting the fuel flow between the damping chamber and the connector recess.

  5. Fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Kanou, H.

    1987-03-31

    A fuel injection device is described for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a body having first and second bores formed therein and extending in the axial direction thereof; a delivering plunger fitted into the first bore and defining a delivering pump chamber therein; driving means for reciprocating the delivering plunger in synchronism to the engine; pressurized medium supplying means for supplying a pressurized medium under a constant pressure to the delivering pump chamber, the pressurized medium supplying means including a pressurized medium source and a control passage linking the pressurized medium source to the delivering pump chamber; an electromagnetic valve provided on the control passage for opening and closing the control passage; and an injection plunger fitted into the second bore and defining, in the second bore, a linking chamber communicating with the delivering pump chamber and an injection pump chamber, the linking chamber and the delivering chamber becoming a liquid-tight chamber when the electromagnetic valve closes the control passage.

  6. Diesel fuel injection pump with signal rotor giving reference position and rotation position signals

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Y.; Kobayashi, F.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a distribution type fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and cylinders. The fuel injection system consists of: an input shaft mounted for rotation in a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft; a housing; a plunger; a combination of a cam plate and a cam follower incorporated between the input shaft and the plunger to drive the plunger in a first axial direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber in a first group of certain spaced rotational phases of the input shaft. A spring biases the plunger in a second axial direction opposite to the first axial direction to increase the size of the high pressure chamber in a second group of certain spaced rotational phases. Each rotational phase of the second group is located between corresponding two adjacent ones of the first group of rotational phases; means for communicating the high pressure chamber with a source of fuel when the plunger is moving in the second axial direction and for communicating the high pressure chamber with successive ones of the plurality of cylinders when the plunger is moving in the first axial direction; a solenoid valve which selectively vents the high pressure chamber according to selective energization and deenergization thereof to control the amount of fuel supplied to respective ones of the cylinders; a signal rotor having signal generating means circumferentially spaced around a circular portion thereof; a signal pickup means for detecting each of the signal generating means as it passes a predetermined location adjacent to the circular portion of the signal rotor; an electronic calculating means for calculating an amount of fuel to be injected for each fuel injection according to engine rotational speed and accelerator pedal opening amount. The calculating means determines a rotational angle of the crankshaft.

  7. Centrifugal main fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.F.

    1986-08-26

    For a gas turbine power plant having a fuel supply and a fuel metering valve and variable geometry for the power plant including servo actuating mechanisms for the fuel metering valve and variable geometry, a fuel pumping system, is described to supply pressurized fuel for the servo actuating mechanisms and for the engine working fluid medium. The pumping system includes a centrifugal pump solely supplying the fuel to the fuel metering valve to be delivered to the power plant for its working fluid medium, a positive displacement pump in parallel with the centrifugal pump and solely to supply pressurized fuel to the servo actuating mechanisms for the fuel metering valve and for the variable geometry, and a boost pump means disposed in serial relationship with the positive displacement pump and the centrifugal pump for augmenting the pressure supplied by the positive displacement pump and the centrifugal pump during predetermined operating conditions of the power plant. The combined boost pump and centrifugal pump capability is sufficient to satisfy the vapor to liquid ratio requirements of the power during its entire operating envelope.

  8. Fakir fuel pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    In designing the Fakir fuel pump, the fundamental idea was to obtain a simple and reliable method of conveying the fuel from a low tank to the carburetor, with the avoidance of the faults of all former methods and the simultaneous warming of the fuel by means of the heat of compression generated. The principle of the Fakir fuel pump rests on the well-known principle of the diaphragm pump, which must be suitably adapted to the present purpose.

  9. High-pressure fuel injection system for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a high-pressure fuel injection system for a diesel engine. This system consists of: (a) main pumps for injecting fuel each located at one of cylinders of the engine and formed with a fuel injecting port, a discharge valve located in a path connecting the first injected fuel space with the fuel injecting port. The discharge valve is opened when the fuel to be injected reaches a predetermined pressure level. A first injection timing fuel space fluidly connected with the first injected fuel space through a movable shuttle is filled with injection timing fuel, and a plunger varies the volume of the first injection timing fuel space; (b) a metering and distributing pump formed with injection fuel outputs and injection timing fuel outlets corresponding in number to the cylinders of the engine for discharging fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine; (c) fuel metering valves for metering fuel flowing into the second injected fuel space and second injection timing fuel space respectively; (d) pipes for fluidly connecting the first injected fuel space and first injection timing fuel space of the main pump for injecting fuel with the injected fuel outlets and injection timing fuel outlets of the metering and distributing pump respectively; and (e) a rocker arm mechanism for driving the plunger of the main pump for injecting fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine.

  10. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsbos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1993-07-27

    A high-pressure pump is described for a fuel injection system having a fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a relatively constant pressure to the pump, the pump comprising: a pump body having a pumping chamber defined therein; a mechanically driven linearly reciprocating plunger disposed in the pumping chamber, the plunger having a head end and a tail end, the plunger being linearly reciprocatable over a stroke range between an extended position and a retracted position, the pumping chamber extending beyond the extended position of the plunger to define a head portion of the pumping chamber; plunger spring means for resiliently biasing the plunger to its retracted position; an inlet valve disposed in the pump body for admitting fuel to the pumping chamber within the stroke range of the head end of the plunger; inlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the inlet valve to a closed position, the inlet valve being opened by a pressure differential when the head end of the plunger is retracted; an outlet valve disposed in the pump body for discharging fuel from the head portion of the pumping chamber; and outlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the outlet valve to a closed position; the inlet valve being a ball valve; a piston, the pump body further defining therein a leakage accumulator chamber, the leakage accumulator chamber being slidably divided by the piston into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, the posterior portion being at substantially atmospheric pressure, the collector groove communicating with the anterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber, recaptured fuel from the fuel injection nozzles also being communicated to the anterior portion of the accumulator chamber; and piston spring means for resiliently biasing the piston away from the posterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber.

  11. Fuel Lubricity Requirements for Diesel Injection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    8. Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218 (AD A...injection pumps. The unitest pump stand and test equipment specification are described in more detail in the report by Montemayor and Owens*. A schematic...operation. * Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218

  12. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  13. Centrifugal pump fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    McGlone, M.E.; Larkins, L.J.; Johnson, R.O.; Moeller, K.A.

    1993-06-22

    A centrifugal pump fuel system for an engine driven fuel pump for an aircraft gas turbine engine is described comprising: a centrifugal pump having at constant speed rising head/flow characteristic at low flows; a plumbing system receiving flow from the pump, and having at least one control valve located down stream of and defining a discrete volume of the plumbing system; a plumbing resonant frequency defined by the discrete volume, the geometry of the plumbing system, and the bulk modulus of the fuel; a pressure difference regulating valve located adjacent to the discharge of the pump, up stream of the vast majority of the discrete volume; and the frequency response of the regulating valve being significantly less than the frequency response of the plumbing system such that the response of the regulating valve is attenuated at the resonant frequency of the plumbing system.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  15. Turbine shaft fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a turbine engine having a support housing, a shaft rotatably mounted in the support housing, an annular combustion chamber coaxial with the shaft and the support housing, the shaft having an axial passageway, injector nozzles aligned for discharging fuel into the combustion chamber, and means for pumping and metering a supply of fuel to the injector nozzles, the pumping and metering means. It comprises a flow passageway extending from a first end of the shaft axial passageway and to the injector nozzles the flow passageway comprising an annular chamber formed between two axially spaced and radially inwardly extending walls in the shaft, the annular chamber is open to the axial passageway while a periphery of the annular chamber is open to the injector nozzles, and pumping vanes disposed in the annular chamber, the vanes being secured to the shaft so that, upon rotation of the shaft, the vanes provided pressurized fuel from the passageway to the injectors.

  16. Fuel pumping system and method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng ,

    2006-12-19

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  17. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  18. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  19. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  20. Solenoid-valve-controlled fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a solenoid-valve-controlled fuel injection device comprising: a fuel injection pump having a pump cylinder, a plunger rotatably and reciprocably disposed in the pump cylinder in a fluid-tight manner and defining a fuel pressurization chamber between a distal end of the plunger and the pump cylinder, a drive shaft rotatable in synchronism with an output shaft of an internal combustion engine, means responsive to rotation of the drive shaft for reciprocably displacing the plunger to pressurize fuel in the pressurization chamber, and a fuel chamber for being supplied with fuel from a fuel tank in response to rotation of the drive shaft, whereby the pressurized fuel can be fed into cylinders of the internal combustion engine; a solenoid valve for selectively opening and closing a communication passage by which the pressurization chamber and the fuel chamber communicate with each other; valve opening delay time detecting means for detecting a valve opening delay time of the solenoid valve; valve closing delay time detecting means for detecting a valve closing delay time of the solenoid valve; valve closing period calculating means for calculating a valve closing time of the solenoid valve according to operating conditions of the internal combustion engine; target fuel injection time calculating means for calculating a target fuel injection time according to the operating conditions of the internal combustion engine.

  1. Fuel injection control apparatus for use to engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Kano, H.; Ohmori, T.

    1987-06-30

    A fuel injection control apparatus is described for use in an engine comprising: a compression plunger driven in response to fuel injection timing which corresponds to the rotation of an engine; a compression pump chamber which is filled with fuel and whose volume is compressed when the compression plunger is driven; an injection plunger driven by fuel which is pushed out of the compression pump chamber by the operation of the compression plunger; an injection pump chamber defined by the injection plunger; means for filling the injection pump chamber with fuel whose amount has been determined in accordance with the conditions of the operation of the engine; a timing plunger slidable between a stop position and a full position, the amount of fuel the filling means provides to the injection pump chamber cooperating with the injection plunger to mechanically set the timing plunger at the full position corresponding to the amount of fuel to be injected. The timing plunger contacts the face on which the fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts at the full position when the compression plunger is not driven, the fuel in the compression pump chamber moves the timing plunger as fuel is pushed out of the compression pump chamber. The fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts on the injection plunger when the timing plunger is moved to the stop position; and fuel injection means, responsive to the operation of the compression plunger, for moving the timing plunger from the full position to the stop position, then raising the pressure of the compression pump chamber to drive the injection plunger. In this high pressure state it delivers the fuel in the injection pump chamber and injects it into an engine cylinder.

  2. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Herth, H.; Kraus, B.; Sautter, W.; Wessel, W.

    1983-03-15

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes electromagnetic injection valves controlled by a fuel control unit which receives signals from a camshaft actuated switch, a position-dependent throttle transducer and an oxygen sensor. When the oxygen sensor changes output levels, the transmission of this information is delayed, by the action of a switching transistor controlled by a monostable multivibrator, for a period of time equal to the internal time constant of the multivibrator.

  3. Fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nishimaki, H.; Omori, T.; Sekijima, H.

    1988-07-26

    A fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine is described including: a compression plunger, defining a compression pump chamber and driven in accordance with the rotation of the engine, for expelling fuel filled in the compression pump chamber; an injection plunger, which defines an injection pump chamber and is driven by the pressure of the fuel expelled from the compression pump chamber, a quantity of fuel determined to correspond with engine conditions being filled in the injection pump chamber; a fuel injector to which the fuel filled in the injection pump chamber is supplied in accordance with an operation of the injection plunger, and which is opened by the pressure of the fuel to inject the quantity-controlled fuel; a timing passage which communicates with the compression pump chamber and is closed when compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression pump chamber, the delta port being closed by the compression plunger after the timing passage is closed, when the compression plunger is driven, so that an increase of fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber is delayed until after fuel is discharged from the compression pump chamber and the timing passage is closed.

  4. A LH2 engine fuel system on board - Cold GH2 injection into two-stroke engine with LH2 pump

    SciTech Connect

    Furuhama, S.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    An LH2-tank with a range of 400 km was installed in the rear trunk of a small passenger car in June, 1980. Tests demonstrated the overall feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled car: the tank attained a maximum power 20% to 20% higher than its gasoline counterpart and about twice as high as those of premixed engines. There was no backfire or knocking, and a very low NOx emission level was achieved by injecting -30 to -50 C cold hydrogen gas, pressurized by an LH2-pump, into the two-stroke engine. The LH2-pump was developed by the Musashi Institute of Technology the barrel and the plunger are made of metal and a durable, low friction material, respectively. The plunger clearance was reduced to about 3 microns under operating conditions, thereby making fuel leakage from the plunger clearance negligible. Proper tank pressures were obtained according to the pump speed. The maximum speed of the car was recorded at 135 km/h. Future objectives include the production of an engine with a higher compression ratio through the development of a high pressure pump having a discharge pressure above 6 MPa, and the improvement of the heat insulation performance of the LH2-tank.

  5. Variable stroke, electronically controlled fuel injection control system

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, C.G.

    1987-02-17

    A fuel injection control system is described comprising an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft, a fuel supply, a spill valve in fluid communication with the fuel supply, a fuel injection nozzle, a fuel pump comprising a piston and cylinder, the cylinder in fluid communication with the fuel injection nozzle and the spill valve, means for actuating the fuel pump piston comprises means for actuating the fuel pump piston to achieve a constant velocity relative to angular rotation of the crankshaft for the piston during the delivery portion of the pumpstroke during the travel of the piston in the cylinder, means for closing the spill valve when the piston, during the delivery portion of the pumpstroke, reaches a first predetermined position in the fuel pump cylinder and opening the spill valve when the piston, during the delivery portion, reaches a second predetermined position in the fuel pump cylinder.

  6. Diesel engine fuel injection system with a rate-of-injection control arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Izawa, A.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump for delivering a controlled quantity of high pressure fuel cyclically at a timing synchronized with the operation of the engine; (b) a fuel injection nozzle hydraulically connected to the injection pump for receiving high pressure fuel therefrom and injecting the fuel into an engine cylinder; (c) means for controlling a rate of injection of the system in response to operating conditions of the engine; and (d) passage means for providing, during each delivery stroke of the pump plunger, fluid communication between the pumping chamber and the variable volume chamber only for a predetermined initial phase of the delivery stroke. The variable volume chamber is hydraulically isolated from the pumping chamber during subsequent phases of the delivery stroke.

  7. Development of a turbine in-tank fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Shinoda, K.

    1987-01-01

    Considerations have been made on using turbine pumps as in-tank fuel pumps for electronic flue injection systems (EFI). Flow channel dimension values, which had not been previously used for these types of pumps, were found to be very suitable for use as a fuel pump. The oil film visualization method was used to observe the flow pattern within the pump, and the results served to improve the flow channel shape. This contributed to designing a compact and efficient high-pressure fuel pump.

  8. Injection pump with radially mounted spill control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine,. The method comprises: a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plunger has outward fuel tank strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charge of fuel. The improvement consists of the spill valve means which comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor oriented transversely to the axis of the rotor and connected to the charge pump through pump passage means and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore; and the spill control mechanism.

  9. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  10. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  11. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  12. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  13. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel...

  14. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  15. Fuel injection system electromagnetic-valve controlled type

    SciTech Connect

    Oshizawa, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    1989-01-31

    A fuel injection system for an engine is described including: (a) a fuel injection pump having a pump housing, a plunger associated with the pump housing and reciprocatively movable in relation to rotation of a crankshaft of the engine, and a fuel pressurizing chamber associated with the pump housing and variable in volume in response to reciprocative movement of the plunger; (b) supply passage means supplying fuel to the fuel pressurizing chamber, the supply passage means being closed substantially during a forward stroke of the plunger and being opened substantially during a backward stroke of the plunger; (c) forcible-delivery passage means connecting the fuel pressurizing chamber to at least one fuel injection nozzle of the engine; (d) release passage means communicating with the fuel pressurizing chamber.

  16. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  17. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  18. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  19. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  20. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements...

  1. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section...

  2. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section...

  3. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section...

  4. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section...

  5. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section...

  6. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, S.; Yamada, K.; Kushida, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection apparatus including a fuel injection pump which is adapted to carry out fuel intake, fuel pressurization, fuel injection and draining of cut-off fuel in accordance with the reciprocal movement of a plunger. The plunger is driven in synchronization with the rotational operation of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a first storing means for temporarily storing cut-off fuel drained at the same time of the termination of the fuel injection; a second storing means of changeable volume for temporarily storing fuel for intake, the second storing means having a movable member which is movable in response to the quantity of fuel introduced therein; a detecting means for producing a detection signal relating to the amount of fuel stored in the second storing means; a clamping means responsible to an electric signal for clamping the movable member; and a signal producing means for producing at least one condition signal relating to the operating condition of the internal combustion engine.

  7. Electromagnetically controlled distributor-type fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Levin, M.B.; Dutcher, W.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    With the advent of electronic controls and development of electromagnetically controlled fuel injection pumps, the cost of fuel systems using plunger-type pumps was substantially reduced. Further reduction in cost can be achieved if fewer solenoid valves are used. A new type of injection pump combining electromagnetic spill control principle with distributor-type operation is described. A review of the basic concept and operating principles is given, and test results as well as cost considerations are discussed.

  8. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, P.J.; Hilshos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a high-pressure pump for the injectors of an electronically controlled fuel system. It comprises: a pump body having a chamber therein, a reciprocal plunger in the chamber having a fixed stroke, a solenoid operated normally closed metering inlet valve for metering fuel into the chamber, a normally closed discharge valve, both of the valves being located within the pump body and closing respective fuel ports communicating with the chamber at one end of the plunger and means for controlling the amount of fuel discharged by the pump comprising an electronic control for the solenoid-operated valve to determine the time that the valve is held open during the intake stroke of the plunger; and a supply pump for delivering fuel at a relatively fixed pressure to the metering inlet valve.

  9. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ishiwata, H.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines is described comprising: a fuel injection pump which has a plunger caused to carry out a least reciprocal movement in a predetermined pattern in a bore formed in a plunger barrel to pressurize fuel in the plunge barrel and at least one control sleeve fitted on the plunger, a first actuator for regulating the position of the control sleeve to regulate the fuel injection rate; a second actuator for regulating the position of the plunger to regulate the fuel injection quantity; a first means responsive to at least one condition signal indicating the operating condition of the internal combustion engine for drivingly controlling the first and second actuators in such a way that the optimum fuel injection rate and fuel injection quantity can be obtained at each instant; a detecting means for detecting any trouble occurring in the control system for regulating the position of the control sleeve; and a second means for limiting the control operation by the first means so that an excessive rise in the inner pressure of the cylinders in the internal combustion engine is prevented when the occurrence of trouble is detected by the detecting means.

  10. Fuel injection valve for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, T.

    1987-01-13

    A fuel injection valve is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a nozzle holder having a fuel inlet port formed therein and connected to an injection pipe extending from a fuel injection pump; a nozzle body supported by the nozzle holder and having at least one nozzle hole and a pressure chamber formed therein at an end thereof remote from the nozzle holder. The pressure chamber is more remote from the injection pipe than the fuel inlet port. A fuel passage means is formed in the nozzle holder and the nozzle body and extends between the fuel inlet port and the pressure chamber. A nozzle needle is mounted within the nozzle body and liftable and returnable to open and close the nozzle hole, respectively, in response to an increase and a decrease in the pressure of fuel supplied into the pressure chamber. A nozzle spring means urges the nozzle needle in a direction of closing the nozzle hole. A central plunger is disposed in the nozzle holder for displacement in unison with the nozzle needle through a whole lifting stroke thereof. The central plunger has one end remote from the nozzle needle, the one end having an end face thereof disposed to receive pressure within the injection pipe through the fuel inlet port to thereby impart an urging force to the nozzle needle in the direction of closing the nozzle hole.

  11. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  12. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  13. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  14. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  15. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating...

  16. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T

    1937-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  17. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  18. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  19. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  20. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  1. Fuel injection control based on spill port opening timing correction

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, M.; Miyaki, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kobashi, M.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a fuel injection control system for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump including: a pump chamber; a low pressure chamber; plunger means reciprocating in synchronism with rotation of the engine for introducing fuel into the pump chamber, and for feeding the fuel under pressure from the pump chamber to a cylinder of the engine, detector means for detecting a reference position of the plunger, and for generating a detection signal indicative of the reference position, and a spill port coupled to the pump chamber and in communication with the low pressure chamber, (b) solenoid valve means for opening and closing the spill port; (c) first circuit means including first and second adjusting resistors, the first circuit means being replaceably disposed on the fuel injection pump; (d) first control means for calculating a fuel injection time period according to operating conditions of the engine; (e) second control means including second circuit means comprising first and second fixed resistors, the first fixed resistor being connected to the first adjusting resistor so as to produce a first voltage signal corresponding to a ratio of a resistance value of the first adjusting resistor to a resistance value of the first fixed resistor.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  3. The relationship between fuel lubricity and diesel injection system wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Paul I.

    1992-01-01

    Use of low-lubricity fuel may have contributed to increased failure rates associated with critical fuel injection equipment during the 1991 Operation Desert Storm. However, accurate quantitative analysis of failed components from the field is almost impossible due to the unique service history of each pump. This report details the results of pump stand tests with fuels of equal viscosity, but widely different lubricity. Baseline tests were also performed using reference no. 2 diesel fuel. Use of poor lubricity fuel under these controlled conditions was found to greatly reduce both pump durability and engine performance. However, both improved metallurgy and fuel lubricity additives significantly reduced wear. Good correlation was obtained between standard bench tests and lightly loaded pump components. However, high contact loads on isolated components produced a more severe wear mechanism that is not well reflected by the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator.

  4. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  5. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  6. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  7. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  8. 14 CFR 27.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 27.991 Section 27.991 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.991 Fuel pumps. Compliance...

  9. Effect of Viscosity on Fuel Leakage Between Lapped Plungers and Sleeves and on the Discharge from a Pump-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1935-01-01

    Test data and analysis show that the rate of fuel leakage between a lapped plunger and sleeve varies directly with the density of the fuel, the diameter of the plunger, the pressure producing the leakage, and the cube of the mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve. The rate varies inversely as the length of the lapped fit and the viscosity of the fuel. With a mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve of 0.0001 inch the leakage amounts to approximately 0.2 percent of the fuel injected with gasoline and as low as 0.01 percent with diesel fuel oils. With this mean clearance an effective seal is obtained when the length of the lap is three times the diameter of the lap. The deformation of the sleeve and plunger under pressure is sufficient to change the rate of leakage appreciably from that which would be obtained if the clearance was constant under pressure.

  10. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    injected, turbo- charged, air- water intercooled engine which employs a fuel- lubricated high pressure common rail pump , and piezo- electric fuel injectors...military fuels. Many of these modern HPCR systems utilize fuel-lubricated high pressure pumps , and can generate upwards of 2000-bar fuel rail pressures...steps were allowed to meet their own steady state temperatures. In addition, engine oil sump temperature was dictated by an internal jacket water

  11. Air-assist fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Klomp, E.D.

    1987-09-15

    An air-assist fuel injection nozzle is described for use in discharging fuel into an associate combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The injection nozzle includes a nozzle body means. The straight walled spray tip portion has a plurality of radial discharge orifices extending. An axial bore in the body means extends from the opposite end to define a bushing, a needle plunger reciprocably received in the bushing between a fully raised position and a fully depressed position corresponding to the end of a suction stroke and the end of a pump stroke, respectively. The needle plunger has a radial supply passage and a radial discharge ports angularly aligned with the radial discharge orifices, wherein the discharge ports are in flow communication with the blind bore. The needle plunger and the interior portion of the enclosed end of the nozzle body means define a variable volume pump chamber. The nozzle body means includes a supply passage means with a check valve in fluid communication with the radial supply passage when the needle plunger is in the raised position. The opposite end of the supply passage means is to sequentially receive a metered quantity of pressurized fuel, and the needle plunger allows aeriform fluid flow from the combustion chamber into the pump chamber. The needle plunger blocks flow through the radial discharge orifices until such time as the needle plunger has moved a predetermined axial extent so that the radial discharge ports come into alignment with the radial discharge orifices to initiate an air-assist discharge of air, fuel vapors and fuel from the radial discharge orifices.

  12. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel-injection system. 36.22 Section 36.22 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... reach the injection pump or injectors....

  13. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Ian; Tatro, Clement A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  14. Solenoid pumps for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D A; Johnson, K S

    1996-08-01

    Methods employing flow injection analysis (FIA), particularly for in situ seawater techniques, would benefit from reduction in pump size and power requirement, longer maintenance intervals, and the ability to incorporate microprocessor control of each reagent and sample flow stream. In this work, the peristaltic pump of a conventional FIA system was replaced by three solenoid-driven diaphragm pumps with integral Viton check valves, and the system was tested by performing the simple nitrite analysis, which has well-defined FIA performance characteristics. Sixty injections per hour were possible with flow rates of 0.5 mL/min for reagents and sample. The coefficient of variation was 1% for 10 μM NO(2)(-) concentrations, and the detection limit was less than 0.1 μM NO(2)(-). These values match the reported performance for this method using peristaltic pumps.

  15. Current Injection Pumping of Organic Light Emitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-28

    MOT-OOO1AF I Current Injection Pumping of Organic Light Emitters Prepared by DI Jeffrey C. Buchholz E L ri: 8 James P. Stec OCT C "t989 Mary C...Schutte Micro -Optics Technologies, Inc. 8608 University Green #5 Middleton, WI 53562 28 September 1989 D,:?UqflON SA2". N’.’ _ Disuibunon Uanu-ted Contract...Title Report Date Current Injection Pumping of Organic Light Emitters 28 September 1989 Authors Jeffrey C. Buchholz, James P. Stec, Mary C. Schutte

  16. Details of the Construction and Production of Fuel Pumps and Fuel Nozzles for the Airplane Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubenetsky, W S

    1936-01-01

    This report presents investigations into the design and construction of fuel pumps for diesel engines. The results of the pump tests on the engines showed that, with a good cut-off, accurate injection, assured by the proper adjustment of the pump elements, there is a decrease in the consumption of fuel and hence an increase in the rated power of the engine. Some of the aspects investigated include: cam profile, coefficient of discharge, and characteristics of the injection system.

  17. Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi; Ryzhii, Maxim; Mitin, Vladimir

    2013-12-04

    We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

  18. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  19. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  20. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  1. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  2. Multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Eugen; Raney, Michael Raymond

    2004-07-06

    A multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump for a vehicle includes a housing having an inlet and an outlet and a motor disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump also includes a shaft extending axially and disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump further includes a plurality of pumping modules disposed axially along the shaft. One of the pumping modules is a turbine pumping module and another of the pumping modules is a gerotor pumping module for rotation by the motor to pump fuel from the inlet to the outlet.

  3. Plasma Fueling, Pumping, and Tritium Handling Considerations for FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Gentile, C.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1999-11-13

    Tritium pellet injection will be utilized on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) for efficient tritium fueling and to optimize the density profile for high fusion power. Conventional pneumatic pellet injectors, coupled with a guidetube system to launch pellets into the plasma from the high, field side, low field side, and vertically, will be provided for fueling along with gas puffing for plasma edge density control. About 0.1 g of tritium must be injected during each 10-s pulse. The tritium and deuterium will be exhausted into the divertor. The double null divertor will have 16 cryogenic pumps located near the divertor chamber to provide the required high pumping speed of 200 torr-L/s.

  4. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement....

  5. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement....

  6. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement....

  7. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement....

  8. 33 CFR 183.566 - Fuel pumps: Placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.566 Fuel pumps: Placement. Each fuel pump must be on the engine it serves or within 12 inches of the engine, unless it is a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps: Placement....

  9. Sizing of an aircraft fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.

    1995-06-01

    A need to pump a mixture of two-phase fluid appears naturally in many situations. One example of this situation is aircraft fuel systems, where the pump inlet may have two-phase mixture due to the desorption of the dissolved gases at low pressures at higher altitudes. A simple procedure of selecting proper design conditions for the inlet inducer and a method of sizing the inducer, impeller and volute to meet all the design requirements has been described. This procedure has also been applied to a typical fighter plane boost pump design.

  10. Fluidized-Solid-Fuel Injection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William

    1992-01-01

    Report proposes development of rocket engines burning small grains of solid fuel entrained in gas streams. Main technical discussion in report divided into three parts: established fluidization technology; variety of rockets and rocket engines used by nations around the world; and rocket-engine equation. Discusses significance of specific impulse and ratio between initial and final masses of rocket. Concludes by stating three important reasons to proceed with new development: proposed engines safer; fluidized-solid-fuel injection process increases variety of solid-fuel formulations used; and development of fluidized-solid-fuel injection process provides base of engineering knowledge.

  11. Hypermixer Pylon Fuel Injection for Scramjet Combustors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-11

    wall cavities, intrusive geometries like pylons and struts , or a combination thereof. The type of fuel injection strategy largely depends on the...be affixed to combustor walls or placed on intru- sive geometries like struts or pylons. Wall injection comes with an inherent combustor airflow...only one wall . Using in-stream struts and pylons as fueling devices has been a common practice in scramjet design. Much research continues to be

  12. High pressure electronic common-rail fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, T.M.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes an electromagnetically actuated fuel pump for a diesel engine fuel injection. It comprises a body adapted to receive fuel from a source; a rotatable camshaft supported in the body so as to be rotatable about an axis, and having a pair of cam lobes including a first cam lobe and a second cam lobe adapted to rotate in an annular path about the axis of rotation of the camshaft; at least one pair of reciprocating pumping elements mounted in the body perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft, each of the pumping elements including an elongated plunger having an axial passage including a first end and a second end; and means for fluidly connecting the pumping elements to fuel injection means for passing fuel under pressure thereto in response to rotation of the camshaft.

  13. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  14. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  15. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  16. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  17. The study on injection parameters of selected alternative fuels used in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balawender, K.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Lew, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents selected results concerning fuel charging and spraying process for selected alternative fuels, including regular diesel fuel, rape oil, FAME, blends of these fuels in various proportions, and blends of rape oil with diesel fuel. Examination of the process included the fuel charge measurements. To this end, a set-up for examination of Common Rail-type injection systems was used constructed on the basis of Bosch EPS-815 test bench, from which the high-pressure pump drive system was adopted. For tests concerning the spraying process, a visualisation chamber with constant volume was utilised. The fuel spray development was registered with the use of VisioScope (AVL).

  18. 3. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. West side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. West side of tanks. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  19. 4. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. Detail of a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. Detail of a vertical tank. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  20. 1. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. East side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. East side of tanks. View to northwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  1. 2. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. North side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Bulk fuel tanks and pump station. North side of tanks. View to southwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Bulk Tanks & Pump Station, 90 feet northeast of Office & Warehouse Building, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  2. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR`s and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ``natural zinc`` plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry.

  3. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  4. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  5. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  6. Injection System for Multi-Well Injection Using a Single Pump

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Protus, Thomas J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Many hydrological and geochemical studies rely on data resulting from injection of tracers and chemicals into groundwater wells. The even distribution of liquids to multiple injection points can be challenging or expensive, especially when using multiple pumps. An injection system was designed using one chemical metering pump to evenly distribute the desired influent simultaneously to 15 individual injection points through an injection manifold. The system was constructed with only one metal part contacting the fluid due to the low pH of the injection solutions. The injection manifold system was used during a three-month pilot scale injection experiment at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site. During the two injection phases of the experiment (Phase I = 0.27 L/min total flow, Phase II = 0.56 L/min total flow), flow measurements were made 20 times over three months; an even distribution of flow to each injection well was maintained (RSD <4%). This durable system is expandable to at least 16 injection points and should be adaptable to other injection experiments that require distribution of air-stable liquids to multiple injection points with a single pump. PMID:26140014

  7. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOEpatents

    Upatnieks, Ansis

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  8. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

  9. Pump for supplying pressurized fuel to fuel injector of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Abe, S.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a pump for supplying pressurized fuel to a fuel injector of an internal combustion engine comprising: a pump body having a bore; a plunger slidably disposed in the bore, the plunger and the bore forming a pump chamber enlarging and contracting according to displacement of the plunger in the bore. The pump chamber is connected to the fuel injector and holds fuel to be supplied to the fuel injector, the pump chamber sucking fuel from a reservoir when increasing in volume thereof and discharging the fuel when reducing in volume thereof so that pressurized fuel is supplied to the fuel injector. The plunger is provided with a transmitting member; means for urging the plunger in a direction that the plunger reduces the volume of the pump chamber, the urging means having means for applying a substantially constant force. The urging means is a pressure supply mechanism supplying highly pressurized air into the pump body; and a cam rotating in synchronization with rotation of the engine, the cam engaging with the transmitting member for part of the cycle of rotation of the engine so that the plunger increases the volume of the pump chamber. The cam releases the plunger in the remaining cycle of rotation of the engine to allow the urging means to urge the plunger so that the plunger displaces in a direction to reduce the volume of the pump chamber.

  10. Fuel Vapor Pressures and the Relation of Vapor Pressure to the Preparation of Fuel for Combustion in Fuel Injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.

  11. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  12. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  13. Apparatus and method for reducing vehicular fuel pump noise

    SciTech Connect

    Nashif, A.D.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a vehicular fuel pump system including a fuel pump and at least one fuel line mounted inside a fuel tank, noise reduction means. It comprises: a passive vibrator mounted inside the tank to the line, at a position on the line at which the line vibrates at substantially its maximum amplitude, the vibrator comprising spring means mounting a weight to the line, the vibrator having a mass and the spring means having stiffness and damping values selected to cause the vibrator to vibrate resonantly when the line vibrates, out of phase with respect to the vibration of the line and at an amplitude of sufficient magnitude to at least partially reduce the vibration of the line, the vibrator being connected to the pump and tank only through the line.

  14. Effects of physical properties of fuels on diesel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Henein, N.A.; Jawad, B.; Gulari, E. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the physical properties of the fuel, such as density, viscosity, surface tension, and bulk modulus of elasticity that affect many aspects of the diesel injection process. The effects of these fuel properties on the fuel pressure in the high-pressure line, rate of injection, leakage, spray penetration, and droplet size distribution were determined experimentally. The mechanism of spray development was investigated by injecting the fuel into a high-pressure chamber. A pulsed Malvern drop-size analyzer, based on Fraunhofer diffraction, was utilized to determine droplet size ranges for various fuels.

  15. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  16. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  17. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95-2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Alleman, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing fuel diversity in the marketplace, the Coordinating Research Council and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a survey of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) in the market. A total of 73 fuel samples were collected from 20 retail stations. To target Class 4 volatility, the fuel samples were collected primarily in the midwestern United States in the month of February. Samples included the gasoline (E0), Flex Fuel, and every MLEB that was offered from each of the 20 stations. Photographs of each station were taken at the time of sample collection, detailing the pump labeling and configuration. The style and labeling of the pump, hose, and dispenser nozzle are all important features to prevent misfueling events. The physical location of the MLEB product relative to the gasoline product can also be important to prevent misfueling. In general, there were many differences in the style and labeling of the blender pumps surveyed in this study. All samples were analyzed for volatility and ethanol content. For the MLEB samples collected, the fuels tended to be lower in ethanol content than their indicated amount; however, the samples were all within 10 vol% of their indicated blend level. One of the 20 Flex Fuel samples was outside of the allowable limits for ethanol content. Four of the 20 Flex Fuel samples had volatility below the minimum requirement for Class 4.

  18. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  19. Dynamic characteristic investigation on the fuel pressure of diesel engines electronic in-line pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, You; Yuan, Zhi-Guo; Fan, Li-Yun; Tian, Bin-Qi

    2010-12-01

    The electronic in-line pump (EIP) is a complex system consisting of mechanical, hydraulic, and electromagnetic parts. Experimental study showed that the fuel pressure of the plunger and the fuel drainage of the pressure system after fuel injection could result in fuel pressure fluctuation in the low pressure system. Such fluctuation exhibited pulsating cycle fluctuation as the amplitude rose with the increase of the injection pulse width. The time domain analysis found that the pressure time history curve and injection cylinders corresponded with a one-to-one relationship. By frequency domain analysis, the result was that with the increase of the working cylinder number, the high frequency amplitude gradually increased and the basic frequency amplitude gradually decreased. The conclusion was that through wavelet transformation, the low pressure signal simultaneously moved towards low frequency as the high frequency of the wavelet transformation signal with the working cylinder number increased. Lastly, by using the numerical model, the study investigated the simulation research concerning the relationship of the fluctuation dynamic characteristic in the low pressure system and the fuel injection characteristic of the high pressure system, completing the conclusions obtained by the experimental study.

  20. Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.W.; Abdul.Hye, A.B.M.

    1983-10-25

    A pump for injecting chemicals into a well employs a pivot arm for synchronous movement with a well pump. The pivot arm causes reciprocation of a plunger within the body of the chemical pump. The plunger, during its upward stroke causes the entry of chemicals from an outside source into the pump body and, during its downward stroke, causes the exiting of the chemicals into the well. (2 claims.

  1. View from southwest to northeast of fuel oil pump station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of fuel oil pump station, showing cooling towers to right. The tops of liquid nitrogen storage tanks A & B can be seen above the station roof. In the foreground, left to right, can be seen the covers for diesel fuel tanks no's 9 (structure #819), 8 (#818), 7 (#817), and 6 (#816). At right of center, next to the station, are no's 1 (#803) and 2 (#804). In the distant background are no's 3 (#806), 4 (#807), 5 (#808). No's 3 and 4 are 12,000-gallon tanks, the rest hold 50,000 gallons each - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fuel Oil Pump Station, In Limited Access Area between Service Roads A & D, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. Electronic fuel injection for gas engine/compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Wertheimer, H.P.

    1998-12-31

    Conventional gas engine/compressors use cam operated fuel injectors. Fuel delivery to the engine is controlled by throttling the pressure to the fuel gas manifold that feeds the injectors. A mechanical or electronic governor regulates the position of the throttle. Power cylinder balance is adjusted with manual valves in the fuel feed pipes to each injector. This paper describes a recently introduced electronic fuel gas injection (EFGI{trademark}) system that modulates fuel delivery by controlling the open duration of the injectors. Balancing is achieved by electronically apportioning the pulses to the individual injectors. The camshaft, pushrods, rocker arms, cam followers, and balance valves, as well as the separate governor and throttle are not needed when EFGI is applied to two stroke engines. The system`s most striking feature is its ability to rebalance an engine in minutes. Emission reductions stem from balanced power cylinders, and optimized injection timing, which enhances fuel air mixing.

  3. Effects of Fuel Temperature on Injection Process and Combustion of Dimethyl Ether Engine.

    PubMed

    Guangxin, Gao; Zhulin, Yuan; Apeng, Zhou; Shenghua, Liu; Yanju, Wei

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of fuel temperature on the injection process in the fuel-injection pipe and the combustion characteristics of compression ignition (CI) engine, tests on a four stroke, direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine were conducted. Experimental results show that as the fuel temperature increases from 20 to 40 °C, the sound speed is decreased by 12.2%, the peak line pressure at pump and nozzle sides are decreased by 7.2% and 5.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the injection timing is retarded by 2.2 °CA and the injection duration is extended by 0.8 °CA. Accordingly, the ignition delay and the combustion duration are extended by 0.7 °CA and 4.0 °CA, respectively. The cylinder peak pressure is decreased by 5.4%. As a result, the effective thermal efficiency is decreased, especially for temperature above 40 °C. Before beginning an experiment, the fuel properties of DME, including the density, the bulk modulus, and the sound speed were calculated by "ThermoData." The calculated result of sound speed is consistent with the experimental results.

  4. Lean direct wall fuel injection method and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kyung J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel combustion chamber, and a method of and a nozzle for mixing liquid fuel and air in the fuel combustion chamber in lean direct injection combustion for advanced gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines. Liquid fuel in a form of jet is injected directly into a cylindrical combustion chamber from the combustion chamber wall surface in a direction opposite to the direction of the swirling air at an angle of from about 50.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a tangential line of the cylindrical combustion chamber and at a fuel-lean condition, with a liquid droplet momentum to air momentum ratio in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.12. Advanced gas turbines benefit from lean direct wall injection combustion. The lean direct wall injection technique of the present invention provides fast, uniform, well-stirred mixing of fuel and air. In addition, in order to further improve combustion, the fuel can be injected at a venturi located in the combustion chamber at a point adjacent the air swirler.

  5. Fueling efficiency of pellet injection on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Maingi, R.; Lasnier, C.J.; Ali Mahdavi, M.

    1998-05-01

    Pellet injection has been used on the DIII-D tokamak to study density limits and particle transport in H-mode and inner wall limited L-mode plasmas. These experiments have provided a variety of conditions in which to examine the fueling efficiency of pellets injected into DIII-D plasmas. The fueling efficiency defined as the total increase in number of plasma electrons divided by the number of pellet fuel atoms, is determined by measurements of density profiles before and just after pellet injection. The authors have found that there is a decrease in the pellet fueling efficiency with increased neutral beam injection power. The pellet penetration depth also decreases with increased neutral beam injection power so that, in general, fueling efficiency increases with penetration depth. The fueling efficiency is generally 25% lower in ELMing H-mode discharges than in L-mode due to an expulsion of particles with a pellet triggered ELM. A comparison with fueling efficiency data from other tokamaks shows similar behavior.

  6. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin

    Break-up and atomization of liquid fuel jet during transient injection process has a significant effect on the Diesel engine combustion efficiency and pollution. The mechanisms responsible for liquid jet instability and break-up at high pressure, during the transient start-up and steady mass flux periods, has been investigated using Navier-Stokes and level-set computations. Via post-processing, the role of vorticity dynamics is examined and shown to reveal crucial new insights. An unsteady, axisymmetric full-jet case is solved. Then, a less computationally intensive case is studied with a segment of the jet core undergoing temporal instability; agreement with the full-jet calculation is satisfactory justifying the segment analysis for three-dimensional computation. The results for surface-shape development are in agreement with experimental observations and other three-dimensional computations; the initial, axisymmetric waves at the jet surface created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability distort to cone shapes; next, three-dimensional character develops through an azimuthal instability that leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity, lobe shapes on the cones, and formation of liquid ligaments which extend from lobes on the cones. The cause of this azimuthal instability has been widely described as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, additional and sometimes more important causes are identified here. Counter-rotating, streamwise vortices within and around the ligaments show a relationship in the instability behavior for jets flowing into like-density fluid; thus, density difference cannot explain fully the three-dimensional instability as previously suggested. Furthermore, the formation of ligaments that eventually break into droplets and the formation of streamwise vorticity are caused by the same vortical dynamics. Waviness is identified on the ligaments which should result in droplet formation. The nonlinear development of the shorter azimuthal waves and

  7. Effectiveness of Additives in Improving Fuel Lubricity and Preventing Pump Failure at High Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the specified 1,700 rpm, the housing pressure on pump No. 1 dropped significantly. Fuel began spewing out of test stand gear box and the pump seized...UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF ADDITIVES IN IMPROVING FUEL LUBRICITY AND PREVENTING PUMP FAILURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERIM REPORT TFLRF...UNCLASSIFIED EFFECTIVENESS OF ADDITIVES IN IMPROVING FUEL LUBRICITY AND PREVENTING PUMP FAILURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 437

  8. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  9. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  10. System and method for injecting fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2012-12-04

    According to various embodiments, a system includes a staggered multi-nozzle assembly. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly includes a first fuel nozzle having a first axis and a first flow path extending to a first downstream end portion, wherein the first fuel nozzle has a first non-circular perimeter at the first downstream end portion. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly also includes a second fuel nozzle having a second axis and a second flow path extending to a second downstream end portion, wherein the first and second downstream end portions are axially offset from one another relative to the first and second axes. The staggered multi-nozzle assembly further includes a cap member disposed circumferentially about at least the first and second fuel nozzles to assemble the staggered multi-nozzle assembly.

  11. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  12. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same

    DOEpatents

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-02-21

    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein the fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.

  13. Multiplexed electrospray scaling for liquid fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, C. Mike; Hanrahan, Brendan; Lee, Ivan

    2010-10-01

    Evaporation and space-charge requirements are evaluated to understand the effect of device scaling and fuel preheating for a liquid fuel injector using a multiplexed electrospray (MES) configuration in compact combustion applications. This work reveals the influence of the droplet diameter, droplet velocity and droplet surface temperature as well as the surrounding gas temperature on the size and performance of microfabricated MES. Measurements from MES devices are used in the model to accurately account for the droplet diameter versus flow rate relationship, the minimum droplet diameter and the relevant droplet velocities. A maximum extractor electrode to ground electrode distance of 3.1 mm required to overcome space-charge forces is found to be independent of voltage or droplet velocity for large levels of multiplexing. This maximum distance also becomes the required evaporation length scale which imposes minimum fuel pre-heating requirements for large flow densities. Required fuel preheating is therefore evaluated for both ethanol and 1-butanol with combustor parameters relevant to fuel reformation, thermoelectric conversion, thermophotovoltaic conversion and thermionic conversion.

  14. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  15. Noise optimization of a regenerative automotive fuel pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. F.; Feng, H. H.; Mou, X. L.; Huang, Y. X.

    2017-03-01

    The regenerative pump used in automotive is facing a noise problem. To understand the mechanism in detail, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Acoustic Analysis (CAA) together were used to understand the fluid and acoustic characteristics of the fuel pump using ANSYS-CFX 15.0 and LMS Virtual. Lab Rev12, respectively. The CFD model and acoustical model were validated by mass flow rate test and sound pressure test, respectively. Comparing the computational and experimental results shows that sound pressure levels at the observer position are consistent at high frequencies, especially at blade passing frequency. After validating the models, several numerical models were analyzed in the study for noise improvement. It is observed that for configuration having greater number of impeller blades, noise level was significantly improved at blade passing frequency, when compared to that of the original model.

  16. 30 CFR 36.22 - Fuel-injection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.22 Fuel-injection system. This system shall be...

  17. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  18. Some Characteristics of Fuel Sprays at Low-injection Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.

  19. Analytical design curves to maximize pumping or minimize injection in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Park, Namsik; Cui, Lei; Shi, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Explicit algebraic equations are derived to determine approximate maximum pumping rates or minimum injection rates to limit sea water intrusion to a prespecified distance from the coastline. The equations are based on Strack's (1976) single-potential solution. The maximum pumping rates and minimum injection rates applied at wells with uniform spacing to control the inland movement of the fresh water-salt water interface in a coastal aquifer could be calculated from Strack's (1976) solution without the need of a numerical optimization algorithm. When wells are distributed in a simple fashion, the maximum intrusion location can be identified precisely for pumping cases and approximately for injection cases. For pumping cases, critical points are the limit of allowable salt water intrusion, whereas no such limit exists for injection cases. Once an application site is identified, a series of design curves for pumping and injection rates can be developed for arbitrary intrusion limits. When a user is interested only in the largest pumping rates associated with critical points, one design curve can yield complete information.

  20. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces

  1. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves. PMID:22163597

  2. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  3. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps D Appendix D...—Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps The technical requirements specified in this appendix apply to... shakedown. (f) Project economic assessment. Provide a report that describes the costs and revenues of...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps D Appendix D...—Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps The technical requirements specified in this appendix apply to... shakedown. (f) Project economic assessment. Provide a report that describes the costs and revenues of...

  5. On the Possibility of Condensation during Supercritical Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lu; Reitz, Rolf

    2014-11-01

    Supercritical fuel injection into a nitrogen environment was simulated using Peng-Robinson equation of state. The real gas simulation was found to match the experimental injectant density much better than the ideal gas simulation, emphasizing the importance of applying realistic equation of state model. Possible fuel condensation processes were also investigated by considering the stability of the single phase by utilizing fundamental thermodynamics principles. Several conclusions from the experiments are also seen from the simulations. First, though both the injection and chamber pressures are above the critical pressure of the injectant, condensation can become possible as long as their temperature difference is large enough, and when this occurs, the fluid is able to enter the two-phase region. Condensation is found to be enhanced when the chamber temperature is further reduced, indicating that the fluid is in a state further away from the phase border. In addition, the newly formed condensed phase is found to exist only in the jet boundary where there are strong interactions between the ``hot'' injectant and the ``cold'' nitrogen. Finally, it was concluded that the local strong heat and mass exchange sent the mixture into the two-phase region by crossing the dew point line with the commencement of condensation. The research work was sponsored by Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories through the Advanced Engine Combustion Program (MOU 04-S-383).

  6. Numerical Study of a Fuel Centrifugal Pump with Variable Impeller Width for Aero-engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Guan, Huasheng; Ye, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    As typical pump with large flow rate and high reliability, centrifugal pumps in fuel system of aero-engines mostly regulate flow rate by flow bypass, which leads to low efficiency and large fuel temperature rise especially at low flow rate. An innovative fuel centrifugal pump with variable impeller width is a more effective way to regulate flow rate than flow bypass. To find external characteristics of the centrifugal pump with variable impeller width proposed in this paper, flow domain within the pump is simulated numerically and some primary performance parameters and their correlation are analyzed. Results show that flow rate of the pump can be regulated by variable impeller width and that efficiency for this scheme is higher than that for flow bypass. The higher outlet static pressure the pump runs at, the wider range of flow rates can be obtained with stronger nonlinear relationship between flow rate and impeller width.

  7. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOEpatents

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  8. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  9. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  10. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  11. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  12. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOEpatents

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann; DeLancey, James Peter; Primus, Roy James; Pintgen, Florian Peter

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  13. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  14. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Electric Fuel Pump Condition Monitor System Using Electricalsignature Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D [Knoxville, TN; Cox, Daryl F [Knoxville, TN; Welch, Donald E [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-09-13

    A pump diagnostic system and method comprising current sensing probes clamped on electrical motor leads of a pump for sensing only current signals on incoming motor power, a signal processor having a means for buffering and anti-aliasing current signals into a pump motor current signal, and a computer having a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting motor current signatures from the motor current signal to determine pump health using integrated motor and pump diagnostic parameters.

  16. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  17. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  18. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  19. A Compact Flexible Pellet Injection System for Fueling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2000-10-01

    A compact pellet injection system is being designed and built at ORNL to provide a flexible pellet fueling system for studies in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The system known as a ``pellet injector in a suitcase (PIS)'' is a pipe gun device with four barrels that uses a cryocooler for in-situ hydrogenic pellet formation. The system is being built to provide a flexible, low-cost fueling system that can be used on a number of plasma confinement experiments with minimal installation and operation costs. components in the system. It will use both propellant gas and a mechanical punch to accelerate the 1 - 4 mm size pellets to 100-1500 m/s. With the mechanical punch alone a low speed pellet, useful for curved guide tube applications, can be produced with minimal gas load eliminating the need for a large ballast volume. can be independently fired. diagnose the injector. The PIS is a flexible tool for fueling alternative concept devices such as MST and NSTX and for specialized studies in mainline tokamak experiments such as DIII-D and JET. The small size makes installation on such devices more feasible. of the system design and the expected performance will be presented.

  20. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  1. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  2. Analysis of flushing injection performance in a reciprocating plunger slurry pump

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    One of the major machinery problems encountered during operation of the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant was the relatively short life of the packing in the coal slurry reciprocating plunger pump. The cause of the short packing life was wear created by coal particles. Flushing oil was injected in the throat bushing on a portion of the plunger stroke to limit coal intrusion. To understand the effect of flush oil injection and the effect of the various pump design parameters on the flushing system, a mathematical model was developed by which the fluid dynamics of the throat bushing/plunger annulus could be analyzed. The transient equations of motion were solved numerically to yield the fluid velocity profile and the path of a given coal particle. The pressure gradient was evaluated iteratively from the imposed net flow rate condition which accounted for the flushing and leakage flow rates. Utilizing the model, a comparison was made between suction synchronized flushing and discharge synchronized flushing for various assumed leakage rates. The analysis showed that suction synchronized flushing was superior to discharge synchronized flushing. When the model was applied to ECLP's slurry pumps, it was found that for the pump with a throat bushing clearance length of 2.5 inches, the solids would enter the packing for practically any leakage rate. This was in good agreement with ECLP field experience. For the pump with a throat bushing clearance length of eight inches, the analysis indicated that at leakage rates as high as five gallons per hour solids would still not have entered the packing area. This was also in good agreement with ECLP field experience. Thus, it seems that the analytical model can be used in evaluating various design parameters as well as serving as a design tool for full scale slurry pumps.

  3. 78 FR 70240 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) 2011-26- 04 that applies to certain Lycoming Engines fuel injected reciprocating engines. AD 2011-26-04 requires inspection, replacement if necessary, and proper clamping of...

  4. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  5. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  6. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  7. Numerical investigation of the impact of asymmetric fuel injection on shock train characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Bin; Chang, Juntao; Jiao, Xiaoliang; Bao, Wen; Yu, Daren

    2014-12-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the impact of asymmetric fuel injection on shock train characteristics using the commercial-code FLUENT. The asymmetry of fuel injection is examined by changing the fuel flow rates of the upper and lower wall fuel injectors. The numerical approach solves the two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, supplemented with a k-ω model of turbulence. As a result, different ways of fuel injections will always lead to shock train transitions, with the variations of shock train structure, strength and leading edge position. For symmetric fuel injection, the flowfield of the isolator is quite asymmetric with the boundary layer of the upper wall side developing much stronger than that of the lower wall, which is due to the heterogeneity of the incoming flow. Regarding to asymmetric fuel injection with more of lower wall side, though the pressures in the combustor are nearly the same, the first shock of the shock train converts between 'Distinct symmetric X type shock' and 'Obscure and weaker asymmetric shock' and the shock train leading edge moves upstream with the increase of the asymmetry level. With regard to asymmetric fuel injection with more of upper wall side, 'incomplete asymmetric X type shock' occurs and the shock train structures keep nearly the same with low level of fuel injection asymmetry. Unexpected results like unstart will happen when increasing the level of fuel injection asymmetry. And the isolator will come back to normal state by decreasing the differential of upper and lower wall sides fuel injections.

  8. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. The existing AD currently requires inspection, replacement if necessary, and proper clamping of externally mounted fuel injector fuel lines. That AD also exempts engines that have...

  9. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  10. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  11. The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.

    2012-11-01

    Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.

  12. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  13. Fracture control of H-O engine components. [titanium tin alloy fuel pump impellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain the material characterization and fatigue crack propagation data necessary to establish the salient characteristics of a Ti-6Al-2.5Sn(ELI) alloy fuel pump impeller to be used in a cryogenic service environment. Testing variables considered were: coupon orientation, frequency, load range ratio, and temperature. Data analysis correlated crack propagation data from conventional laboratory coupons with data from a parallel sided rotating disk used to model rotor stresses. Four major design recommendations when bore regions of fuel pump impellers to be operated in cryogenic environments are to be relatively highly stressed are discussed.

  14. Spin-injection optical pumping of molten cesium salt and its NMR diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-15

    Nuclear spin polarization of cesium ions in the salt was enhanced during optical pumping of cesium vapor at high magnetic field. Significant motional narrowing and frequency shift of NMR signals were observed by intense laser heating of the salt. When the hyperpolarized salt was cooled by blocking the heating laser, the signal width and frequency changed during cooling and presented the phase transition from liquid to solid. Hence, we find that the signal enhancement is mostly due to the molten salt and nuclear spin polarization is injected into the salt efficiently in the liquid phase. We also show that optical pumping similarly induces line narrowing in the solid phase. The use of powdered salt provided an increase in effective surface area and signal amplitude without glass wool in the glass cells.

  15. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  16. A review of contamination related hydraulic pump problems in Japanese injection molding, extrusion and rubber molding industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira

    1997-12-31

    It is known that contamination of hydraulic oil is one of the major factors causing hydraulic pump problems. Many test reports on contaminant sensibility of hydraulic pumps have been published with new oil and standard dusts but the results of these tests could not guarantee to predict in-service performance. This report describes three cases investigated. The first investigation was done on hydraulic pumps used for injection molding machines application. The causes of pump problems were examined by analysis of maintenance records. The second investigation was performed to determine overhaul frequency of hydraulic pumps used for aluminum extruders. By introducing a new method of hydraulic oil management which reduces oil oxidation products, pump life was extended from 3,000 to 15,000 hours. The third investigation was done to determine the relationship between pump problems and contamination levels of hydraulic oils of 411 rubber molding machines for 20 months. The results showed that pump problems appeared at half the recommended oil lifetimes for these fluids. These studies showed that the cause of pump problems was clogging of suction strainers leading to pump cavitation. The clogged strainers were washed with several different solvents to identify the causes of suction strainer clogging. Clogging of suction strainers was attributable to sticky oxidation products of hydraulic oils. Electrostatic oil cleaners removed not only micron range solid particles bu also submicron size particles. Hydraulic pump problems have been substantially reduced by introducing this new method of contamination control.

  17. Plasma technology for increase of operating high pressure fuel pump diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovev, R. Y.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a change in the service life of high pressure fuel pumps of diesel engines on the working surface of the plunger which a wear resistant dielectric plasma coatings based on silicon oxycarbonitride. Such coatings possess high wear resistance, chemical inertness and low friction.

  18. ADM. Fuel Pump House (TAN611). Elevations, floor plan. Drawing includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Fuel Pump House (TAN-611). Elevations, floor plan. Drawing includes elevation and plans for "H.M." structures (Hose Storage?). Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-611-A 78 Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0611-00-693-106741 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. IET. Fuel transfer pumping building (TAN625). Elevations, foundation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Fuel transfer pumping building (TAN-625). Elevations, foundation. Detail of access stairway to coupling station. Ralph M. Parsons 902-a-ANY-620-625-A&S 414. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0625-00-693-106971 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Parks, P.B.

    1999-06-14

    Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.

  1. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  2. Effect of combustor geometry and fuel injection scheme on the combustion process in a supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zun; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Bai, Xue-Song

    2016-12-01

    The combustion process in a hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor with a rearwall-expansion cavity was investigated numerically under inflow conditions of Ma=2.52 with stagnation pressure P0=1.6 Mpa and stagnation temperature T0=1486 K. The numerical solver was first evaluated for supersonic reactive flows in a similar combustor configuration where experimental data is available. Wall-pressure distribution was compared with the experiments, and grid independency analysis and chemical mechanism comparison were conducted. The numerical results showed fairly good agreements with the available experimental data under supersonic combustion conditions. Then the numerical solver was used to study the effects of combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and injection equivalence ratio on the combustion process. It was found that under the same fuel injection condition, the combustor configuration with a rearwall-expansion cavity is in favor of the supersonic combustion mode and present better ability of thermal choking prevention than the other combustor configurations. For the rearwall-expansion cavity combustor, the supersonic flow field was found to be sensitive to the injector position and injection scheme, but not highly sensitive to the injection pressure. Besides, rearwall-expansion cavity with the combined fuel injection scheme (with an injection upstream the cavity and a direct injection on the rear wall) is an optimized injection scheme during the flame stabilization process.

  3. Modelling and simulation of a dual-clutch transmission vehicle to analyse the effect of pump selection on fuel economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlawat, R.; Fathy, H. K.; Lee, B.; Stein, J. L.; Jung, D.

    2010-07-01

    Positive displacement pumps are used in automotive transmissions to provide pressurised fluid to various hydraulic components in the transmission and also lubricate the mechanical components. The output flow of these pumps increases with pump/transmission speed, almost linearly, but the transmission flow requirements often saturate at higher speeds, resulting in excess flow capacity that must be wasted by allowing it to drain back to the sump. This represents a parasitic loss in the transmission leading to a loss in fuel economy. To overcome this issue, variable displacement pumps have been used in the transmission, where the output flow can be reduced by controlling the displacement of the pump. The use of these pumps in automatic transmissions has resulted in better fuel economy as compared with some types of fixed displacement pumps. However, the literature does not fully explore the benefits of variable displacement pumps to a specific type of transmission namely, dual-clutch transmission (DCT), which has different pressure and flow requirements from an epicyclic gear train. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of pump selection on fuel economy in a five-speed DCT of a commercial vehicle. Models of the engine, transmission, and vehicle are developed along with the models of two different types of pumps: a fixed displacement gerotor pump and a variable displacement vane pump. The models are then parameterised using experimental data, and the fuel economy of the vehicle is simulated on a standard driving cycle. The results suggest that the fuel economy benefit obtained by the use of the variable displacement pump in DCTs is comparable to the benefit previously shown for these pumps in automatic transmissions.

  4. Low NPSH process pumps solve instability problems in fuel-grade ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, R.B.; Gaines, A.

    1984-12-01

    South Point Ethanol, one of the nation's largest producers of denatured ethyl alcohol for blending with motor fuels, encountered severe instability problems with certain pumps when the plant in South Point, Ohio went on-stream in September 1982. The ethanol is produced by fermenting the starch in cooked corn and other grains. Two 4 x 3'' centrifugal pumps with 13'' casing and 11'' impellers were originally installed to transfer the 185/sup 0/F slurry of cooked grain, or mash, through a series of coolers and into the fermenters. The single stage pumps were driven by 3600 rpm motors to provide flow rates to 600 gpm and up to 480' tdh, but developed instability problems due to the high tip speed of the 11'' impellers. The pumps transferring the degassed beer were replaced with pumps which feature a semi-open reverse vane impeller that is specifically designed to minimize stuffing box pressure and provide superior performance when operating at very low net positive suction head (NPSH) with volatile and near-boiling fluids. Two 6 x 4 x 10'' pumps with the reverse vane, low NPSH impeller were purchased to replace the 4 x 3 x 13'' mash transfer pumps that had to be overhauled about once a week. The new pumps were installed on the same bases and are driven by the original 3600 rpm electric motors. The four pumps have provided smooth, trouble-free transfer of the hot mash and degassed beer for over a year without any replacement parts or other than routine maintenance. The plant currently operates about 40 of the pumps in sizes from 1 1/2 x 1 x 6'' to 10 x 8 x 16'' to provide flow rates to 825 gpm and up to 490' tdh in various applications.

  5. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  6. Fuel Injection Strategy for a Next Generation Pulse Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Fuel is fed to the injectors from a fuel tank which is pressure regulated with nitrogen. Pressurized hydraulic fluid is supplied to the injectors...of total pressure losses, and the removal of auxiliary oxygen system previously required to initiate a detonation wave in fuel-air mixtures within...development of a new design, in particular the reduction of total pressure losses, and the removal of auxiliary oxygen system previously required

  7. Gravity gradiometry difference measurement as a tool for monitoring pumping and injection; forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, R.; Edwards, A.

    1997-08-01

    Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use.

  8. Unit fuel injector and system therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Roosa, V.D.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a unit fuel injector for an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, an associated cylinder head and a cam shaft driven by the engine. The injector unit consists of: an injection nozzle received in a bore in the cylinder head, the nozzle including an injection valve and a discharge tip at one end to inject pressurized fuel into the cylinder; an injector housing having a pair of generally parallel, laterally offset, overlapping, contiguous bores, the housing being adapted to be mounted to the engine and the housing receiving the injection nozzle in one of the bores; a fuel injection pump mounted in the housing and including a pump plunger actuable by the cam shaft; a fuel inlet in the housing including a fuel inlet passage in the housing in communication with the pump chamber to supply fuel under low pressure to the pump chamber.

  9. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment.

  10. Effects of supercritical environment on hydrocarbon-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Bongchul; Kim, Dohun; Son, Min; Koo, Jaye

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effects of environment conditions on decane were investigated. Decane was injected in subcritical and supercritical ambient conditions. The visualization chamber was pressurized to 1.68 MPa by using nitrogen gas at a temperature of 653 K for subcritical ambient conditions. For supercritical ambient conditions, the visualization chamber was pressurized to 2.52 MPa by using helium at a temperature of 653 K. The decane injection in the pressurized chamber was visualized via a shadowgraph technique and gradient images were obtained by a post processing method. A large variation in density gradient was observed at jet interface in the case of subcritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions. Conversely, for supercritical injection in supercritical ambient conditions, a small density gradient was observed at the jet interface. In a manner similar to that observed in other cases, supercritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions differed from supercritical ambient conditions such as sphere shape liquid. Additionally, there were changes in the interface, and the supercritical injection core width was thicker than that in the subcritical injection. Furthermore, in cases with the same injection conditions, the change in the supercritical ambient normalized core width was smaller than the change in the subcritical ambient normalized core width owing to high specific heat at the supercritical injection and small phase change at the interface. Therefore, the interface was affected by the changing ambient condition. Given that the effect of changing the thermodynamic properties of propellants could be essential for a variable thrust rocket engine, the effects of the ambient conditions were investigated experimentally.

  11. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to 100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06 microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

  12. A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Razavipour, S. G. Xu, C.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Ban, D.; Dupont, E.; Laframboise, S. R.; Chan, C. W. I.; Hu, Q.

    2014-01-27

    A Terahertz quantum cascade laser with a rather high injection coupling strength based on an indirectly pumped scheme is designed and experimentally implemented. To effectively suppress leakage current, the chosen quantum cascade module of the device is based on a five-well GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As structure. The device lases up to 151 K with a lasing frequency of 2.67 THz. This study shows that the effect of higher energy states in carrier transport and the long-range tunnel coupling between states that belong to non-neighbouring modules have to be considered in quantum design of structures with a narrow injector barrier. Moreover, the effect of interface roughness scattering between the lasing states on threshold current is crucial.

  13. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  14. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  15. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  16. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  17. J-2X Fuel Pump Impeller Seal Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmauch, Preston B.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the previously cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. The rotor-dynamic stability of the fuel turbopump is highly dependent on the tangential velocity of the fluid as it enters the the front face impeller seal. Rotor-dynamic analysis predicts that a much lower tangential velocity will be required for stability than was needed for previous engines. The geometry at the seal entrance for this engine is very complex and vastly different than previous engines. In order to better determine the fluid dynamics and tangential velocity in this seal several CFD simulations were performed. The results of these simulations show that for this seal geometry a great reduction in the tangential velocity is to be expected. The simulations also provided insight into methods that could be employed to drive the swirl velocity to near zero. Unsteady and time-averaged results of several simulations will be presented.

  18. Photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fiber with weak signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan-Nan, Liu; Yu-Hong, Liu; Jia-Min, Li; Xiao-Ying, Li

    2016-07-01

    We study the photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fibers with weak coherent signal injection by measuring the intensity correlation functions of individual signal and idler fields. The experimental results show that the intensity correlation function of individual signal (idler) field decreases with the intensity of signal injection. After applying narrow band filter in signal (idler) band, the value of decreases from 1.9 ± 0.02 (1.9 ± 0.02) to 1.03 ± 0.02 (1.05 ± 0.02) when the intensity of signal injection varies from 0 to 120 photons/pulse. The results indicate that the photon statistics changes from Bose-Einstein distribution to Poisson distribution. We calculate the intensity correlation functions by using the multi-mode theory of four-wave mixing in fibers. The theoretical curves well fit the experimental results. Our investigation will be useful for mitigating the crosstalk between quantum and classical channels in a dense wavelength division multiplexing network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11527808), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2014CB340103), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120032110055), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 14JCQNJC02300), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China, and the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B07014).

  19. 90% pump depletion and good beam quality in a pulse-injection-seeded nanosecond optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Smith, A. V.

    2006-02-01

    We measured 90% pump depletion in a singly resonant image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator that was pulse-injection seeded by a self-generated signal pulse. The oscillator was pumped by an 8 ns duration single-frequency 532 nm pulse from an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and resonated an 803 nm signal. The pump and pulsed-seed beams had flat-topped spatial fluence profiles with diameters of approximately 6 mm, giving a cavity Fresnel number at 803 nm approaching 400. The beam cleanup effects of the image-rotating cavity produce a far-field signal spatial fluence profile with approximately 60% of its energy falling within the diffraction-limited spot size.

  20. Study on Improving Partial Load by Connecting Geo-thermal Heat Pump System to Fuel Cell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Hydrogen piping, the electric power line, and exhaust heat recovery piping of the distributed fuel cells are connected with network, and operational planning is carried out. Reduction of the efficiency in partial load is improved by operation of the geo-thermal heat pump linked to the fuel cell network. The energy demand pattern of the individual houses in Sapporo was introduced. And the analysis method aiming at minimization of the fuel rate by the genetic algorithm was described. The fuel cell network system of an analysis example assumed connecting the fuel cell co-generation of five houses. When geo-thermal heat pump was introduced into fuel cell network system stated in this paper, fuel consumption was reduced 6% rather than the conventional method

  1. Atomization of liquid fuels. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, R

    1925-01-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a nozzle to inject fuel into an engine. The design of the nozzle is open, without any compulsory or automatic stop-valve. The fuel injection is regulated simply by the pressure and the adjustment of the fuel pump.

  2. [The effect of combining intra-aortic balloon pumping with tianma injection on myocardial ischemic-reperfusional injury in goats].

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Xiao, J; Liu, Q; Wang, Z; Li, S; Zhang, L; Xue, Z

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of combined Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping (I-ABP) and Tianma Injection on necrotic area in goat myocardial ischemic-reperfusional models which were established by two hours ischemia and a follow-up reperfusion. The results showed that the combined effect of IABP and Tianma Injection was more significant than that of IABP or Tianma separately. It is suggested that IABP and Tianma Injection have synergetic effect on the limitation of necrotic area, which possibly results from their mechanisms for decreasing the size of infarct.

  3. Large Eddy Simulation Of The Fuel Injection In Scramjet Combustion Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, R. J. R.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-05-01

    Fuel injection in a typical scramjet combustion chamber is a very challenging flow to characterise either in experimental or computational studies. It involves multi- species compressible turbulent features with complex coherent flow structures arising as a result of sonic fuel injection transverse or inclined to the free-stream super- sonic flow. In this paper the fuel injection in the HyShot- II combustion chamber is studied using an Implicit LES method employing a modified very high order accurate numerical method. To gain accurate mean inflow boundary conditions, a thermally perfect gas formulation has been employed in preliminary simulations of the inlet ramp and cowl configuration. The results of these simulations are presented and validated against wind tunnel data.

  4. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  5. Mixing enhancement in a scramjet combustor using fuel jet injection swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesberg, Sonja M.

    The scramjet engine has proven to be a viable means of powering a hypersonic vehicle, especially after successful flights of the X-51 WaveRider and various Hy-SHOT test vehicles. The major challenge associated with operating a scramjet engine is the short residence time of the fuel and oxidizer in the combustor. The fuel and oxidizer have only milliseconds to mix, ignite and combust in the combustion chamber. Combustion cannot occur until the fuel and oxidizer are mixed on a molecular level. Therefore the improvement of mixing is of utmost interest since this can increase combustion efficiency. This study investigated mixing enhancement of fuel and oxidizer within the combustion chamber of a scramjet by introducing swirl to the fuel jet. The investigation was accomplished with numerical simulations using STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamic software. The geometry of the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility was used to model the isolator, combustor and nozzle of a scramjet engine for simulation purposes. Experimental data from previous research at the facility was used to verify the simulation model before investigating the effect of fuel jet swirl on mixing. The model used coaxial fuel jet with a swirling annular jet. Single coaxial fuel jet and dual coaxial fuel jet configurations were simulated for the investigation. The coaxial fuel jets were modelled with a swirling annular jet and non-swirling core jet. Numerical analysis showed that fuel jet swirl not only increased mixing and entrainment of the fuel with the oxidizer but the mixing occurred further upstream than without fuel jet swirl. The burning efficiency was calculated for the all the configurations. An increase in burning efficiency indicated an increase in the mixing of H2 with O2. In the case of the single fuel jet models, the maximum burning efficiency increase due to fuel injection jet swirl was 23.3%. The research also investigated the possibility that interaction between two

  6. Syn-Fuel reciprocating charge pump improvement program. Quarterly technical project report, April-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Major accomplishments during the second quarter of 1984 were completion of the Diaphragm Separation Seal clear liquid testing, and initiation of Phase III Field Testing. Diaphragm operational testing was conducted on a clear water test loop. The test goals were to ensure; mechanical reliability of the Diaphragm Seal, safe operation with simulated component failure, and proper operation of the Diaphragm Buffer Volume Control System. This latter system is essential in controlling the phasing of the diaphragm with its driving plunger. These tests were completed successfully. All operational problems were solved. However, it must be emphasized that the Diaphragm Seal would be damaged by allowing the pump to operate in a cavitating condition for an extended period of time. A change in the Field Test phase of the program was made regarding choice of field test site. There is no operating Syn-Fuel pilot plant capable of inexpensively producing the slurry stream required for the reciprocating pump testing. The Field Tests will now be conducted by first testing the prototype pump and separation seals in an ambient temperature sand water slurry. This will determine resistence to abrasive wear and determine any operation problems at pressure over a lengthy period of time. After successful conclusion of these tests the pump and seals will be operated with a high temperature oil, but without solids, to identify any problems associated with thermal gradients, thermal shock and differential growth. After successful completion of the high temperature clean oil tests the pump will be deemed ready for in-line installation at a designated Syn-Fuel pilot plant. The above approach avoids the expense and complications of a separate hot slurry test loop. It also reduces risk of operational problems while in-line at the pilot plant. 5 figs.

  7. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-03-24

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes a plurality of tube assemblies, wherein each of the tube assemblies includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. Each tube assembly includes a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream portion to the downstream portion or from the upstream portion through the downstream portion. At least one injection system is coupled to at least one tube assembly of the plurality of tube assemblies. The injection system includes a fluid supply member that extends from a fluid source to the downstream portion of the tube assembly. The fluid supply member includes a first end portion located in the downstream portion of the tube assembly, wherein the first end portion has at least one first opening for channeling fluid through the tube assembly to facilitate reducing a temperature therein.

  8. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  9. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  10. Cycle Performance of a Pulse Detonation Engine with Supercritical Fuel Injection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-23

    Franke (Member) date iv AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-M14 Abstract Pulse detonation engines ( PDE ) rely on rapid ignition and formation of...on detonation tubes one and four .................................................... 61 Figure 34. Diagram of PDE engine with supercritical fuel...the detonation tube of PDE for several fuel injection temperatures with a stoichiometric JP-8/air mixture with a frequency of 20 Hz and an ignition

  11. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  12. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  13. Data from pumping and injection tests and chemical sampling in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, S.M.; Janik, C.J.; Long, D.C.; Solbau, R.D.; Lienau, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A seven-week pumping and injection tests in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon, in 1983 provided new information on hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The Open-File Data Report on the tests includes graphs of water levels measured in 50 wells, temperature measurement in 17 wells , daily air-temperatures in relation to discharge of thermal water from more than 70 pumped and artesian wells, tables of monthly mean air temperatures and estimates of discharges of thermal water during a normal year, and tables of chemical and isotopic analyses on samples from 12 wells. The water-level measurements reflect the effects of pumping, injection, and recovery over about 1.7 square miles of the hot-well area of Klamath Falls. The pumped well, City Well No 1, and the injection well at the Klamath County Museum are components of a proposed District Heating Plan. The study was funded principally under contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Stanford University, and the Oregon Institute of Technology, with coordination and chemical sampling provided under the Geothermal Research Program, U.S. Geological Survey. Support was received from the City of Klamath Falls, Klamath County Chamber of Commerce, Citizens for Responsible Geothermal Development, and many citizen volunteers. (USGS)

  14. Injection nozzle materials for a coal-fueled diesel locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, R.L.; Leonard, G.L.; Johnson, R.N.; Lavigne, R.G.

    1990-12-31

    In order to identify materials resistant to coal water mixture (CWM) erosive wear, a number of materials were evaluated using both orifice slurry and dry air erosion tests. Both erosion tests ranked materials in the same order, and the most erosion resistant material identified was sintered diamond compact. Based on operation using CWM in a single-cylinder locomotive test, superhard nozzle materials such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, and perhaps TiB{sub 2} were found to be necessary in order to obtain a reasonable operating life. An injection nozzle using sintered diamond compacts was designed and built, and has operated successfully in a CWM fired locomotive engine.

  15. Effect of pumping delay on the modulation bandwidth in double tunneling-injection quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Asryan, Levon V

    2017-01-01

    The modulation bandwidth of double tunneling-injection (DTI) quantum dot (QD) lasers is studied, taking into account noninstantaneous pumping of QDs. In this advanced type of semiconductor lasers, carriers are first captured from the bulk waveguide region into two-dimensional regions (quantum wells [QWs]); then they tunnel from the QWs into zero-dimensional regions (QDs). The two processes are noninstantaneous and, thus, could delay the delivery of the carriers to the QDs. Here, the modulation bandwidth of DTI QD lasers is calculated as a function of two characteristic times (the capture time from the waveguide region into the QW and the tunneling time from the QW into the QD ensemble) and is shown to increase as either of these times is reduced. The capture and tunneling times of 1 and 0.1 ps, respectively, are shown to characterize fast capture and tunneling processes; as the capture and tunneling times are brought below 1 and 0.1 ps, the bandwidth remains almost unchanged and close to its upper limit.

  16. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. That AD currently requires inspection, replacement...

  17. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  18. Space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel pump aft platform seal cavity flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.

  19. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  20. A Comparison of Fuel Sprays from Several Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the tests results of a series of tests made of the sprays from 14 fuel injection nozzles of 9 different types, the sprays being injected into air at atmospheric density and at 6 and 14 times atmospheric density. High-speed spark photographs of the sprays from each nozzle at each air density were taken at the rate of 2,000 per second, and from them were obtained the dimensions of the sprays and the rates of spray-tip penetration. The sprays were also injected against plasticine targets placed at different distances from the nozzles, and the impressions made in the plasticine were used as an indication of the distribution of the fuel within the spray. Cross-sectional sketches of the different types of sprays are given showing the relative sizes of the spray cores and envelopes. The characteristics of the sprays are compared and discussed with respect to their application to various types of engines.

  1. Experimental Studies of Diestrol-Micro Emulsion Fuel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine under Varying Injection Pressures and Timings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Gopal Radhakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    The research work on biodiesel becomes more attractive in the context of limited availability of petroleum fuels and rapid increase of harmful emissions from diesel engine using conventional fossil fuels. The present investigation has dealt with the influence of biodiesel-diesel-ethanol (diestrol) water micro emulsion fuel (B60D20E20M) on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine under different injection pressure and timing. The results revealed that the maximum brake thermal efficiency of 32.4% was observed at an injection pressure of 260 bar and injection timing of 25.5°bTDC. In comparison with diesel, micro emulsion fuel showed reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) by 40 and 24%, respectively. Further, micro emulsion fuel decreased nitric oxide (NO) emission and smoke emission by 7 and 20.7%, while the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is similar to that of diesel.

  2. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  3. Performance of a Fuel-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Using a Hydrogenated Safety Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.

  4. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  5. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  6. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  7. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  8. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  9. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  10. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  11. Atomization and vaporization characteristics of airblast fuel injection inside a venturi tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, H.; Chue, T.-H.; Lai, M.-C.; Tacina, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical characterization of the capillary fuel injection, atomization, dispersion, and vaporization of liquid fuel in a coflowing air stream inside a single venturi tube. The experimental techniques used are all laser-based. Phase Doppler analyzer was used to characterize the atomization and vaporization process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence visualizations give good qualitative picture of the fuel droplet and vapor distribution. Limited quantitative capabilities of the technique are also demonstrated. A modified version of the KIVA-II was used to simulate the entire spray process, including breakup and vaporization. The advantage of venturi nozzle is demonstrated in terms of better atomization, more uniform F/A distribution, and less pressure drop. Multidimensional spray calculations can be used as a design tool only if care is taken for the proper breakup model, and wall impingement process.

  12. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  13. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  14. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less

  15. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for

  16. Investigation of spray characteristics for flashing injection of fuels containing dissolved air and superheated fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Chen, L. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The flow, atomization and spreading of flashing injector flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (jet/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon II) were considered. The use of a two stage expansion process separated by an expansion chamber, ws found to be beneficial for flashing injection particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  17. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  18. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  19. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  20. Significance of chamber pressure to complex multi-phase physics in jet engine fuel injection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Rainer; Oefelein, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Injection processes in jet engines at chamber pressures in excess of the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid fuel are not well understood. Under some conditions, a distinct two-phase interface may not exist anymore which eliminates the presence of classical spray atomization phenomena. A comprehensive model for jet engine fuel injections is derived to quantify the conditions under which the interfacial dynamics transition to diffusion-dominated mixing processes without surface tension. At certain conditions, the model shows two-phase interfaces with substantially increased thicknesses and distinctively reduced mean free paths in comparison to ambient pressure conditions. Then, the underlying assumptions of a distinct two-phase interface do not apply anymore and the interface along with its surface tension is shown to deteriorate as it broadens substantially. As a consequence of this physical complexity, the conceptual view of spray atomization and evaporation as an appropriate model for jet engine injection processes is, contrary to conventional wisdom, questionable at certain operating conditions. Instead, a Large Eddy Simulation using a dense-fluid approximation is applied which takes the complex thermo-physics of real-fluid behavior into account.

  1. Effect of sunflower oil on a diesel fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Schunk, S.; Pratt, G.

    1982-05-01

    A typical farm tractor diesel fuel system (injection pump, fuel lines, filters and injectors) was tested on a test stand at various temperatures using sunflower oil, diesel fuel, and mixtures of the two as fuels. Measurements taken included fuel volume delivered by the injector line pressure at the injector, pressure drop across the filter, transfer pump pressure, and fuel injection timing. Results indicate that low percentages of sunflower oil may be used successfully in the system under summer conditions. Design changes to the system may be necessary for higher percentages of sunflower oil and cold conditions.

  2. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple

  3. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  4. Comparative study on treatment satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple daily injection of insulin, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tara; Akle, Mariette; Nagelkerke, Nico; Deeb, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes management imposes considerable demands on patients. Treatment method used has an impact on treatment satisfaction. We aim to examine the relationship between treatment satisfaction and health perception with the method used for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Subjects and method: We have interviewed patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and health perception. Patients were divided into three groups based on treatment used: multiple daily injection, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy. Comparison of scores was done between the groups. Results: A total of 72 patients were enrolled (36 males). Mean age (standard deviation) was 11.4 (4.4) years and duration of diabetes of 4.9 (3.5) years. Mean (standard deviation) HbA1c was 8.1 (1.2). Median (range) duration of sensor use was 17.7 (3–30) days/month. Mean scale for treatment satisfaction and health perception questions was 25.3, 29.7 and 31.7 and 60, 79.7 and 81 for the multiple daily injection, pump and sensor-augmented pump, respectively (p = 0.00). Significant difference was seen between the multiple daily injection and both other groups. Sensor-augmented pump group scored higher than the pump group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Duration of sensor use showed no correlation with treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: The method used for diabetes treatment has an impact on patients’ satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pump users have a higher treatment satisfaction and better health perception than those on multiple daily injection. Augmenting pump therapy with sensor use adds value to treatment satisfaction without correlation with the duration of the sensors use. PMID:28321303

  5. Study on Model Based Combustion Control of Diesel Engine with Multi Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemura, R.; Yamasaki, Y.; Kaneko, S.

    2016-09-01

    A controller for model-based control of diesel engine with triple injection were developed with a combustion model. In the combustion model, an engine cycle is discretized into several representative points in order to improve calculation speed, while physical equations are employed to expand the versatility. The combustion model can predict in-cylinder pressure and temperature in these discrete points. Prediction accuracy of the combustion model was evaluated by comparison with experimental result. A controller was designed with the combustion model in order to calculate optimal fuel injection pattern for controlling in-cylinder pressure peak timing. The controller's performance was evaluated through simulation in which the combustion model was used as a plant model.

  6. Effects of Alternate Leading Edge Cutback on the Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Fuel Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulder, Andrew; Skelley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A higher order cavitation oscillation observed in the SSME low pressure fuel pump has been eliminated in water flow testing of a modified subscale replica of the inducer. The low pressure pump was modified by removing the outboard sections of two opposing blades of the four-bladed inducer, blending the "cutback" regions into the blades at the leading edge and tip, and removing material on the suction sides to decrease the exposed leading edge thickness. The leading edge tips of the cutback blades were moved approximately 25 degrees from their previous locations, thereby increasing one blade to blade spacing, decreasing the second, while simultaneously moving the cutback tips downstream. The test was conducted in MSFC's inducer test loop at scaled operating conditions in degassed and filtered water. In addition to eliminating HOC across the entire scaled operating regime, rotating cavitation was suppressed while the range of both alternate blade and asymmetric cavitation were increased. These latter phenomena, and more significantly, the shifts between these cavitation modes also resulted in significant changes to the head coefficient at low cavitation numbers. Reverse flow was detected at a slightly larger flow coefficient with the cutback inducer and suction capability was reduced by approximately 1 velocity head at and above approximately 90% of the reference flow coefficient. These performance changes along with more intense reverse flow are consistent with poor flow area management and increased incidence in the cutback region. Although the test demonstrated that the inducer modification was successful at eliminating the higher order cavitation across the entire scaled operating regime, different, previously unobserved, cavitation oscillations were introduced and significant performance penalties were imposed.

  7. Mixing of an Airblast-atomized Fuel Spray Injected into a Crossflow of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, May Y.; McDonell, Vincent G.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The injection of a spray of fuel droplets into a crossflow of air provides a means of rapidly mixing liquid fuel and air for combustion applications. Injecting the liquid as a spray reduces the mixing length needed to accommodate liquid breakup, while the transverse injection of the spray into the air stream takes advantage of the dynamic mixing induced by the jet-crossflow interaction. The structure of the spray, formed from a model plain-jet airblast atomizer, is investigated in order to determine and understand the factors leading to its dispersion. To attain this goal, the problem is divided into the following tasks which involve: (1) developing planar imaging techniques that visualize fuel and air distributions in the spray, (2) characterizing the airblast spray without a crossflow, and (3) characterizing the airblast spray upon injection into a crossflow. Geometric and operating conditions are varied in order to affect the atomization, penetration, and dispersion of the spray into the crossflow. The airblast spray is first characterized, using imaging techniques, as it issues into a quiescent environment. The spray breakup modes are classified in a liquid Reynolds number versus airblast Weber number regime chart. This work focuses on sprays formed by the "prompt" atomization mode, which induces a well-atomized and well-dispersed spray, and which also produces a two-lobed liquid distribution corresponding to the atomizing air passageways in the injector. The characterization of the spray jet injected into the crossflow reveals the different processes that control its dispersion. Correlations that describe the inner and outer boundaries of the spray jet are developed, using the definition of a two-phase momentum-flux ratio. Cross-sections of the liquid spray depict elliptically-shaped distributions, with the exception of the finely-atomized sprays which show kidney-shaped distributions reminiscent of those obtained in gaseous jet in crossflow systems. A droplet

  8. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  9. Electronic controlled fuel supply system for high pressure injector

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.L.; Perr, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an electronically controlled fuel supply system for supplying fuel and timing fluid to a plurality of fuel injectors in an internal combustion engine, wherein each of the injectors includes a hydraulic link formed by the timing fluid which cooperates with a serially arranged plunger assembly to pressurize the fuel to be injected wherein the hydraulic link may have a variable effective length in response to variations in pressure of the timing fluid supplied to the the injector, the fuel supply system. It includes pump means fluidically connected to a fuel reservoir for pumping fuel from the reservoir to fuel channel means for supplying fuel to the injections and to timing means for supplying timing fluid to the injectors at a sufficient flow rate and pressure to operate the system; valve means fluidically interposed between the pump means and the fuel channel means and the timing fluid channel means for regulating the fuel supply to the fuel channel means and to the timing fluid channel means; electronically controlled fuel pressure regulating means fluidically connected to the pump means and to the injectors for regulating the pressure of the fuel to be supplied through the fuel channel means to the injectors for controlling the quantity of fuel to be injected by the injector.

  10. Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis of the SSME/AT Fuel Pump First-Stage Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed structural dynamic analysis of the Pratt & Whitney high-pressure fuel pump first-stage turbine blades has been performed to identify the cause of the tip cracking found in the turbomachinery in November 1997. The analysis was also used to help evaluate potential fixes for the problem. Many of the methods available in structural dynamics were applied, including modal displacement and stress analysis, frequency and transient response to tip loading from the first-stage Blade Outer Gas Seals (BOGS), fourier analysis, and shock spectra analysis of the transient response. The primary findings were that the BOGS tip loading is impulsive in nature, thereby exciting many modes of the blade that exhibit high stress at the tip cracking location. Therefore, a proposed BOGS count change would not help the situation because a clearly identifiable resonance situation does not exist. The recommendations for the resolution of the problem are to maintain the existing BOGS count, eliminate the stress concentration in the blade due to its geometric design, and reduce the applied load on the blade by adding shiplaps in the BOGS.

  11. Discharge characteristics of a simulated unit injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Edred T

    1938-01-01

    Rate-of-discharge curves that show the discharge characteristics of an injection system having a very short fuel passage are presented. The rate of discharge closely follows the rate of displacement of the injection-pump plunger for open nozzles in which the maximum calculated pressures at the orifice do not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the particular injection pump. With small orifices and high pump speeds, the rate of discharge does not follow the rate of plunger displacement because the higher discharge pressure results in increased leakage with corresponding decrease in discharge rate. The rate of discharge is not directly related to the rate of plunger displacement with automatic injection valves having closed nozzles. The types of pump check valve tested did not control the rate of cut-off or the discharge rate but they did affect the injection lag. Use of the short fuel passage eliminated the formation of secondary discharges.

  12. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A; Pihl, Josh A; Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  13. Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

    2014-07-15

    The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures.

  14. EXEIS - Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    on Artificial Intellegence , Vol. I, pp. 246-249. 7. Johnston, D.M., 1985, Diagnosis of Wastewater Treatment Processes, Computer Applications in Water...Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based techniques and tools. By emulating human...modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the aquifer. Cost of installing and

  15. EXEIS Expert Screening and Optimal Extraction/Injection Pumping Systems for Short-Term Plume Immobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    problems in their fields of expertise. Interest in expert systems has grown rapidly with the emerging availability of artificial intelligence-based...immediate site. Methods of modification include construction of artificial barriers to groundwater flow and/or extraction/injection of water from/to the...aquifer. Cost of installing and maintaining the different types of artificial barriers varies greatly, as does their reliability. This 2 study

  16. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).

  17. Pressure Regulator With Internal Ejector Circulation Pump, Flow and Pressure Measurement Porting, and Fuel Cell System Integration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An advanced reactant pressure regulator with an internal ejector reactant circulation pump has been developed to support NASA's future fuel cell power systems needs. These needs include reliable and safe operation in variable-gravity environments, and for exploration activities with both manned and un manned vehicles. This product was developed for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power plant reactant circulation systems, but the design could also be applied to other fuel cell system types, (e.g., solid-oxide or alkaline) or for other gas pressure regulation and circulation needs. The regulator design includes porting for measurement of flow and pressure at key points in the system, and also includes several fuel cell system integration options. NASA has recognized ejectors as a viable alternative to mechanical pumps for use in spacecraft fuel cell power systems. The ejector motive force is provided by a variable, high-pressure supply gas that travels through the ejector s jet nozzle, whereby the pressure energy of the fluid stream is converted to kinetic energy in the gas jet. The ejector can produce circulation-to-consumption-flow ratios that are relatively high (2-3 times), and this phenomenon can potentially (with proper consideration of the remainder of the fuel cell system s design) be used to provide completely for reactant pre-humidification and product water removal in a fuel cell system. Specifically, a custom pressure regulator has been developed that includes: (1) an ejector reactant circulation pump (with interchangeable jet nozzles and mixer sections, gas-tight sliding and static seals in required locations, and internal fluid porting for pressure-sensing at the regulator's control elements) and (2) internal fluid porting to allow for flow rate and system pressure measurements. The fluid porting also allows for inclusion of purge, relief, and vacuum-breaker check valves on the regulator assembly. In addition, this regulator could also

  18. Some Factors Affecting the Reproducibility of Penetration and the Cut-Off of Oil Sprays for Fuel-injection Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author)

  19. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  20. Regression rate study of porous axial-injection, endburning hybrid fuel grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.

    This experimental and theoretical work examines the effects of gaseous oxidizer flow rates and pressure on the regression rates of porous fuels for hybrid rocket applications. Testing was conducted using polyethylene as the porous fuel and both gaseous oxygen and nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Nominal test articles were tested using 200, 100, 50, and 15 micron fuel pore sizes. Pressures tested ranged from atmospheric to 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 207 kPa to 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests, and oxidizer injection velocities ranged from 35 m/s to 80 m/s for the gaseous oxygen tests and from 7.5 m/s to 16.8 m/s for the nitrous oxide tests. Regression rates were determined using pretest and posttest length measurements of the solid fuel. Experimental results demonstrated that the regression rate of the porous axial-injection, end-burning hybrid was a function of the chamber pressure, as opposed to the oxidizer mass flux typical in conventional hybrids. Regression rates ranged from approximately 0.75 mm/s at atmospheric pressure to 8.89 mm/s at 1160 kPa for the gaseous oxygen tests and 0.21 mm/s at 207 kPa to 1.44 mm/s at 1054 kPa for the nitrous oxide tests. The analytical model was developed based on a standard ablative model modified to include oxidizer flow through the grain. The heat transfer from the flame was primarily modeled using an empirically determined flame coefficient that included all heat transfer mechanisms in one term. An exploratory flame model based on the Granular Diffusion Flame model used for solid rocket motors was also adapted for comparison with the empirical flame coefficient. This model was then evaluated quantitatively using the experimental results of the gaseous oxygen tests as well as qualitatively using the experimental results of the nitrous oxide tests. The model showed agreement with the experimental results indicating it has potential for giving insight into the flame structure in this motor configuration

  1. The Influence on Exhaust Gas Components and Fuel Consumption of Injection of Concentrated NOx into Diesel Engine Intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    The authors inject NO into a diesel engine intake and investigate the reduction of NOx generation at the combustion chamber at first. The result shows that 20 - 30% of the injected NO (0.225 ∼ 0.72 slm) is reduced. Discussion through the calculation of the extended Zeldovich mechanism suggests that the reduction is mainly attributed to the region where equivalence ratio ranges in 1.1 - 1.5 and that the reaction between NO and hydrocarbon species slightly contributes to the NO reduction. Moreover, another experimental result shows that the injection of NO slightly improves specific fuel consumption, e.g. 0.4% at NO injection of 0.72 slm for intake airflow of 285 slm. Calculation of reaction enthalpy of NO reduction and CO oxidation considerably meets the experimental results on the change in fuel consumption.

  2. Mechanism of porous core electroosmotic pump flow injection system and its application to determination of chromium(VI) in waste-water.

    PubMed

    Gan, W E; Yang, L; He, Y Z; Zeng, R H; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2000-04-03

    An electroosmotic pump flow injection system is introduced in this paper. According to electroosmotic theory, the pump's properties were described. A large flow range (mul min(-1)-ml min(-1)), moderate carrier pressure (>0.15 MPa), reduced performance voltage (<500 V) and stable flow rate (RSD<3.0% in 4 h) are the main properties of the pump. NH(4)OH (0.35 mM) was used as carrier for improving the pump's flow stability. The electroosmotic efficiency of the pump's medium, porous core, can be recovered and regenerated. A sandwich zone was used for sample and reagent introduction in order to adapt to the pump performance. Flow injection-spectrophotometry was employed for the determination of Cr(VI) in waste-water, based on the formation of the complex with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and absorbance measurement at 540 nm. Within the calibration range of 0-7.0 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI), the RSD was 0.4% (n=5). The recovery of 0.70 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) added to the waste-water sample was 94.5+/-2.0% (n=5).

  3. Numerical investigation of scale effect of various injection diameters on interaction in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Qi, Yin-Yin; Liu, Wei-Lai; Xu, Bao-Jian; Ge, Jia-Ru; Xuan, Xiang-Chun; Jen, Tien-Chien

    2016-12-01

    The incident shock wave generally has a strong effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow, possibly due to its affecting the interaction between incoming flow and fuel through various operation conditions. This study is to address scale effect of various injection diameters on the interaction between incident shock wave and transversal cavity injection in a cold kerosene-fueled scramjet combustor. The injection diameters are separately specified as from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in 0.5 mm increments when other performance parameters, including the injection angle, velocity and pressure drop are all constant. A combined three dimensional Couple Level Set & Volume of Fluids (CLSVOF) approach with an improved K-H & R-T model is used to characterize penetration height, span expansion area, angle of shock wave and sauter mean diameter (SMD) distribution of the kerosene droplets with/without considering evaporation. Our results show that the injection orifice surely has a great scale effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flows. Our findings show that the penetration depth, span angle and span expansion area of the transverse cavity jet are increased with the injection diameter, and that the kerosene droplets are more prone to breakup and atomization at the outlet of the combustor for the orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. The calculation predictions are compared against the reported experimental measurements and literatures with good qualitative agreement. The simulation results obtained in this study can provide the evidences for better understanding the underlying mechanism of kerosene atomization in cold supersonic flow and scramjet design improvement.

  4. Mechanical fuel injector for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, K.D.

    1993-08-31

    An apparatus is described for injecting fuel into an internal combustion engine having an air inlet containing an adjustable air throttle valve, comprising: a hollow injector body having a cylindrical bore therein; a compression head closing one end of the bore; a pump head closing an opposite end of the bore; a plunger piston reciprocally moveable within the cylinder bore defining a variable volume fuel pumping chamber formed by the injector body, the compression head, and a first end of the piston, and a variable volume compression chamber formed by the injector body, the pump head and a second end of the piston; fuel supply means connected to the pumping chamber; fuel passage means interconnecting the pumping chamber, the compression chamber and the fuel supply means; air supply means connected to the fuel passage means; fuel/air discharge means connected to the compression chamber; an injection nozzle located in the engine and connected to the fuel/air discharge means for injecting a mixture of fuel and air into the engine for combustion therein; and actuator means operably interconnecting the piston and the engine for reciprocating the piston within the cylinder bore of the injector body.

  5. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  6. Using tunnel junctions to grow monolithically integrated optically pumped semipolar III-nitride yellow quantum wells on top of electrically injected blue quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Kowsz, Stacy J; Young, Erin C; Yonkee, Benjamin P; Pynn, Christopher D; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; DenBaars, Steven P; Nakamura, Shuji

    2017-02-20

    We report a device that monolithically integrates optically pumped (20-21) III-nitride quantum wells (QWs) with 560 nm emission on top of electrically injected QWs with 450 nm emission. The higher temperature growth of the blue light-emitting diode (LED) was performed first, which prevented thermal damage to the higher indium content InGaN of the optically pumped QWs. A tunnel junction (TJ) was incorporated between the optically pumped and electrically injected QWs; this TJ enabled current spreading in the buried LED. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition enabled the growth of InGaN QWs with high radiative efficiency, while molecular beam epitaxy was leveraged to achieve activated buried p-type GaN and the TJ. This initial device exhibited dichromatic optically polarized emission with a polarization ratio of 0.28. Future improvements in spectral distribution should enable phosphor-free polarized white light emission.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLED SINGLE-LAYER PZT FOR PIEZO STACK IN FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2010-01-01

    Poled single-layer PZT has been characterized in as-extracted and as-received states. PZT plate specimens in the former were extracted from a stack. Flexure strength of PZT was evaluated by using ball-on-ring and 4-point bend tests. Fractography showed that intergranular fractures dominated the fracture surface and that volume pores were the primary strength-limiting flaws. The electric field effect was investigated by testing the PZT in open circuit and coercive field levels. An asymmetrical response on the biaxial flexure strength with respect to the electric field direction was observed. These experimental results will assist reliability design of the piezo stack that is being considered in fuel injection system.

  8. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  9. Effects of fuel injection on mixing and upstream interactions in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qiuya

    Scramjet engine performance has been studied experimentally and computationally almost under steady-state conditions. Transients of the airflow and fueling in the scramjet's isolator or combustor create important fluid-dynamic/ combustion interactions. Spark schlieren photography was employed to study the effects of pressure rise in the combustion chamber on the isolator flow at three conditions with isolator entrance Mach number of 1.6, 1.9 and 2.5, covering the range of dual-mode combustion and transition to full scramjet operation. Heat release through combustion in the model scramjet was simulated by incrementally blocking the flow exit until upstream-interaction was induced and a shock train formed in the isolator. Theoretical predictions of the pressure rise in the isolator under separated flow conditions were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. The prediction is sensitive to the accurate modeling of the isolator inlet conditions and the correct selection of wall friction coefficient. Gaseous helium and argon have been transversely injected into a Mach 1.6 airflow simulating a light and a heavy fuel injection behind a thin triangular pylon placed upstream, in the isolator, which has a negligible impact on pressure losses. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to observe the penetration and mixing in the test section at three cross-sections including the recirculation region and beyond. Results were compared to the no-pylon cases, which showed the presence of the pylon resulted in improving both penetration and spreading of the jet. Simulation for shock wave/ boundary-layer interaction was conducted in Fluent for case of M=1.9 at 60% blockage by using k-ε RNG model with two different near wall treatments. In both cases, the shock ran out of isolator before the computation converged, this is different from experimental results. Proper actual wall friction force may have a very important effect on the computation, which needs

  10. Analysis of radial movement of an unconfined leaky aquifer due to well pumping and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    2007-09-01

    Radial movement of an unconfined leaky aquifer was studied with respect to hydraulic forces that are induced by well recharge and discharge. New analytic solutions in the velocity and displacement fields were found and applied to describe transient movement in an unconfined leaky aquifer. Linear momentum and mass balance of saturated porous sediments, the Darcy-Gersevanov law, and the analytic solution of hydraulic drawdown for unsteady flow within the unconfined leaky aquifer were introduced to find the new solutions. Analytic results indicate that the nonlinear relation between the initial hydraulic head (h0) and the well function has an insignificant effect on the aquifer transient movement when the drawdown s<0.02 h 0. When the well function is simplified with different assumptions and pumping conditions, the new solutions correspondingly reduce to cases that are similar to the Hantush-Jacob, Muskat, and Theis transient movement of a confined leaky aquifer. It was found that large leakance is important in slowing radial movement and reducing aquifer deformation. Flow velocity in the aquifer is more responsive to leakance than to cumulative displacement within the aquifer. The zones and boundary with tensile stress can be located using the same approach applied to a confined aquifer for risk assessment of earth fissuring.

  11. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  12. Investigation of ecological parameters of four-stroke SI engine, with pneumatic fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The publication presents the results of tests to determine the impact of using waste fuels, alcohol, to power the engine, on the ecological parameters of the combustion engine. Alternatively fuelled with a mixture of iso- and n-butanol, indicated with "X" and "END, and gasoline and a mixture of fuel and alcohol. The object of the study was a four-stroke engine with spark ignition designed to work with a generator. Motor power was held by the modified system of pneumatic injection using hot exhaust gases developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz, controlled by modern mechatronic systems. Tests were conducted at a constant speed for the intended use of the engine. The subject of the research was to determine the control parameters such as ignition timing, mixture composition and the degree of exhaust gas recirculation on the ecological parameters of the engine. Tests were carried out using partially quality power control. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  13. Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE).

    PubMed

    2017-03-30

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of insulin pumps with multiple daily injections for adults with type 1 diabetes, with both groups receiving equivalent training in flexible insulin treatment.Design Pragmatic, multicentre, open label, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial (Relative Effectiveness of Pumps Over MDI and Structured Education (REPOSE) trial).Setting Eight secondary care centres in England and Scotland.Participants Adults with type 1 diabetes who were willing to undertake intensive insulin treatment, with no preference for pumps or multiple daily injections. Participants were allocated a place on established group training courses that taught flexible intensive insulin treatment ("dose adjustment for normal eating," DAFNE). The course groups (the clusters) were then randomly allocated in pairs to either pump or multiple daily injections.Interventions Participants attended training in flexible insulin treatment (using insulin analogues) structured around the use of pump or injections, followed for two years.Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were a change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values (%) at two years in participants with baseline HbA1c value of ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol), and the proportion of participants achieving an HbA1c value of <7.5%. Secondary outcomes included body weight, insulin dose, and episodes of moderate and severe hypoglycaemia. Ancillary outcomes included quality of life and treatment satisfaction.Results 317 participants (46 courses) were randomised (156 pump and 161 injections). 267 attended courses and 260 were included in the intention to treat analysis, of which 235 (119 pump and 116 injection) had baseline HbA1c values of ≥7.5%. Glycaemic control and rates of severe hypoglycaemia improved in both groups. The mean change in HbA1c at two years was -0.85% with pump treatment and -0.42% with multiple daily injections. Adjusting for course, centre, age, sex, and accounting for missing values, the

  14. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  15. Gate-voltage controlled spin pumping effects: spin injection from YIG and Co into metal and graphene based 2 D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalitsov, Alan; Chshiev, Mairbek; Mryasov, Oleg

    2015-03-01

    Spin current injection into nonmagnetic metals, semiconductors and oxides is crucial component of spintronics. The spin pumping mechanism free from the impedance mismatch is a promising way to inject spin current into nonmagnetic materials. Here we present theory of spin current injected into non-magnetic films which arises from magnetization precession. We apply this theory to two cases (i) insulating yttrium iron garnet ferromagnet/nonmagnetic metal interfaces and (ii) hcp-Co/single layer graphene interface. The electron transport calculations are based on the non-equilibrium Green Function formalism within the tight binding Hamiltonian model. We show that magnitude of the pumped spin current can be efficiently controlled by the gate voltage.

  16. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  17. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  18. A Study on Wear of Brush and Carbon Flat Commutator of DC Motor for Automotive Fuel Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Koichiro; Ueno, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hidenori

    In an automotive fuel pump system, a small DC motor is widely used to drive the pump and driven by a automotive battery. Recently a bio-fuel, usually a mixture of gasoline and ethanol has been used due to shortage of gasoline and environmental aspect. It affects strongly the performances of a DC motor, especially commutation phenomena, what kind of fuel is used. Therefore the authors have started to investigate the influence of ethanol on the commutation phenomena. They have been reporting the wear of brush and carbon flat commutator in gasoline and ethanol so far. In this paper commutation period, arc duration, brush and commutator wear are examined in ethanol 50-gasoline 50%. Brush wears are very small compared with the previous results. Namely in the present test a mechanical sliding wear is predominant rather than erosion by arc due to short arc duration. Further, an area eroded by arc is observed to re-appear as a sliding surface. From these results a threshold arc energy between arc erosion and mechanical sliding wear is obtained, and a wear model is proposed to explain the above wear pattern on the sliding surface.

  19. The Use of Large Valve Overlap in Scavenging a Supercharged Spark-ignition Engine Using Fuel Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of more complete scavenging on the full throttle power and the fuel consumption of a four-stroke-cycle engine. The NACA single-cylinder universal test engine equipped with both a fuel-injection system and a carburetor was used. The engine was scavenged by using a large valve overlap and maintaining a pressure in the inlet manifold of 2 inches of mercury above atmospheric. The maximum valve overlap used was 112 degrees. Tests were conducted for a range of compression ratios from 5.5 to 8.5. Except for variable speed tests, all tests were conducted at an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. The results of the tests show that the clearance volume of an engine can be scavenged by using a large valve overlap and about 2 to 5 inches of mercury pressure difference between the inlet and exhaust valve. With a fuel-injection system when the clearance volume was scavenged, a b.m.e.p. of over 185 pounds per square inch and a fuel consumption of 9.45 pound per brake horsepower per hour were obtained with a 6.5 compression ratio. An increase of approximately 10 pounds per square inch b.m.e.p. was obtained with a fuel-injection system over that with a carburetor.

  20. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    IRSHAD, Abdul Razaq; SASAKI, Taihei; KUBO, Tomoaki; ODASHIMA, Naoyuki; KATANO, Keiji; OSAWA, Takeshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; IZAIKE, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3– < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively). PMID:26052155

  1. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  2. Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

  3. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirms deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustí, Susana; González-Gordillo, Jose I.; Vaqué, Dolors; Estrada, Marta; Cerezo, Maria I.; Salazar, Guillem; Gasol, Josep M.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep-sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean.

  4. Evaluation of tantalum-alloy-clad uranium mononitride fuel specimens from 7500-hour, 1040 C pumped-lithium-loop test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Simulated nuclear fuel element specimens, consisting of uranium mononitride (UN) fuel cylinders clad with tungsten-lined T-111, were exposed for up to 7500 hr at 1040 C (1900 F) in a pumped-lithium loop. The lithium flow velocity was 1.5 m/sec (5 ft/sec) in the specimen test section. No evidence of any compatibility problems between the specimens and the flowing lithium was found based on appearance, weight change, chemistry, and metallography. Direct exposure of the UN to the lithium through a simulated cladding crack resulted in some erosion of the UN in the area of the defect. The T-111 cladding was ductile after lithium exposure, but it was sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement during post-test handling.

  5. Electromagnetic unit fuel injector with piston assist solenoid actuated control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Teerman, R. F.; Bosch, R. H.; Wirth, R. C.

    1985-11-05

    An electromagnetic unit fuel injector includes a pump assembly having an external actuated plunger reciprocable in a bushing with flow therefrom during a pump stroke being directed to a fuel injection nozzle of the assembly. Fuel flow from the pump can also flow through a passage means, containing a normally open, substantially pressure-balanced control valve actuated by a solenoid assembly in the valve closing direction to block drain flow during a pump stroke, as desired. A piston, actuated by discharge fuel pressure is operatively connected to the control valve to assist the solenoid in holding the control valve in a closed position.

  6. Effects of Fuel Spray Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single- Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor were performed to assess the effects of fuel spray modeling in predicting combustion instability. Concurrently...239.18 Effects of Fuel Spray Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine

  7. Syn-fuel reciprocating charge pump improvement program. Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Two floating piston seals have been tested in the Ingersoll-Rand Standard Pump Div. Model No. 3V3 triplex reciprocating pump which was special built for this development program. The third leg of the pump was operated in the conventional mode to service as a baseline wear rate. The pump operated in a 110 mesh sand-water slurry at 150 rev. per minute with a plunger stroke of 3 inches and a piston stroke of 1.42 inches. This duplicated the intended piston speed and stroke of the Cattlettsburg 7V3 reciprocating charge pump. However, the plunger stroke is unavoidably low, it should be seven inches to match the Catlettsburg pump. The pistons were flushed at the rate of 0.5%. The pump was operated for 200 hours. The flush liquid to the pump was interrupted for several hours because of a drive belt failure. However, even with that problem, based on the observed wear rates during these tests, both seals should have a life in sand of approximately 500 to 550 hours. The wear rate in sand indicates that both seals would have a life in a coal slurry which would exceed two to four thousand hours. Both seals maintained a clean volume of liquid between the piston and the plunger/packing area through out the tests. There was no change in operating characteristics during the 200 hour tests with both pistons. The conventional leg failed twice during the tests, requiring replacement of packing, plunger, and throat bushing. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Syn-fuel reciprocating charge pump improvement program. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Two significant accomplishments were achieved in the fourth quarter of 1984. The 3V3 slurry pump valves were successfully modified and now operate correctly. The 200 h accelerated sand-water test of the pump and seals was started and completed. The conventional plunger/packing failed twice during this test while under the same conditions the floating piston seals maintained a positive seal between the slurry and buffer liquids. 6 figs.

  9. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Jonathan H.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Bisson, Scott E.; Patterson, Brian D.; Ruggles, Adam J.; Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Huang, Erxiong; Cicone, Dave J.; Sphicas, Panos

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  10. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  11. A laser-induced-fluorescence visualization study of transverse, sonic fuel injection in a nonreacting supersonic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C.; Graves, J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper reports work which has been conducted in the first phase of a research program which is to provide a data base of spatially-resolved measurements in nonreacting supersonic combustors. In the measurements, a nonintrusive diagnostic technique based on the utilization of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is employed. The reported work had the objective to conduct LIF visualization studies of the injection of a simulated fuel into a Mach 2.07 airstream for comparison with corresponding numerical calculations. Attention is given to injection from a single orifice into a constant-area duct, injection from a single orifice behind a rearward-facing step, and injection from staged orifices behind a rearward-facing step.

  12. Analytical and experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals for a liquid hydrogen fuel pump. [space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; Kennedy, F. E.; Schulson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the liquid hydrogen fuel pump in the Space Shuttle main engine is considered. Finite element analysis of the thermal response of the knife edge in sliding contact with the wear ring surface shows that interfacial temperatures can be quite high and they are significantly influenced by the thermal conductivity of the surfaces in rubbing contact. Thermal shock experiments on a test specimen similar to the knife edge geometry demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High-speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates and alternate materials were experimentally evaluated. Plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than presently used aluminum alloy seals from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding the titanium alloy knife-edges also improved rub performance compared to the untreated baseline.

  13. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  14. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  15. Fuel supplying device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, T.; Miki, T.; Nakamura, H.; Takamiya, B.

    1982-07-13

    A fuel supplying device for an internal combustion engine is disclosed which has a fuel supply passage for introducing fuel fed from a fuel pump at a substantially constant pressure to a fuel injector operative at a predetermined constant pressure. The fuel injector is installed at a congregated portion of engine intake manifolds. A metering valve includes a motor so that the pressure drop is maintained substantially constant by a differential regulator. The metering valve is disposed in an intermediate portion of the fuel supply passage. Calculating means including a servo signal generator calculates an injection flow amount causing a predetermined air/fuel ratio on the basis of signals of various engine running factors. An operational signal output from the servo signal generating circuit of the calculating means is applied to the drive motor means for driving said metering valve to thereby inject fuel into the intake manifolds.

  16. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  17. Laboratory endurance test of sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engine fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.; Ziejewski, M.

    1983-12-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested using the test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Association. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test.

  18. [Research on NEDC ultrafine particle emission characters of a port fuel injection gasoline car].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jin; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-12-01

    A Santana gasoline car with multi-port fuel injection (PFI) system was used as the research prototype and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was employed to investigate the exhaust ultrafine particle number and size distribution characters of the tested vehicle in new European driving cycle (NEDC). The tested results showed that the vehicle's nuclear particle number, accumulation particle number, as well as the total particle number emission increased when the car drove in accelerated passage, and the vehicle's particle number emission was high during the first 40 seconds after test started and when the speed was over 90 km x h(-1) in extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) in NEDC. The ultrafine particle distribution of the whole NEDC showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, with diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameter was 24 nm. The ultrafine particle distribution of the urban driving cycle named by the economic commission for Europe (ECE) e. g. ECE I, ECE II - IV, the extra urban driving cycle e. g. EUDC, and the idling, constant speed, acceleration, deceleration operation conditions of NEDC all showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, also with particle diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameters of different driving cycle and different driving mode were from 14 nm to 42 nm. Therefore, the ultrafine particle emissions of the tested PFI gasoline car were mainly consisted of nuclear mode particles with a diameter of less than 50 nm.

  19. Simultaneous analysis of seven oligopeptides in microbial fuel cell by micro-fluidic chip with reflux injection mode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zijian; Lin, Xiuli; Wang, ZongWen; Fu, FengFu

    2012-10-15

    In this work, a reflux injection mode for the cross form micro-fluidic chip was studied. This injection mode could flexibly control the length of sample plug from less than one channel width (<83 μm) to tens of channel widths (millimeter-sized) by adjusting the injection time. Namely, the separation resolution or sample detection sensitivity could be selectively improved by changing injection time. Composed of four steps, the reflux injection mode alleviated the electrophoretic sampling bias and prevented sample leakage successfully. On a micro-fluidic chip coupled with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detector, the injection mode was applied to separate seven oligopeptides, namely GG, GL, RPP, KPV, VKK, WYD and YWS. All analytes were completely separated and detected within 12 min with detection limits of 25-625 nmol/L. At last, the proposed method had been successfully applied to detect oligopeptides consumed by bacillus licheniformis in anode chamber of microbial fuel cell (MFC) to study the effect of oligopeptides on the MFC running.

  20. Transversely diode-pumped Q-switched Nd : YAG laser with injection of radiation from a single-frequency semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, M. V.; Duraev, V. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Kostik, O. E.; Lantsov, K. I.; Lepchenkov, K. V.; Mashko, V. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Teplyashin, L. L.

    2016-10-01

    A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser with a high-power transverse diode pumping and injection of seed radiation generated by a single-frequency semiconductor laser is described. The threshold seed radiation power at which the Q-switched Nd : YAG switches to the single-frequency mode is 0.44 {\\text{mW}} (radiation intensity 5.6 × 10-2 {\\text{W}} {\\text{cm}}-2). With increasing injection power, the spectral and power characteristics of the Q-switched laser almost do not change at a constant excitation of its active medium. The spectral linewidth of the Q-switched Nd : YAG laser with injection from a TLD-1060-14BF single-frequency semiconductor laser module does not exceed 90 {\\text{MHz}} (wavelength 1064 {\\text{nm}}).

  1. Characterization of Ethylene/JP-10 Fuel Injection Profiles for a Valveless Pulse Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    4. Turn ON 24 VDC in the control room cabinet 5. OPEN Main Air (HP Air Tank Valve) and High Pressure Air a. Blue hand valve should be opened...geometry at various flow rates. Additionally, JP10 fuel concentration profiles were determined for several fuel injector actuation pressures and at...profiles were determined for several fuel injector actuation pressures and at various alignments using the same diagnostic approach. vi THIS PAGE

  2. Fuel Surrogate Physical Property Effects on Direct Injection Spray and Ignition Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    jet was steady. As shown in Figure 2, the model was capable of capturing the general radial and axial fuel vapor distribution trends. At 25 mm...UNCLASSIFIED 1 Introduction Typical hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines, such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel, are composed of hundreds...to thousands of hydrocarbon (HC) species. Such a large number of species in high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with detailed chemistry

  3. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Technical Report for Flexible Fuel Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quality and the demand for that fuel in its service area. (d) Design and engineering. Provide... components, a project engineer, and a construction contractor or system installer. One individual or entity... engineering firm may design the project and prepare a request for bids and the successful bidder...

  4. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  5. Injection, atomization, ignition and combustion of liquid fuels in high-speed air streams. Annual scientific report 1 December 81-31 December 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schetz, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation approach to studying hot flow subsonic cross-stream fuel injection problems in a less complex and costly cold flow facility was developed. A typical ramjet combustion chamber fuel injection problem was posed where ambient temperature fuel (Kerosene) is injected into a hot airstream. This case was transformed through two new similarity parameters involving injection and freestream properties to a simulated case where a chilled injectant is injected into an ambient temperature airstream. Experiments for the simulated case using chilled Freon-12 injected into the Va. Tech 23 x 23 cm. blow-down wind tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 0.44 were run. The freestream stagnation pressure and temperature were held at 2.5 atm. and 300 degrees K respectively. Results showed a clear picture of the mechanisms of jet decomposition in the presence of rapid vaporization. Immediately after injection a vapor cloud was formed in the jet plume, which dissipated downstream leaving droplets on the order of 8 to 10 microns in diameter for the conditions examined. This represents a substantial reduction compared to baseline tests run at the same conditions with water which had little vaporization. The desirability of using slurry fuels for aerospace application has long been recognized, but the problems of slurry combustion have delayed their use. The present work is an experimental and numerical investigation into the break-up and droplet formation of laminar slurry jets issuing into quiescent air.

  6. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R.

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  7. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  8. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  9. Performance of multiple mini-tube heat exchangers as an internal heat exchanger of a vapor-injection cycle heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jin Yong; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-04-01

    A multiple mini-tube (MMT) heat exchanger was considered as an internal heat exchanger of vapor-injection cycle heat pump. Heat transfer and pressure drop in multiple mini-tube heat exchangers were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results show that the best performance of the MMT heat exchanger can be obtained when the intermediate-pressure two-phase refrigerant is supplied to the shell-side and this refrigerant reaches a saturated vapor state at the exit of the heat exchanger.

  10. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, January 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.; Frenklach, M.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments by Carnot (Tustin, CA) have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. One speculation is that introducing the diluent gases on the fuel side of the flame affects the prompt-NO mechanism causing the greater effectiveness. The objective of our research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for fuel (hydrogen or methane) combustion and NO{sub x} formation. These simulations allow the calculation of NO{sub x} emission indices for a wide range of conditions. Parametric studies were conducted in which the diluent was added either on the fuel or air side of the flame for a wide range of flow conditions. Preliminary results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in FIR effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side versus air-side dilution.

  11. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, B.; Green, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  12. Experimental evaluation of premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evolve and evaluate a premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using Jet A fuel. Three types of air blast injectors, an air assist nozzle and a simplex pressure atomizer were tested. Air swirlers with vane angles up to 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution. The work was done in a 12-cm (4.75-in.) diameter tubular rig. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa (3 and 5 atm), inlet air temperatures up to 800 K (980 F), velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) and fuel-air ratios of 0.01 and 0.025. Uniform spatial fuel distributions that were within plus or minus 10 percent of the mean were obtained. Complete vaporization of the fuel was achieved with air blast configurations at inlet air temperatures of 550 K (530 F) and higher. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent for configurations without air swirlers and less than 1 percent for configurations with a 30 deg vane angle air swirler.

  13. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  14. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James D.; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  15. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin

    2006-02-01

    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  16. Identification of cytoskeletal elements enclosing the ATP pools that fuel human red blood cell membrane cation pumps.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haiyan; Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S; Hoffman, Joseph F

    2012-07-31

    The type of metabolic compartmentalization that occurs in red blood cells differs from the types that exist in most eukaryotic cells, such as intracellular organelles. In red blood cells (ghosts), ATP is sequestered within the cytoskeletal-membrane complex. These pools of ATP are known to directly fuel both the Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) pumps. ATP can be entrapped within these pools either by incubation with bulk ATP or by operation of the phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase reactions to enzymatically generate ATP. When the pool is filled with nascent ATP, metabolic labeling of the Na(+)/K(+) or Ca(2+) pump phosphoproteins (E(Na)-P and E(Ca)-P, respectively) from bulk [γ-(32)P]-ATP is prevented until the pool is emptied by various means. Importantly, the pool also can be filled with the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenol ATP, as well as with a photoactivatable ATP analog, 8-azido-ATP (N(3)-ATP). Using the fluorescent ATP, we show that ATP accumulates and then disappears from the membrane as the ATP pools are filled and subsequently emptied, respectively. By loading N(3)-ATP into the membrane pool, we demonstrate that membrane proteins that contribute to the pool's architecture can be photolabeled. With the aid of an antibody to N(3)-ATP, we identify these labeled proteins by immunoblotting and characterize their derived peptides by mass spectrometry. These analyses show that the specific peptides that corral the entrapped ATP derive from sequences within β-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, and GAPDH.

  17. Investigation of the mechanism in Rijke pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-03-01

    To study the mechanisms that control the operation of this combustor, an experimental setup is developed with access for detailed optical measurements. Propane is employed as fuel because the absence of liquid drops and combustion generated particulates in the combustion region significantly simplifies the optical diagnostics. The experimental techniques utilized include acoustic pressure measurements, space and time resolved radiation measurements, steady temperature measurements, exhaust flow chemical analysis, high speed video and intensified images of the reacting flow field by a computer based CCD camera imaging system. Flow visualization by the imaging system and the results from radiation intensity distribution measurements suggest that the periodic combustion processes caused by periodic vortex shedding and impingement provide the energy required to sustain the pressure oscillations. High radiation intensity occurs during a relatively short period of time and is in phase with the pressure oscillations, indicating that Rayleigh`s criterion is satisfied. Periodic variations of the air and fuel flow rates and, consequently, the air/fuel ratio of the reacting mixture inside the combustor appear to be another mechanism that contributes to the occurrence of periodic combustion and heat release processes. The presence of this mechanism has been uncovered by acoustic pressure measurements that revealed the presence of traveling pressure waves inside the air and fuel feed lines. These traveling waves produce periodic fuel and air feed rates which, in turn, result in periodic combustion and heat release processes within the combustor.

  18. Coefficients of discharge of fuel-injection nozzles for compression-ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the coefficients of discharge of nozzles with small, round orifices of the size used with high-speed compression-ignition engines. The injection pressures and chamber back pressures employed were comparable to those existing in compression-ignition engines during injection. The construction of the nozzles was varied to determine the effect of the nozzle design on the coefficient. Tests were also made with nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve, both with a plain and with a helically grooved stem. It was found that a smooth passage before the orifice is requisite for high flow efficiency. A beveled leading edge before the orifice gave a higher coefficient of discharge than a rounded edge. The results with the nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve having a plain stem duplicated those with the nozzles assembled at the end of a straight tube of constant diameter. Lower coefficients were obtained with the nozzles assembled in an injection valve having a helically grooved stem. When the coefficients of nozzles of any one geometrical shape were plotted against values of corresponding Reynold's numbers for the orifice diameters and rates of flow tested, it was found that experimental points were distributed along a single curve.

  19. Development of a synthetic fuel reciprocating charge pump. Quarterly technical progress report for the period of: 1 January 1987--31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, G.E.

    1987-12-31

    This report covers the third quarter of the third phase of the reciprocating charge pump improvement program. The program was begun in 1982 for the purpose of improving the operating life of packings and plungers used in 300 psig, 300F coal/solvent slurry pumps employed in synthetic fuel generating plants. The testing to be performed during this phase has been modified since the last quarterly report. This test measured the effects of slurry migration past the floating piston seal and the time to wear the packing and plunger beyond the acceptable limit. Table 1 summarizes all testing to date, 456 hours total at this time with 72 hours on 35% slurry. It denotes the valve problems seen with rapid pressure decay when pumping slurry. Throughout this time, 33 specific and different equipment failures and operation problems occurred that delayed the testing.

  20. Design and implementation of a five-hp, switched reluctance, fuel-lube, pump motor drive for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.A.; Jones, S.R.; Drager, B.T.; Heglund, W.S. )

    1995-01-01

    A new switched reluctance (SR) fuel/lube (F/L) pump system has been developed for a gas turbine engine application. The system is rated at 5 hp, 270 Vdc, 12.5 krpm maximum operating speed, and consists of a SR machine mounted on the F/L pump shaft, an inverter, and an electronic controller. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and performance of the system. The system can use one of two methods for rotor position sensing, either a resolver or electronic position sensing (EPS). The F/L pump system has undergone extensive performance testing with the resolver. Currently, testing is underway using electronic position sensing. Test results are given to validate the system design and compare the performance using both approaches to position sensing. System efficiency is about 82% at full load.

  1. Evaluation of fuel injection configurations to control carbon and soot formation in small GT combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Briehl, D.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate hardware configurations which attempt to minimize carbon formation and soot production without sacrificing performance in small gas turbine combustors has been conducted at the United Technologies Research Center. Four fuel injectors, embodying either airblast atomization, pressure atomization, or fuel vaporization techniques, were combined with nozzle air swirlers and injector sheaths, and evaluated at test conditions which included and extended beyond standard small gas turbine combustor operation. Extensive testing was accomplished with configurations embodying either a spill return or a T-vaporizer injector. Minimal carbon deposits were observed on the spill return nozzle for tests using either Jet A or ERBS test fuel. A more extensive film of soft carbon was observed on the vaporizer after operation at standard engine conditions, with large carbonaceous growths forming on the device during off-design operation at low combustor inlet temperature. Test results indicated that smoke emission levels depended on the combustor fluid mechanics (especially the mixing rates near the injector), the atomization quality of the injector and the fuel hydrogen content.

  2. Deep well solar pump

    SciTech Connect

    Vanek, J.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes, in a pump having a source of gas under pressure, and a gas operated pump, a mechanism periodically injecting gas from the source of gas into the gas operated pump. It comprises: a long period pendulum turning towards a first position by gravity, an injection valve connected between the source of gas under pressure and the gas operated pump, a linkage between the pendulum and the injection valve. The linkage opening the injection valve when the pendulum is in the first position, an impulse tube connected between the injection valve and the gas operated pump, a member having a surface adjacent to the first position of the pendulum, and an elastic impulse bladder connected to the impulse tube adjacent to the surface so that inflation of the impulse bladder on the opening of the injection valve forces the impulse bladder against the pendulum urging the pendulum against the force of gravity toward a second position.

  3. Subcritical and supercritical fuel injection and mixing in single and binary species systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arnab

    Subcritical and supercritical fluid injection using a single round injector into a quiescent atmosphere comprising single and binary species was investigated using optical diagnostics. Different disintegration and mixing modes are expected for the two cases. In the binary species case, the atmosphere comprised an inert gas of a different composition than that of the injected fluid. In single species case, the atmosphere consisted of the same species as that of the injected fluid. Density values were quantified and density gradient profiles were inferred from the experimental data. A novel method was applied for the detection of detailed structures throughout the entire jet center plane. Various combinations of injectant and chamber conditions were tested and a wide range of density ratios were covered. The subcritical cases demonstrated the importance of surface tension and inertial forces, while the supercritical cases showed no signs of surface tension and, in most situations, resembled the mixing characteristics of a gaseous jet injected into a gaseous environment. A comparison between the single and binary species systems has also been provided. A detailed laser calibration procedure was undertaken to account for the laser absorption through the gas and liquid phases and for fluorescence in the non-linear excitation regime for high laser pulse energy. Core lengths were measured for binary species cases and correlated with visualization results. An eigenvalue approach was taken to determine the location of maximum gradients for determining the core length. Jet divergence angles were also calculated and were found to increase with chamber-to-injectant density ratio for both systems. A model was proposed for the spreading angle dependence on density ratio for both single and binary species systems and was compared to existing theoretical studies and experimental work. Finally, a linear stability analysis was performed for the jet injected into both subcritical and

  4. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  5. Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Derek L. Aldred; Timothy Saunders

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to demonstrate feeding of dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi). This is the Phase III of the ongoing program. Earlier Phases 1 and II successfully demonstrated feeding into pressures up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). The final report for those phases was submitted in April 2005. Based on the previous work done in Phases I & II using Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL, a Phase III feeder system was designed and built to accomplish the target of feeding the coal into a pressure of 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi) and to be capable of feed rates of up to 550 kilograms (1,200lbs) per hour. The drive motor system from Phase II was retained for use on Phase III since projected performance calculations indicated it should be capable of driving the Phase III pump to the target levels. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted on weigh cells in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated to105 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,500psi) to accommodate the final pressure requirement of a proposed Phase IV of the program. A screw conveyor and batch hopper were added to transfer coal at atmospheric pressure from the shop floor up into the test rig to enable continuous feeding up to the capacity of the receiving vessel. Control & monitoring systems were up-rated from the Phase II system to cover the additional features incorporated in the Phase III rig, and provide closer control and expanded monitoring of the entire system. A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility

  6. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  7. Critical Design Parameters for Pylon-Aided Gaseous Fuel Injection Upstream of a Flameholding Cavity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    regions of separated flow a simple 1-equation models such as the Spalart - Allmaras turbulence model could not be used33. The k-ω turbulence model has...temperature, turbulent intensity, and the turbulent to molecular viscosity ratio. This same boundary condition was used as the fuel injector inlet. The...Hypersonic Air Breathing Propulsion Branch. The k-ω turbulence model was utilized in conjunction with a multiple-species formulation of the viscous and

  8. Ignition and Flame Development in the Case of Diesel Fuel Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holfelder, Otto

    1936-01-01

    To investigate the process of ignition and combustion in the case of spray injection into heated air, a new form of apparatus is developed and the tests carried out with it described. Photographs of the spray before and after ignition are obtained at frequencies of 500 pictures per second. Pressures and temperatures are simultaneously recorded on oscillograms. Information on the initial conditions, ignition time lag, period of complete combustion, place where ignition starts, and general course of the combustion is obtained.

  9. Determination of nerve agent degradation products by capillary electrophoresis using field-amplified sample stacking injection with the electroosmotic flow pump and contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Hauser, Peter C; Lee, Hian Kee

    2009-07-31

    In the present study, field-amplified sample stacking injection using the electroosmotic flow pump (FAEP) was developed for the capillary electrophoretic separation of the four nerve agent degradation products methylphosphonic acid (MPA), ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CMPA). Coupled to contactless conductivity detection, direct quantification of these non-UV active compounds could be achieved. Sensitivity enhancement of up to 500 to 750-fold could be obtained. The newly established approach was applied to the determination of the analytes in river water and aqueous extracts of soil. Detection limits of 0.5, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.7 ng/mL were obtained for MPA, EMPA, IMPA and CMPA, respectively, in river water and 0.09, 0.14, 0.44 and 0.22 microg/g, respectively, in soil.

  10. Experimental study about estimating the permeability and storativity properties of CO2 in low permeable rocks under the CO2 injection by flow-pump method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, H.; Mitani, Y.; Ikemi, H.; Kitamura, K.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it is generally believed that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has become a major contributing factor of a global warming. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is an emerging technology and considered as the promising method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. Generally, CCS is intended to apply in oil or natural gas reservoir layers with overlying cap rock. However, in Japan, few proper sites are available for CCS. Therefore, low-permeable rock mass without cap rock is suggested as alternative option. It is required to clarify behavior of CO2 in rock for longitudinal and stable storage of CO2. In order to clarify the properties of permeability and storativity of low permeable rocks, Ainoura sandstone, saturated with water injected with a constant and appropriate flow rate of supercritical CO2, flow pump permeability test under the condition of temperature and pressure of in-situ CO2 reservoir has been conducted. In this experiment, the differential pressure between both ends of specimen changed in 4 stages and finally in stable condition. Furthermore, relative permeability of water and CO2, and specific storage of specimen during CO2 injection has been calculated with theoretical analysis of flow pump permeability test for two phase flow. Using the results of the experiment, 3D core-scale flow-simulation by using TOUGH2 (ECO2N module) has been conducted due to confirm the flow of fluid and CO2 distribution in the specimen. To compare the results of simulation and experimental results, the permeability and storativity properties of carbon dioxide in low permeable rock has been estimated. As a result, low permeable rocks could become an effective storage of supercritical CO2.

  11. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 3B: High pressure fuel turbo-pump preburner pump bearing assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, Gloria B.; Violett, Rebeca S.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis performed on the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) preburner pump bearing assembly located on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is summarized. An ANSYS finite element model for the inlet assembly was built and executed. Thermal and static analyses were performed.

  12. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of this research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses, first, computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for methane combustion and NO{sub x} formation, and, second, experimental studies of laminar, CH{sub 4}-air, jet flames.

  13. Early direct-injection, low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel in an optical engine utilizing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle.

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Christopher R.; Radovanovic, Michael S.; Milam, David M.; Martin, Glen C.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2008-04-01

    Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes x 70/mD and 5 holes x 35/mD) with 103-/gmm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70/mD before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load. High-speed movies of natural luminosity were acquired by viewing through a window in the cylinder wall and through a window in the piston to provide quasi-3D information about the combustion process. These movies revealed that advanced combustion phasing resulted in intense pool fires within the piston bowl, after the end of significant heat release. These pool fires are a result of fuel-films created when the injected fuel impinged on the piston surface. The emissions results showed a strong correlation with pool-fire activity. Smoke and NO/dx emissions rose steadily as pool-fire intensity increased, whereas HC and CO showed a dramatic increase with near-zero pool-fire activity.

  14. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index.

    PubMed

    Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol

    2016-03-10

    In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices).

  15. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN PUMP ROOM. AIR COMPRESSOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN PUMP ROOM. AIR COMPRESSOR ON LEFT, FUEL OIL PUMP BEHIND ON LEFT, FUEL OIL HEATERS AND PUMPS IN BACKGROUND WITH DRAIN SYSTEM - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  16. A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Final report, January 1995--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. The results of both the numerical simulations and the experiments suggest that, although molecular transport and chemical kinetic phenomena are affected by the location of diluent addition depending on flow conditions, the greater effectiveness of FIR over FGR in practical applications may result from differences in turbulent mixing and heat transfer. Further research is required to understand how differences in diluent-addition location affect NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames. The present study, however, provides an underlying basis for understanding how flow conditions can affect flame chemistry. 51 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  18. The N.A.C.A. Photographic Apparatus for Studying Fuel Sprays from Oil Engine Injection Valves and Test Results from Several Researches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    Apparatus for recording photographically the start, growth, and cut-off of oil sprays from injection valves has been developed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The apparatus consists of a high-tension transformer by means of which a bank of condensers is charged to a high voltage. The controlled discharge of these condensers in sequence, at a rate of several thousand per second, produces electric sparks of sufficient intensity to illuminate the moving spray for photographing. The sprays are injected from various types of valves into a chamber containing gases at pressures up to 600 pounds per square inch. Several series of pictures are shown. The results give the effects of injection pressure, chamber pressure, specific gravity of the fuel oil used, and injection-valve design, upon spray characteristics.

  19. Nonlinear Burn Control in Tokamaks using Heating, Non-axisymmetric Magnetic Fields, Isotopic fueling and Impurity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajares, Andres; Schuster, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    Plasma density and temperature regulation in future tokamaks such as ITER is arising as one of the main problems in nuclear-fusion control research. The problem, known as burn control, is to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the burning plasma while avoiding thermal instabilities. Prior work in the area of burn control considered different actuators, such as modulation of the auxiliary power, modulation of the fueling rate, and controlled impurity injection. More recently, the in-vessel coil system was suggested as a feasible actuator since it has the capability of modifying the plasma confinement by generating non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. In this work, a comprehensive, model-based, nonlinear burn control strategy is proposed to integrate all the previously mentioned actuators. A model to take into account the influence of the in-vessel coils on the plasma confinement is proposed based on the plasma collisionality and the density. A simulation study is carried out to show the capability of the controller to drive the system between different operating points while rejecting perturbations. Supported by the US DOE under DE-SC0010661.

  20. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12‐month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Y.; Conget, I.; Castañeda, J. A.; Runzis, S.; Lee, S. W.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. Methods After a 2‐month dose‐optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6‐month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between‐group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. Results The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (−1.1 ± 1.2% vs −0.4 ± 1.1%; p < 0.001). The pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI–pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26854123

  1. Bioethanol Blending Reduces Nanoparticle, PAH, and Alkyl- and Nitro-PAH Emissions and the Genotoxic Potential of Exhaust from a Gasoline Direct Injection Flex-Fuel Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria; Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline and also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI vehicles. However, increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with GDI technology with yet unknown health impacts. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess their genotoxic potential. Particle number emissions when operating the vehicle in the hWLTC (hot started worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle) with E10 and E85 were lowered by 97 and 96% compared with that of E0. CO emissions dropped by 81 and 87%, while CO2 emissions were reduced by 13 and 17%. Emissions of selected PAHs were lowered by 67-96% with E10 and by 82-96% with E85, and the genotoxic potentials dropped by 72 and 83%, respectively. Ethanol blending appears to reduce genotoxic emissions on this specific flex-fuel GDI vehicle; however, other GDI vehicle types should be analyzed.

  2. Estimating Pump Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W.; Meng, S. Y.; Meng, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Blockage predicted for all components including inducers, impellers and diffusers. Pump performance predicted by semiempirical method shows excellent agreement with test results in Space Shuttle main-engine highpressure fuel turbopump. Comparisons of pump efficiency show equally good agreement of calculated values with experimental ones. Method improves current estimation methods based solely on subjective engineering judgment.

  3. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  4. Fuel System Durability--U.S. Coast Guard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Anctil for constructing and conducting the testing and Ms. Rebecca Emmot for editing and processing the report. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page...measurement. If this proved successful, the process would be repeated with the 2000-g scuffing load fuel. The base 3000-g scuffing fuel had degraded...looks like a lip has formed and is in the process of chipping off. 27 Figure 19. Sulzer Injection Pump Plunger Crack Formed at Edge of Helix

  5. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  6. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; ...

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  7. Non-Intrusive, Laser-Based Imaging of Jet-A Fuel Injection and Combustion Species in High Pressure, Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; deGroot, Wilhelmus A.

    2001-01-01

    The emphasis of combustion research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is on collaborating with industry to design and test gas-turbine combustors and subcomponents for both sub- and supersonic applications. These next-generation aircraft combustors are required to meet strict international environmental restrictions limiting emissions. To meet these goals, innovative combustor concepts require operation at temperatures and pressures far exceeding those of cur-rent designs. New and innovative diagnostic tools are necessary to characterize these flow streams since existing methods are inadequate. The combustion diagnostics team at GRC has implemented a suite of highly sensitive, nonintrusive optical imaging methods to diagnose the flowfields of these new engine concepts. By using optically accessible combustors and flametubes, imaging of fuel and intermediate combustion species via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) at realistic pressures are now possible. Direct imaging of the fuel injection process through both planar Mie scattering and PLIF methods is also performed. Additionally, a novel combination of planar fuel fluorescence imaging and computational analysis allows a 3-D examination of the flowfield, resulting in spatially and temporally resolved fuel/air volume distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and other combustion phenomena. Stable species such as CO2, O2, N2O. and hydrocarbons are also investigated by a newly demonstrated 1-D, spontaneous Raman spectroscopic method. This visible wavelength Raman technique allows the acquisition of quantitative. stable species concentration measurements from the flow.

  8. Non-Intrusive, Laser-Based Imaging of Jet-A Fuel Injection and Combustion Species in High Pressure, Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; deGroot, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The emphasis of combustion research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is on collaborating with industry to design and test gas-turbine combustors and subcomponents for both sub- and supersonic applications. These next-generation aircraft combustors are required to meet strict international environmental restrictions limiting emissions. To meet these goals, innovative combustor concepts require operation at temperatures and pressures far exceeding those of current designs. New and innovative diagnostic tools are necessary to characterize these flow streams since existing methods are inadequate. The combustion diagnostics team at GRC has implemented a suite of highly sensitive, nonintrusive optical imaging methods to diagnose the flowfields of these new engine concepts. By using optically accessible combustors and flame-tubes, imaging of fuel and intermediate combustion species via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) at realistic pressures are now possible. Direct imaging of the fuel injection process through both planar Mie scattering and PLIF methods is also performed. Additionally, a novel combination of planar fuel fluorescence imaging and computational analysis allows a 3-D examination of the flowfield, resulting in spatially and temporally resolved fuel/air volume distribution maps. These maps provide detailed insight into the fuel injection process at actual conditions, thereby greatly enhancing the evaluation of fuel injector performance and other combustion phenomena. Stable species such as CO2, O2, N2, H2O, and hydrocarbons are also investigated by a newly demonstrated 1-D, spontaneous Raman spectroscopic method. This visible wavelength Raman technique allows the acquisition of quantitative, stable species concentration measurements from the flow.

  9. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  10. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  11. An investigation of the performance of an electronic in-line pump system for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li-Yun; Zhu, Yuan-Xian; Long, Wu-Qiang; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Xue, Ying-Ying

    2008-12-01

    WIT Electronic Fuel System Co., Ltd. has developed a new fuel injector, the Electronic In-line Pump (EIP) system, designed to meet China’s diesel engine emission and fuel economy regulations. It can be used on marine diesel engines and commercial vehicle engines through different EIP systems. A numerical model of the EIP system was built in the AMESim environment for the purpose of creating a design tool for engine application and system optimization. The model was used to predict key injection characteristics under different operating conditions, such as injection pressure, injection rate, and injection duration. To validate these predictions, experimental tests were conducted under the conditions that were modeled. The results were quite encouraging and in agreement with model predictions. Additional experiments were conducted to study the injection characteristics of the EIP system. These results show that injection pressure and injection quantity are insensitive to injection timing variations, this is due to the design of the constant velocity cam profile. Finally, injection quantity and pressure vs. pulse width at different cam speeds are presented, an important injection characteristic for EIP system calibration.

  12. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  13. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) an esterified cycle dehydration product of sorbitol which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  14. Mitigation of divertor heat flux by high-frequency ELM pacing with non-fuel pellet injection in DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; ...

    2017-03-23

    Experiments have been conducted on DIII-D investigating high repetition rate injection of non-fuel pellets as a tool for pacing Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and mitigating their transient divertor heat loads. Effective ELM pacing was obtained with injection of Li granules in different H-mode scenarios, at frequencies 3–5 times larger than the natural ELM frequency, with subsequent reduction of strike-point heat flux. However, in scenarios with high pedestal density (~6 × 1019 m–3), the magnitude of granule triggered ELMs shows a broad distribution, in terms of stored energy loss and peak heat flux, challenging the effectiveness of ELM mitigation. Furthermore, transientmore » heat-flux deposition correlated with granule injections was observed far from the strike-points. As a result, field line tracing suggest this phenomenon to be consistent with particle loss into the mid-plane far scrape-off layer, at toroidal location of the granule injection.« less

  15. Variable displacement vane pump

    SciTech Connect

    Tschantz, J.S.; Bisson, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    What has been developed under this program is a pumping system which can vary the amount of fuel delivered according to engine needs, thereby reducing the temperature rise of the fuel to very low levels. This permits the elimination of the air/oil coolers and conserves the vital airflow through the fan. The variable displacement vane pump (VDVP) also permits a substantial simplification of the control system with the elimination of complex metering valves, offering a significant reduction in fuel system cost. This program was initiated to develop a technology that embodied the ruggedness of the gear pump with the efficiency and metering versatility of the variable displacement vane pump. Thick metal vanes emulate the teeth on pumping gears while the simple, elegant swing cam feature provides the variable displacement capability without the unwieldy multiple cam segments found in other concepts. The result is a pumping architecture which is rugged, light in weight and extremely versatile, having demonstrated superb heat management and controllability in extensive bench and engine testing. This paper will report the results that the pumps have achieved to date both in terms of durability and efficiency.

  16. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  17. Investigation of the mechanism in RIJKE pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Progress report, August 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract No. DE-AS04-85AL31881. This three year investigation started in August 1989 and its objective was to elucidate the mechanisms that control the driving of pulsations in the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustor developed under a preceding DOE contracts. It was demonstrated in that contract that the developed Rijke type pulse combustor can burn a variety of light and heavy liquid fuel oils with high combustion efficiencies while using low excess air, which produces high thermal efficiencies. Since the elucidation of the driving mechanism in the Rijke pulse combustor required the use of optical diagnostics (e.g., radiation measurements), it was decided to perform these investigations in a Rijke pulse combustor that burned propane instead of a liquid fuel in order to avoid difficulties that are often encountered due to the presence of liquid droplets in the combustion region. Consequently, an effort was made to develop a Rijke pulse combustor that is similar to the one developed in the preceding program and demonstrated similar performance characteristics. Such a pulse combustor was developed in the early phases of this program. The developed experimental setup was provided with capabilities for measuring steady combustor temperature distributions, the characteristics of the excited pressure oscillations, the exhaust flow composition, the characteristics of the flow field and the reaction rates. This pulse combustor consists of a cylindrical tube that is attached to a decoupling chamber at each end. Fuel and air are supplied via a tangential air/fuel injection system that is located at a distance of L/4 from the combustor entrance, where L is the combustor length. Part of the combustor tube, where combustion occurs, is water cooled. This section is also equipped with flat quartz windows to permit optical diagnostics.

  18. Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, Z.K.

    2006-05-15

    Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

  19. Researches on direct injection in internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuscher, Jean E

    1941-01-01

    These researches present a solution for reducing the fatigue of the Diesel engine by permitting the preservation of its components and, at the same time, raising its specific horsepower to a par with that of carburetor engines, while maintaining for the Diesel engine its perogative of burning heavy fuel under optimum economical conditions. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  20. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  1. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  2. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table.

  3. A study of performance and emission characteristics of computerized CI engine with composite biodiesel blends as fuel at various injection pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogish, H.; Chandarshekara, K.; Pramod Kumar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils are becoming increasingly important as alternative fuels for diesel engines due to several advantages. Biodiesel is a renewable, inexhaustible and green fuel. This paper presents the various properties of the oils derived from Jatropha and Pongamia, their mixes and biodiesels derived from the mixes. An innovative lab scale reactor was designed and developed for biodiesel production from mixed vegetable oils and used for the study of optimization of biodiesel yield [1]. Also, the analysis of data of experimental investigations carried out on a 3.75 kW computerized CI engine at injection pressures of 160 and 180 bar with methyl esters of mixed Jatropha and Pongamia in various proportions are also presented. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel blends was found to be higher than that of petrodiesel at various loading conditions. In case of Composite biodiesel blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and the amount of composite biodiesel. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 213 °C for biodiesel among the five loading conditions. When petrodiesel was used the exhaust gas temperature was observed to be 220 °C. The CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the biodiesel blends were lower than that of petrodiesel.

  4. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  5. Indexes of pumps for oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimov, E.S.

    1995-07-01

    As reported previously, a series of oil field pumping units has been developed with power outputs of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 kW, designed for injecting working fluids in cementing operations in oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing of formations, washing out sand plugs, and other production operations. The units are designed for the use of three-plunger pumps with individual power outputs of 125 or 500 kW. In the 250- and 1000-kW units, two such pumps are used. The 1000-kW pumping unit serves mainly for deep-penetration hydraulic fracturing of formations, and also for fracturing deep formations. The hydraulic fracturing process does not require the use of units with two pumps; this has been demonstrated by experience, both here and in other countries. All units intended for use in hydraulic fracturing are built with a single pump, transmission, and drive. Pumping units for well cementing must have two pumps that will give a high delivery rate. At the start of the operation, a single pump can be used to feed water into the cement mixer, with the second pump used to transfer the cement slurry to the well. Then both pumps are connected to the slurry injection line. The operation of these pumps is described.

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 7: High pressure fuel turbo-pump third stage impeller analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Kirby V.

    1989-01-01

    This volume summarizes the analysis used to assess the structural life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbo-Pump (HPFTP) Third Stage Impeller. This analysis was performed in three phases, all using the DIAL finite element code. The first phase was a static stress analysis to determine the mean (non-varying) stress and static margin of safety for the part. The loads involved were steady state pressure and centrifugal force due to spinning. The second phase of the analysis was a modal survey to determine the vibrational modes and natural frequencies of the impeller. The third phase was a dynamic response analysis to determine the alternating component of the stress due to time varying pressure impulses at the outlet (diffuser) side of the impeller. The results of the three phases of the analysis show that the Third Stage Impeller operates very near the upper limits of its capability at full power level (FPL) loading. The static loading alone creates stresses in some areas of the shroud which exceed the yield point of the material. Additional cyclic loading due to the dynamic force could lead to a significant reduction in the life of this part. The cyclic stresses determined in the dynamic response phase of this study are based on an assumption regarding the magnitude of the forcing function.

  7. Effect of cross sectional geometry on PDMS micro peristaltic pump performance: comparison of SU-8 replica molding vs. micro injection molding.

    PubMed

    Graf, Neil J; Bowser, Michael T

    2013-10-07

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM). The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold's bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold's bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries.

  8. Effect of Cross Sectional Geometry on PDMS Micro Peristaltic Pump Performance: Comparison of SU-8 Replica Molding vs. Micro Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM).1 The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold’s bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold’s bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries. PMID:23917263

  9. Direct Utilization of Crude Oils as Fuels in U.S. Army Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    availability of crude oil properties throughout the world were investigated, and these properties were divided into two groups (1) Those properties which...of crude oil use on engine subsystem hardware such as fuel filters and fuel injection pumps were investigated, with particular attention being paid...CLR diesel engine operating on various crude oils. Performance data, wear, and deposition effects of crude oil use were obtained using the TACOM

  10. Beam-injection flame furnace AAS: comparison of different nozzle types for beam generation and application of sub-critical liquid carbon dioxide as carrier and gas pressure pump.

    PubMed

    Ratka, Annelen; Berndt, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In beam injection flame furnace AAS (BIFF-AAS) the sample is introduced as a free-flying high-speed liquid beam into an AAS flame-heated nickel tube, resulting in a considerable improvement in the power of detection. For optimization of beam generation different nozzle types (smooth jet nozzles, turbulent working nozzles) have been compared at different pressures. It was found that the type of the nozzle hardly influences the analytical signal. However, the flow rates resulting from the different inner diameters of the nozzles and the applied pressures led to drastic changes in the analytical signal. For these investigations a recently developed 0.6 MPa (84 psig) diaphragm pump system was used. Furthermore, for the first time ever sub-critical liquid carbon dioxide has been used simultaneously as a liquid gas-pressure pump, as carrier in a flow-injection system (FIA), and for the beam generation. Transport of the carrier takes place as a result of the head pressure (6 MPa) of the liquid CO2 in the gas cylinder. For volatile elements (e.g. Cd, Hg, Pb, and Tl) detection limits between 0.2 microg L(-1) (Cd) and 28 microg L(-1) (Hg) were found, the standard deviation was from 0.6% to 3.2% depending on the element, concentration, and sample volume used. The use of liquid CO2 as a carrier in FIA systems opens up new possibilities for online sample pretreatment and trace preconcentration.

  11. Peculiarities of Forming Single-Frequency Generation in a Monopulse YAG:Nd-Laser with Transverse Diode Pumping and Injection of Narrow-Band Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, M. V.; Kalinov, V. S.; Kostik, O. E.; Lantsov, K. I.; Lepchenkov, K. V.; Mashko, V. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Teplyashin, L. L.

    2016-05-01

    The features of forming output radiation in a powerful monopulse single-frequency side diode-pumped laser operating in external narrow-band signal seeding mode were investigated. The monopulse single-frequency laser was fabricated of a YAG:Nd active element excited by three laser diode matrices. A compact continuous-wave YAG:Nd-laser with longitudinal diode pumping served as the seeding laser. It was shown experimentally that the transition of the monopulse laser from multimode to single-frequency lasing with a spectral line width of about 54 MHz (0.2 pm) occurs at seeding-laser radiation power P th ≈ 0.14 mW (radiation intensity of 1.8·10-2 W/cm2). Increasing the seeding-laser power over P th does not lead to a noticeable change of the output characteristics of the monopulse laser for a given pump level (above the threshold). If the pump power varies from 1.5 to 3.0 kW, the P th value is not changed but the energy of the output pulses of single-frequency monopulse generation increases to 40 MJ. The low level of the external narrow-band seeding signal allows us to consider the single-frequency low-power semiconductor laser as a promising source of the seeding signal.

  12. Investigation of Performance of 9-Cylinder Engine Using Large Valve Overlap and Eclipse Fuel-Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1941-11-01

    period is approximately 80 crankshaft degrees. The engine cylinders and pistons had been modified as shown in figure 1. The Intake valve is...shorter than standard and is partially shrouded by the ledge which has. been added in the cylinder head. The top of the piston is grooved in...made with the same type of cylinder piston , and injection equipment and with cams giving normal timing and valve overlaps of

  13. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  14. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  15. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  16. CARS Temperature and Species Concentration Measurements in a Supersonic Combustor with Normal Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, S. A.; OByrne, S.; Danehy, P. M.; Cutler, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method was used to measure temperature and the absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor. Experiments were conducted in the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility. CARS measurements were performed at the facility nozzle exit and at three planes downstream of fuel injection. Processing the CARS measurements produced maps of the mean temperature, as well as quantitative N2 and O2 and qualitative H2 mean mole fraction fields at each plane. The CARS measurements were also used to compute correlations between fluctuations of the different simultaneously measured parameters. Comparisons were made between this 90 degree angle fuel injection case and a 30 degree fuel injection case previously presented at the 2004 Reno AIAA Meeting.

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  18. Performance Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emission of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Water/Oil Emulsions as Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    PD pressure dorp across the meriam laminar flow element PSI pounds per square inch RAIR ideal gas constant for air RFG rotational function generator...with a 1/2 inch layer of Smooth Kote insulation. Intake Air Flow Meter The intake air flow is measured using a Meriam Laminar Flow Element. The air...Precision Instrumentation (+ or -) Fuel Flow i-i000 gr 0.01 gr Fisher/Ainswarth ’. LC-IO000 Air Flow 0-200 CFm 0.5 CFM Meriam LFE Speed 0-7000 RPM 2.0

  19. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  20. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Ananyev, S. S. Spitsyn, A. V. Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  1. ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  3. Fuel Line Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    electrical winding of these pumps. Nominal cruise flow is approximately 5000 lM/r, and pump dead head pressure is 30 psi. * Ejector Pumps - Fourteen...fuel in tubine -powend aircraft, particularly when such aircraft are involved in accidents where spillage has occurred. Jet A fuel is more difficult... cost , and other penalties. Such a program should be sponsored by the FAA, supported and assisted by industry and other government agencies. And-misting

  4. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    PubMed

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  5. Integrated fuel management system

    SciTech Connect

    Barbeau, D.E.

    1987-09-29

    An aircraft fuel management system to regulate fuel from an airframe reservoir is described. The system comprises: an aircraft turbine engine having a combustor providing propulsion for the aircraft; a fuel pump receiving fuel from the reservoir and supplying fuel to the turbine engine; a motor controlling the pump so as to provide fuel to the turbine engine; means for sensing at least one engine condition; means responsive to the sensing means for controlling fuel flow to the turbine engine, and wherein the pump and the motor are of the constant speed type and further comprising valve means for controlling the fuel flow rate to the turbine engine and wherein the controlling means modulates the position of the valve means.

  6. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  7. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  8. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  9. Report on New Pumping System Software on Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skids

    SciTech Connect

    HORNER, T.M.

    2001-04-19

    This report documents the details of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and the Data Table Access Module (DTAM) logic developed for the new pumping system employed for saltwell pumping. The new system is planned first for pumping A-101 where Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''F'' is located. The new pump requires a bump start under certain conditions that will be controlled by the PLC. The bump start is to ensure sufficient water to the pump bearing cavities. The PLC logic is required to control the shutdown of the injection pump that supplies the water to the saltwell pump bearing cavities. Allowance to start and stop the injection pump will be controlled by the PLC at the PIC skid. This report is written for PIC skid ''P'', but will apply to other PIC skids where the new pumping system is deployed. The logic will remain the same, but the ladder rung-numbers may change from skid to skid.

  10. Industrial Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A flow inducer is a device that increases the pump intake capacity of a Worthington Centrifugal pump. It lifts the suction pressure sufficiently for the rotating main impeller of the centrifugal pump to operate efficiently at higher fluid intake levels. The concept derives from 1960's NASA technology which was advanced by Worthington Pump Division. The pumps are used to recirculate wood molasses, a highly viscous substance.

  11. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  12. High efficiency centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Nasvytis, P.J.; Jahrstorfer, G.W.

    1983-10-11

    A high speed fuel pump for a gas turnbine engine has a positively-driven shroud positioned between a main impeller and the wall of a pumping cavity to reduce impeller drag. The shroud is formed by a first disc having a boost impeller connected to its central hub portion and a second disc having a gear carried by its central hub portion. The main drive shaft assembly to which the main impeller is connected, carries a gear which meshes with gear mounted upon a shaft. The shaft also carries a gear which meshes with the gear. The gears are sized so that the shroud is driven at one-half the speed of the main impeller in order to maximize impeller drag reduction and enhance pumping capability when severe inlet conditions are present at the pump inlet.

  13. The optical pumping of alkali atoms using coherent radiation from semi-conductor injection lasers and incoherent radiation from resonance lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, G.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study for creating population differences in the ground states of alkali atoms (Cesium 133) is presented. Studies made on GaAs-junction lasers and the achievement of population inversions among the hyperfine levels in the ground state of Cs 133 by optically pumping it with radiation from a GaAs diode laser. Laser output was used to monitor the populations in the ground state hyperfine levels as well as to perform the hyperfine pumping. A GaAs laser operated at about 77 K was used to scan the 8521 A line of Cs 133. Experiments were performed both with neon-filled and with paraflint-coated cells containing the cesium vapor. Investigations were also made for the development of the triple resonance coherent pulse technique and for the detection of microwave induced hyperfine trasistions by destroying the phase relationships produced by a radio frequency pulse. A pulsed cesium resonance lamp developed, and the lamp showed clean and reproducible switching characteristics.

  14. Fuel injector system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  15. Application of advanced diesel technology to inland waterway towboats. variable timing, electronic fuel injection. Final report, September 1985-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, D.P.

    1989-03-01

    This report represents the test and evaluation of advanced diesel technology components on the DDC Series 149 Marine engine. The tests were conducted on an inland-waterways towboat and consist of over 20,000 engine hours of operation during the testing. The Detroit Diesel Series 16V-149 engine rated at 900 SHP was tested aboard the M/V ESCATAWPA owned and operated by Warrior and Gulf Navigation Company. Both port and starboard engines were instrumented to measure engine operating parameters, propeller-shaft torque, and fuel consumption. The data were collected by a computer-based data-acquisition system and written to floppy disc for analysis. The tasks included: (1) baseline evaluation of naturally-aspirated (NA) engines; (2) upgrade both engines to turbocharged intercooled and blower bypassed (TIB) configuration and measure performance; (3) upgrade port engine with Detroit Diesel electronic control (DDEC) and measure performance; (4) change port engine to high-torque rise governor setting and measure performance; (5) upgrade starboard engine with DDEC.

  16. The cetene scale and the induction period preceding the spontaneous ignition of diesel fuels in bombs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, M N; Neumann, M B

    1936-01-01

    In the present report a comparison is made between the scale obtained with mixtures of cetane and l-methyl naphthalene in a bomb, and that obtained with the same fuels in a Waukesha engine. The tests were conducted in a metal bomb heated by a Nichrome spiral. The fuel was injected into the bomb from a Bosch jet by means of a specially constructed plunger pump. The instant injection and the pressure curve in the bomb were registered by a beam of light which was reflected from a mirror connected to the needle of the jet and to a membrane indicator.

  17. Vehicle fuel system

    DOEpatents

    Risse, John T.; Taggart, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A vehicle fuel system comprising a plurality of tanks, each tank having a feed and a return conduit extending into a lower portion thereof, the several feed conduits joined to form one supply conduit feeding fuel to a supply pump and using means, unused fuel being returned via a return conduit which branches off to the several return conduits.

  18. Report on bioventing of petroleum contaminated soils at 108-3C: Active extraction and passive injection (barometric pumping) of a gaseous nutrient

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, J.R.; Lombard, K.; Radway, J.

    1997-05-01

    A bioventing system was constructed with horizontal extraction wells and vertical injection wells in an area which had previously been excavated and then backfilled. Initial in-situ respiration rates (air addition only) suggest that hydrocarbon degradation may be nutrient limited. The rate of TPH degradation was maximum (0.8-1.2 mg/kg/day) between 10-15 ft (bgs), but dropped to essentially zero 30 ft (bgs) within the contaminated zone (even though previous analysis at this depth indicated a TPH concentration of 3800 ppm). Analysis of the soil at 17 ft showed that NO{sub 3} and PO{sub 4} were below detection limits (0.5 ppm), indicating that nutrient limitation may be occurring. Nitrate levels were highest at 10 ft (bgs), correlating with the highest respiration rates. However, phosphate levels were at/or below detection levels throughout tile site (indicating possible PO{sub 4} limitation). Viable cells increased from 3 x 10{sup 6} cfu/g at 3 ft (bgs) to 1 x 10{sup 7} cfu/g at 10 ft (bgs) and remained relatively constant down to 17 ft. Cell numbers in the control area were significantly lower than in the contaminated zone (4.5 x 10{sup 3}). Gas phase nutrients (triethlyphosphate and nitrous oxide) will be injected to see if the hydrocarbon degradation rate can be increased.

  19. Fuel Injector With Shear Atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, George W.; Mills, Virgil L.; Smith, Durward B., II; Beacom, William F.

    1995-01-01

    Atomizer for injecting liquid fuel into combustion chamber uses impact and swirl to break incoming stream of fuel into small, more combustible droplets. Slanted holes direct flow of liquid fuel to stepped cylindrical wall. Impact on wall atomizes liquid. Air flowing past vanes entrains droplets of liquid in swirling flow. Fuel injected at pressure lower than customarily needed.

  20. Magnetocaloric pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.

  1. Proceedings of the third international pump symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on centrifugal pumps. Topics considered at the symposium included power recovery turbines for the process industry, gas-liquid flow through centrifugal pumps, the development of an advanced gas turbine driven high-speed centrifugal pump for injection services at oil fields, cavitation, structural resonance problems, electric motors, nozzles, and rotodynamic developments for high speed multistage pumps.

  2. Nature's pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven

    1994-10-01

    Although diverse in both form and function, the fluid-forcing devices in organisms have many of the capabilities and limitations of pumps of human design. Nature's pumps certainly look quite different from those of our technology, but all of them perform the same task. The author examines a few of these with an eye toward technological parallels and the two functional classes -- positive-displacement pumps and fluid-dynamic pumps.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  4. 33 CFR 183.534 - Fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.534 Fuel..., must not leak more than five ounces of fuel in 21/2 minutes inclusive of leaks from the fuel pump...

  5. 33 CFR 183.534 - Fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.534 Fuel..., must not leak more than five ounces of fuel in 21/2 minutes inclusive of leaks from the fuel pump...

  6. 33 CFR 183.534 - Fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.534 Fuel..., must not leak more than five ounces of fuel in 21/2 minutes inclusive of leaks from the fuel pump...

  7. 33 CFR 183.534 - Fuel filters and strainers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.534 Fuel..., must not leak more than five ounces of fuel in 21/2 minutes inclusive of leaks from the fuel pump...

  8. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  9. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  10. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  11. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  12. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  13. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  14. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  15. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  16. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  17. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  18. Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Bae

    Transient behaviour is a key parameter for the vehicular application of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The goal of this presentation is to construct better control technology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model comprises a compressor, an injection pump, a humidifier, a cooler, inlet and outlet manifolds, and a membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes the dynamic states of current, voltage, relative humidity, stoichiometry of air and hydrogen, cathode and anode pressures, cathode and anode mass flow rates, and power. Anode recirculation is also included with the injection pump, as well as anode purging, for preventing anode flooding. A steady-state, isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze the mass transfer and water transportation in the membrane. In order to prevent the starvation of air and flooding in a PEM fuel cell, time delay control is suggested to regulate the optimum stoichiometry of oxygen and hydrogen, even when there are dynamical fluctuations of the required PEM fuel cell power. To prove the dynamical performance improvement of the present method, feed-forward control and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control with a state estimator are compared. Matlab/Simulink simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system.

  19. Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Ming-Chia D.

    2003-01-01

    The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  20. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  1. Aviation Fuel Lubricity Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    cracking and subsequent fracture. The Pesco gear fuel pump in the JT-4 engine and the Chandler Evans gear fuel pump in the JT-3D engine also...TABLE 5 BOCLE ROUND-ROBIN I PARTICIPANTS Bendix Sundstrand US Navy US Air Force Chandler Evans Pratt & Whitney - East Hartford Exxon - USA Pratt...Research & Engineering X Naval Air Propulsion Center X X Esso Petroleum X Sundstrand X Lucas X Chandler Evans X Southwest Research Institute X Mountain

  2. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  3. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  4. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  5. Hydrodynamic design of generic pump components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, A. H. J.; Dodson, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Inducer and impellar base geometries were defined for a fuel pump for a generic generator cycle. Blade surface data and inlet flowfield definition are available in sufficient detail to allow computational fluid dynamic analysis of the two components.

  6. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  7. Pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a gas-oil production system for pumping formation fluid in a well through a tubing string within which a down hole pump connects to a hydraulic stroking device through a rod string providing the pump including a plunger reciprocally driven by the hydraulic stroking device toward an upper terminal position during a plunger upstroke. The rod string normally supports the weight of a column of fluid and toward a lower terminal position at the end of a plunger downstroke during which the weight of the column fluid is normally transferred to the tubing string through fluid within the pump. The method for detecting when the well is pumped off comprises: supplying working fluid to the hydraulic stroking device to raise the hydraulic stroking device and thereby move the plunger from the lower terminal position to the upper terminal position; and removing the working fluid at a controlled rate from the hydraulic stroking device.

  8. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  9. Shaping of fuel delivery characteristics for solenoid operated diesel engine gaseous injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.; Krepec, T.; Kekedjian, H.

    1996-09-01

    Solenoid operated gaseous injectors, when compared to conventional liquid fuel diesel injectors, differ in the way the fuel dose and its discharge rate are controlled. While in conventional diesel systems, the fuel dose and its injection rate depends on the fuel injection pump effective stroke and on the plunger diameter and velocity, the solenoid injectors operate in an on-off manner which limits the ability to control the gas discharge rate, resulting in its profile to be basically rectangular in shape. To reduce the gas injection rate at the beginning of the injection process in order to suppress the diesel-knock phenomenon, similar procedures as used in diesel engines could be implemented. One such approach is to use a throttling type pintle nozzle, and another method is to use a double-spring injector with a hole nozzle. The rationale for using such nozzle configurations is that gaseous fuels do not require atomization, and therefore, can be injected at lower discharge velocities than with liquid fuels. The gas delivery characteristics from a solenoid injector has been computer-simulated in order to assess the impact of the investigated three modes of fuel discharge rate control strategies. The simulation results confirmed that the gas dose and its discharge rate can be shaped as required. An experimental set-up is described to measure the gas discharge rate using a special gas injection mass flow rate indicator with a strain-gage sensor installed at the entry to a long tube, similar to that proposed by Bosch for liquid fuel volumetric flow rate measurements.

  10. High Head Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert W.; Skelley, Stephen E.; Stewart, Eric T.; Droege, Alan R.; Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Williams, Morgan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A team of engineers at NASA/MSFC and Boeing, Rocketdyne division, are developing unshrouded impeller technologies that will increase payload and decrease cost of future reusable launch vehicles. Using the latest analytical techniques and experimental data, a two-stage unshrouded fuel pump is being designed that will meet the performance requirements of a three-stage shrouded pump. Benefits of the new pump include lower manufacturing costs, reduced weight, and increased payload to orbit.

  11. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  12. IN-SITU AIR INJECTION, SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION AND ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION: A CASE STUDY IN A JP-4 JET FUEL CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) conducted a joint demonstration of in situ remediation of a JP-4 jet fuel spill at the USCG Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The jet fuel was trapped beneath a clay layer that ext...

  13. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work

  14. Submersible pump

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D. B.

    1985-08-27

    A method and apparatus for using a submersible pump to lift reservoir fluids in a well while having the tubing/casing annulus isolated from the produced fluids. The apparatus allows the submersible pump to be positioned above the annular packoff device. The apparatus comprises an outer shield that encloses the pump and can be attached to the production tubing. The lower end of the shield attaches to a short tubing section that seals with the annular packoff device or a receptacle above the annular packoff device.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 4: High pressure fuel turbo-pump inlet housing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Kirby V.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis performed on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) inlet housings is summarized. Three DIAL finite element models were build to aid in assessing the structural life of the welds and fillets at the vanes. Complete results are given.

  16. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling. Progress report, August 16, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-12-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  17. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  18. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  19. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  20. Slurry pumping: Pump performance prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Taccani, R.; Pediroda, V.; Reini, M.; Giadrossi, A.

    2000-07-01

    Centrifugal pumps are being used increasingly for transportation of slurries through pipelines. To design a slurry handling system it is essential to have a knowledge of the effects of suspended solids on the pump performance. A new test loop has been realized in the laboratory of the Energetics Department of the University of Trieste which allows pump performance to be determined at various pump speeds, with many different mixture concentrations and rheologies. The pump test rig consists of 150 mm diameter pipe with facilities for measuring suction and discharge pressure, flowrate, pump input power and speed, slurry density and temperature. In particular flowrate is measured by diverting flow into a weighing tank and timing a specified volume of slurry. An automatic PC based data acquisition system has been implemented. Preliminary tests with clear water show that performance can be measured with good repeatability and accuracy. The new test rig is used to verify the range of validity of the correlations to predict pump performance, available in literature and of that proposed by authors. This correlation, based on a Neural Network and not on a predefined analytical expression, can be easily improved with new experimental data.

  1. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  2. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  3. 46 CFR 108.489 - Helicopter fueling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containment systems around marine portable tanks, fuel transfer pumps and fuel hose reels: (1) Protein foam at...) 22.5 kilograms (50 pounds) of dry chemical (B-V semi-portable) for each fueling facility of up to...

  4. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  5. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  6. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  7. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... turbine engine powered airplanes, prevent the passage of any object that could restrict fuel flow...

  8. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  9. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  10. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fondaparinux injection.Talk to your doctor about the risk of using fondaparinux injection. ... Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood ... Xa inhibitors. It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.

  11. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  12. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of ... gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone injection ...

  13. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  14. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  20. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.