Sample records for fuel injector design

  1. Effects of fuel-injector design on ultra-lean combustion performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions data were obtained for six fuel injector configurations tested with ultra lean combustion. Fuel injectors included three multiple source designs and three configurations using a single air assist injector. Only the multiple source fuel injectors provided acceptable emissions. Values of 16g CO/kg fuel, 1.9g HC/kg fuel, and 19.g NO2/kg fuel were obtained for the combustion temperature range of 1450 to 1700 K for both a high blockage 19 source injector and a low blockage 41 source injector. It was shown that high fuel injector pressure drop may not be required to achieve low emissions performance at high inlet air temperature when the fuel is well dispersed in the airstream.

  2. Scramjet fuel injector design parameters and considerations: Development of a two-dimensional tangential fuel injector with constant pressure at the flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnone, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting a tangential fuel injector design for scramjet operation are reviewed and their effect on the efficiency of the supersonic combustion process is evaluated using both experimental data and theoretical predictions. A description of the physical problem of supersonic combustion and method of analysis is followed by a presentation and evaluation of some standard and exotic types of fuel injectors. Engineering fuel injector design criteria and hydrogen ignition schemes are presented along with a cursory review of available experimental data. A two-dimensional tangential fuel injector design is developed using analyses as a guide in evaluating the effects on the combustion process of various initial and boundary conditions including splitter plate thickness, injector wall temperature, pressure gradients, etc. The fuel injector wall geometry is shaped so as to maintain approximately constant pressure at the flame as required by a cycle analysis. A viscous characteristics program which accounts for lateral as well as axial pressure variations due to the mixing and combustion process is used in determining the wall geometry.

  3. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles.

    PubMed

    Falgout, Z; Linne, M

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  4. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  5. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  6. Fuel injector system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  7. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  8. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick [Bromley, GB

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  9. Photographic characterization of spark-ignition engine fuel injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    Manifold port fuel injectors suitable for use in general aviation spark-ignition engines were evaluated qualitatively on the basis of fuel spray characteristics. Photographs were taken at various fuel flow rates or pressure levels. Mechanically and electronically operated pintle injectors generally produced the most atomization. The plain-orifice injectors used on most fuel-injected general aviation engines did not atomize the fuel when sprayed into quiescent air.

  10. CFD Based Design of a Filming Injector for N+3 Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2016-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform CFD analysis of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors with axial swirl-venturi elements for next-generation LDI-3 combustor design. The National Combustion Code (NCC) was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations for a newly-designed pre-filming type fuel injector LDI-3 injector, in a single-injector and a five-injector array configuration. All computations were performed with a consistent approach of mesh-optimization, spray-modeling, ignition and kinetics-modeling. Computational predictions of the aerodynamics of the single-injector were used to arrive at an optimized main-injector design that meets effective area and fuel-air mixing criteria. Emissions (EINOx) characteristics were predicted for a medium-power engine cycle condition, and will be compared with data when it is made available from experimental measurements. The use of a PDF-like turbulence-chemistry interaction model with NCC's Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) solver is shown to produce a significant impact on the CFD results, when compared with a laminar-chemistry TFNS approach for the five-injector computations.

  11. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is examined. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. Experiments were done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in) to 55.9 cm (22 in). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by reaming each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  12. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is reported herein. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. The work was done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in.) to 55.9 cm (22 in.). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by 'reaming' each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  13. Nonreactive mixing study of a scramjet swept-strut fuel injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclinton, C. R.; Torrence, M. G.; Gooderum, P. B.; Young, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a cold-mixing investigation performed to supply combustor design information and to determine optimum normal fuel-injector configurations for a general scramjet swept-strut fuel injector. The experimental investigation was made with two swept struts in a closed duct at a Mach number of 4.4 and a nominal ratio of jet mass flow to air mass flow of 0.0295, with helium used to simulate hydrogen fuel. Four injector patterns were evaluated; they represented the range of hole spacing and the ratio of jet dynamic pressure to free-stream dynamic pressure. Helium concentration, pitot pressure, and static pressure in the downstream mixing region were measured to generate the contour plots needed to define the mixing-region flow field and the mixing parameters. Experimental results show that the fuel penetration from the struts was less than the predicted values based on flat-plate data; but the mixing rate was faster and produced a mixing length less than one-half that predicted.

  14. CFD-Based Design of a Filming Injector for N+3 Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2016-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform CFD analysis of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors with axial swirl-venturi elements coupled with a new fuel-filming injector design for next-generation N+3 combustors. The National Combustion Code (NCC) was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations on a N+3 injector configuration, in a single-element and a five-element injector array. All computations were performed with a consistent approach towards mesh-generation, spray-, ignition- and kinetics-modeling with the NCC. Computational predictions of the aerodynamics of the injector were used to arrive at an optimal injector design that met effective area, aerodynamics, and fuel-air mixing criteria. LDI-3 emissions (EINOx, EICO and UHC) were compared with the previous generation LDI-2 combustor experimental data at representative engine cycle conditions.

  15. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  16. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  17. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  18. Fueling of magnetically confined plasmas by single- and two-stage repeating pneumatic pellet injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouge, M. J.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.; Milora, S. L.

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic fusion confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogenic pellets to speeds in the kilometer-per-second range using single shot and repetitive pneumatic (light-gas gun) pellet injectors. The millimeter-to-centimeter size pellets enter the plasma and continuously ablate because of the plasma electron heat flux, depositing fuel atoms along the pellet trajectory. This fueling method allows direct fueling in the interior of the hot plasma and is more efficient than the alternative method of injecting room temperature fuel gas at the wall of the plasma vacuum chamber. Single-stage pneumatic injectors based on the light-gas gun concept have provided hydrogenic fuel pellets in the speed range of 1 to 2 km/s in single-shot injector designs. Repetition rates up to 5 Hz have been demonstrated in repetitive injector designs. Future fusion reactor-scale devices may need higher pellet velocities because of the larger plasma size and higher plasma temperatures. Repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are under development at ORNL to provide long-pulse plasma fueling in the 3 to 5 km/s speed range. Recently, a repeating, two-stage light-gas gun achieved repetitive operation at 1 Hz with speeds in the range of 2 to 3 km/s.

  19. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M [Santa Fe, NM; Rosocha, Louis A [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  20. Optical Fuel Injector Patternation Measurements in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. For one injector, further comparison is also made with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  1. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  2. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  3. Fuel Injector Design Optimization for an Annular Scramjet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A four-parameter, three-level, central composite experiment design has been used to optimize the configuration of an annular scramjet injector geometry using computational fluid dynamics. The computational fluid dynamic solutions played the role of computer experiments, and response surface methodology was used to capture the simulation results for mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery within the scramjet flowpath. An optimization procedure, based upon the response surface results of mixing efficiency, was used to compare the optimal design configuration against the target efficiency value of 92.5%. The results of three different optimization procedures are presented and all point to the need to look outside the current design space for different injector geometries that can meet or exceed the stated mixing efficiency target.

  4. An Optimization-Based Approach to Injector Element Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) injector elements. A swirl coaxial element and an unlike impinging element (a fuel-oxidizer-fuel triplet) are used to facilitate the study. The elements are optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, APf, oxidizer pressure drop, deltaP(sub f), combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, (for the swirl element) or impingement half-angle, alpha, (for the impinging element) at a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for both element types. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable for both types of elements. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail for each element type. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the element design is illustrated. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface that includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues

  5. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  6. Fuel-injector/air-swirl characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.; Russell, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on the characteristics of the spray produced by a gas-turbine engine airblast fuel injector are reported. The data acquired include the mass-flux distribution measured by use of a high-resolution spray patternator; the gas-phase velocity field measured by use of a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter, and the liquid droplet size and velocity distributions measured by use of a single-component phase-Doppler anemometer. The data are intended for use in assessments of two-phase flow computational methods as applied to combustor design procedures.

  7. Direct Fuel Injector Power Drive System Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    solenoid coil to create magnetic field in the stator. Then, the stator pulls the pintle to open the injector nozzle . This pintle movement occurs when the...that typically deal with power strategies to the injector solenoid coil. Numerical simulation codes for diesel injection systems were developed by...Laboratory) for providing the JP-8 test fuel. REFERENCES 1. Digesu, P. and Laforgia D., “ Diesel electro- injector : A numerical simulation code”. Journal of

  8. Parametric Design of Injectors for LDI-3 Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Application of a partially calibrated National Combustion Code (NCC) for providing guidance in the design of the 3rd generation of the Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) multi-element combustion configuration (LDI-3) is summarized. NCC was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations on several LDI-3 injector configurations in a single-element and a five-element injector array. All computations were performed with a consistent approach for mesh-generation, turbulence, spray simulations, ignition and chemical kinetics-modeling. Both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the computed flowfield characteristics of the several design options led to selection of an optimal injector LDI- 3 design that met all the requirements including effective area, aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing criteria. Computed LDI-3 emissions (namely, NOx, CO and UHC) will be compared with the prior generation LDI- 2 combustor experimental data at relevant engine cycle conditions.

  9. Effect of broad properties fuel on injector performance in a reverse flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of fuel type on the performance of various fuel injectors was investigated in a reverse flow combustor. Combustor performance and emissions are documented for simplex pressure atomizing, spill flow, and airblast fuel injectors using a broad properties fuel and compared with performance using Jet A fuel. Test conditions simulated a range of flight conditions including sea level take off, low and high altitude cruise, as well as a parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading. The baseline simplex injector produced higher emission levels with corresponding lower combustion efficiency with the broad properties fuel. There was little or not loss in performance by the two advanced concept injectors with the broad properties fuel. The airblast injector proved to be especially insensitive to fuel type.

  10. Effects of Passive Fuel-Air Mixing Control on Burner Emissions Via Lobed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, O. I.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the effects of differing levels of passive fuel-air premixing on flame structures and their associated NO(x) and CO emissions. Four alternative fuel injector geometries were explored, three of which have lobed shapes. These lobed injectors mix fuel and air and strain species inter-faces to differing extents due to streamwise vorticity generation, thus creating different local or core equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Prior experimental studies of two of these lobed injector flowfields focused on non-reactive mixing characteristics and emissions measurements for the case where air speeds were matched above and below the fuel injector, effectively generating stronger streamwise vorticity than spanwise vorticity. The present studies examine the effects of airstream mismatch (and hence additional spanwise vorticity generation), effects of confinement of the crossflow to reduce the local equivalence ratio, and the effects of altering the geometry and position of the flameholders. NO(x) and CO emissions as well as planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging (PLIF) of seeded acetone are used to characterize injector performance and reactive flow evolution.

  11. Hollow-Wall Heat Shield for Fuel Injector Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Russell B. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A fuel injector component includes a body, an elongate void and a plurality of bores. The body has a first surface and a second surface. The elongate void is enclosed by the body and is integrally formed between portions of the body defining the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of bores extends into the second surface to intersect the elongate void. A process for making a fuel injector component includes building an injector component body having a void and a plurality of ports connected to the void using an additive manufacturing process that utilizes a powdered building material, and removing residual powdered building material from void through the plurality of ports.

  12. Exploratory tests of two strut fuel injectors for supersonic combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. Y.; Gooderum, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Results of supersonic mixing and combustion tests performed with two simple strut injector configurations, one with parallel injectors and one with perpendicular injectors, are presented and analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between static pressure measured on the duct wall downstream of the strut injectors and distributions obtained from one-dimensional calculations. Measured duct heat load agrees with results of the one-dimensional calculations for moderate amounts of reaction, but is underestimated when large separated regions occur near the injection location. For the parallel injection strut, good agreement is obtained between the shape of the injected fuel distribution inferred from gas sample measurements at the duct exit and the distribution calculated with a multiple-jet mixing theory. The overall fraction of injected fuel reacted in the multiple-jet calculation closely matches the amount of fuel reaction necessary to match static pressure with the one-dimensional calculation. Gas sample measurements with the perpendicular injection strut also give results consistent with the amount of fuel reaction in the one-dimensional calculation.

  13. Fuel-injector/air-swirl characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.; Bennett, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to establish an experimental data base documenting the behavior of gas turbine engine fuel injector sprays as the spray interacts with the swirling gas flow existing in the combustor dome, and to conduct an assessment of the validity of current analytical techniques for predicting fuel spray behavior. Emphasis is placed on the acquisition of data using injector/swirler components which closely resemble components currently in use in advanced aircraft gas turbine engines, conducting tests under conditions that closely simulate or closely approximate those developed in actual combustors, and conducting a well-controlled experimental effort which will comprise using a combination of low-risk experiments and experiments requiring the use of state-of-the-art diagnostic instrumentation. Analysis of the data is to be conducted using an existing, TEACH-type code which employs a stochastic analysis of the motion of the dispersed phase in the turbulent continuum flow field.

  14. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  15. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  16. Combustor exhaust emissions with air-atomizing splash-groove fuel injectors burning Jet A and Diesel number 2 fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Air-atomizing, splash-groove injectors were shown to improve primary-zone fuel spreading and reduce combustor exhaust emissions for Jet A and diesel number 2 fuels. With Jet A fuel large-orifice, splash-groove injectors the oxides-of-nitrogen emission index was reduced, but emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, or smoke were unaffected. Small-orifice, splash-groove injectors did not reduce oxides of nitrogen, but reduced the smoke number and carbon monoxide and unburned-hydrocarbon emission indices. With diesel number 2 fuel, the small-orifice, splash-groove injectors reduced oxides of nitrogen by 19 percent, smoke number by 28 percent, carbon monoxide by 75 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. Combustor blowout limits were similar for diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels.

  17. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E [Peoria, IL

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  18. A simplified computational fluid-dynamic approach to the oxidizer injector design in hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Martino, Giuseppe D.; Malgieri, Paolo; Carmicino, Carmine; Savino, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Fuel regression rate in hybrid rockets is non-negligibly affected by the oxidizer injection pattern. In this paper a simplified computational approach developed in an attempt to optimize the oxidizer injector design is discussed. Numerical simulations of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in a hybrid rocket are carried out, with a commercial solver, to investigate into several injection configurations with the aim of increasing the fuel regression rate and minimizing the consumption unevenness, but still favoring the establishment of flow recirculation at the motor head end, which is generated with an axial nozzle injector and has been demonstrated to promote combustion stability, and both larger efficiency and regression rate. All the computations have been performed on the configuration of a lab-scale hybrid rocket motor available at the propulsion laboratory of the University of Naples with typical operating conditions. After a preliminary comparison between the two baseline limiting cases of an axial subsonic nozzle injector and a uniform injection through the prechamber, a parametric analysis has been carried out by varying the oxidizer jet flow divergence angle, as well as the grain port diameter and the oxidizer mass flux to study the effect of the flow divergence on heat transfer distribution over the fuel surface. Some experimental firing test data are presented, and, under the hypothesis that fuel regression rate and surface heat flux are proportional, the measured fuel consumption axial profiles are compared with the predicted surface heat flux showing fairly good agreement, which allowed validating the employed design approach. Finally an optimized injector design is proposed.

  19. System for supporting a bundled tube fuel injector within a combustor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold

    A combustor includes an end cover having an outer side and an inner side, an outer barrel having a forward end that is adjacent to the inner side of the end cover and an aft end that is axially spaced from the forward end. An inner barrel is at least partially disposed concentrically within the outer barrel and is fixedly connected to the outer barrel. A fluid conduit extends downstream from the end cover. A first bundled tube fuel injector segment is disposed concentrically within the inner barrel. The bundled tube fuel injector segment includes a fuel plenum that ismore » in fluid communication with the fluid conduit and a plurality of parallel tubes that extend axially through the fuel plenum. The bundled tube fuel injector segment is fixedly connected to the inner barrel.« less

  20. A numerical study of candidate transverse fuel injector configurations in the Langley scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that numerically solves the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species equations near one or more transverse hydrogen fuel injectors in a scramjet engine. The program currently computes the turbulent mixing and reaction of hydrogen fuel and air, and allows the study of separated regions of the flow immediately preceding and following the injectors. The complex shock-expansion structure produced by the injectors in this region of the engine can also be represented. Results are presented that describe the flow field near two opposing transverse fuel injectors and two opposing staged (multiple) injectors, and comparisons between the two configurations are made to assess their mixing and flameholding qualities.

  1. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Nekofar, K.

    2013-04-01

    The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA). A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  2. Cavitation Inside High-Pressure Optically Transparent Fuel Injector Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nozzle-orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on primary breakup of sprays. For this reason, a number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles so that orifice flow cavitation can be examined directly. Many of these studies use injection pressures scaled down from realistic injection pressures used in modern fuel injectors, and so the geometry must be scaled up so that the Reynolds number can be matched with the industrial applications of interest. A relatively small number of studies have shown results at or near the injection pressures used in real systems. Unfortunately, neither the specifics of the design of the optical nozzle nor the design methodology used is explained in detail in these papers. Here, a methodology demonstrating how to prevent failure of a finished design made from commonly used optically transparent materials will be explained in detail, and a description of a new design for transparent nozzles which minimizes size and cost will be shown. The design methodology combines Finite Element Analysis with relevant materials science to evaluate the potential for failure of the finished assembly. Finally, test results imaging a cavitating flow at elevated pressures are presented.

  3. Developing the Model of Fuel Injection Process Efficiency Analysis for Injector for Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, M. Yu; Kayukov, S. S.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Belousov, A. V.; Gallyamov, R. E.; Lysenko, Yu D.

    2018-01-01

    The article proposes an assessment option for analysing the quality of fuel injection by the injector constituting the development of calculation blocks in a common injector model within LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim. The parameters of the injector model in the article correspond to the serial injector Common Rail-type with solenoid. The possibilities of this approach are demonstrated with providing the results using the example of modelling the modified injector. Following the research results, the advantages of the proposed approach to analysing assessing the fuel injection quality were detected.

  4. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  5. Internal baffling for fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

    2014-08-05

    A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

  6. CFD Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Several Fuel Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    CFD analysis is presented of the mixing characteristics and performance of three fuel injectors at hypervelocity flow conditions. The calculations were carried out using the VULCAN-CFD solver and Reynolds-Averaged Simulations (RAS). The high Mach number flow conditions match those proposed for the planned experiments conducted as a part of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate scramjet fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than eight. Because of the high Mach number flow considered, the injectors consist of a fuel placement device, a strut; and a fluidic vortical mixer, a ramp. These devices accomplish the necessary task of distributing and mixing fuel into the supersonic cross-flow albeit via different strategies. Both of these devices were previously studied at lower flight Mach numbers where they exhibited promising performance in terms of mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery. For comparison, a flush-wall injector is also included. This type of injector generally represents the simplest method of introducing fuel into a scramjet combustor, however, at high flight Mach number conditions, the dynamic pressure needed to induce sufficient fuel penetration may be difficult to achieve along with other requirements such as achieving desired levels of fuel-to-air mixing at the required equivalence ratio. The three injectors represent the baseline configurations planned for the experiments. The current work discusses the mixing flow field behavior and differences among the three fuel injectors, mixing performance as described by the mixing efficiency and the total pressure recovery, and performance considerations based on the thrust potential.

  7. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Andriulli, John B.; Strain, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  8. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  9. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  11. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  12. Study of effects of injector geometry on fuel-air mixing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, L. H.; Roach, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    An implicit finite-difference method has been developed for computing the flow in the near field of a fuel injector as part of a broader study of the effects of fuel injector geometry on fuel-air mixing and combustion. Detailed numerical results have been obtained for cases of laminar and turbulent flow without base injection, corresponding to the supersonic base flow problem. These numerical results indicated that the method is stable and convergent, and that significant savings in computer time can be achieved, compared with explicit methods.

  13. Optical Measurements in a Combustor Using a 9-Point Swirl-Venturi Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of two-dimensional data to characterize a multipoint swirl-venturi injector. The injector is based on a NASA-conceived lean direct injection concept. Using a variety of advanced optical diagnostic techniques, we examine the flows resultant from multipoint, lean-direct injectors that have nine injection sites arranged in a 3 x 3 grid. The measurements are made within an optically-accessible, jet-A-fueled, 76-mm by 76-mm flame tube combustor. Combustion species mapping and velocity measurements are obtained using planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH and fuel, planar laser scatter of liquid fuel, chemiluminescence from CH*, NO*, and OH*, and particle image velocimetry of seeded air (non-fueled). These measurements are used to study fuel injection, mixedness, and combustion processes and are part of a database of measurements that will be used for validating computational combustion models.

  14. Injector design guidelines for gas/liquid propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, A. Y.; Burick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Injector design guidelines are provided for gas/liquid propellant systems. Information was obtained from a 30-month applied research program encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination studied was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ ambient temperature gaseous methane. Design criteria that provide for simultaneous attainment of high performance and chamber compatibility are presented for both injector types. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular coaxial and like-doublet injectors that operate with design parameters similar to those employed. However, caution should be exercised when applying these data to propellant combinations whose elements operate in ranges considerably different from those employed in this study.

  15. Experimental study of cleaning aircraft GTE fuel injectors using a vortex ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimov, O. A.; Piralishvili, Sh A.; Veretennikov, S. V.; Elkes, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The main ways of cleaning the fuel injectors and the circuits of jet and vortex ejectors used for pumping gas, liquid and two-phase media, as well as for evacuation of enclosed spaces are analyzed. The possibility of organizing the process of pumping the liquid out of the fuel injection manifold secondary circuit using a vortex ejector is shown experimentally. The regimes of manifold evacuation at various inlet liquid pressure values are studied. The technology of carbon cleaning fuel injectors using a washing liquid at various working process parameters is tested.

  16. Jet-A fuel evaporation analysis in conical tube injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, M.-C.; Chue, T.-H.; Zhu, G.; Sun, H.; Tacina, R.; Chun, K.; Hicks, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional drop-life-history analysis and a multidimensional spray calculation using KIVA-II code are applied to the vaporization of Jet-A fuel in multiple tube injectors. Within the assumptions of the analysis, the one-dimensional results are useful for design purposes. The pressure-atomizer breakup models do not accurately predict the dropsize measured experimentally or deduced from the one-dimensional analysis. Cold flow visualization and dropsize measurements show that capillary wave breakup mechanism plays an important role in the spray angle and droplet impingement on the tube wall.

  17. Experimental Investigation of a Multiplex Fuel Injector Module With Discrete Jet Swirlers for Low Emission Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Mao, Chien-Pei; Wey, Changlie

    2004-01-01

    A low-NOx emissions combustor concept has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A lean-direct injection (LDI) concept was used where the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone and the overall equivalence ratio of the mixture is lean. The LDI concept described in this report is a multiplex fuel injector module containing multipoint fuel injection tips and multi-burning zones. The injector module comprises 25 equally spaced injection tips within a 76 by 76 mm area that fits into the flame-tube duct. The air swirlers were made from a concave plate on the axis of the fuel injector using drilled holes at an angle to the axis of the fuel injector. The NOx levels were quite low and are greater than 70 percent lower than the 1996 ICAO standard. At an inlet temperature of 810 K, inlet pressure of 2760 kPa, pressure drop of 4 percent and a flame temperature of 1900 K with JP8 fuel, the NOx emission index was 9. The 25-point injector module exhibited the most uniform radial distribution of fuel-air mixture and NOx emissions in the flame tube when compared to other multipoint injection devices. A correlation is developed relating the NOx emissions to inlet temperature, inlet pressure, equivalence ratio and pressure drop.

  18. The Design and Performance of a Twenty Barrel Hydrogen Pellet Injector for Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbahn, John A.

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have led to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in-situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extensively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius. Line averaged density increases of up to 300 percent were recorded with peak densities of just under 1 times 10^ {21} / m^3, the highest achieved on C-Mod to date. A comparison is made between the ablation source function derived from tracker data with that predicted by four different variations of the neutral shield model

  19. Small gas turbine combustor study - Fuel injector performance in a transpiration-cooled liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fuel injection technique on the performance of an advanced reverse flow combustor liner constructed of Lamilloy (a multilaminate transpiration type material) was determined. Performance and emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions using simplex pressure atomizing, spill return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types is obtained.

  20. Small gas turbine combustor study: Fuel injector performance in a transpiration-cooled liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fuel injection technique on the performance of an advanced reverse flow combustor liner constructed of Lamilloy (a multilaminate transpiration type material) was determined. Performance and emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions using simplex pressure atomizing, spill return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types is obtained.

  1. Design and Fabrication of Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Thrust Chamber Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, C. P.; Medina, C. R.; Protz, C. S.; Kenny, R. J.; Kelly, G. W.; Casiano, M. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Richardson, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. On the current project, several configurations of new main injectors were considered for the thrust chamber assembly of the integrated test article. All the injector elements were of the gas-centered swirl coaxial type, similar to those used on the Russian oxidizer-rich staged-combustion rocket engines. In such elements, oxidizer-rich combustion products from the preburner/turbine exhaust flow through a straight tube, and fuel exiting from the combustion chamber and nozzle regenerative cooling circuits is injected near the exit of the oxidizer tube through tangentially oriented orifices that impart a swirl motion such that the fuel flows along the wall of the oxidizer tube in a thin film. In some elements there is an orifice at the inlet to the oxidizer tube, and in some elements there is a sleeve or "shield" inside the oxidizer tube where the fuel enters. In the current project, several variations of element geometries were created, including element size (i.e., number of elements or pattern density), the distance from the exit of the sleeve to the injector face, the width of the gap between the oxidizer tube inner wall and the outer wall of the sleeve, and excluding the sleeve entirely. This paper discusses the design rationale for each of these element variations, including hydraulic, structural

  2. Visualization of cavitating and flashing flows within a high aspect ratio injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Andrew S.

    Thermal management issues necessitate the use of fuel as a heat sink for gas turbine and liquid rocket engines. There are certain benefits to using heated fuels, namely, increased sensible enthalpy, increased combustion efficiency, a decrease in certain emissions, and enhanced vaporization characteristics. However, the thermal and pressure enviornment inside an injector can result in the fuel flashing to vapor. Depending on the injector design, this can have deleterious effects on engine performance. As interest in heated fuels inreases, it is important to understand what occurs in the flow path of an injector under flashing conditions. At the High Pressure Laboratory at Purdue University's Maurice J. Zucrow Laboritories, a test rig was designed and built to give visual access into the flow path of a 2-D slot injector. The rig is capable of pressurizing and heating a liquid to superheated conditions and utilizes a pneumatically actuated piston to pusth the liquid through the slot injector. Methanol was chosen as a surrogate fuel to allow for high levels of superheat at relatively low temperatures. Testing was completed with acrylic and quartz injectors of varying L/DH. Flashing conditions inside the injector flow path were induced via a combination of heating and back pressure adjustments. Volume flow rate, pressure measurements, and temperature measurements were made which allowed the discharge characteristics, the level of superheat, and other parameters to be calculated and compared. To give a basis for comparison the flashing results are compared to the flow through the injector under cavitating conditions. Cavitation and flashing appear to be related phenomena and this relationship is shown. Bubble formation under cavitating or flashing conditions is observed to attenuate the injector's discharge characteristics. High speed videos of the flow field were also collected. Several flow regimes and flow structures, unique to these regimes, were observed. A

  3. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  4. Spark-integrated propellant injector head with flashback barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Gregory Stuart (Inventor); Fisher, David James (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    High performance propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that allows for effective and safe thermal decomposition and/or combustion of the propellants. By integrating a sintered metal component between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable fuel injector head may be implemented. Additionally the fuel injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  5. Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.

  6. On the formation of string cavitation inside fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, B. A.; Gavaises, M.; Mitroglou, N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Garner, C. P.; Long, E. J.; McDavid, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of vortex or `string' cavitation has been visualised in the flow upstream of the injection hole inlet of an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle operating at pressures up to 2,000 bar. Three different nozzle geometries and three-dimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, for two adjacent nozzle holes, their relative positions influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices. Each hole was shown to contain two counter-rotating vortices: the first extending upstream on axis with the nozzle hole into the nozzle sac volume and the second forming a single `bridging' string linked to the adjacent hole. Steady-state and transient fuel injection conditions were shown to produce significantly different nozzle-flow characteristics with regard to the formation and interaction of these vortices in the geometries tested, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved. The study further confirms that the visualised vortices do not cavitate themselves but act as carriers of gas-phase components within the injector flow.

  7. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the

  8. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  9. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  10. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  11. Ignition improvement by injector arrangement in a multi-fuel combustor for micro gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoshkiv, O.; Poojitganont, T.; Jeansirisomboon, S.; Berg, H. P.

    2018-01-01

    The novel combustor design also has an impact on the ignitor arrangement. The conventional ignitor system cannot guarantee optimal ignition performance in the usual radial position. The difficult ignitability of gaseous fuels was the main challenge for the ignitor system improvement. One way to improve the ignition performance significantly is a torch ignitor system in which the gaseous fuel is directly mixed with a large amount of the combustor air. To reach this goal, the ignition process was investigated in detail. The micro gas turbine (MGT) ignition was optimised considering three main procedures: torch ignitor operation, burner ignition and flame propagation between the neighbour injectors. A successful final result of the chain of ignition procedures depends on multiple aspects of the combustor design. Performed development work shows an important step towards designing modern high-efficiency low-emission combustors.

  12. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  13. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  14. Evaluation of thermal loading on a methane injector at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvin, Stephen F.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and numerical analyses are conducted to determine the surface temperature on a methane fuel injector used to produce a high enthalpy test stream for a combustion-fed subscale wind tunnel facility. It was found that the ratio of the methane fuel injection velocity to the air stream velocity is a significant factor in the production of high injector surface temperatures which lead to rapid deterioration of the fuel injector structure. The numerical code utilized for the computational analysis was found to be representative of the experimentally measured data since the experimental trends were reproduced by the numerical simulation. The quantitative accuracy of the numerical predictions could not be assessed from the data gathered because of the difficulty of making a noninterfering injector surface temperature measurement. The numerical code can be used for parametric evaluation of combustor parameters and thus will serve as an important tool in the design of such fuel injector systems.

  15. Optimizing RF gun cavity geometry within an automated injector design system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Alicia Hofler ,Pavel Evtushenko

    2011-03-28

    RF guns play an integral role in the success of several light sources around the world, and properly designed and optimized cw superconducting RF (SRF) guns can provide a path to higher average brightness. As the need for these guns grows, it is important to have automated optimization software tools that vary the geometry of the gun cavity as part of the injector design process. This will allow designers to improve existing designs for present installations, extend the utility of these guns to other applications, and develop new designs. An evolutionary algorithm (EA) based system can provide this capability becausemore » EAs can search in parallel a large parameter space (often non-linear) and in a relatively short time identify promising regions of the space for more careful consideration. The injector designer can then evaluate more cavity design parameters during the injector optimization process against the beam performance requirements of the injector. This paper will describe an extension to the APISA software that allows the cavity geometry to be modified as part of the injector optimization and provide examples of its application to existing RF and SRF gun designs.« less

  16. ALS LOX/H2 subscale coaxial injector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, Carol E.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a 40K subscale LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector conducted without injector or chamber degradation are reported. Chamber pressures ranged from 1572 to 2355 psia with overall mixture ratios from 5.04 to 6.39. The highest characteristic velocities were measured when the mixture ratio across the injector face was uniform. Scarfing of the outer row LOX posts had the largest effect on chamber heating rates. As a result of the tests, the LSI design was modified to arrange the outer row LOX posts in a circular pattern, eliminate O/F biasing and fuel film cooling, and modify the interpropellant plate to allow for larger pressure differentials during the start and cutoff transients. Testing of a 100 K LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector involved chamber pressure ranging from 700 to 2500 psia with overall mixture ratios from 3.2 to 8.8. Stable combustion was observed to a fuel temperature of 90R and characteristic velocity efficiencies were good.

  17. Space storable propellant performance program coaxial injector characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burick, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to characterize the circular coaxial injector concept for application with the space-storable gas/liquid propellant combination FLOX(82.6% F2)/CH4(g) at high pressure. The primary goal of the program was to obtain high characteristic velocity efficiency in conjunction with acceptable injector/chamber compatibility. A series of subscale (single element) cold flow and hot fire experiments was employed to establish design criteria for a 3000-lbf (sea level) engine operating at 500 psia. The subscale experiments characterized both high performance core elements and peripheral elements with enhanced injector/chamber compatibility. The full-scale injector which evolved from the study demonstrated a performance level of 99 percent of the theoretical shifting characteristic exhaust velocity with low chamber heat flux levels. A 44-second-duration firing demonstrated the durability of the injector. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular, coaxial injectors that operate with injection dynamics (fuel and oxidizer velocity, etc.) similar to those employed in the work reported.

  18. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  19. Evaluation of FIDC system. [fuel vapor injector/ogniter and lean limit controller for automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. A.; Dowdy, M. W.; Price, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A fuel vapor injector/igniter system was evaluated for its effect on automobile engine performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. Improved fuel economy and emissions, found during the single cylinder tests were not realized with a multicylinder engine. Multicylinder engine tests were conducted to compare the system with both a stock and modified stock configuration. A comparison of cylinder-to-cylinder equivalence ratio distribution was also obtained from the multicylinder engine tests. The multicylinder engine was installed in a vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer to compare the system with stock and modified stock configurations. The fuel vapor injector/igniter system (FIDC) configuration demonstrated approximately five percent improved fuel economy over the stock configuration, but the modified stock configuration demonstrated approximately twelve percent improved fuel economy. The hydrocarbon emissions were approximately two-hundred-thirty percent higher with the FIDC system than with the stock configuration. Both the FIDC system and the modified stock configuration adversely affected driveability. The FIDC system demonstrated a modest fuel savings, but with the penalty of increased emissions, and loss of driveability.

  20. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  1. Investigation of gaseous propellant combustion and associated injector/chamber design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoon, D. F.; Ito, J. I.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Injector design criteria are provided for gaseous hydrogen-gaseous oxygen propellants. Design equations and procedures are presented which will allow an injector-chamber designer to a priori estimate of the performance, compatibility and stability characteristics of prototype injectors. The effects of chamber length, element geometry, thrust per element, mixture ratio, impingement angle, and element spacing were evaluated for four element concepts and their derivatives. The data from this series of tests were reduced to a single valued mixing function that describes the mixing potential of the various elements. Performance, heat transfer and stability data were generated for various mixture ratios, propellant temperatures, chamber pressures, contraction ratios, and chamber lengths. Applications of the models resulted in the design of procedures, whereby the performance and chamber heat flux can be calculated directly, and the injector stability estimated in conjunction with existing models.

  2. Injector design for liner-on-target gas-puff experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Conti, F.; Wessel, F.; Fadeev, V.; Narkis, J.; Ross, M. P.; Rahman, H. U.; Ruskov, E.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of a gas-puff injector for liner-on-target experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g., Ar and Kr) gas and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers an ionized deuterium target. The annular supersonic nozzle injector has been studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated (M > 5), ˜1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on ˜1-MA current generators. The CFD simulations allowed us to study output density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape, gas pressure, and gas composition. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas density. The measurements agree well with the CFD values. We have used a simple snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector.

  3. Injector design for liner-on-target gas-puff experiments.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, J C; Krasheninnikov, I; Conti, F; Wessel, F; Fadeev, V; Narkis, J; Ross, M P; Rahman, H U; Ruskov, E; Beg, F N

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of a gas-puff injector for liner-on-target experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g., Ar and Kr) gas and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers an ionized deuterium target. The annular supersonic nozzle injector has been studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated (M > 5), ∼1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on ∼1-MA current generators. The CFD simulations allowed us to study output density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape, gas pressure, and gas composition. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas density. The measurements agree well with the CFD values. We have used a simple snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector.

  4. Low-Cost Approach to the Design and Fabrication of a LOX/RP-1 Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadoan, Michael D.; Sparks, Dave L.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has designed, built, and is currently testing Fastrac, a liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP-1 fueled 60K-lb thrust class rocket engine. One facet of Fastrac, which makes it unique is that it is the first large-scale engine designed and developed in accordance with the Agency's mandated "faster, better, cheaper" (FBC) program policy. The engine was developed under the auspices of MSFC's Low Cost Boost Technology office. Development work for the main injector actually began in 1993 in subscale form. In 1996, work began on the full-scale unit approximately 1 year prior to initiation of the engine development program. In order to achieve the value goals established by the FBC policy, a review of traditional design practices was necessary. This internal reevaluation would ultimately challenge more conventional methods of material selection. design process, and fabrication techniques. The effort was highly successful. This "new way" of thinking has resulted in an innovative injector design, one with reduced complexity and significantly lower cost. Application of lessons learned during this effort to new or existing designs can have a similar effect on costs and future program successes.

  5. Conjugate Heat Transfer Analyses on the Manifold for Ramjet Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer analyses on the manifold located upstream of the ramjet fuel injector are performed using CFdesign, a finite-element computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The flow field of the hot fuel (JP-7) flowing through the manifold is simulated and the wall temperature of the manifold is computed. The three-dimensional numerical results of the fuel temperature are compared with those obtained using a one-dimensional analysis based on empirical equations, and they showed a good agreement. The numerical results revealed that it takes around 30 to 40 sec to reach the equilibrium where the fuel temperature has dropped about 3 F from the inlet to the exit of the manifold.

  6. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S [Bloomington, IL; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  7. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr.; Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  8. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  9. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  10. Optimum design of space storable gas/liquid coaxial injectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burick, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the results of a program of single-element, cold-flow/hot-fire experiments performed for the purpose of establishing design criteria for a high-performance gas/liquid (FLOX/CH4) coaxial injector. The approach and the techniques employed resulted in the direct design of an injector that met or exceeded the performance and chamber compatibility goals of the program without any need for the traditional 'cut-and-try' development methods.

  11. CFD simulation of coaxial injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, D. Brian

    1993-01-01

    The development of improved performance models for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is an important, ongoing program at NASA MSFC. These models allow prediction of overall system performance, as well as analysis of run-time anomalies which might adversely affect engine performance or safety. Due to the complexity of the flow fields associated with the SSME, NASA has increasingly turned to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques as modeling tools. An important component of the SSME system is the fuel preburner, which consists of a cylindrical chamber with a plate containing 264 coaxial injector elements at one end. A fuel rich mixture of gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen is injected and combusted in the chamber. This process preheats the hydrogen fuel before it enters the main combustion chamber, powers the hydrogen turbo-pump, and provides a heat dump for nozzle cooling. Issues of interest include the temperature and pressure fields at the turbine inlet and the thermal compatibility between the preburner chamber and injector plate. Performance anomalies can occur due to incomplete combustion, blocked injector ports, etc. The performance model should include the capability to simulate the effects of these anomalies. The current approach to the numerical simulation of the SSME fuel preburner flow field is to use a global model based on the MSFC sponsored FNDS code. This code does not have the capabilities of modeling several aspects of the problem such as detailed modeling of the coaxial injectors. Therefore, an effort has been initiated to develop a detailed simulation of the preburner coaxial injectors and provide gas phase boundary conditions just downstream of the injector face as input to the FDNS code. This simulation should include three-dimensional geometric effects such as proximity of injectors to baffles and chamber walls and interaction between injectors. This report describes an investigation into the numerical simulation of GH2/LOX coaxial

  12. Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Impinging Injector Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

    2001-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) impinging injector element. The unlike impinging element, a fuel-oxidizer- fuel (F-O-F) triplet, is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub o), combustor length, L(sub comb), and impingement half-angle, alpha, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 163 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface which includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio. Finally, specific variable weights are further increased to illustrate the high marginal cost of

  13. Raman Gas Species Measurements in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Injector Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Hartfield, Roy J.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Eskridge, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Propellent injector development at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) includes experimental analysis using optical techniques, such as Raman, fluorescence, or Mie scattering. For the application of spontaneous Raman scattering to hydrocarbon-fueled flows a technique needs to be developed to remove the interfering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence from the relatively weak Raman signals. A current application of such a technique is to the analysis of the mixing and combustion performance of multijet, impinging-jet candidate fuel injectors for the baseline Mars ascent engine, which will burn methane and liquid oxygen produced in-situ on Mars to reduce the propellent mass transported to Mars for future manned Mars missions. The present technique takes advantage of the strongly polarized nature of Raman scattering. It is shown to be discernable from unpolarized fluorescence interference by subtracting one polarized image from another. Both of these polarized images are obtained from a single laser pulse by using a polarization-separating calcite rhomb mounted in the imaging spectrograph. A demonstration in a propane-air flame is presented.

  14. A numerical study of mixing in supersonic combustors with hypermixing injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the performance of wall mounted fuel-injectors designed for potential Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAM-jet) engine applications. The focus of this investigation was to numerically simulate existing combustor designs for the purpose of validating the numerical technique and the physical models developed. Three different injector designs of varying complexity were studied to fully understand the computational implications involved in accurate predictions. A dual transverse injection system and two streamwise injector designs were studied. The streamwise injectors were designed with swept ramps to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion characteristics at supersonic speeds without the large flow blockage and drag contribution of the transverse injection system. For this study, the Mass-Average Navier-Stokes equations and the chemical species continuity equations were solved. The computations were performed using a finite-volume implicit numerical technique and multiple block structured grid system. The interfaces of the multiple block structured grid systems were numerically resolved using the flux-conservative technique. Detailed comparisons between the computations and existing experimental data are presented. These comparisons show that numerical predictions are in agreement with the experimental data. These comparisons also show that a number of turbulence model improvements are needed for accurate combustor flowfield predictions.

  15. A numerical study of mixing in supersonic combustors with hypermixing injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the performance of wall mounted fuel-injectors designed for potential Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAM-jet) engine applications. The focus of this investigation was to numerically simulate existing combustor designs for the purpose of validating the numerical technique and the physical models developed. Three different injector designs of varying complexity were studied to fully understand the computational implications involved in accurate predictions. A dual transverse injection system and two streamwise injector designs were studied. The streamwise injectors were designed with swept ramps to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion characteristics at supersonic speeds without the large flow blockage and drag contribution of the transverse injection system. For this study, the Mass-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the chemical species continuity equations were solved. The computations were performed using a finite-volume implicit numerical technique and multiple block structured grid system. The interfaces of the multiple block structured grid systems were numerically resolved using the flux-conservative technique. Detailed comparisons between the computations and existing experimental data are presented. These comparisons show that numerical predictions are in agreement with the experimental data. These comparisons also show that a number of turbulence model improvements are needed for accurate combustor flowfield predictions.

  16. Development of the platelet micro-orifice injector. [for liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Botz, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    For some time to come, liquid rocket engines will continue to provide the primary means of propulsion for space transportation. The injector represents a key to the optimization of engine and system performance. The present investigation is concerned with a unique injector design and fabrication process which has demonstrated performance capabilities beyond that achieved with more conventional approaches. This process, which is called the 'platelet process', makes it feasible to fabricate injectors with a pattern an order of magnitude finer than that obtainable by drilling. The fine pattern leads to an achievement of high combustion efficiencies. Platelet injectors have been identified as one of the significant technology advances contributing to the feasibility of advanced dual-fuel booster engines. Platelet injectors are employed in the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. Attention is given to injector design theory as it relates to pattern fineness, a description of platelet injectors, and test data obtained with three different platelet injectors.

  17. Main Chamber Injectors for Advanced Hydrocarbon Booster Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Matthew R.; Bazarov, Vladimir G.; Anderson, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Achieving the highest possible specific impulse has long been a key driver for space launch systems. Recently, more importance has been placed on the need for increased reliability and streamlined launch operations. These general factors along with more specific mission requirements have provided a new focus that is centered on the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. Despite a history of use in Russia that extends back to the 1960's, a proven design methodology for ORSC cycle engines does not exist in the West. This lack of design expertise extends to the main chamber injector, a critical subcomponent that largely determines the engine performance and main chamber life. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The design of a baseline injector element, derived from information on Russian engines in the open literature, is presented. The baseline injector comprises a gaseous oxidizer core flow and an annular swirling fuel flow. Sets of equations describing the steady-state and the dynamic characteristics of the injector are presented; these equations, which form the basis of the design analysis methodology, will be verified in tests later this year. On-going cold flow studies, using nitrogen and water as simulants, are described which indicate highly atomized and symmetric sprays.

  18. Orbital transfer vehicle engine technology: Baffled injector design, fabrication, and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    New technologies for space-based, reusable, throttleable, cryogenic orbit transfer propulsion are being evaluated. Supporting tasks for the design of a dual expander cycle engine thrust chamber design are documented. The purpose of the studies was to research the materials used in the thrust chamber design, the supporting fabrication methods necessary to complete the design, and the modification of the injector element for optimum injector/chamber compatibility.

  19. Semi-empirical analysis of liquid fuel distribution downstream of a plain orifice injector under cross-stream air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, M.-H.; Jiang, H.-K.; Chin, J.-S.

    1982-04-01

    An improved flat-fan spray model is used for the semi-empirical analysis of liquid fuel distribution downstream of a plain orifice injector under cross-stream air flow. The model assumes that, due to the aerodynamic force of the high-velocity cross air flow, the injected fuel immediately forms a flat-fan liquid sheet perpendicular to the cross flow. Once the droplets have been formed, the trajectories of individual droplets determine fuel distribution downstream. Comparison with test data shows that the proposed model accurately predicts liquid fuel distribution at any point downstream of a plain orifice injector under high-velocity, low-temperature uniform cross-stream air flow over a wide range of conditions.

  20. String cavitation formation inside fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, B. A.; Gavaises, M.; Mitroglou, N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Garner, C. P.; McDavid, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of vortex or ‘string’ cavitation has been visualised at pressures up to 2000 bar in an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle. The multi-hole nozzle geometry studied allowed observation of the hole-to-hole vortex interaction and, in particular, that of a bridging vortex in the sac region between the holes. Above a threshold Reynolds number, their formation and appearance during a 2 ms injection event was repeatable and independent of upstream pressure and cavitation number. In addition, two different hole layouts and threedimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, the relative positions of adjacent holes influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved.

  1. Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael David (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

  2. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  3. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  4. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2003-01-01

    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  5. Development of Advanced Low Emission Injectors and High-Bandwidth Fuel Flow Modulation Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Parker Hannifin Corporation developed the 3-Zone fuel nozzle for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program to meet NASAs target of 75 LTO NOx reduction from CAEP6 regulation. The nozzle concept was envisioned as a drop-in replacement for currently used fuel nozzle stem, and is built up from laminates to provide energetic mixing suitable for lean direct injection mode at high combustor pressure. A high frequency fuel valve was also developed to provide fuel modulation for the pilot injector. Final testing result shows the LTO NOx level falling just shy of NASAs goal at 31.

  6. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, A. I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Kastengren, A. L.; El-Hannouny, E. M.; Longman, D. E.; Powell, C. F.

    2009-07-01

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software.

  7. Raman Gas Species Measurements in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Injector Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Trinh, Huu P.; Dobson, Chris C.; Eskridge, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Rocket engine propellent injector development at NASA-Marshall includes experimental analysis using optical techniques, such as Raman, fluorescence, or Mie scattering. For the application of spontaneous Raman scattering to hydrocarbon-fueled flows a technique needs to be developed to remove the interfering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence from the relatively weak Raman signals. A current application of such a technique is to the analysis of the mixing and combustion performance of multijet, impinging-jet candidate fuel injectors for the baseline Mars ascent engine, which will burn methane and liquid oxygen produced in-situ on Mars to reduce the propellent mass transported to Mars for future manned Mars missions. The Raman technique takes advantage of the strongly polarized nature of Raman scattering. It is shown to be discernable from unpolarized fluorescence interference by subtracting one polarized image from another. Both of these polarized images are obtained from a single laser pulse by using a polarization-separating calcite rhomb mounted in the imaging spectrograph. A demonstration in a propane-air flame is presented, as well as a high pressure demonstration in the NASA-Marshall Modular Combustion Test Artice, using the liquid methane-liquid oxygen propellant system

  8. An Approach to Improved Credibility of CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Paul K.; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by simulating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to. the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process.. This paper documents the status of an effort to understand and compare the predictive capabilities and resource requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of model problem injectors. Preliminary results from a steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), an unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier Stokes (URANS) and three different Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques used to model a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants are presented. Initial observations are made comparing instantaneous results, corresponding time-averaged and steady-state solutions in the near -injector flow field. Significant differences in the flow fields exist, as expected, and are discussed. An important preliminary result is the identification of a fundamental mixing mechanism, accounted for by URANS and LES, but missing in the steady BANS methodology. Since propellant mixing is the core injector function, this mixing process may prove to have a profound effect on the ability to more correctly simulate injector performance and resulting thermal environments. Issues important to unifying the basis for future comparison such as solution initialization, required run time and grid resolution are addressed.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse; Ritter, Dr. George W.; Drews, Charles Donald

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventionalmore » manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the

  10. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  11. Efficient GO2/GH2 Injector Design: A NASA, Industry and University Cooperative Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. K.; Klem, M. D.; Fisher, S. C.; Santoro, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Developing new propulsion components in the face of shrinking budgets presents a significant challenge. The technical, schedule and funding issues common to any design/development program are complicated by the ramifications of the continuing decrease in funding for the aerospace industry. As a result, new working arrangements are evolving in the rocket industry. This paper documents a successful NASA, industry, and university cooperative effort to design efficient high performance GO2/GH2 rocket injector elements in the current budget environment. The NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program initially consisted of three vehicle/engine concepts targeted at achieving single stage to orbit. One of the Rocketdyne propulsion concepts, the RS 2100 engine, used a full-flow staged-combustion cycle. Therefore, the RS 2100 main injector would combust GO2/GH 2 propellants. Early in the design phase, but after budget levels and contractual arrangements had been set the limitations of the current gas/gas injector database were identified. Most of the relevant information was at least twenty years old. Designing high performance injectors to meet the RS 2100 requirements would require the database to be updated and significantly enhanced. However, there was no funding available to address the need for more data. NASA proposed a teaming arrangement to acquire the updated information without additional funds from the RLV Program. A determination of the types and amounts of data needed was made along with test facilities with capabilities to meet the data requirements, budget constraints, and schedule. After several iterations a program was finalized and a team established to satisfy the program goals. The Gas/Gas Injector Technology (GGIT) Program had the overall goal of increasing the ability of the rocket engine community to design efficient high-performance, durable gas/gas injectors relevant to RLV requirements. First, the program would provide Rocketdyne with data on

  12. STE thrust chamber technology: Main injector technology program and nozzle Advanced Development Program (ADP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the STME Main Injector Program was to enhance the technology base for the large-scale main injector-combustor system of oxygen-hydrogen booster engines in the areas of combustion efficiency, chamber heating rates, and combustion stability. The initial task of the Main Injector Program, focused on analysis and theoretical predictions using existing models, was complemented by the design, fabrication, and test at MSFC of a subscale calorimetric, 40,000-pound thrust class, axisymmetric thrust chamber operating at approximately 2,250 psi and a 7:1 expansion ratio. Test results were used to further define combustion stability bounds, combustion efficiency, and heating rates using a large injector scale similar to the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) STME main injector design configuration including the tangential entry swirl coaxial injection elements. The subscale combustion data was used to verify and refine analytical modeling simulation and extend the database range to guide the design of the large-scale system main injector. The subscale injector design incorporated fuel and oxidizer flow area control features which could be varied; this allowed testing of several design points so that the STME conditions could be bracketed. The subscale injector design also incorporated high-reliability and low-cost fabrication techniques such as a one-piece electrical discharged machined (EDMed) interpropellant plate. Both subscale and large-scale injectors incorporated outer row injector elements with scarfed tip features to allow evaluation of reduced heating rates to the combustion chamber.

  13. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (Inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  14. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (Inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  15. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  16. End-of-injection fuel dribble of multi-hole diesel injector: Comprehensive investigation of phenomenon and discussion on control strategy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moon, Seoksu; Huang, Weidi; Li, Zhilong

    The needle shutdown of fuel injectors leads to an undesired fuel dribble that forms unburned hydrocarbons and decreases the engine thermal efficiency in modern engines. Understanding of the fuel dribbling process is of great importance to establish its minimization strategy for optimal use of conventional fuels. However, the detailed needle dynamics and in- and near-nozzle flow characteristics governing the fuel dribble process have not been thoroughly understood. In this study, the needle dynamics, in- and near-nozzle flow characteristics and fuel dribble of a mini-sac type three-hole diesel injector were investigated using a highspeed X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique at different injectionmore » pressures. The results showed that an increase in injection pressure increased the flow evacuation velocity at the needle close that induced a more intense fuel cavitation and air ingestion inside the nozzle. The fuel dribbling process showed a high shot-toshot deviation. A statistical analysis of 50-shot results exhibited two breakup modes of fuel dribble determined by the flow evacuation velocity at the needle close and presence of air ingestion. In the first mode, the fast breakup with a short residence time of fuel dribble occurred. Meanwhile, the dripping of undisturbed liquid column with a long residence time of fuel dribble occurred in the second mode. An increase in injection pressure increased the population of the first mode due to more intense air ingestion that primarily caused by an increase in needle closing speed other than an increase in peak injection velocity. Based on the results, the formation mechanism and control strategies of the fuel dribble from modern diesel injectors were discussed.« less

  17. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  18. Single element injector testing for STME injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.; Davis, J.

    1992-01-01

    An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being developed for application in the liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) for the National Launch System (NLS) vehicle. This paper reports on the first two parts of a four part single injector element study for optimization of the STME injector design. Measurements of Rupe mixing efficiency and atomization characteristics are reported for single element versions of injection elements from two multielement injectors that have been recently hot fire tested. Rather than attempting to measure a definitive mixing efficiency or droplet size parameters of these injector elements, the purpose of these experiments was to provide a baseline comparison for evaluating future injector element design modifications. Hence, all the experiments reported here were conducted with cold flow simulants to nonflowing, ambient conditions. Mixing experiments were conducted with liquid/liquid simulants to provide economical trend data. Atomization experiments were conducted with liquid/gas simulants without backpressure. The results, despite significant differences from hot fire conditions, were found to relate to mixing and atomization parameters deduced from the hot fire testing, suggesting that these experiments are valid for trend analyses. Single element and subscale multielement hot fire testing will verify optimized designs before committing to fullscale fabrication.

  19. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Each cylinder of an internal combustion engine includes a combined gas exchange valve and fuel injector with a port control valve. The port control valve operates to open either an intake passage or an exhaust passage. The operation of the combined device is controlled by a pair of electrical actuators. The device is hydraulically actuated.

  20. Modeling of internal and near-nozzle flow for a GDI fuel injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for a fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k -ε turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture themore » phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative and flashing conditions. Noticeable hole-to-hole variations have been observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under all the operating conditions considered in this study. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Under favorable conditions considerable flashing has been observed in the near-nozzle regions. An enormous volume is occupied by the gasoline vapor, stantial computational cost. Volume-averaging instead of mass-averaging is observed to be more effective, especially for finer mesh resolutions.« less

  1. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary; Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Tucker, P. Kevin; Hutt, John

    1999-01-01

    A practical design tool for the analysis of flowfields near the injector face has been developed and used to analyze the Fastrac engine. The objective was to produce a computational design tool which was detailed enough to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows. To obtain a model which could be used to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe liquid and vapor sub- and super-critical flows, the model included thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. A homogeneous model was constructed such that the local state of the flow was determined directly, i.e. the quality of the flow was calculated. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity to be predicted. It also allows the film coolant flow to be accurately described. The initial evaluation of the injector code was made by simulating cold flow from an unlike injector element and from a like-on-like overlapping fan (LOL) injector element. The predicted mass flux distributions of these injector elements compared well to cold flow test results. These are the same cold flow tests which serve as the data base for the JANNAF performance prediction codes. The flux distributions 1 inch downstream of the injector face are very similar; the differences were somewhat larger at further distances from the faceplate. Since the cold flow testing did not achieve good mass balances when integrations across the entire fan were made, the CFD simulation appears to be reasonable alternative to future cold flow testing. To simulate the Fastrac, an RP-1/LOX combustion model must be chosen. This submodel must be relatively simple to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Single RP-1

  2. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by evaluating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process. This paper documents the status of a focused effort to compare and understand the predictive capabilities and computational requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of single element injector model problems. The steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) and three different approaches using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique were used to simulate the initial model problem, a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. While one high-fidelity LES result matches the experimental combustion chamber wall heat flux very well, there is no monotonic convergence to the data with increasing computational tool fidelity. Systematic evaluation of key flow field regions such as the flame zone, the head end recirculation zone and the downstream near wall zone has shed significant, though as of yet incomplete, light on the complex, underlying causes for the performance level of each technique. 1 Aerospace Engineer and Combustion CFD Team Leader, MS ER42, NASA MSFC, AL 35812, Senior Member, AIAA. 2 Professor and Director, Computational Combustion Laboratory, School of Aerospace Engineering, 270 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, Associate Fellow, AIAA. 3 Reilly Professor of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, Fellow, AIAA. 4 Principal Member of Technical Staff, Combustion Research Facility, 7011 East Avenue, MS9051, Livermore, CA 94550, Associate

  3. Design of a Premixed Gaseous Rocket Engine Injector for Ethylene and Oxygen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    and uniform combustion zone. An engine will benefit by having a greater characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency (ηc*), less soot production and...the challenges of designing a premixed injector. The design requirements for the engine are to provide a wide range of combustion pressure... Engineering Original Premixed Injector1 Downstream of the three inch combustion chamber a bolt-on conical nozzle was attached. This nozzle had a

  4. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).

    PubMed

    Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2014-02-01

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  5. Evaluation of friction heating in cavitating high pressure Diesel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, R.; Koukouvinis, P.; Strotos, G.; McDavid, R.; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Jason; Marengo, M.; Gavaises, M.

    2015-12-01

    Variation of fuel properties occurring during extreme fuel pressurisation in Diesel fuel injectors relative to those under atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions may affect significantly fuel delivery, fuel injection temperature, injector durability and thus engine performance. Indicative results of flow simulations during the full injection event of a Diesel injector are presented. In addition to the Navier-Stokes equations, the enthalpy conservation equation is considered for predicting the fuel temperature. Cavitation is simulated using an Eulerian-Lagrangian cavitation model fully coupled with the flow equations. Compressible bubble dynamics based on the R-P equation also consider thermal effects. Variable fuel properties function of the local pressure and temperature are taken from literature and correspond to a reference so-called summer Diesel fuel. Fuel pressurisation up to 3000bar pressure is considered while various wall temperature boundary conditions are tested in order to compare their effect relative to those of the fuel heating caused during the depressurisation of the fuel as it passes through the injection orifices. The results indicate formation of strong temperature gradients inside the fuel injector while heating resulting from the extreme friction may result to local temperatures above the fuel's boiling point. Predictions indicate bulk fuel temperature increase of more than 100°C during the opening phase of the needle valve. Overall, it is concluded that such effects are significant for the injector performance and should be considered in relevant simulation tools.

  6. Comparison of Mixing Characteristics for Several Fuel Injectors on an Open Plate and in a Ducted Flowpath Configuration at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Shenoy, Rajiv R.; Passe, Bradley J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost and complexity associated with fuel injection and mixing experiments for high-speed flows, and to further enable optical access to the test section for nonintrusive diagnostics, the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) utilizes an open flat plate configuration to characterize inert mixing properties of various fuel injectors for hypervelocity applications. The experiments also utilize reduced total temperature conditions to alleviate the need for hardware cooling. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures for mixing experiments is not new, and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. The impact of reduced facility-air total temperature, and the use of inert fuel simulants, such as helium, on the mixing character of the flow has been assessed in previous numerical studies by the authors. Mixing performance was characterized for three different injectors: a strut, a ramp, and a flushwall. The present study focuses on the impact of using an open plate to approximate mixing in the duct. Toward this end, Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS) were performed for the three fuel injectors in an open plate configuration and in a duct. The mixing parameters of interest, such as mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery, are then computed and compared for the two configurations. In addition to mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery, the combustion efficiency and thrust potential are also computed for the reacting simulations.

  7. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  8. Design and Study of a LOX/GH2 Throttleable Swirl Injector for Rocket Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Christopher; Woodward, Roger; Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A LOX/GH2 swirl injector was designed for a 10:1 propellant throttling range. To accomplish this, a dual LOX manifold was used feeding a single common vortex chamber of the swirl element. Hot-fire experiments were conducted for rocket chamber pressures from 80 to 800 psia at a mixture ratio of nominally 6.0 using steady flow, single-point-per-firing cases as well as dynamic throttling conditions. Low frequency (mean) and high frequency (fluctuating) pressure transducer data, flow meter measurements, and Raman spectroscopy images for mixing information were obtained. The injector design, experimental setup, low frequency pressure data, and injector performance analysis are presented. C* efficiency was very high (approx. 100%) at the middle of the throttleable range with somewhat lower performance at the high and low ends. From the analysis of discreet steady state operating conditions, injector pressure drop was slightly higher than predicted with an inviscid analysis, but otherwise agreed well across the design throttling range. Dynamic throttling of this injector was attempted with marginal success due to the immaturity of the throttling control system. Although the targeted mixture ratio of 6.0 was not maintained throughout the dynamic throttling profile, the injector behaved well over the wide range of conditions.

  9. Downhole steam injector

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  10. CFD-Based Design Optimization for Single Element Rocket Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei

    2003-01-01

    To develop future Reusable Launch Vehicle concepts, we have conducted design optimization for a single element rocket injector, with overall goals of improving reliability and performance while reducing cost. Computational solutions based on the Navier-Stokes equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-E turbulence closure are generated with design of experiment techniques, and the response surface method is employed as the optimization tool. The design considerations are guided by four design objectives motivated by the consideration in both performance and life, namely, the maximum temperature on the oxidizer post tip, the maximum temperature on the injector face, the adiabatic wall temperature, and the length of the combustion zone. Four design variables are selected, namely, H2 flow angle, H2 and O2 flow areas with fixed flow rates, and O2 post tip thickness. In addition to establishing optimum designs by varying emphasis on the individual objectives, better insight into the interplay between design variables and their impact on the design objectives is gained. The investigation indicates that improvement in performance or life comes at the cost of the other. Best compromise is obtained when improvements in both performance and life are given equal importance.

  11. Ignition and Flameholding in a Supersonic Combustor by an Electrical Discharge Combined with a Fuel Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    W.F. O’Brien, J.A. Schetz - Plasma torch atomizer-igniter for supersonic combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels // AIAA Paper 2006-7970. 6. H. Do...A. Deminsky, I. V. Kochetov, A. P. Napartovich, S. B. Leonov, - “Modeling of Plasma Assisted Combustion in Premixed Supersonic Gas Flow...1 Ignition and Flameholding in a Supersonic Combustor by an Electrical Discharge Combined with a Fuel Injector K. V. Savelkin 1 , D. A

  12. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  13. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  14. Comparisons Between NO PLIF Imaging and CFD Simulations of Mixing Flowfields for High-Speed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz, G.; Cabell, Karen F.; Ziltz, Austin R.; Hass, Neil E.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Burns, Ross A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Abul-Huda, Yasin M.; Gamba, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    The current work compares experimentally and computationally obtained nitric oxide (NO) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the mixing flowfields for three types of high-speed fuel injectors: a strut, a ramp, and a rectangular flush-wall. These injection devices, which exhibited promising mixing performance at lower flight Mach numbers, are currently being studied as a part of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate scramjet fuel injection and mixing physics, and improve the understanding of underlying physical processes relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than eight. In the experiments, conducted in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF), the injectors are placed downstream of a Mach 6 facility nozzle, which simulates the high Mach number air flow at the entrance of a scramjet combustor. Helium is used as an inert substitute for hydrogen fuel. The PLIF is obtained by using a tunable laser to excite the NO, which is present in the AHSTF air as a direct result of arc-heating. Consequently, the absence of signal is an indication of pure helium (fuel). The PLIF images computed from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are obtained by combining a fluorescence model for NO with the Reynolds-Averaged Simulation results carried out using the VULCAN-CFD solver to obtain a computational equivalent of the experimentally measured PLIF signal. The measured NO PLIF signal is mainly a function of NO concentration allowing for semi-quantitative comparisons between the CFD and the experiments. The PLIF signal intensity is also sensitive to pressure and temperature variations in the flow, allowing additional flow features to be identified and compared with the CFD. Good agreement between the PLIF and the CFD results provides increased confidence in the CFD simulations for investigations of injector performance.

  15. Design and Study of a LOX/GH2 Throttleable Swirl Injector for Rocket Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Christopher; Woodward, Roger; Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A LOX/GH2 swirl injector was designed for a 10:1 propellant throttling range. To accomplish this, a dual LOX (liquid oxygen) manifold was used feeding a single common vortex chamber of the swirl element. Hot-fire experiments were conducting for rocket chamber pressures from 80 to 800 psia at a mixture ratio of nominally 6.0 using steady flow, single-point-per-firing cases as well as dynamic throttling conditions. Low frequency (mean) and high frequency (fluctuating) pressure transducer data, flow meter measurements, and Raman spectroscopy images for mixing information were obtained. The injector design, experimental setup, low frequency pressure data, and injector performance analysis will be presented. C efficiency was very high (approximately 100%) at the middle of the throttle-able range with somewhat lower performance at the high and low ends. From the analysis of discreet steady state operating conditions, injector pressure drop was slightly higher than predicted with an inviscid analysis, but otherwise agreed well across the design throttling range. Analysis of the dynamic throttling data indicates that the injector may experience transient conditions that effect pressure drop and performance when compared to steady state results.

  16. Study on atomization features of a plain injector in high speed transverse air stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jian; Gu, Shanjian; Yang, Maolin; Xiao, Weihui

    1990-04-01

    The atomization features of a plain injector in high-speed transverse air stream were investigated by Malvern. In this investigation, air velocity ranged from 50-150m/s, pressure drop of fuel injector, (1.1 - 4.2) x 10 to the 6th Pa, diameter of orifice, 0.5 - 0.9 mm, axial distance between the injector and the survey plane, 50 - 250 mm. Aviation kerosene was used in all experiments. It was found that the atomization features in high pressure drop of fuel injector were greatly differed from the low pressure drop of fuel injector.

  17. Overview of the design of the ITER heating neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.; Boilson, D.; Blatchford, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; Chitarin, G.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Geli, F.; Dremel, M.; Graceffa, J.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Shah, D.; Singh, M.; Urbani, M.; Zaccaria, P.

    2017-02-01

    The heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) of ITER are designed to deliver 16.7 MW of 1 MeV D0 or 0.87 MeV H0 to the ITER plasma for up to 3600 s. They will be the most powerful neutral beam (NB) injectors ever, delivering higher energy NBs to the plasma in a tokamak for longer than any previous systems have done. The design of the HNBs is based on the acceleration and neutralisation of negative ions as the efficiency of conversion of accelerated positive ions is so low at the required energy that a realistic design is not possible, whereas the neutralisation of H- and D- remains acceptable (≈56%). The design of a long pulse negative ion based injector is inherently more complicated than that of short pulse positive ion based injectors because: • negative ions are harder to create so that they can be extracted and accelerated from the ion source; • electrons can be co-extracted from the ion source along with the negative ions, and their acceleration must be minimised to maintain an acceptable overall accelerator efficiency; • negative ions are easily lost by collisions with the background gas in the accelerator; • electrons created in the extractor and accelerator can impinge on the extraction and acceleration grids, leading to high power loads on the grids; • positive ions are created in the accelerator by ionisation of the background gas by the accelerated negative ions and the positive ions are back-accelerated into the ion source creating a massive power load to the ion source; • electrons that are co-accelerated with the negative ions can exit the accelerator and deposit power on various downstream beamline components. The design of the ITER HNBs is further complicated because ITER is a nuclear installation which will generate very large fluxes of neutrons and gamma rays. Consequently all the injector components have to survive in that harsh environment. Additionally the beamline components and the NB cell, where the beams are housed, will be

  18. Tritium pellet injector for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouge, M. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Milora, S. L.

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the FY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  19. Using CFD as a Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Canabal, Francisco; Rocker, marvin; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2005-01-01

    New programs are forcing American propulsion system designers into unfamiliar territory. For instance, industry s answer to the cost and reliability goals set out by the Next Generation Launch Technology Program are engine concepts based on the Oxygen- Rich Staged Combustion Cycle. Historical injector design tools are not well suited for this new task. The empirical correlations do not apply directly to the injector concepts associated with the ORSC cycle. These legacy tools focus primarily on performance with environment evaluation a secondary objective. Additionally, the environmental capability of these tools is usually one-dimensional while the actual environments are at least two- and often three-dimensional. CFD has the potential to calculate performance and multi-dimensional environments but its use in the injector design process has been retarded by long solution turnaround times and insufficient demonstrated accuracy. This paper has documented the parallel paths of program support and technology development currently employed at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to move CFD to the forefront of injector design. MSFC has established a long-term goal for use of CFD for combustion devices design. The work on injector design is the heart of that vision and the Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap that focuses the vision. The SRL concept, combining solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, has been established as a quantitative gauge of current and desired capability. Three examples of current injector analysis for program support have been presented and discussed. These examples are used to establish the current capability at MSFC for these problems. Shortcomings identified from this experience are being used as inputs to the Roadmap process. The SRL evaluation identified lack of demonstrated solution accuracy as a major issue. Accordingly, the MSFC view of code validation and current MSFC-funded validation efforts were discussed in

  20. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

  1. Testing of fuel/oxidizer-rich, high-pressure preburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an evaluation of high pressure combustion of fuel rich and oxidizer rich LOX/RP-1 propellants using 4.0 inch diameter prototype preburner injectors and chambers are presented. Testing covered a pressure range from 8.9 to 17.5 MN/square meters (1292 to 2540 psia). Fuel rich mixture ratios ranged from 0.238 to 0.367; oxidizer rich mixture ratios ranged from 27.2 to 47.5. Performance, gas temperature uniformity, and stability data for two fuel rich and two ozidizer rich preburner injectors are presented for a conventional like-on-like (LOL) design and a platelet design injector. Kinetically limited combustion is shown by the excellent agreement of measured fuel rich gas composition and C performance data with kinetic model predictions. The oxidizer rich test results support previous equilibrium combustion predictions.

  2. Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold

    2016-04-26

    A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate.more » A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.« less

  3. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  4. 3-D CFD Simulation and Validation of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion in a Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector using a Flamelet-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brian; Kenny, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Injector design is a critical part of the development of a rocket Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). Proper detailed injector design can maximize propulsion efficiency while minimizing the potential for failures in the combustion chamber. Traditional design and analysis methods for hydrocarbon-fuel injector elements are based heavily on empirical data and models developed from heritage hardware tests. Using this limited set of data produces challenges when trying to design a new propulsion system where the operating conditions may greatly differ from heritage applications. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional (3-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of combusting flows inside of injectors has long been a goal of the fluid analysis group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the larger CFD modeling community. CFD simulation can provide insight into the design and function of an injector that cannot be obtained easily through testing or empirical comparisons to existing hardware. However, the traditional finite-rate chemistry modeling approach utilized to simulate combusting flows for complex fuels, such as Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2), is prohibitively expensive and time consuming even with a large amount of computational resources. MSFC has been working, in partnership with Streamline Numerics, Inc., to develop a computationally efficient, flamelet-based approach for modeling complex combusting flow applications. In this work, a flamelet modeling approach is used to simulate time-accurate, 3-D, combusting flow inside a single Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injector using the flow solver, Loci-STREAM. CFD simulations were performed for several different injector geometries. Results of the CFD analysis helped guide the design of the injector from an initial concept to a tested prototype. The results of the CFD analysis are compared to data gathered from several hot-fire, single element injector tests performed in the Air Force Research Lab EC-1 test facility

  5. Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.

    1994-01-01

    Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.

  6. HIT-SI Injector Voltage Measurements Using Injector Langmuir Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboul Hosn, Rabih; Smith, Roger; Jarboe, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    A pair of Langmuir probe arrays have been designed and built to measure floating potentials of the plasma at the injector mouth of the HIT-SI device. The Helicity Injected Torus using Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT-SI) [1,2] is a ``bow tie'' spheromak using an electrodeless formation and sustainment concept. HIT-SI is powered by two inductive helicity injectors operated in quadrature to maintain a constant helicity injection rate. The electric probes consist of an array of four floating potential Langmuir probes measuring the voltage distribution in each injector from the shell to midpoint of the injector mouth. The probe measurements combine to determine the part of the injector loop voltage driving the n = 0 spheromak equilibrium region. Preliminary data suggest the spheromak voltage is the loop voltage minus the nearly constant injector voltage of 150-180 volts. These probe data will be used to calculate the helicity decay time of the spheromak. [1] T. R. Jarboe. Steady inductive helicity injection and its application to a high-beta spheromak. Fusion Technology, 36(1):85--91, July 1999. [2] P.E.Sieck et al., ``Demonstration of Steady Inductive Helicity Injection'', Nuc. Fusion, in press (2006).

  7. Investigation of ramp injectors for supersonic mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimovitch, Y.; Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of wall mounted swept ramp injectors fitted with injector nozzles of different shape has been conducted in a constant area duct to explore mixing enhancement techniques for scramjet combustors. Six different injector nozzle inserts, all having equal exit and throat areas, were tested to explore the interaction between the preconditioned fuel jet and the vortical flowfield produced by the ramp: circular nozzle (baseline), nozzle with three downstream facing steps, nozzle with four vortex generators, elliptical nozzle, tapered-slot nozzle, and trapezoidal nozzle. The main flow was air at Mach 2, and the fuel was simulated by air injected at Mach 1.63 or by helium injected at Mach 1.7. Pressure and temperature surveys, combined with Mie and Rayleigh scattering visualization, were used to investigate the flow field. The experiments were compared with three dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The results indicate that the mixing process is dominated by the streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp, the injectors' inner geometry having a minor effect. It was also found that the injectant/air mixing in the far-field is nearly independent of the injector geometry, molecular weight of the injectant, and the initial convective Mach number.

  8. Numerical analysis and experimental studies on solenoid common rail diesel injector with worn control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivtsov, S. N.; Yakimov, I. V.; Ozornin, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    A mathematical model of a solenoid common rail fuel injector was developed. Its difference from existing models is control valve wear simulation. A common rail injector of 0445110376 Series (Cummins ISf 2.8 Diesel engine) produced by Bosch Company was used as a research object. Injector parameters (fuel delivery and back leakage) were determined by calculation and experimental methods. GT-Suite model average R2 is 0.93 which means that it predicts the injection rate shape very accurately (nominal and marginal technical conditions of an injector). Numerical analysis and experimental studies showed that control valve wear increases back leakage and fuel delivery (especially at 160 MPa). The regression models for determining fuel delivery and back leakage effects on fuel pressure and energizing time were developed (for nominal and marginal technical conditions).

  9. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  10. Small-Scale Hybrid Rocket Test Stand & Characterization of Swirl Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Matt H.

    Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The motor is designed for simple integration and setup, such that both the forward-end enclosure and end cap can be easily removed for rapid integration of components during testing. Each of the components of the motor is removable allowing for a broad range of testing capabilities. While examining injectors and their potential it is thought ideal to obtain the highest regression rates and overall motor performance possible. The oxidizer and fuel are N2O and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), respectively, due to previous experience and simplicity. The injector designs, selected for the same reasons, are designed such that they vary only in the swirl angle. This system provides the platform for characterizing the effects of varying said swirl angle on HRM performance.

  11. Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  12. Comparisons Between NO PLIF Imaging and CFD Simulations of Mixing Flowfields for High-Speed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Cabell, Karen F.; Ziltz, Austin R.; Hass, Neal E.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Burns, Ross A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    The current work compares experimentally and computationally obtained nitric oxide (NO) planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the mixing flowfields for three types of high-speed fuel injectors: a strut, a ramp, and a rectangular flushwall. These injection devices, which exhibited promising mixing performance at lower flight Mach numbers, are currently being studied as a part of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate scramjet fuel injection and mixing physics, and improve the understanding of underlying physical processes relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than eight. In the experiments, conducted in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF), the injectors are placed downstream of a Mach 6 facility nozzle, which simulates the high Mach number air flow at the entrance of a scramjet combustor. Helium is used as an inert substitute for hydrogen fuel. Both schlieren and PLIF techniques are applied to obtain mixing flowfield flow visualizations. The experimental PLIF is obtained by using a UV laser sheet to interrogate a plane of the flow by exciting fluorescence from the NO molecules, which are present in the AHSTF air. Consequently, the absence of signal in the resulting PLIF images is an indication of pure helium (fuel). The computational PLIF is obtained by applying a fluorescence model for NO to the results of the Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS) of the mixing flow field carried out using the VULCAN-CFD solver. This approach is required because the PLIF signal is a nonlinear function of not only NO concentration, but also pressure, temperature, and the flow velocity. This complexity allows additional flow features to be identified and compared with those obtained from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, however, such comparisons are only semiquantitative. Three-dimensional image reconstruction, similar to that used in magnetic resonance

  13. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible DI diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dec, J. E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  14. Sequential variable fuel injection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weglarz, M.W.; Vincent, M.T.; Prestel, J.F.

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an engine of an automotive vehicle including cylinders, a spark plug for each of the cylinders, a distributor electrically connected to the spark plug, a throttle body having a throttle valve connected to the engine to allow or prevent air to the cylinders, a fuel source at least one fuel line connected to the fuel source, fuel injectors connected to the fuel line for delivering fuel to the cylinders, a sensor located near the distributor for sensing predetermined states of the distributor, and an electronic control unit (ECU) electrically connected to themore » sensor, distributor and fuel injectors. It comprises calculating a desired total injector on time for current engine conditions; calculating a variable injection time (VIT) and a turn on time based on the VIT; and firing the fuel injectors at the calculated turn on time for the calculated total injector on time.« less

  15. Predictive Evaluations of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injectors using a Flamelet-Based 3-D CFD Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brian R.; Braman, Kalem; West, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has embarked upon a joint project with the Air Force to improve the state-of-the-art of space application combustion device design and operational understanding. One goal of the project is to design, build and hot-fire test a 40,000 pound-thrust Oxygen/Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2) Oxygen-Rich staged engine at MSFC. The overall project goals afford the opportunity to test multiple different injector designs and experimentally evaluate the any effect on the engine performance and combustion dynamics. To maximize the available test resources and benefits, pre-test, combusting flow, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed on the individual injectors to guide the design. The results of the CFD analysis were used to design the injectors for specific, targeted fluid dynamic features and the analysis results also provided some predictive input for acoustic and thermal analysis of the main Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). MSFC has developed and demonstrated the ability to utilize a computationally efficient, flamelet-based combustion model to guide the pre-test design of single-element Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injectors. Previous, Oxygen/RP-2 simulation models utilizing the Loci-STREAM flow solver, were validated using single injector test data from the EC-1 Air Force test facility. The simulation effort herein is an extension of the validated, CFD driven, single-injector design approach applied to single injectors which will be part of a larger engine array. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional, CFD simulations were performed for five different classes of injector geometries. Simulations were performed to guide the design of the injector to achieve a variety of intended performance goals. For example, two GCSC injectors were designed to achieve stable hydrodynamic behavior of the propellant circuits while providing the largest thermal margin possible within the design envelope. While another injector was designed

  16. Fuel Lubricity Impact on Shipboard Engine and Fuel Systems and Sensitivity of U.S. Navy Diesel Engines to Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    load fuel and operated with a dummy injector to make sure the system was clean. The rig was de -fueled and a fresh charge of 2000-gram fuel was added...the rocker arm on the injector. The rocker arm contact was repositioned when it was noted it was hitting the injector off-center, and it was felt...going up. Figure B6. DD 149 Unit Injector with Diesel Fuel and Centered Rocker Arm Figure B7. Wear Rate Deviation Attributed to Head

  17. Optical Characterization of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injector for Gas Turbine Combustors: Velocity and Fuel Drop Size Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of a multipoint, lean direct injection (MP-LDI) strategy for low emission aero-propulsion systems has been tested in a Jet-A fueled, lean flame tube combustion rig. Operating conditions for the series of tests included inlet air temperatures between 672 and 828 K, pressures between 1034 and 1379 kPa and total equivalence ratios between 0.41 and 0.45, resulting in equilibrium flame temperatures approaching 1800 K. Ranges of operation were selected to represent the spectrum of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions projected for the next-generation of commercial aircraft. This document reports laser-based measurements of in situ fuel velocities and fuel drop sizes for the NASA 9-point LDI hardware arranged in a 3 3 square grid configuration. Data obtained represent a region of the flame tube combustor with optical access that extends 38.1-mm downstream of the fuel injection site. All data were obtained within reacting flows, without particle seeding. Two diagnostic methods were employed to evaluate the resulting flow path. Three-component velocity fields have been captured using phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), and two-component velocity distributions using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). Data from these techniques have also offered insight into fuel drop size and distribution, fuel injector spray angle and pattern, turbulence intensity, degree of vaporization and extent of reaction. This research serves to characterize operation of the baseline NASA 9- point LDI strategy for potential use in future gas-turbine combustor applications. An additional motive is the compilation of a comprehensive database to facilitate understanding of combustor fuel injector aerodynamics and fuel vaporization processes, which in turn may be used to validate computational fluid dynamics codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC), among others.

  18. Space Storable Propellant Performance Gas/Liquid Like-Doublet Injector Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, A. Y.

    1972-01-01

    A 30-month applied research program was conducted, encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space-storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination selected for study was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ambient temperature gaseous methane. The injector pattern characterized was the like-(self)-impinging doublet. Program effort was apportioned into four basic technical tasks: injector and thrust chamber design, injector and thrust chamber fabrication, performance evaluation testing, and data evaluation and reporting. Analytical parametric combustion analyses and cold flow distribution and atomization experiments were conducted with injector segment models to support design of injector/thrust chamber combinations for hot fire evaluation. Hot fire tests were conducted to: (1) optimize performance of the injector core elements, and (2) provide design criteria for the outer zone elements so that injector/thrust chamber compatibility could be achieved with only minimal performance losses.

  19. Temperature characteristics for PTC material heating diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lefeng; Li, Xiaolu; Wang, Jun; Li, Ying; Li, Ming

    2010-08-01

    This paper gives a way which utilizes the PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) material to preheat diesel fuel in the injector in order to improve the cold starting and emissions of engine. A new injector is also designed. In order to understand the preheating process in this new injector, a dynamic temperature testing system combined with the MSP430F149 data acquisition system is developed for PTC material heating diesel fuel. Especially, the corresponding software and hardware circuits are explained. The temperature of diesel fuel preheating by PTC ceramics is measured under different voltages and distances, which Curie point is 75 °C. Diesel fuel is heated by self-defined temperature around the Curie point of PTC ceramics. The diesel fuel temperature rises rapidly in 2 minutes of the beginning, then can reach 60 °C within 5 minutes as its distance is 5mm away from the surface of PTC ceramics. However, there are a lot of fundamental studies and technology to be resolved in order to apply PTC material in the injector successfully.

  20. Numerical study on the combustion characteristics of a fuel-centered pintle injector for methane rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Min; Radhakrishnan, Kanmaniraja; Yoon, Youngbin; Koo, Jaye

    2017-06-01

    A pintle injector is a movable injector capable of controlling injection area and velocities. Although pintle injectors are not a new concept, they have become more notable due to new applications such as planet landers and low-cost engines. However, there has been little consistent research on pintle injectors because they have many design variations and mechanisms. In particular, simulation studies are required for bipropellant applications. In this study, combustion simulation was conducted using methane and oxygen to determine the effects of injection condition and geometries upon combustion characteristics. Steady and two-dimensional axisymmetric conditions were assumed and a 6-step Jones-Lindstedt mechanism with an eddy-dissipation concept model was used for turbulent kinetic reaction. As a result, the results with wide flame angles showed good combustion performances with a large recirculation under the pintle tip. Under lower mass flow-rate conditions, the combustion performance got worse with lower flame angles. To solve this problem, decreasing the pintle opening distance was very effective and the flame angle recovered. In addition, a specific recirculation zone was observed near the post, suggesting that proper design of the post could increase the combustion performance, while the geometry without a recirculation zone had the poor performance.

  1. A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Papash, A. I.; Welsch, C. P.

    2011-10-01

    A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90° deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

  2. Physics design of a 10 MeV injector test stand for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; Pei, Shilun; Geng, Huiping; Meng, Cai; Zhao, Yaliang; Sun, Biao; Cheng, Peng; Yang, Zheng; Ouyang, Huafu; Li, Zhihui; Tang, Jingyu; Wang, Jianli; Sui, Yefeng; Dai, Jianping; Sha, Peng; Ge, Rui

    2015-05-01

    The 10 MeV accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) Injector I test stand at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) is a testing facility dedicated to demonstrate one of the two injector design schemes [Injector Scheme-I, which works at 325 MHz], for the ADS project in China. The injector is composed of two parts, the linac part and the beam dump line. The former is designed on the basis of 325 MHz four-vane type copper structure radio frequency quadrupole and superconducting (SC) spoke cavities with β =0.12 . The latter is designed to transport the beam coming out of the SC section of the linac to the beam dump, where the beam transverse profile is fairly enlarged and unformed to simplify the beam target design. The SC section consists of two cryomodules with 14 β =0.12 Spoke cavities, 14 solenoid and 14 BPMs in total. The first challenge in the physics design comes from the necessary space required for the cryomodule separation where the periodical lattice is destroyed at a relatively lower energy of ˜5 MeV . Another challenge is the beam dump line design, as it will be the first beam dump line being built by using a step field magnet for the transverse beam expansion and uniformity in the world. This paper gives an overview of the physics design study together with the design principles and machine construction considerations. The results of an optimized design, fabrication status and end to end simulations including machine errors are presented.

  3. Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Swirl Coaxial Injector Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

    1999-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) swirl coaxial injector element. The element is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, DELTA P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, DELTA P(sub 0) combustor length, L(sub comb), and full cone swirl angle, theta, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w) injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 180 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Two examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface that includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio.

  4. State-Of High Brightness RF Photo-Injector Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Massimo; Clendenin, Jym; Palmer, Dennis; Rosenzweig, James; Serafini, Luca

    2000-04-01

    The art of designing optimized high brightness electron RF Photo-Injectors has moved in the last decade from a cut and try procedure, guided by experimental experience and time consuming particle tracking simulations, up to a fast parameter space scanning, guided by recent analytical results and a fast running semi-analytical code, so to reach the optimum operating point which corresponds to maximum beam brightness. Scaling laws and the theory of invariant envelope provide to the designers excellent tools for a first parameters choice and the code HOMDYN, based on a multi-slice envelope description of the beam dynamics, is tailored to describe the space charge dominated dynamics of laminar beams in presence of time dependent space charge forces, giving rise to a very fast modeling capability for photo-injectors design. We report in this talk the results of a recent beam dynamics study, motivated by the need to redesign the LCLS photoinjector. During this work a new effective working point for a split RF photoinjector has been discovered by means of the previous mentioned approach. By a proper choice of rf gun and solenoid parameters, the emittance evolution shows a double minimum behavior in the drifting region. If the booster is located where the relative emittance maximum and the envelope waist occur, the second emittance minimum can be shifted at the booster exit and frozen at a very low level (0.3 mm-mrad for a 1 nC flat top bunch), to the extent that the invariant envelope matching conditions are satisfied.

  5. Atomization characteristics of swirl injector sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    Stable combustion within rocket engines is a continuing concern for designers of rocket engine systems. The swirl-coaxial injector has demonstrated effectiveness in achieving atomization and mixing, and therefore stable combustion. Swirl-coaxial injector technology is being deployed in the American RL1OA rocket design and Russian engine systems already make wide spread use of this technology. The present requirement for swirl injector research is derived from NASA's current Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program. This report describes some of the background and literature on this topic including drop size measurements, comparison with theoretical predictions, the effect of surface tension on the atomization process, and surface wave characteristics of liquid film at the exit of the injector.

  6. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine, reusable thrust chamber program. Task 6: Data dump hot fuel element investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of reusable thrust chambers for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine was conducted. Tests were conducted using subscale injector hot-fire procedures for the injector configurations designed for a regenerative cooled engine. The effect of operating conditions and fuel temperature on combustion chamber performance was determined. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to examine the optimum like-doublet element geometry for operation at conditions consistent with a fuel regeneratively cooled engine (hot fuel, 200 to 250 F) and the sensitivity of the triplet injector element to hot fuels.

  7. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  8. Three-Dimensional Measurements of Fuel Distribution in High-Pressure, High- Temperature, Next-Generation Aviation Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.; Zaller, Michelle M.

    1998-01-01

    In our world-class, optically accessible combustion facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, we have developed the unique capability of making three-dimensional fuel distribution measurements of aviation gas turbine fuel injectors at actual operating conditions. These measurements are made in situ at the actual operating temperatures and pressures using the JP-grade fuels of candidate next-generation advanced aircraft engines for the High Speed Research (HSR) and Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) programs. The inlet temperature and pressure ranges used thus far are 300 to 1100 F and 80 to 250 psia. With these data, we can obtain the injector spray angles, the fuel mass distributions of liquid and vapor, the degree of fuel vaporization, and the degree to which fuel has been consumed. The data have been used to diagnose the performance of injectors designed both in-house and by major U.S. engine manufacturers and to design new fuel injectors with overall engine performance goals of increased efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Mie scattering is used to visualize the liquid fuel, and laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize both liquid and fuel vapor.

  9. Detailed Measurement of ORSC Main Chamber Injector Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Michael J.

    Improving fidelity in simulation of combustion dynamics in rocket combustors requires an increase in experimental measurement fidelity for validation. In a model rocket combustor, a chemiluminescence based spectroscopy technique was used to capture flame light emissions for direct comparison to a computational simulation of the production of chemiluminescent species. The comparison indicated that high fidelity models of rocket combustors can predict spatio-temporal distribution of chemiluminescent species with trend-wise accuracy. The comparison also indicated the limited ability of OH* and CH* emission to indicate flame heat release. Based on initial spectroscopy experiments, a photomultiplier based chemiluminescence sensor was designed to increase the temporal resolution of flame emission measurements. To apply developed methodologies, an experiment was designed to investigate the flow and combustion dynamics associated with main chamber injector elements typical of the RD-170 rocket engine. A unique feature of the RD-170 injector element is the beveled expansion between the injector recess and combustion chamber. To investigate effects of this geometry, a scaling methodology was applied to increase the physical scale of a single injector element while maintaining traceability to the RD-170 design. Two injector configurations were tested, one including a beveled injector face and the other a flat injector face. This design enabled improved spatial resolution of pressure and light emission measurements densely arranged in the injector recess and near-injector region of the chamber. Experimental boundary conditions were designed to closely replicate boundary conditions in simulations. Experimental results showed that the beveled injector face had a damping effect on pressure fluctuations occurring near the longitudinal resonant acoustic modes of the chamber, implying a mechanism for improved overall combustion stability. Near the injector, the beveled geometry

  10. Velocity measurements in the near field of a diesel fuel injector by ultrafast imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedarsky, David; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines the velocity profile of fuel issuing from a high-pressure single-orifice diesel injector. Velocities of liquid structures were determined from time-resolved ultrafast shadow images, formed by an amplified two-pulse laser source coupled to a double-frame camera. A statistical analysis of the data over many injection events was undertaken to map velocities related to spray formation near the nozzle outlet as a function of time after start of injection. These results reveal a strong asymmetry in the liquid profile of the test injector, with distinct fast and slow regions on opposite sides of the orifice. Differences of ˜100 m/s can be observed between the `fast' and `slow' sides of the jet, resulting in different atomization conditions across the spray. On average, droplets are dispersed at a greater distance from the nozzle on the `fast' side of the flow, and distinct macrostructure can be observed under the asymmetric velocity conditions. The changes in structural velocity and atomization behavior resemble flow structures which are often observed in the presence of string cavitation produced under controlled conditions in scaled, transparent test nozzles. These observations suggest that widely used common-rail supply configurations and modern injectors can potentially generate asymmetric interior flows which strongly influence diesel spray morphology. The velocimetry measurements presented in this work represent an effective and relatively straightforward approach to identify deviant flow behavior in real diesel sprays, providing new spatially resolved information on fluid structure and flow characteristics within the shear layers on the jet periphery.

  11. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... models requiring inspections. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel lines... to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel lines that would allow fuel to spray into the engine... injector nozzles, and replace as necessary any fuel injector fuel line and clamp that does not meet all...

  12. Krokodile Injectors in Ukraine: Fueling the HIV Epidemic?

    PubMed

    Booth, Robert E; Davis, Jonathan M; Brewster, John T; Lisovska, Oksana; Dvoryak, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of krokodile injectors, a recent phenomenon in Ukraine, and HIV-related risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID). In three Ukraine cities, Odessa, Donetsk and Nikolayev, 550 PWID were recruited between December 2012 and October 2013 using modified targeted sampling methods. The sample averaged 31 years of age and they had been injecting for over 12 years. Overall, 39 % tested positive for HIV, including 45 % of krokodile injectors. In the past 30 days, 25 % reported injecting krokodile. Those who injected krokodile injected more frequently (p < 0.001) and they injected more often with others (p = 0.005). Despite knowing their HIV status to be positive, krokodile users did not reduce their injection frequency, indeed, they injected as much as 85 % (p = 0.016) more frequently than those who did not know their HIV status or thought they were negative. This behavior was not seen in non-krokodile using PWID. Although only a small sample of knowledgeable HIV positive krokodile users was available (N = 12), this suggests that krokodile users may disregard their HIV status more so than nonkrokodile users. In spite of widespread knowledge of its harmful physical consequences, a growing number of PWID are turning to injecting krokodile in Ukraine. Given the recency of krokodile use the country, the associated higher frequency of injecting, a propensity to inject more often with others, and what could be a unique level of disregard of HIV among krokodile users, HIV incidence could increase in future years.

  13. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  14. High-Resolution X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography of an Engine Combustion Network Spray G Gasoline Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duke, Daniel J.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kastengren, Alan

    Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. Furthermore, the pressure losses and transients that occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offsmore » in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution. Here, we present results from a joint effort to characterize a gasoline direct injector representative of the Spray G injector as defined by the Engine Combustion Network. High-resolution (1.2 to 3 µm) x-ray CT measurements from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were combined with moderate-resolution (40 µm) neutron CT measurements from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to generate a complete internal geometry for the injector. This effort combined the strengths of both facilities’ capabilities, with extremely fine spatially resolved features in the nozzles and injector tips and fine resolution of internal features of the needle along the length of injector. Analysis of the resulting surface model of the internal fluid flow volumes of the injector reveals how the internal cross-sectional area and nozzle hole geometry differs slightly from the design dimensions. A simplified numerical simulation of the internal flow shows how deviations from the design geometry can alter the flow inside the sac and holes. Our results of this study will provide

  15. High-Resolution X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography of an Engine Combustion Network Spray G Gasoline Injector

    DOE PAGES

    Duke, Daniel J.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kastengren, Alan; ...

    2017-03-14

    Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. Furthermore, the pressure losses and transients that occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offsmore » in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution. Here, we present results from a joint effort to characterize a gasoline direct injector representative of the Spray G injector as defined by the Engine Combustion Network. High-resolution (1.2 to 3 µm) x-ray CT measurements from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were combined with moderate-resolution (40 µm) neutron CT measurements from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to generate a complete internal geometry for the injector. This effort combined the strengths of both facilities’ capabilities, with extremely fine spatially resolved features in the nozzles and injector tips and fine resolution of internal features of the needle along the length of injector. Analysis of the resulting surface model of the internal fluid flow volumes of the injector reveals how the internal cross-sectional area and nozzle hole geometry differs slightly from the design dimensions. A simplified numerical simulation of the internal flow shows how deviations from the design geometry can alter the flow inside the sac and holes. Our results of this study will provide

  16. Pellet injector development at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouge, M. J.; Argo, B. E.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foster, C. A.; Foust, C. R.; Milora, S. L.; Qualls, A. L.

    1990-09-01

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogenic pellets to speeds in the kilometer-per-second range by either pneumatic (light-gas gun) or mechanical (centrifugal force) techniques. ORNL has recently provided a centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak and a new, simplified, eight-shot pneumatic injector for the Advanced Toroidal Facility stellarator at ORNL. Hundreds of tritium and DT pellets were accelerated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos in 1988 to 1989. These experiments, done in a single-shot pipe-gun system, demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets at low (sup 3)He levels. A new, tritium-compatible extruder mechanism is being designed for longer-pulse DT applications. Two-stage light-gas guns and electron beam rocket accelerators for speeds of the order of 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. Recently, a repeating, two-stage light-gas gun accelerated 10 surrogate pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds in the range of 2 to 3 km/s; and the electron beam rocket accelerator completed initial feasibility and scaling experiments. ORNL has also developed conceptual designs of advanced plasma fueling systems for the Compact Ignition Tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  17. The 1.3 GHz SRF Injector Cryomodule for VECC - designed and manufactured at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, M.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Kolb, P.; Koveshnikov, A.; Laxdal, R.; Ma, Y.; Mondal, M.; Muller, N.; Nagimov, R.; Naik, V.; Saha, S.; Zvyagintsev, V.

    2017-02-01

    The combined R&D efforts of engineers and scientists from both TRIUMF and VECC have resulted in production of a superconducting Injector Cryomodule operating at 1.3 GHz. The design utilizes a unique box cryomodule with a top-loading cold mass. Liquid helium supplied at 4.4 K is converted to superfluid helium-II on board the cryomodule. A 4 K phase separator, 4 K / 2 K heat exchanger and Joule-Thompson valve are installed on the cryomodule to produce 2 K liquid helium. Two identical (by their parameters) cryomodules have been manufactured at TRIUMF. The Injector Cryomodule (ICM) has been tested and commissioned in June of 2014 and is the first cryomodule for the ARIEL e-linac at TRIUMF. The Injector Cryomodule for VECC (VECC ICM) is currently at the finishing stage of its assembly and will undergo cryogenic tests in Q1 of 2016 followed by RF and beam tests at TRIUMF before being shipped to India. The particularities of the design as well as results of the cryogenic and RF performance are presented in this paper.

  18. Experimental investigation of syngas flame stability using a multi-tube fuel injector in a high pressure combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Sergio Elzar

    Over 92% of the coal consumed by power plants is used to generate electricity in the United States (U.S.). The U.S. has the world's largest recoverable reserves of coal, it is estimated that reserves of coal will last more than 200 years based in current production and demand levels. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants aim to reduce the amount of pollutants by gasifying coal and producing synthesis gas. Synthesis gas, also known as syngas, is a product of coal gasification and can be used in gas turbines for energy production. Syngas is primarily a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and is produced by gasifying a solid fuel feedstock such as coal or biomass. The objective of the thesis is to create a flame stability map by performing various experiments using high-content hydrogen fuels with varying compositions of hydrogen representing different coal feedstocks. The experiments shown in this thesis were performed using the High-Pressure Combustion facility in the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (CSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). The combustor was fitted with a novel Multi-Tube fuel Injector (MTI) designed to improve flame stability. This thesis presents the results of testing of syngas fuels with compositions of 20, 30, and 40% hydrogen concentrations in mixtures with carbon monoxide. Tests were completed for lean conditions ranging from equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 0.9. The experimental results showed that at an equivalence ratio of 0.6, a stable flame was not achieved for any of the fuel mixtures tested. It was also observed that the stability region of the syngas flame increased as equivalence ratio and the hydrogen concentration in syngas fuel increases with the 40% hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixture demonstrating the greatest stability region. Design improvements to the MTI are also discussed as part of the future work on this topic.

  19. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  20. Swirl Coaxial Injector Testing with LOX/RP-J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Casiano, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Testing was conducted at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the fall of 2012 to evaluate the operation and performance of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP ]1) in an existing swirl coaxial injector. While selected Russian engines use variations of swirl coaxial injectors, component level performance data has not been readily available, and all previously documented component testing at MSFC with LOX/RP ]1 had been performed using a variety of impinging injector designs. Impinging injectors have been adequate for specific LOX/RP ]1 engine applications, yet swirl coaxial injectors offer easier fabrication efforts, providing cost and schedule savings for hardware development. Swirl coaxial elements also offer more flexibility for design changes. Furthermore, testing with LOX and liquid methane propellants at MSFC showed that a swirl coaxial injector offered improved performance compared to an impinging injector. So, technical interest was generated to see if similar performance gains could be achieved with LOX/RP ]1 using a swirl coaxial injector. Results would allow such injectors to be considered for future engine concepts that require LOX/RP ]1 propellants. Existing injector and chamber hardware was used in the test assemblies. The injector had been tested in previous programs at MSFC using LOX/methane and LOX/hydrogen propellants. Minor modifications were made to the injector to accommodate the required LOX/RP ]1 flows. Mainstage tests were performed over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. Additional testing included detonated gbombs h for stability data. Test results suggested characteristic velocity, C*, efficiencies for the injector were 95 ]97%. The injector also appeared dynamically stable with quick recovery from the pressure perturbations generated in the bomb tests.

  1. Focused Schlieren flow visualization studies of multiple venturi fuel injectors in a high pressure combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.; Locke, R. J.; Lee, C. M.; Ratvasky, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple venturi fuel injectors were used to obtain uniform fuel distributions, better atomization and vaporization in the premixing/prevaporizing section of a lean premixed/prevaporized flame tube combustor. A focused Schlieren system was used to investigate the fuel/air mixing effectiveness of various fuel injection configurations. The Schlieren system was focused to a plane within the flow field of a test section equipped with optical windows. The focused image plane was parallel to the axial direction of the flow and normal to the optical axis. Images from that focused plane, formed by refracted light due to density gradients within the flow field, were filmed with a high-speed movie camera at framing rates of 8,000 frames per second (fps). Three fuel injection concepts were investigated by taking high-speed movies of the mixture flows at various operating conditions. The inlet air temperature was varied from 600 F to 1000 F, and inlet pressures from 80 psia to 150 psia. Jet-A fuel was used typically at an equivalence ratio of 0.5. The intensity variations of the digitized Schlieren images were analytically correlated to spatial density gradients of the mixture flows. Qualitative measurements for degree of mixedness, intensity of mixing, and mixing completion time are shown. Various mixing performance patterns are presented with different configurations of fuel injection points and operating conditions.

  2. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector: Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.

    1995-03-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase-2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter approximately 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  3. Elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pimao; Zhang, Youtong; Li, Tieshuan; Xie, Lizhe

    2015-03-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73% at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92% at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  4. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  5. Injector Mixing Efficiency Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Marlow D.

    1998-01-01

    Various optical diagnostic techniques such as laser induce fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler velocimetry, and laser light scattering have been employed to study the flowfield downstream of a single injector element in a optically accessible rocket chamber at Penn State for a number o years. These techniques have been used with both liquid and gaseous oxygen at pressures up to 1000 psia which is the limit of the facility. The purpose of the test programs at Penn State were to develop the techniques and to study the flow field from various injector designs. To extend these studies to higher pressure and ultimately to multiple injectors require the capabilities of the Marshall Space Flight Center. These studies will extend the data base available for the various injector designs to higher pressure as well as to determine the interaction between multiple injectors. During this effort the Princeton Instruments ICCD camera was set up and checked out. The functionality of the system has been thoroughly checked and the shutter compensation time was found to be not working. The controller was returned to the manufacturer for warranty repair. The sensitivity has been measured and found to be approximately 60 counts per photon at maximum gain which agrees with the test data supplied by the manufacturer. The actual value depends on wavelength. The Princeton Instruments camera was been installed in a explosion proof tube for use with the rocket combustor. A 35 mm camera was also made ready for taking still photos inside the combustor. A fiber optic was used to transmit the laser light from an argon-ion laser to the rocket combustor for the light scattering images. This images were obtained for a LOX-hydrogen swirl coax injector. Several still photos were also obtained with the 35 mm camera for these firings.

  6. Fundamental Study of a Single Point Lean Direct Injector. Part I: Effect of Air Swirler Angle and Injector Tip Location on Spray Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Lean direct injection (LDI) is a combustion concept to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for next generation aircraft gas turbine engines. These newer engines have cycles that increase fuel efficiency through increased operating pressures, which increase combustor inlet temperatures. NOx formation rates increase with higher temperatures; the LDI strategy avoids high temperature by staying fuel lean and away from stoichiometric burning. Thus, LDI relies on rapid and uniform fuel/air mixing. To understand this mixing process, a series of fundamental experiments are underway in the Combustion and Dynamics Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. This first set of experiments examines cold flow (non-combusting) mixing using air and water. Using laser diagnostics, the effects of air swirler angle and injector tip location on the spray distribution, recirculation zone, and droplet size distribution are examined. Of the three swirler angles examined, 60 deg is determined to have the most even spray distribution. The injector tip location primarily shifts the flow without changing the structure, unless the flow includes a recirculation zone. When a recirculation zone is present, minimum axial velocity decreases as the injector tip moves downstream towards the venturi exit; also the droplets become more uniform in size and angular distribution.

  7. Fundamental Study of a Single Point Lean Direct Injector. Part I: Effect of Air Swirler Angle and Injector Tip Location on Spray Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Lean direct injection (LDI) is a combustion concept to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for next generation aircraft gas turbine engines. These newer engines have cycles that increase fuel efficiency through increased operating pressures, which increase combustor inlet temperatures. NOx formation rates increase with higher temperatures; the LDI strategy avoids high temperature by staying fuel lean and away from stoichiometric burning. Thus, LDI relies on rapid and uniform fuel/air mixing. To understand this mixing process, a series of fundamental experiments are underway in the Combustion and Dynamics Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. This first set of experiments examines cold flow (non-combusting) mixing using air and water. Using laser diagnostics, the effects of air swirler angle and injector tip location on the spray distribution, recirculation zone, and droplet size distribution are examined. Of the three swirler angles examined, 60 degrees is determined to have the most even spray distribution. The injector tip location primarily shifts the flow without changing the structure, unless the flow includes a recirculation zone. When a recirculation zone is present, minimum axial velocity decreases as the injector tip moves downstream towards the venturi exit; also the droplets become more uniform in size and angular distribution.

  8. Effect of fuel stratification on detonation wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselot, Damien; Fievet, Romain; Raman, Venkat

    2016-11-01

    Rotating detonation engines (RDEs) form a class of pressure-gain combustion systems of higher efficiency compared to conventional gas turbine engines. One of the key features of the design is the injection system, as reactants need to be continuously provided to the detonation wave to sustain its propagation speed. As inhomogeneities in the reactant mixture can perturb the detonation wave front, premixed fuel jet injectors might seem like the most stable solution. However, this introduces the risk of the detonation wave propagating through the injector, causing catastrophic failure. On the other hand, non-premixed fuel injection will tend to quench the detonation wave near the injectors, reducing the likelihood of such failure. Still, the effects of such non-premixing and flow inhomogeneities ahead of a detonation wave have yet to be fully understood and are the object of this study. A 3D channel filled with O2 diluted in an inert gas with circular H2 injectors is simulated as a detonation wave propagates through the system. The impact of key parameters such as injector spacing, injector size, mixture composition and time variations will be discussed. PhD Candidate.

  9. Evaluation of fuel injection configurations to control carbon and soot formation in small GT combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Briehl, D.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate hardware configurations which attempt to minimize carbon formation and soot production without sacrificing performance in small gas turbine combustors has been conducted at the United Technologies Research Center. Four fuel injectors, embodying either airblast atomization, pressure atomization, or fuel vaporization techniques, were combined with nozzle air swirlers and injector sheaths, and evaluated at test conditions which included and extended beyond standard small gas turbine combustor operation. Extensive testing was accomplished with configurations embodying either a spill return or a T-vaporizer injector. Minimal carbon deposits were observed on the spill return nozzle for tests using either Jet A or ERBS test fuel. A more extensive film of soft carbon was observed on the vaporizer after operation at standard engine conditions, with large carbonaceous growths forming on the device during off-design operation at low combustor inlet temperature. Test results indicated that smoke emission levels depended on the combustor fluid mechanics (especially the mixing rates near the injector), the atomization quality of the injector and the fuel hydrogen content.

  10. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  11. Digital image processing techniques for the analysis of fuel sprays global pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Rami; Bryanston-Cross, Peter; Timmerman, Brenda

    2017-12-01

    We studied the fuel atomization process of two fuel injectors to be fitted in a new small rotary engine design. The aim was to improve the efficiency of the engine by optimizing the fuel injection system. Fuel sprays were visualised by an optical diagnostic system. Images of fuel sprays were produced under various testing conditions, by changing the line pressure, nozzle size, injection frequency, etc. The atomisers were a high-frequency microfluidic dispensing system and a standard low flow-rate fuel injector. A series of image processing procedures were developed in order to acquire information from the laser-scattering images. This paper presents the macroscopic characterisation of Jet fuel (JP8) sprays. We observed the droplet density distribution, tip velocity, and spray-cone angle against line-pressure and nozzle-size. The analysis was performed for low line-pressure (up to 10 bar) and short injection period (1-2 ms). Local velocity components were measured by applying particle image velocimetry (PIV) on double-exposure images. The discharge velocity was lower in the micro dispensing nozzle sprays and the tip penetration slowed down at higher rates compared to the gasoline injector. The PIV test confirmed that the gasoline injector produced sprays with higher velocity elements at the centre and the tip regions.

  12. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  13. Progress in fuel systems to meet new fuel economy and emissions standards

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This publication includes information describing the latest developments within the automotive industry on fuel system hardware and control strategies. Contents include: Slow heating process of a heated pintle-type gasoline fuel injector; Mixture preparation measurements; Study of fuel flow rate change in injector for methanol fueled S.I. engine; Flow and structural analysis for fuel pressure regulator performance; A new method to analyze fuel behavior in a spark ignition engine; Throttle body at engine idle -- tolerance effect on flow rate; and more.

  14. The effect of fuel/air mixer design parameters on the continuous and discrete phase structure in the reaction-stabilizing region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateshkadi, Arash

    The demands on current and future aero gas turbine combustors are demanding a greater insight into the role of the injector/dome design on combustion performance. The structure of the two-phase flow and combustion performance associated with practical injector/dome hardware is thoroughly investigated. A spray injector with two radial inflow swirlers was custom-designed to maintain tight tolerances and strict assembly protocol to isolate the sensitivity of performance to hardware design. The custom set is a unique modular design that (1) accommodates parametric variation in geometry, (2) retains symmetry, and (3) maintains effective area. Swirl sense and presence of a venturi were found to be the most influential on fuel distribution and Lean Blowout. The venturi acts as a fuel-prefilming surface and constrains the highest fuel mass concentration to an annular ring near the centerline. Co-swirl enhances the radial dispersion of the continuous phase and counter-swirl increases the level of mixing that occurs in the downstream region of the mixer. The smallest drop size distributions were found to occur with the counter-swirl configuration with venturi. In the case of counter-swirl without venturi the high concentration of fluid mass is found in the center region of the flow. The Lean Blowout (LBO) equivalence ratio was lower for counter-swirl due to the coupling of the centerline recirculation zone with the location of high fuel concentration emanating from smaller droplets. In the co-swirl configuration a more intense reaction was found near the mixer exit leading to the lowest concentration of NOx, CO and UHC. An LBO model with good agreement to the measured values was developed that related, for the first time, specific hardware parameters and operating condition to stability performance. A semi-analytical model, which agreed best with co-swirl configurations, was modified and used to describe the axial velocity profile downstream of the mixer exit. The

  15. MST Pellet Injector Upgrades to Probe Beta and Density Limits and Impurity Particle Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspary, K. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Anderson, J. K.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Limbach, S. T.; Oliva, S. P.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.

    2012-10-01

    Upgrades to the pellet injector on MST will allow for significantly increased fueling capability enabling density limit studies for previously unavailable density regimes. Thus far, Greenwald fractions of 1.2 and 1.5 have been achieved in 500 kA and 200 kA improved confinement plasmas, respectively. The size of the pellet guide tubes, which constrain the lateral motion of the pellet in flight, was increased to accommodate pellets of up to 4.0 mm in diameter, capable of fueling to Greenwald fractions > 2.0 for MST's peak current of 600 kA. Exploring the effect of increased density on NBI deposition shows that for MST's NBI, core deposition of 25 keV neutrals is optimized for densities of 2 -- 3 x 10^19 m-3. This is key for beta limit studies in pellet fueled discharges with improved confinement where maximum NBI heating is desired. In addition, a modification to the injector has allowed operation using alternative pellet fuels with triple points significantly higher than that of deuterium (18.7 K). A small flow of helium into the pellet formation vacuum chamber introduces a controllable heat source capable of elevating the operating temperature of the injector. Injection of methane pellets with a triple point of 90.7 K results in a 12-fold increase in the core carbon impurity density. The flow rate is easily adjusted to optimize injector operating temperature for other fuel gases as well. Work supported by US DoE.

  16. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  17. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... engine models requiring inspections. We are proposing this AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector... repetitive inspection compliance time. We issued that AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel lines... engine models requiring inspection. We are issuing this AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel...

  18. Design of a compact all-permanent magnet ECR ion source injector for ReA at the MSU NSCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Alfonse N.; Leitner, Daniela; Glennon, Patrick; Ottarson, Jack; Lawton, Don; Portillo, Mauricio; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wenstrom, John; Lajoie, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The design of a compact all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source injector for the ReAccelerator Facility (ReA) at the Michigan State University (MSU) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is currently being carried out. The ECR ion source injector will complement the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder as an off-line stable ion beam injector for the ReA linac. The objective of the ECR ion source injector is to provide continuous-wave beams of heavy ions from hydrogen to masses up to 136Xe within the ReA charge-to-mass ratio (Q / A) operational range from 0.2 to 0.5. The ECR ion source will be mounted on a high-voltage platform that can be adjusted to obtain the required 12 keV/u injection energy into a room temperature radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for further acceleration. The beam line consists of a 30 kV tetrode extraction system, mass analyzing section, and optical matching section for injection into the existing ReA low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. The design of the ECR ion source and the associated beam line are discussed.

  19. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  20. Design optimization of a vaneless ``fish-friendly'' swirl injector for small water turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airody, Ajith; Peterson, Sean D.

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale hydro-electric plants are attractive options for powering remote sites, as they draw energy from local bodies of water. However, the environmental impact on the aquatic life drawn into the water turbine is a concern. To mitigate adverse consequences on the local fauna, small-scale water turbine design efforts have focused on developing ``fish-friendly'' facilities. The components of these turbines tend to have wider passages between the blades when compared to traditional turbines, and the rotors are designed to spin at much lower angular velocities, thus allowing fish to pass through safely. Galt Green Energy has proposed a vaneless casing that provides the swirl component to the flow approaching the rotor, eliminating the need for inlet guide vanes. We numerically model the flow through the casing using ANSYS CFX to assess the evolution of the axial and circumferential velocity symmetry and uniformity in various cross-sections within and downstream of the injector. The velocity distributions, as well as the pressure loss through the injector, are functions of the pitch angle and number of revolutions of the casing. Optimization of the casing design is discussed via an objective function consisting of the velocity and pressure performance measures.

  1. Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

  2. LES of cavitating flow inside a Diesel injector including dynamic needle movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örley, F.; Hickel, S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    We perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent, cavitating flow inside a 9-hole solenoid common-rail injector including jet injection into gas during a full injection cycle. The liquid fuel, vapor, and gas phases are modelled by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitation model is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The geometry of the injector is represented on a Cartesian grid by a conservative cut-element immersed boundary method. The strategy allows for the simulation of complex, moving geometries with sub-cell resolution. We evaluate the effects of needle movement on the cavitation characteristics in the needle seat and tip region during opening and closing of the injector. Moreover, we study the effect of cavitation inside the injector nozzles on primary jet break-up.

  3. Digital holographic diagnostics of near-injector region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaiho

    Study of primary breakup of liquid jets is important because it is motivated by the application to gas turbine fuel injectors, diesel fuel injectors, industrial cleaning and washing machine, medical spray, and inkjet printers, among others. When it comes to good injectors, a liquid jet has to be disintegrated into a fine spray near injector region during primary breakup. However the dense spray region near the injectors is optically obscure for Phase Doppler Interferometer like Phase Doppler Particle Analyzers (PDPA). Holography can provide three dimensional image of the dense spray and eliminate the problem of the small depth of focus associated with shadowgraphs. Traditional film-based holographic technique has long been used for three dimensional measurements in particle fields, but it is time consuming, expensive, chemically hazardous. With the development of the CCD sensor, holograms were recorded and reconstructed digitally. Digital microscopic holography (DMH) is similar to digital inline holography (DIH) except that no lens is used to collimate the object beam. The laser beams are expanded with an objective lens and a spatial filter. This eliminates two lenses from the typical optical path used for in-line holography, which results in a much cleaner hologram recording. The DMH was used for drop size and velocity measurements of the breakup of aerated liquid jets because it is unaffected by the non-spherical droplets that are encountered very close to the injector exit, which would cause problems for techniques such as Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, otherwise. Large field of view was obtained by patching several high resolution holograms. Droplet velocities in three dimensions were measured by tracking their displacements in the streamwise and cross-stream direction and by tracking the change in the plane of focus in the spanwise direction. The uncertainty in spanwise droplet location and velocity measurements using single view DMH was large at least 33

  4. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  5. Design study of a 120-keV, He-3 neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, A. S.; Barr, W. L.; Dexter, W. L.; Moir, R. W.; Wilcox, T. P.; Fink, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a 120-keV, 2.3-MW, He-3 neutral beam injector for use on a D-(He-3) fusion reactor is described. The constraint that limits operating life when injecting He is its high sputtering rate. The sputtering is partly controlled by using an extra grid to prevent ion flow from the neutralizer duct to the electron suppressor grid, but a tradeoff between beam current and operating life is still required. Hollow grid wires functioning as mercury heat pipes cool the grid and enable steady state operation. Voltage holding and radiation effects on the acceleration grid structure are discussed. The vacuum system is also briefly described, and the use of a direct energy converter to recapture energy from unneutralized ions exiting the neutralizer is also analyzed. Of crucial importance to the technical feasibility of the (He-3)-burning reactor are the injector efficiency and cost; these are 53% and $5.5 million, respectively, when power supplies are included.

  6. Design study of a 120-keV,3He neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, A. S.; Barr, W. L.; Dexter, W. L.; Fink, J. H.; Moir, R. W.; Wilcox, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    We describe a design for a 120-keV, 2.3-MW,3He neutral beam injector for use on a D-3He fusion reactor. The constraint that limits operating life when injecting He is its high sputtering rate. The sputtering is partly controlled by using an extra grid to prevent ion flow from the neutralizer duct to the electron suppressor grid, but a tradeoff between beam current and operating life is still required. Hollow grid wires functioning as mercury heat pipes cool the grid and enable steady state operation. Voltage holding and radiation effects on the acceleration grid structure are discussed. We also briefly describe the vacuum system and analyze use of a direct energy converter to recapture energy from unneutralized ions exiting the neutralizer. Of crucial importance to the technical feasibility of the3He-burning reactor are the injector efficiency and cost; these are 53% and 5.5 million, respectively, when power supplies are included.

  7. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  8. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  9. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  11. Application of human factors engineering (HFE) to the design of a naloxone auto-injector for the treatment of opioid emergencies.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Edwards, Eric S; Edwards, Evan T

    2017-02-01

    The increased use of opioids for chronic treatment of pain and the resulting epidemic of opioid overdoses have created a major public health challenge. Parenteral naloxone has been used since the 1970's to treat opioid overdose. Recently, a novel naloxone auto-injector device (EVZIO, kaleo, Inc., Richmond, VA) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In this article, we review the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) process used in the development and testing of this novel naloxone auto-injector currently used in nonmedical settings for the emergency treatment of known or suspected opioid overdose. HFE methods were employed throughout the product development process for the naloxone auto-injector including formative and summative studies in order to optimize the auto-injector's user interface, mitigate use-related hazards and increase reliability during an opioid emergency use scenario. HFE was also used to optimize the product's design and user interface in order to reduce or prevent user confusion and misuse. The naloxone auto-injector went through a rigorous HFE process that included perceptual, cognitive, and physical action analysis; formative usability evaluations; use error analysis and summative design validation studies. Applying HFE resulted in the development of a product that is safe, fast, easy and predictably reliable to deliver a potentially life-saving dose of naloxone during an opioid overdose emergency. The naloxone auto-injector may be considered as a universal precaution option for at-risk patients prescribed opioids or those who are at increased risk for an opioid overdose emergency.

  12. Fuel Injector With Shear Atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, George W.; Mills, Virgil L.; Smith, Durward B., II; Beacom, William F.

    1995-01-01

    Atomizer for injecting liquid fuel into combustion chamber uses impact and swirl to break incoming stream of fuel into small, more combustible droplets. Slanted holes direct flow of liquid fuel to stepped cylindrical wall. Impact on wall atomizes liquid. Air flowing past vanes entrains droplets of liquid in swirling flow. Fuel injected at pressure lower than customarily needed.

  13. Modeling of classical swirl injector dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, Maksud M.

    The knowledge of the dynamics of a swirl injector is crucial in designing a stable liquid rocket engine. Since the swirl injector is a complex fluid flow device in itself, not much work has been conducted to describe its dynamics either analytically or by using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Even the experimental observation is limited up to date. Thus far, there exists an analytical linear theory by Bazarov [1], which is based on long-wave disturbances traveling on the free surface of the injector core. This theory does not account for variation of the nozzle reflection coefficient as a function of disturbance frequency, and yields a response function which is strongly dependent on the so called artificial viscosity factor. This causes an uncertainty in designing an injector for the given operational combustion instability frequencies in the rocket engine. In this work, the author has studied alternative techniques to describe the swirl injector response, both analytically and computationally. In the analytical part, by using the linear small perturbation analysis, the entire phenomenon of unsteady flow in swirl injectors is dissected into fundamental components, which are the phenomena of disturbance wave refraction and reflection, and vortex chamber resonance. This reveals the nature of flow instability and the driving factors leading to maximum injector response. In the computational part, by employing the nonlinear boundary element method (BEM), the author sets the boundary conditions such that they closely simulate those in the analytical part. The simulation results then show distinct peak responses at frequencies that are coincident with those resonant frequencies predicted in the analytical part. Moreover, a cold flow test of the injector related to this study also shows a clear growth of instability with its maximum amplitude at the first fundamental frequency predicted both by analytical methods and BEM. It shall be noted however that Bazarov

  14. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels R&D, Subtask: Evaluation of 50/50 Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and JP8 in the Ford 6.7L High-Pressure Common Rail Design Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    treated with 9ppm of a QPL-25017 additive. Testing was completed using a Ford 6.7L V8 turbocharged diesel engine. Testing was completed following a...Installation ................................................................................. 3 2. Ford 6.7L Fuel Injection Pump, Rail, & Injector ...5 4. Fuel Injector Component Break-Out

  15. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  16. Experimental evaluation of two premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R.

    1976-01-01

    A premixing-prevaporizing fuel system for a gas turbine catalytic combustor has been developed and evaluated. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured at inlet temperatures up to 800 K and fuel-air ratios of 0.01 and 0.025. The test pressure was 0.5 MPa; velocity was 20 m/sec. Both a multiple-jet cross-stream injector and a splash-groove injector with a 30 deg air swirler exhibited a uniform fuel distribution and a high degree of vaporization with little total pressure drop. Fuel oxidation reactions were observed at the 800 K inlet air temperature, indicating that a different design concept is necessary for application with an automotive gas turbine.

  17. Bluff Body Fuel Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); McKinney, Randal G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A combustor is provided. The combustor may include an axial fuel injection system, and a radial fuel injection system aft of the axial fuel injection system. The axial fuel injection system includes a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer, and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer. A fuel and air mixer is also provided and comprises an outer housing with an exit port and a bluff body. The bluff body extends across the exit port of the outer housing. A fuel injection system is also provided. The systems comprise a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer.

  18. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOEpatents

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann [Niskayuna, NY; DeLancey, James Peter [Corinth, NY; Primus, Roy James [Niskayuna, NY; Pintgen, Florian Peter [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  19. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: 1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and 2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots are

  20. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: (1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and (2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots

  1. Conceptional design of a heavy ion linac injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue-Jun; Du, Heng; Li, Zhong-Shan

    2014-10-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 m long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.

  2. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include combustion efficiency from gaseous emission measurements, 2D planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four inlet test conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program. One inlet condition was a pilot-only test point. The other three inlet conditions incorporated fuel staging via a split between the pilot and main circuits of either 10%/90% or 20%/80%. For each engine power condition, three fuel mixes were used: 100% JP-8; 100% alternative; and a blend of the two, containing 75% alternative. Results for the inlet cases that have fuel split between pilot and main, indicate that fuel from the pilot appears to be evaporated by the time it reaches the dome exit. Main circuit liquid evaporates within a downstream distance equal to annulus height, no matter the fuel. Some fuel fluorescence images for a 10%/90% fuel staging case show a distinct difference between JP-8 and bio-derived fuel. OH PLIF results indicate that OH forms in a region more centrally-located for the JP-8 case downstream of the pilot, in its central recirculation region (CRZ). For the bio-derived Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel, however, we do not see much OH in the CRZ. The OH image structure near the dome exit is similar for the two fuels, but farther downstream the OH in the CRZ is much more apparent for the JP-8 than for the alternate fuel. For all conditions, there was no discernable difference between fuel types in combustion efficiency or emissions.

  3. Investigation of nozzle flow and cavitation characteristics in a diesel injector.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Som, S.; Ramirez, A.; Aggarwal, S.

    2010-04-01

    Cavitation and turbulence inside a diesel injector play a critical role in primary spray breakup and development processes. The study of cavitation in realistic injectors is challenging, both theoretically and experimentally, since the associated two-phase flow field is turbulent and highly complex, characterized by large pressure gradients and small orifice geometries. We report herein a computational investigation of the internal nozzle flow and cavitation characteristics in a diesel injector. A mixture based model in FLUENT V6.2 software is employed for simulations. In addition, a new criterion for cavitation inception based on the total stress is implemented, and its effectiveness inmore » predicting cavitation is evaluated. Results indicate that under realistic diesel engine conditions, cavitation patterns inside the orifice are influenced by the new cavitation criterion. Simulations are validated using the available two-phase nozzle flow data and the rate of injection measurements at various injection pressures (800-1600 bar) from the present study. The computational model is then used to characterize the effects of important injector parameters on the internal nozzle flow and cavitation behavior, as well as on flow properties at the nozzle exit. The parameters include injection pressure, needle lift position, and fuel type. The propensity of cavitation for different on-fleet diesel fuels is compared with that for n-dodecane, a diesel fuel surrogate. Results indicate that the cavitation characteristics of n-dodecane are significantly different from those of the other three fuels investigated. The effect of needle movement on cavitation is investigated by performing simulations at different needle lift positions. Cavitation patterns are seen to shift dramatically as the needle lift position is changed during an injection event. The region of significant cavitation shifts from top of the orifice to bottom of the orifice as the needle position is changed from

  4. Parameter Optimization of PAL-XFEL Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Ko, In Soo; Han, Jang-Hui; Hong, Juho; Yang, Haeryong; Min, Chang Ki; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2018-05-01

    A photoinjector is used as the electron source to generate a high peak current and low emittance beam for an X-ray free electron laser (FEL). The beam emittance is one of the critical parameters to determine the FEL performance together with the slice energy spread and the peak current. The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) was constructed in 2015, and the beam commissioning was carried out in spring 2016. The injector is running routinely for PAL-XFEL user operation. The operational parameters of the injector have been optimized experimentally, and these are somewhat different from the originally designed ones. Therefore, we study numerically the injector parameters based on the empirically optimized parameters and review the present operating condition.

  5. Experimental evaluation of two premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R.

    1976-01-01

    A premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor was evaluated for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using jet A fuel. Two types of air blast injectors were tested, a splash groove injector and a multiple jet cross stream injector. Air swirlers with vane angles of 15 deg and 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution in a 12 cm diameter tubular rig. Distribution and vaporization measurements were made 35.5 cm downstream of the injector. The spatial fuel distribution was nearly uniform with the multiple jet contrastream injector and the splash-groove injector with a 30 deg air swirler. The vaporization was nearly 100 percent at an inlet air temperature of 600 K, and at 800 K inlet air temperature fuel oxidation reactions were observed. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent of the total pressure for the multiple jet cross stream injector and the splash groove injector (without air swirler) and less than 1 percent for the splash groove with a 30 deg air swirler.

  6. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Fuel Maps for the GEP 6.5LT Engine When Operating on at J/JP-8 Fuel Blends at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    system. The new calibrated fuel injection pump and injectors were installed, and the fuel injection timing of the new fuel injection system was set to...Product 6.5L Turbocharged diesel engine at two inlet temperature conditions. The GEP 6.5LT engine represents legacy diesel engine design with...derived cetane number DF-2 Diesel Fuel number 2 ft Foot HEFA Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty Acid(s) HP or hp Horsepower hr Hour in Inch in³ cubic

  8. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Dang, Lisa; Tramel, Terri; Paseur, Lila; Champion, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA sponsorship, Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) designed, built and tested two non-toxic, reaction control engines, one using liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) and the other using liquid oxygen and ethanol. This paper presents the design and testing of the LOX/LH2 thruster. The two key enabling technologies are the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector and the fuelcooling duct. The workhorse thruster was hotfire tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Test Stand 500 in March and April of 2002. All tests were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LHp injector settings. The operating conditions surveyed were 70 to 100% thrust levels, mixture ratios from 3.27 to 4.29, and LH2 duct cooling from 18.0 to 25.5% fuel flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The performance of the engine reached 95% C* efficiency. The temperature on the Haynes chamber remained well below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. These results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster headend design maintained cryogenic injection temperatures while firing, which validates the selected injector design approach for minimal heat soak-back. Also, off -nominal operation without adversely impacting the thermal response of the engine showed the robustness of the duct design, a key design feature for this application. By injecting fuel into the duct, the throat temperatures are manageable, yet the split of fuel through the cooling duct does not compromise the overall combstion efficiency, which indicates that, provided proper design

  9. Argonne research expanding from injectors to inhalers | Argonne National

    Science.gov Websites

    could lead to better medical sprays that are more effective and deliver more types of drugs There is a , Argonne's scientists are using decades of experience analyzing vehicle fuel injectors to study medical & Combustion were working with the Woolcock Institute of Medical Research in Sydney and Chiesi

  10. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  11. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  12. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness ofmore » the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  13. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  14. Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel primary air injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brooke Edward

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, and prototype testing of the flex-section and hinge seals for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel Primary Injector. The supersonic atmospheric primary injector operates between Mach 1.8 and Mach 2.2 with mass-flow rates of 62 to 128 lbm/s providing the necessary pressure reduction to operate the tunnel in the desired Reynolds number (Re) range.

  15. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  16. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peltier, Scott J.; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Carter, Campbell D.

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through x-ray radiography and x-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an x-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfieldmore » to be examined (as Be has relatively low x-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength (EPL) and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveal a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry.« less

  17. Effect of Cup Length on Film Profiles in Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    as the working fluid , film lengths and were determined in six unique injector geometries and over a number of flow conditions. Each injector...with water and nitrogen as the working fluid , film lengths and were determined in six unique injector geometries and over a number of flow...vary the cup length across the face of the injector to act as acoustic dampers . For these reasons and because of the need for simple design criteria

  18. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by

  19. HIV Prevalence and Risk among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Injectors in California

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Alex H.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; Lewis, Megan A.; Orr, Alexander; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    This CDC-funded study compares HIV prevalence and risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine (n=428) and non-methamphetamine (n=878) injectors in California, USA during 2001–2003. While HIV was not highly prevalent among methamphetamine injectors (3%), sexual and injection risk behaviors were highly prevalent (ranging from 21% to 72%). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine injectors had higher odds than non-methamphetamine injectors of unprotected vaginal intercourse and sex with five or more sexual partners in the past six months, and of distributive and receptive syringe sharing in the past thirty days. There was no significant difference in HIV sero-status by methamphetamine use. Suggestions are made for designing HIV prevention programs. PMID:21391786

  20. Effect of fuel and nozzle geometry on the off-axis oscillation of needle in diesel injectors using high-speed X-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Wang, J.

    2016-05-01

    The diesel spray characteristics are strongly influenced by the flow dynamics inside the injector nozzle. Moreover, the off-axis oscillation of needle could lead to variation of orifice flow in the nozzle. In this paper, the needle oscillation was investigated using high-speed X-ray phase contrast imaging and quantitative image processing. The effects of fuel, injection pressure and nozzle geometry on the needle oscillation were analyzed. The results showed that the vertical and horizontal oscillation of needle was independent on the injection pressure. The maximum oscillation range of 14μ m was found. Biodiesel application slightly decreased the needle oscillation due to high viscosity. The needle oscillation range increased generally with increasing hole number. The larger needle oscillation in multi-hole injectors was dominated by the geometry problem or production issue at lower needle lift. In addition, the influence of needle oscillation on the spray morphology was also discussed.

  1. Flow visualization of a rocket injector spray using gelled propellant simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Rapp, Douglas C.; Roncace, James

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted at NASA-Lewis to compare the atomization characteristics of gelled and nongelled propellant simulants. A gelled propellant simulant composed of water, sodium hydroxide, and an acrylic acid polymer resin (as the gelling agent) was used to simulate the viscosity of an aluminum/PR-1 metallized fuel gel. Water was used as a comparison fluid to isolate the rheological effects of the water-gel and to simulate nongelled RP-1. The water-gel was injected through the central orifice of a triplet injector element and the central post of a coaxial injector element. Nitrogen gas flowed through the outer orifices of the triplet injector element and through the annulus of the coaxial injector element and atomized the gelled and nongelled liquids. Photographs of the water-gel spray patterns at different operating conditions were compared with images obtained using water and nitrogen. A laser light was used for illumination of the sprays. The results of the testing showed that the water sprays produced a finer and more uniform atomization than the water-gel sprays. Rheological analysis of the water-gel showed poor atomization caused by high viscosity of water-gel delaying the transition to turbulence.

  2. Investigation of High Pressure, Multi-Hole Diesel Fuel Injection Using High Speed Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Steven; Eagle, Ethan; Wooldridge, Margaret

    2012-10-01

    Research to experimentally capture and understand transient fuel spray behavior of modern fuel injection systems remains underdeveloped. To this end, a high-pressure diesel common-rail fuel injector was instrumented in a spherical, constant volume combustion chamber to image the early time history of injection of diesel fuel. The research-geometry fuel injector has four holes aligned on a radial plane of the nozzle with hole sizes of 90, 110, 130 and 150 μm in diameter. Fuel was injected into a non-reacting environment with ambient densities of 17.4, 24.0, and 31.8 kg/m3 at fuel rail pressures of 1000, 1500, and 2000 bar. High speed images of fuel injection were taken using backlighting at 100,000 frames per second (100 kfps) and an image processing algorithm. The experimental results are compared with a one-dimensional fuel-spray model that was historically developed and applied to fuel sprays from single-hole fuel injectors. Fuel spray penetration distance was evaluated as a function of time for the different injector hole diameters, fuel injection pressures and ambient densities. The results show the differences in model predictions and experimental data at early times in the spray development.

  3. Research on the injectors remanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraba, D.; Alexandrescu, I. M.; Daraba, C.

    2017-05-01

    During the remanufacturing process, the injector body - after disassembling and cleaning process - should be subjected to some strict control processes, both visually and by an electronic microscope, for evidencing any defects that may occur on the sealing surface of the injector body and the atomizer. In this paper we present the path followed by an injector body in the process of remanufacturing, exemplifying the verification method of roughness and hardness of the sealing surfaces, as well as the microscopic analysis of the sealing surface areas around the inlet. These checks can indicate which path the injector body has to follow during the remanufacturing. The control methodology of the injector body, that is established on the basis of this research, helps preventing some defective injector bodies to enter into the remanufacturing process, thus reducing to a minimum the number of remanufactured injectors to be declared non-conforming after final verification process.

  4. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART III), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, II--RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) MORE ABOUT THE CUMMINS FUEL SYSTEM, (2) CALIBRATING THE PT FUEL PUMP, (3) CALIBRATING THE FUEL INJECTORS, (4) UNDERSTANDING THE SHUTTER SYSTEM, (5) THE…

  6. Integrated numerical modeling of a laser gun injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, H.; Benson, S.; Bisognano, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF is planning to incorporate a laser gun injector into the linac front end as a high-charge cw source for a high-power free electron laser and nuclear physics. This injector consists of a DC laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. The performance of the injector is predicted based on integrated numerical modeling using POISSON, SUPERFISH and PARMELA. The point-by-point method incorporated into PARMELA by McDonald is chosen for space charge treatment. The concept of ``conditioning for final bunching`` is employed to vary several crucial parameters of the system for achieving highest peak current while maintaining low emittancemore » and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies show that the design will perform beyond the specifications for FEL operations aimed at industrial applications and fundamental scientific research. The calculation also shows that the injector will perform as an extremely bright cw electron source.« less

  7. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet face injector for the Orbit Maneuvering Engine (OME) on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and lower cost. The program was conducted in three phases. The first phase evaluated single injection elements, or unielements; it involved visual flow studies, mixing experiments using propellant simulants, and hot firings to assess combustion efficiency, chamber wall compatibility, and injector face temperatures. In the second phase, subscale units producing 600 lbf thrust were used to further evaluate the orifice patterns chosen on the basis of unielement testing. In addition to combustion efficiency, chamber and injector heat transfer, the subscale testing provided a preliminary indication of injector stability. Full scale testing of the selected patterns at 6,000 lbf thrust was performed in the third phase. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects on combustion stability of acoustic cavity configuration, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated.

  8. Redirecting by Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, a system that seeks to simplify the creation of distributed applications by injecting behavior on the communication paths between components. We touch on some of the ilities and services that can be achieved with injector technology, and then focus on the uses of redirecting injectors, injectors that take requests directed at a particular server and generate requests directed at others. We close by noting that OIF is an Aspect-Oriented Programming system, and comparing OIF to related work.

  9. Characterization of deposits formed on diesel injectors in field test and from thermal oxidative degradation of n-hexadecane in a laboratory reactor

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Ramya; Eser, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Solid deposits from commercially available high-pressure diesel injectors (HPDI) were analyzed to study the solid deposition from diesel fuel during engine operation. The structural and chemical properties of injector deposits were compared to those formed from the thermal oxidative stressing of a diesel fuel range model compound, n-hexadecane at 160°C and 450 psi for 2.5 h in a flow reactor. Both deposits consist of polyaromatic compounds (PAH) with oxygen moieties. The similarities in structure and composition of the injector deposits and n-hexadecane deposits suggest that laboratory experiments can simulate thermal oxidative degradation of diesel in commercial injectors. The formation of PAH from n-hexadecane showed that aromatization of straight chain alkanes and polycondensation of aromatic rings was possible at temperatures as low as 160°C in the presence of oxygen. A mechanism for an oxygen-assisted aromatization of cylcoalkanes is proposed. PMID:19091086

  10. Fuel and Combustor Concerns for Future Commercial Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Clarence T.

    2017-01-01

    Civil aircraft combustor designs will move from rich-burn to lean-burn due to the latter's advantage in low NOx and nvPM emissions. However, the operating range of lean-burn is narrower, requiring premium mixing performance from the fuel injectors. As the OPR increases, the corresponding combustor inlet temperature increase can benefit greatly with fuel composition improvements. Hydro-treatment can improve coking resistance, allowing finer fuel injection orifices to speed up mixing. Selective cetane number control across the fuel carbon-number distribution may allow delayed ignition at high power while maintaining low-power ignition characteristics.

  11. Evaluation of Future Fuels in a High Pressure Common Rail System. Part 3. John Deere 4.5L Powertech Plus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    within the fuel injectors regardless of viscosity or lubricity levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fuel Lubricity, Viscosity, HPCR, Synthetic Jet Fuel, Denso... injectors regardless of viscosity or lubricity levels. UNCLASSIFIED v UNCLASSIFIED FOREWORD/ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The U.S. Army TARDEC...40 3.10 UPPER INJECTOR CONNECTING PIN

  12. Theoretical Acoustic Absorber Design Approach for LOX/LCH4 Pintle Injector Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaria, Jonathan

    Liquid rocket engines, or LREs, have served a key role in space exploration efforts. One current effort involves the utilization of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) LREs to explore Mars with in-situ resource utilization for propellant production. This on-site production of propellant will allow for greater payload allocation instead of fuel to travel to the Mars surface, and refueling of propellants to travel back to Earth. More useable mass yields a greater benefit to cost ratio. The University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Center (cSETR) aims to further advance these methane propulsion systems with the development of two liquid methane - liquid oxygen propellant combination rocket engines. The design of rocket engines, specifically liquid rocket engines, is complex in that many variables are present that must be taken into consideration in the design. A problem that occurs in almost every rocket engine development program is combustion instability, or oscillatory combustion. It can result in the destruction of the rocket, subsequent destruction of the vehicle and compromise the mission. These combustion oscillations can vary in frequency from 100 to 20,000 Hz or more, with varying effects, and occur from different coupling phenomena. It is important to understand the effects of combustion instability, its physical manifestations, how to identify the instabilities, and how to mitigate or dampen them. Linear theory methods have been developed to provide a mathematical understanding of the low- to mid-range instabilities. Nonlinear theory is more complex and difficult to analyze mathematically, therefore no general analytical method that yields a solution exists. With limited resources, time, and the advice of our NASA mentors, a data driven experimental approach utilizing quarter wave acoustic dampener cavities was designed. This thesis outlines the methodology behind the design of an acoustic

  13. Observation of Flame Stabilized at a Hydrogen-Turbojet-Engine Injector Installed into a Lab-Scale Combustion Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michishita, Kazutaka; Nomura, Hiroshi; Ujiie, Yasushige; Okai, Keiichi

    A lab-scale combustion wind tunnel was developed for investigation of low-pressure ignition and flame holding in a sub-scale pre-cooled turbojet engine with hydrogen fuel in order to make engine start at high altitudes sure. The combustion wind tunnel is a blow-down type. A fuel injector of the sub-scale pre-cooled turbojet engine was installed into the combustion wind tunnel. Conditions in which a flame can be stabilized at the fuel injector were examined. The combustor pressure and equivalence ratio were varied from 10 to 40 kPa and from 0.4 to 0.8, respectively. The mean inlet air velocity was varied from 2 to 48 m/s. Flames stabilized at 20 kPa in pressure and 0.6 in equivalence ratio were observed. It was found that the decrease in the combustor pressure narrows the mean inlet air velocity range for successful flame holdings. Flame holding at lower combustor pressures is realized at the equivalence ratio of 0.4 in the low mean inlet air velocity range, and at the equivalence ratio of 0.6 in the high mean inlet air velocity range. Flame luminosity is the largest near the fuel injector. The flame luminosity distribution becomes flatter as the increase in the mean inlet air velocity.

  14. Combustion Stability Analyses of Coaxial Element Injectors with Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in a flight-qualified engine system, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented activities with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations. This paper presents test data and analyses of combustion stability from the recent PCAD-funded test programs at the NASA MSFC. These test programs used swirl coaxial element injectors with liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants. Oxygen was injected conventionally in the center of the coaxial element, and swirl was provided by tangential entry slots. Injectors with 28-element and 40-element patterns were tested with several configurations of combustion chambers, including ablative and calorimeter spool sections, and several configurations of fuel injection design. Low frequency combustion instability (chug) occurred with both injectors, and high-frequency combustion instability occurred at the first tangential (1T) transverse mode with the 40-element injector. In most tests, a transition between high-amplitude chug with gaseous methane flow and low-amplitude chug with liquid methane flow was readily observed. Chug analyses of both conditions were conducted using techniques from Wenzel and Szuch and from the Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis (ROCCID) code. The 1T mode instability occurred in several tests and was apparent by high-frequency pressure measurements as well as dramatic increases in calorimeter-measured heat flux

  15. Combustion Dynamics and Stability Modeling of a Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Oxygen-Rich Staged Combustion Preburner and Thrust Chamber Assembly with Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, M. J.; Kenny, R. J.; Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Simpson, S. P.; Elmore, J. L.; Fischbach, S. R.; Giacomoni, C. B.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Combustion Stability Tool Development (CSTD) project, funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, began in March 2015 supporting a renewed interest in the development of a liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon, oxygen-rich combustion engine. The project encompasses the design, assembly, and hot-fire testing of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 40-klbf Integrated Test Rig (MITR). The test rig models a staged-combustion configuration by combining an oxygen-rich preburner (ORPB), to generate hot gas, with a thrust chamber assembly (TCA) using gas-centered swirl coaxial injector elements. There are five separately designed interchangeable injectors in the TCA that each contain 19- or 27- injector elements. A companion paper in this JANNAF conference describes the design characteristics, rationale, and fabrication issues for all the injectors. The data acquired from a heavily instrumented rig encompasses several injectors, several operating points, and stability bomb tests. Another companion paper in this JANNAF conference describes this test program in detail. In this paper, dynamic data from the hot-fire testing is characterized and used to identify the responses in the ORPB and TCA. A brief review of damping metrics are discussed and applied as a measure of stability margin for damped acoustic modes. Chug and longitudinal combustion stability models and predictions are described which includes new dynamic models for compressible flow through an orifice and a modification to incorporate a third feed line for inclusion of the fuel-film coolant. Flow-acoustics finite element modeling is used to investigate the anticipated TCA acoustics, the effects of injector element length on stability margin, and the potential use of an ORPB orifice trip ring for improving longitudinal stability margin.

  16. Computational model for fuel component supply into a combustion chamber of LRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterev, A. V.; Mandrik, P. A.; Rudak, L. V.; Misyuchenko, N. I.

    2017-12-01

    A 2D-3D computational model for calculating a flow inside jet injectors that feed fuel components to a combustion chamber of a liquid rocket engine is described. The model is based on the gasdynamic calculation of compressible medium. Model software provides calculation of both one- and two-component injectors. Flow simulation in two-component injectors is realized using the scheme of separate supply of “gas-gas” or “gas-liquid” fuel components. An algorithm for converting a continuous liquid medium into a “cloud” of drops is described. Application areas of the developed model and the results of 2D simulation of injectors to obtain correction factors in the calculation formulas for fuel supply are discussed.

  17. Aerolization During Boron Nanoparticle Multi-Component Fuel Group Burning Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-03

    Anderson, University of Utah). …………………… 14 Figure 2. Photograph of group burning facility showing benchtop flat flame burner unit with injector nozzle ...and (B) aerosol generator. 16 Figure 6. Diagram of benchtop flat flame burner unit showing injector nozzle assembly with VOAG orifice, fuel and...translation stage, variable fuel and gas supply rates, and injector nozzles that can be configured to investigate diffusion and premixed flames (Fig. 2 & 3

  18. Characterization of typical platelet injector flow configurations. [liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickox, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study to investigate the hydraulic atomization characteristics of several novel injector designs for use in liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The injectors were manufactured from a series of thin stainless steel platelets through which orifices were very accurately formed by a photoetching process. These individual platelets were stacked together and the orifices aligned so as to produce flow passages of prescribed geometry. After alignment, the platelets were bonded into a single, 'platelet injector', unit by a diffusion bonding process. Because of the complex nature of the flow associated with platelet injectors, it was necessary to use experimental techniques, exclusively, throughout the study. Large scale models of the injectors were constructed from aluminum plates and the appropriate fluids were modeled using a glycerol-water solution. Stop-action photographs of test configurations, using spark-shadowgraph or stroboscopic back-lighting, are shown.

  19. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  20. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D. W.

    1993-05-01

    We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

  1. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Greenville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greenville, SC; Lacy, Benjamin [Greenville, SC; York, William David [Greenville, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Greenville, SC

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  2. Comprehensive Fuel Spray Modeling and Impacts on Chamber Acoustics in Combustion Dynamics Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    multiple swirler configurations and fuel injector locations at atmospheric pressure con- ditions. Both single-element and multiple-element LDI...the swirl number, Reynolds’ number and injector location in the LDI element. Besides the multi-phase flow characteristics, several experimen- tal...region downstream of the fuel injector on account of a sta- ble and compact precessing vortex core. Recent ex- periments conducted by the Purdue group have

  3. Development of a negative ion-based neutral beam injector in Novosibirsk.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Abdrashitov, G F; Anashin, V V; Belchenko, Yu I; Burdakov, A V; Davydenko, V I; Deichuli, P P; Dimov, G I; Dranichnikov, A N; Kapitonov, V A; Kolmogorov, V V; Kondakov, A A; Sanin, A L; Shikhovtsev, I V; Stupishin, N V; Sorokin, A V; Popov, S S; Tiunov, M A; Belov, V P; Gorbovsky, A I; Kobets, V V; Binderbauer, M; Putvinski, S; Smirnov, A; Sevier, L

    2014-02-01

    A 1000 keV, 5 MW, 1000 s neutral beam injector based on negative ions is being developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk in collaboration with Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. The innovative design of the injector features the spatially separated ion source and an electrostatic accelerator. Plasma or photon neutralizer and energy recuperation of the remaining ion species is employed in the injector to provide an overall energy efficiency of the system as high as 80%. A test stand for the beam acceleration is now under construction. A prototype of the negative ion beam source has been fabricated and installed at the test stand. The prototype ion source is designed to produce 120 keV, 1.5 A beam.

  4. Experimental Studies of Pylon-Aided Fuel Injection into a Supersonic Crossflow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    stagnation conditions up to 922K and 2.8MPa and a total maximum flow rate of 13:6 kg=s. A backpressure control valve positioned in the facility exhaust ... combustion , especially when using hydrocarbon fuels. Various fuel- injection techniques, from different arrangements and shapes of flush-wall injectors to...larger the disruption a fuel injector generates in the supersonic flow, the more effective the mixing of fuel and air. However, disruptions to the

  5. The Effect of Rapid Liquid-Phase Reactions on Injector Design and Combustion in Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elverum, Gerard W., Jr.; Staudhammer, Peter

    1959-01-01

    Data are presented indicating the rates and magnitudes of energy released by the liquid-phase reactions of various propellant combinations. The data show that this energy release can contribute significantly to the rate of vaporization of the incoming propellants and thus aid the combustion process. Nevertheless, very low performances were obtained in rocket motors with conventional impinging-jet injectors when highly reactive systems such as N104-N2H4, were employed. A possible explanation for this low performance is that the initial reactions of such systems are so rapid that liquid-phase mixing is inhibited. Evidence for such an effect is presented in a series of color photographs of open flames using various injector elements. Based on these studies, some requirements are suggested for injector elements using highly reactive propellants. Experimental results are presented of motor tests using injector elements in which some of these requirements are met through the use of a set of concentric tubes. These tests, carried out at thrust levels of 40 to 800 lb per element, demonstrated combustion efficiencies of up to 98% based on equilibrium characteristic velocity values. Results are also presented for tests made with impinging-jet and splash-plate injectors for comparison.

  6. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  7. Test verification of LOX/RP-1 high-pressure fuel/oxidizer-rich preburner designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two fuel-rich and two oxidizer-rich preburner injectors are tested with LOX/RP-1 in an investigation of performance, stability and gas temperature uniformity over a chamber pressure range from 1292 to 2540 psia. Fuel-rich mixture ratios range from 0.238 to 0.367 and oxidizer-rich mixture ratios range from 27 to 48, and carbon deposition data are collected by measuring the pressure drop across a turbine simulator flow device. The oxidizer-rich testing demonstrates the feasibility of oxidizer-rich preburners, indicating equilibrium combustion as predicted, and the measured fuel-rich gas composition and C-asterisk performance are in excellent agreement with kinetic model predictions indicating kinetically-limited combustion.

  8. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  9. Numerical analysis and design optimization of supersonic after-burning with strut fuel injectors for scramjet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candon, M. J.; Ogawa, H.

    2018-06-01

    Scramjets are a class of hypersonic airbreathing engine that offer promise for economical, reliable and high-speed access-to-space and atmospheric transport. The expanding flow in the scramjet nozzle comprises of unburned hydrogen. An after-burning scheme can be used to effectively utilize the remaining hydrogen by supplying additional oxygen into the nozzle, aiming to augment the thrust. This paper presents the results of a single-objective design optimization for a strut fuel injection scheme considering four design variables with the objective of maximizing thrust augmentation. Thrust is found to be augmented significantly owing to a combination of contributions from aerodynamic and combustion effects. Further understanding and physical insights have been gained by performing variance-based global sensitivity analysis, scrutinizing the nozzle flowfields, analyzing the distributions and contributions of the forces acting on the nozzle wall, and examining the combustion efficiency.

  10. Design and model for the giant magnetostrictive actuator used on an electronic controlled injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Guangming; Zhang, Peilin; He, Zhongbo; Li, Ben; Rong, Ce

    2017-05-01

    Giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA) may be a promising candidate actuator to drive an electronic controlled injector as giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) has excellent performances as large output, fast response and high operating stability etc. To meet the driving requirement of the injector, the GMA should produce maximal shortening displacement when energized. An unbiased GMA with a ‘T’ shaped output rod is designed to reach the target. Furthermore, an open-hold-fall type driving voltage is exerted on the actuator coil to accelerate the response speed of the coil current. The actuator displacement is modeled from establishing the sub-models of coil current, magnetic field within GMM rod, magnetization and magnetostrictive strain sequentially. Two modifications are done to make the model more accurate. Firstly, consider the model fails to compute the transient-state response precisely, a dead-zone and delay links are embedded into the coil current sub-model. Secondly, as the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain sub-models just influence the change rule of the transient-state response the linear magnetostrictive strain-magnetic field sub-model is introduced. From experimental results, the modified model with linear magnetostrictive stain expression can predict the actuator displacement quite effectively.

  11. Unintentional Epinephrine Auto-injector Injuries: A National Poison Center Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Anshien, Marco; Rose, S Rutherfoord; Wills, Brandon K

    2016-11-24

    Epinephrine is the only first-line therapeutic agent used to treat life-threatening anaphylaxis. Epinephrine auto-injectors are commonly carried by patients at risk for anaphylaxis, and reported cases of unintentional auto-injector injury have increased over the last decade. Modifications of existing designs and release of a new style of auto-injector are intended to reduce epinephrine auto-injector misuse. The aim of the study was to characterize reported cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures from 2013 to 2014 and compare demographics, auto-injector model, and anatomical site of such exposures. The American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System was searched from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, for cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures. Anatomical site data were obtained from all cases reported to the Virginia Poison Center and participating regional poison center for Auvi-Q cases. A total of 6806 cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures were reported to US Poison Centers in 2013 and 2014. Of these cases, 3933 occurred with EpiPen, 2829 with EpiPen Jr, 44 with Auvi-Q, and no case reported of Adrenaclick. The most common site of unintentional injection for traditional epinephrine auto-injectors was the digit or thumb, with 58% of cases for EpiPen and 39% of cases with EpiPen Jr. With Auvi-Q, the most common site was the leg (78% of cases). The number of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector cases reported to American Poison Centers in 2013-2014 has increased compared with previous data. Most EpiPen exposures were in the digits, whereas Auvi-Q was most frequently in the leg. Because of the limitations of Poison Center data, more research is needed to identify incidence of unintentional exposures and the effectiveness of epinephrine auto-injector redesign.

  12. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  13. Comparison of JP-8 Sprays from a Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    acquired of a calibration plate to provide scaling for the injector orifices. The determined scaling factor for the images was 0.3 µm/pixel. A circle...Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector by Matthew Kurman, Michael Tess, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon, and Craig Hershey Reprinted...Comparison of JP-8 Sprays from a Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector by Matthew Kurman

  14. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Notestein, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  15. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection

  16. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  17. The use of x-ray radiography for measuring mass distributions of Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    successfully applied to diesel injectors , aerated liquid jets and impinging-jet sprays [7-10]. X-ray radiography can be performed using either a...Rocket Injectors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) S.A. Schumaker, A.L. Kastengren, M.D.A...measurements for injector design. Unfortunately, the mass flow rates typically encountered in rocket engines create sprays with high optical densities

  18. Plasma injector for a three-phase plasma torch with rail electrodes and some results of its investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Yu D.; Borovskoy, A. M.; Shiryaev, V. N.; Safronov, A. A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Vasilieva, O. B.; Pavlov, A. V.; Ivanov, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma injector made on the basis of the alternating-current plasma torch designed for the three-phase ac plasma torch with 100-500 kWrail electrodes is studied. The construction of the plasma injector is examined. Different materials for manufacture of injector electrodes are investigated. Current-voltage characteristics of the injector are obtained. Investigations of the plasma jet are carried out, and the jet temperature dependence versus the gas flow rate and electric power of the injector is measured.

  19. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  20. Method and device for feeding fuel in a fuel system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Williamson, E.

    1988-07-26

    This patent describes a device for feeding fuel in a fuel system for a liquid fuel engine, with the fuel system having a fuel tank, fuel lines, multiple microscreen fuel filters, a fuel pump, and engine fuel injectors, with the fuel tank having a fill opening having a perimeter, comprising, in combination: a ball having a size for overfitting and abutting with the perimeter of the fill opening of differing sizes, shapes, and constructions; and means for introducing air pressure greater than atmospheric through the ball and through the fill opening and into the fuel tank, with the ball havingmore » a solid cross section and being generally impermeable to air passage, with the ball being deformable to conform to the perimeter of the fill opening for sealingly engaging the perimeter of the fill opening and having a firmness for transmitting a force applied to the ball in the direction of the fill opening into a sealing force applied by the ball to the fill opening to balance opposing forces created by the introduction of air pressure into the fuel tank and for increasing the air pressure in the fuel tank acting on the fuel to increase the rate of fuel flow from the fuel tank into the fuel line for assisting the fuel pump in moving the fuel from the fuel tank through the fuel lines and through the microscreen filters to the engine fuel injectors while allowing an excessive air pressure to escape from the fill opening around the ball.« less

  1. Performance of a multiple venturi fuel-air preparation system. [fuel injection for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Spatial fuel-air distributions, degree of vaporization, and pressure drop were measured 16.5 cm downstream of the fuel injection plane of a multiple Venturi tube fuel injector. Tests were performed in a 12 cm tubular duct. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 MPa, inlet air temperature from 400 to 800K, air velocities of 10 and 20 m/s, and fuel-air ratios of 0.010 and 0.020. The fuel was Diesel #2. Spatial fuel-air distributions were within + or - 20 percent of the mean at inlet air temperatures above 450K. At an inlet air temperature of 400K, the fuel-air distribution was measured when a 50 percent blockage plate was placed 9.2 cm upstream of the fuel injection plane to distort the inlet air velocity fuel injection plane to distort the inlet air velocity profile. Vaporization of the fuel was 50 percent complete at an inlet air temperature of 400K and the percentage increased linearly with temperature to complete vaporization at 600K. The pressure drop was 3 percent at the design point which was three times greater than the designed value and the single tube experiment value. No autoignition or flashback was observed at the conditions tested.

  2. Fluid flow and fuel-air mixing in a motored two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Stegeman, J.

    1986-01-01

    The implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to obtain numerical solutions to the conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and energy to study the unsteady, multidimensional flow and mixing of fuel and air inside the combustion chambers of a two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine under motored conditions. The effects of the following engine design and operating parameters on fluid flow and fuel-air mixing during the intake and compression cycles were studied: engine speed, angle of gaseous fuel injection during compression cycle, and speed of the fuel leaving fuel injector.

  3. Fluid flow and fuel-air mixing in a motored two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Stegeman, J.

    1986-06-01

    The implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to obtain numerical solutions to the conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and energy to study the unsteady, multidimensional flow and mixing of fuel and air inside the combustion chambers of a two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine under motored conditions. The effects of the following engine design and operating parameters on fluid flow and fuel-air mixing during the intake and compression cycles were studied: engine speed, angle of gaseous fuel injection during compression cycle, and speed of the fuel leaving fuel injector.

  4. Fuel thermal stability effects on spray characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H.; Nickolaus, D.

    1987-01-01

    The propensity of a heated hydrocarbon fuel toward solids deposition within a fuel injector is investigated experimentally. Fuel is arranged to flow through the injector at constant temperature, pressure, and flow rate and the pressure drop across the nozzle is monitored to provide an indication of the amount of deposition. After deposits have formed, the nozzle is removed from the test rig and its spray performance is compared with its performance before deposition. The spray characteristics measured include mean drop size, drop-size distribution, and radial and circumferential fuel distribution. It is found that small amounts of deposition can produce severe distortion of the fuel spray pattern. More extensive deposition restores spray uniformity, but the nozzle flow rate is seriously curtailed.

  5. Fuel properties effect on the performance of a small high temperature rise combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Waldo A.; Beckel, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of an advanced small high temperature rise combustor was experimentally determined at NASA-Lewis. The combustor was designed to meet the requirements of advanced high temperature, high pressure ratio turboshaft engines. The combustor featured an advanced fuel injector and an advanced segmented liner design. The full size combustor was evaluated at power conditions ranging from idle to maximum power. The effect of broad fuel properties was studied by evaluating the combustor with three different fuels. The fuels used were JP-5, a blend of Diesel Fuel Marine/Home Heating Oil, and a blend of Suntec C/Home Heating Oil. The fuel properties effect on the performance of the combustion in terms of pattern factor, liner temperatures, and exhaust emissions are documented.

  6. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Westenskow, G.A.; Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.W.

    2005-10-05

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was used to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment hasmore » possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.« less

  7. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W

    2006-04-13

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was use to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment hasmore » possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.« less

  8. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  9. Broad specification fuels technology program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Jeroszko, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was conducted to assess the impact of the use of broadened properties fuels on combustor design concepts. Emphasis was placed on establishing the viability of design modifications to current combustor concepts and the use of advanced technology concepts to facilitate operation on Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel while meeting exhaust emissions and performance specifications and maintaining acceptable durability. Three different combustor concepts, representative of progressively more aggressive technology levels, were evaluated. When operated on ERBS rather than Jet A fuel, a single stage combustor typical of that in the most recent versions of the JT9D-7 engine was found to produce excess carbon monoxide emissions at idle and elevated liner temperatures at high power levels that were projected to reduced liner life by 13 percent. The introduction of improved component technology, such as refined fuel injectors and advanced liner cooling concepts were shown to have the potential of enhancing the fuel flexibility of the single stage combustor.

  10. Injector Design Tool Improvements: User's manual for FDNS V.4.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Wei, Hong; Liu, Jiwen

    1998-01-01

    The major emphasis of the current effort is in the development and validation of an efficient parallel machine computational model, based on the FDNS code, to analyze the fluid dynamics of a wide variety of liquid jet configurations for general liquid rocket engine injection system applications. This model includes physical models for droplet atomization, breakup/coalescence, evaporation, turbulence mixing and gas-phase combustion. Benchmark validation cases for liquid rocket engine chamber combustion conditions will be performed for model validation purpose. Test cases may include shear coaxial, swirl coaxial and impinging injection systems with combinations LOXIH2 or LOXISP-1 propellant injector elements used in rocket engine designs. As a final goal of this project, a well tested parallel CFD performance methodology together with a user's operation description in a final technical report will be reported at the end of the proposed research effort.

  11. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E

    2005-05-11

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of an injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamletmore » to beamlet space charge interaction. We were able to reach greater than 100 kV/cm in the first four gaps. We also performed experiments on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, these test were carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We have measured the beam's emittance after the beamlets are merged and passed through an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ). Our goal is to confirm the emittance growth and to demonstrate the technical feasibility of building a driver-scale HIF injector.« less

  12. Evaluation of Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel (HRD) Fuel in a Caterpillar Engine Using the 210 Hour TWV Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    TERMS Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel , Reference Diesel Fuel, C7, emissions, power, performance, deposition, ambient, desert, synthetic fuel injector ...the engine run-in, the engine was disassembled to determine injector nozzle tip deposits, and the piston crowns and engine combustion chamber deposits...removed from the test cell and disassembled to determine injector nozzle tip and piston crown and engine combustion chamber deposits. Post- test

  13. Injector element characterization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  15. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  16. Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility projecta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2012-02-01

    The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D+ ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ϕ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D+ beam that passed through the ϕ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16π mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

  17. Design and operation of a medium speed 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine. Phase 2: Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confer, G. L.; Hsu, B. D.; McDowell, R. E.; Gal, E.; Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Mengel, M.

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, General Electric has been pioneering the development of a coal fired diesel engine to power a locomotive. The feasibility of using a coal water slurry (CWS) mixture as a fuel in a medium speed diesel engine has been demonstrated with the first successful locomotive systems test in 1991 on the GE Transportation Systems test track in Erie, PA. Phase 2 of the development process incorporates the results of the programs research in durable engine parts, improved combustion efficiency, and emissions reduction. A GE 7FDL12 engine has been built using diamond insert injector nozzles, tungsten carbide coated piston rings, and tungsten carbide coated liners to overcome power assembly wear. Electronic controlled fuel injection for both diesel pilot and main CWS injector were incorporated to control injection timing. An envelop filter and copper oxide sorbent system were used to cleanup engine emissions. The system is capable of removing over 99% of the particulates, 90% of the SO2, and 85% of NO(x).

  18. Start-to-end simulations for beam dynamics in the injector system of the KHIMA heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yumi; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Chanmi; Bahng, Jungbae; Li, Zhihui; Hahn, Garam

    2017-07-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project has been developed for cancer therapy. The injector system consists of a low energy beam transport (LEBT) line, a radio-frequency quadrupole, a drift tube linac with two tanks, and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line with a charge stripper section. The injector system transports and accelerates the 12C4+ beam that is produced from electron cyclotron resonance ion source up to 7 MeV/u, respectively. The 12C6+ beam, which is transformed by a charge stripper from the 12C4+ beam, is injected into a synchrotron and accelerated up to 430 MeV/u. The lattice for the injector system was designed to optimize the beam parameters and to meet beam requirements for the synchrotron. We performed start-to-end simulations from the LEBT line to the MEBT line to confirm that the required design goals of the beam and injector system were met. Our simulation results indicate that our design achieves the required performance and a good transmission efficiency of 90%. We present the lattice design and beam dynamics for the injector system in the KHIMA project.

  19. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  20. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended tomore » enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to

  1. Analytical and experimental evaluations of the effect of broad property fuels on combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The impacts of broad property fuels on the design, performance, durability, emissions, and operational characteristics of current and advanced combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines were studied. The effect of fuel thermal stability on engine and airframe fuel system was evaluated. Tradeoffs between fuel properties, exhaust emissions, and combustor life were also investigated. Results indicate major impacts of broad property fuels on allowable metal temperatures in fuel manifolds and injector support, combustor cyclic durability, and somewhat lesser impacts on starting characteristics, lightoff, emissions, and smoke.

  2. Lubricity of biobased diesel fuels and additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern diesel engines rely on the fuel itself to lubricate moving parts in the fuel and engine systems. Prior to the late 1990s, diesel fuel from petroleum provided sufficient lubricity to effectively reduce wear in injectors and fuel pumps. Increasingly stringent limitations on the sulfur content o...

  3. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  4. Role of fuel chemical properties on combustor radiative heat load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to rigorously study the fuel chemical property influence on combustor radiative heat load, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) has conducted an experimental program using 25 test fuels. The burner was a 12.7-cm dia cylindrical device fueled by a single pressure-atomizing injector. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by selecting injectors which produced high-atomized, and hence rapidly-vaporizing sprays. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties; hydrogen, 9.1 to 15- (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. They included standard fuels, specialty products and fuel blends. Fuel naphthalene content exhibited the strongest influence on radiation of the chemical properties investigated. Smoke point was a good global indicator of radiation severity.

  5. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    ignition timing, and oxides of nitrogen emissions from biodiesel -fueled engines”. Transactions of the Asabe, 50(4): 1123-1128, 2007. 20. Postrioti...SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0768, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003- 01-0768. 21. Bittle, J., Knight, B., and Jacobs, T., “The Impact of Biodiesel on

  6. Cold Flow Testing for Liquid Propellant Rocket Injector Scaling and Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Hulka, James; Jones, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Scaling and throttling of combustion devices are important capabilities to demonstrate in development of liquid rocket engines for NASA's Space Exploration Mission. Scaling provides the ability to design new injectors and injection elements with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with existing injectors and elements, and could be a key aspect of future development programs. Throttling is the reduction of thrust with fixed designs and is a critical requirement in lunar and other planetary landing missions. A task in the Constellation University Institutes Program (CUIP) has been designed to evaluate spray characteristics when liquid propellant rocket engine injectors are scaled and throttled. The specific objectives of the present study are to characterize injection and primary atomization using cold flow simulations of the reacting sprays. These simulations can provide relevant information because the injection and primary atomization are believed to be the spray processes least affected by the propellant reaction. Cold flow studies also provide acceptable test conditions for a university environment. Three geometric scales - 1/4- scale, 1/2-scale, and full-scale - of two different injector element types - swirl coaxial and shear coaxial - will be designed, fabricated, and tested. A literature review is currently being conducted to revisit and compile the previous scaling documentation. Because it is simple to perform, throttling will also be examined in the present work by measuring primary atomization characteristics as the mass flow rate and pressure drop of the six injector element concepts are reduced, with corresponding changes in chamber backpressure. Simulants will include water and gaseous nitrogen, and an optically accessible chamber will be used for visual and laser-based diagnostics. The chamber will include curtain flow capability to repress recirculation, and additional gas injection to provide independent control of the

  7. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of SSME phase 2 and phase 2+ preburner injector element hydrogen flow paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.

    1992-01-01

    Phase 2+ Space Shuttle Main Engine powerheads, E0209 and E0215 degraded their main combustion chamber (MCC) liners at a faster rate than is normal for phase 2 powerheads. One possible cause of the accelerated degradation was a reduction of coolant flow through the MCC. Hardware changes were made to the preburner fuel leg which may have reduced the resistance and, therefore, pulled some of the hydrogen from the MCC coolant leg. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to determine hydrogen flow path resistances of the phase 2+ fuel preburner injector elements relative to the phase 2 element. FDNS was implemented on axisymmetric grids with the hydrogen assumed to be incompressible. The analysis was performed in two steps: the first isolated the effect of the different inlet areas and the second modeled the entire injector element hydrogen flow path.

  8. A High Peak Current Source for the CEBAF Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yunn, Byung; Sinclair, Charles; Krafft, Geoffrey

    1992-07-01

    The CEBAF accelerator can drive high power IR and UV FELs, if a high peak current source is added to the existing front end. We present a design for a high peak current injector which is compatible with simultaneous operation of the accelerator for cw nulear physics (NP) beam. The high peak current injector provides 60 A peak current in 2 psec long bunches carrying 120 pC charge at 7.485 MHz. At 10 MeV that beam is combined with 5 MeV NP beam (0.13pC, 2 psec long bunches at 1497 MHz) in an energy combination chicane for simultaneous acceleration inmore » the injector linac. The modifications to the low-energy NP transport are described. Results of optical and beam dynamics calculations for both high peak current and NP beams in combined operation are presented.« less

  9. Direct microscopic image and measurement of the atomization process of a port fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmail, Mohamed; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tomita, Eiji; Sumida, Mamoru

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to observe and investigate the phenomena of atomization, i.e. the fuel break-up process very close to the nozzle exit of a practical port fuel injector (PFI). In order to achieve this objective, direct microscopic images of the atomization process were obtained using an ultra-high-speed video camera that could record 102 frames at rates of up to 1 Mfps, coupled with a long-distance microscope and Barlow lens. The experiments were carried out using a PFI in a closed chamber at atmospheric pressure. Time-series images of the spray behaviour were obtained with a high temporal resolution using backlighting. The direct microscopic images of a liquid column break-up were compared with experimental results from laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF), and the wavelength obtained from the experimental results compared with that predicated from the Kelvin-Helmholtz break-up model. The droplet size diameters from a ligament break-up were compared with results predicated from Weber's analysis. Furthermore, experimental results of the mean droplet diameter from a direct microscopic image were compared with the results obtained from phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) experimental results. Three conclusions were obtained from this study. The atomization processes and detailed characterizations of the break-up of a liquid column were identified; the direct microscopic image results were in good agreement with the results obtained from LIEF, experimental results of the wavelength were in good agreement with those from the Kelvin-Helmholtz break-up model. The break-up process of liquid ligaments into droplets was investigated, and Weber's analysis of the predicated droplet diameter from ligament break-up was found to be applicable only at larger wavelengths. Finally, the direct microscopic image method and PDA method give qualitatively similar trends for droplet size distribution and quantitatively similar values of Sauter mean diameter.

  10. High Resolution Numerical Simulations of Primary Atomization in Diesel Sprays with Single Component Reference Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NC. 14. ABSTRACT A high-resolution numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at diesel engine... diesel fuel injector at diesel engine type conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in diesel fuel... diesel liquid sprays the complexity is further compounded by the physical attributes present including nozzle turbulence, large density ratios

  11. Fuel system design concepts for broad property fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study assessing the impact of using jet fuel with relaxed specification properties on an aircraft fuel system are given. The study objectives were to identify credible values for specific fuel properties which might be relaxed, to evolve advanced fuel system designs for airframe and engines which would permit use of the specified relaxed properties fuels, and to evaluate performance of the candidate advanced fuel systems and the relaxed property fuels in a typical transport aircraft. The study used, as a baseline, the fuel system incorporated in the Lockheed Tristar. This aircraft is powered by three RB.211-524 Rolls-Royce engines and incorporates a Pratt and Whitney ST6C-421 auxiliary power unit for engine starting and inflight emergency electrical power. The fuel property limits examined are compared with commercial Jet A kerosene and the NASA RFP fuel properties. A screening of these properties established that a higher freezing point and a lower thermal stability would impact fuel system design more significantly than any of the other property changes. Three candidate fuel systems which combine the ability to operate with fuels having both a high freeze point and a low thermal stability are described. All candidates employ bleed air to melt fuel freeze-out prior to starting the APU or an inoperable engine. The effects of incorporating these systems on aircraft weight and engine specific fuel consumption are given.

  12. Recent developments in BWR fuel design

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Congdon, S.P.; Noble, L.D.; Wood, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and performance capability of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel designs have been implemented in the past 5 to 7 yr. This increase has been driven by (a) utility desires to lower fuel and operating costs and (b) design innovations that have lowered enrichment requirements, improved thermal-hydraulic performance, and increased discharge exposure. Higher discharge exposures reduce disposal costs for European and Asian utilities and enable US utilities to lengthen operating cycles. A typical BWR reload fuel bundle fabricated today has 25% higher {sup 235}U enrichment and a factor of 2 higher gadolinium loading than onemore » made several years ago. Today's BWR fuel bundles also contain more unheated water reduces the axial water density variation, lowers the void coefficient, and enhances the neutron efficiency of the bundle, reducing both the gadolinium poison and the enrichment requirements. In addition to these general trends, the following unique design innovations have further enhanced the fuel cost efficiency and performance characteristics of BWR fuel: ferrule spacer, part length rods, interactive channel, and bundle enhanced spectral shift. GE's fuel designs offer the flexibility for modern BWR fuel requirements and contain unique design features that enhance flexibility for modern BWR fuel requirements and contain unique design features that enhance flexibility and fuel cycle economics.« less

  13. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  14. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    product used as a diesel product for ground use (1). Free water contamination (droplets) may appear as fine droplets or slugs of water in the fuel...methods and test procedures for the calibration and use of automatic particle counters. The transition of this technology to the fuel industry is...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18

  15. Modular injector integrated linear apparatus with motion profile optimization for spatial atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Yun; Lin, Jilong; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality. Such residual vibration caused by inertial impact will aggravate the fluctuation of the gap distance between the injector and the substrate in the deposition process. Thus, an S-curve motion profile is implemented to reduce the large inertial impact, and the maximum position error could be reduced by 84%. The microstructure of the film under the S-curve motion profile shows smaller root-mean-square and scanning voltage amplitude under an atomic force microscope, which verifies the effectiveness of the S-curve motion profile in reducing the residual vibration and stabilizing the gap distance between the injector and the substrate. The film deposition rate could reach 100 nm/min while maintaining good uniformity without obvious periodic patterns on the surface.

  16. Modular injector integrated linear apparatus with motion profile optimization for spatial atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Yun; Lin, Jilong; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality. Such residual vibration caused by inertial impact will aggravate the fluctuation of the gap distance between the injector and the substrate in the deposition process. Thus, an S-curve motion profile is implemented to reduce the large inertial impact, and the maximum position error could be reduced by 84%. The microstructure of the film under the S-curve motion profile shows smaller root-mean-square and scanning voltage amplitude under an atomic force microscope, which verifies the effectiveness of the S-curve motion profile in reducing the residual vibration and stabilizing the gap distance between the injector and the substrate. The film deposition rate could reach 100 nm/min while maintaining good uniformity without obvious periodic patterns on the surface.

  17. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein themore » fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.« less

  18. Autoignition in a premixing-prevaporizing fuel duct using 3 different fuel injection systems at inlet air temperatures to 1250 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions were determined in a continuous-flow, premixing-prevaporizing duct at which autoignition occurred. Test conditions were representative of an advanced, regenerative-cycle, automotive gas turbine. The test conditions inlet air temperatures from 600 to 1250 K (a vitiated preheater was used), pressures from 170 to 600 kPa, air velocities of 10 to 30 m/sec, equivalence ratios from 0.3 to 1.0, mixing lengths from 10 to 60 cm, and residence times of 2 to 100 ms. The fuel was diesel number 2. The duct was insulated and had an inside diameter of 12 cm. Three different fuel injection systems were used: One was a single simplex pressure atomizer, and the other two were multiple-source injectors. The data obtained with the simplex and one of the multiple-source injectors agreed satisfactorily with the references and correlated with an Arrenhius expression. The data obtained with the other multiple source injector, which used multiple cones to improve the fuel-air distribution, did not correlate well with residence time.

  19. Experimental study on the effect of nozzle hole-to-hole angle on the near-field spray of diesel injector using fast X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Xusheng; Moon, Seoksu; Gao, Jian

    Fuel atomization and vaporization process play a critical role in determining the engine combustion and emission. The primary near-nozzle breakup is the vital link between the fuel emerging from the nozzle and the fully atomized spray. In this study, the near-nozzle spray characteristics of diesel injector with different umbrella angle (UA) were investigated using high-speed X-ray phase-contrast imaging and quantitative image processing. A classic ‘dumbbell’ profile of spray width (SW) composed of three stages: opening stage, semisteady stage and closing stage. The SW peak of two-hole injectors was more than twice of that of single-hole injector at the opening andmore » closing stages, corresponding to the hollow-cone spray. This indicated the vortex flow was formed with the increase of the UA. The higher injection pressure had little influence on the SW while led to earlier breakup closer to the nozzle. Significant fuel effect on the SW at higher needle lift was found. However, this effect could be neglect at lower needle lift due to the leading role of internal flow and cavitation on the near-field spray characteristics. In addition, the morphology-based breakup process was observed, which highlighted the important effect of internal flow on the spray development. The possibility of using hollow-cone spray in diesel injector was also discussed.« less

  20. Multi-injector modeling of transverse combustion instability experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Kevin J.

    Concurrent simulations and experiments are used to study combustion instabilities in a multiple injector element combustion chamber. The experiments employ a linear array of seven coaxial injector elements positioned atop a rectangular chamber. Different levels of instability are driven in the combustor by varying the operating and geometry parameters of the outer driving injector elements located near the chamber end-walls. The objectives of the study are to apply a reduced three-injector model to generate a computational test bed for the evaluation of injector response to transverse instability, to apply a full seven-injector model to investigate the inter-element coupling between injectors in response to transverse instability, and to further develop this integrated approach as a key element in a predictive methodology that relies heavily on subscale test and simulation. To measure the effects of the transverse wave on a central study injector element two opposing windows are placed in the chamber to allow optical access. The chamber is extensively instrumented with high-frequency pressure transducers. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to model the experiment. Specifically three-dimensional, detached eddy simulations (DES) are used. Two computational approaches are investigated. The first approach models the combustor with three center injectors and forces transverse waves in the chamber with a wall velocity function at the chamber side walls. Different levels of pressure oscillation amplitudes are possible by varying the amplitude of the forcing function. The purpose of this method is to focus on the combustion response of the study element. In the second approach, all seven injectors are modeled and self-excited combustion instability is achieved. This realistic model of the chamber allows the study of inter-element flow dynamics, e.g., how the resonant motions in the injector tubes are coupled through the transverse pressure

  1. A Nonlinear Model for Fuel Atomization in Spray Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor); Ibrahim, Essam A.; Sree, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Most gas turbine combustion codes rely on ad-hoc statistical assumptions regarding the outcome of fuel atomization processes. The modeling effort proposed in this project is aimed at developing a realistic model to produce accurate predictions of fuel atomization parameters. The model involves application of the nonlinear stability theory to analyze the instability and subsequent disintegration of the liquid fuel sheet that is produced by fuel injection nozzles in gas turbine combustors. The fuel sheet is atomized into a multiplicity of small drops of large surface area to volume ratio to enhance the evaporation rate and combustion performance. The proposed model will effect predictions of fuel sheet atomization parameters such as drop size, velocity, and orientation as well as sheet penetration depth, breakup time and thickness. These parameters are essential for combustion simulation codes to perform a controlled and optimized design of gas turbine fuel injectors. Optimizing fuel injection processes is crucial to improving combustion efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and pollutants emissions.

  2. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  3. Performance of fuel system at different diesel temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolu; Sun, Zai

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the findings about performance of the fuel system of a diesel engine at different diesel temperature obtained through simulation and experiment. It can be seen from these findings that at the same rotational speed of fuel pump, the initial pressure in the fuel pipe remain unchanged as the fuel temperature increases, the peak pressure at the side of fuel pipe near the injector delays, and its largest value of pressure decreases. Meanwhile, at the same temperature, as the rotational speed increases, the initial pressure of fuel pipe is also essentially the same, the arrival of its peaks delays, and its largest value of pressure increases. The maximum fuel pressure at the side of fuel pipe near the injector has an increase of 28.9 %, 22.3%, and 13.9% respectively than the previous ones according to its conditions. At the same rotational speed, as the temperature increases, the injection quantity through the nozzle orifice decreases. At the same temperature, as the rotational speed increases, the injection quantity through the nozzle orifice increases. These experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

  4. Laser-driven injector of electrons for IOTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Aleksandr

    2017-03-01

    Fermilab is developing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring for experiments on nonlinear integrable optics. The machine will operate with either electron beams of 150 MeV or proton beams of 2.5 MeV energies, respectively. The stability of integrable optics depends critically on the precision of the magnetic lattice, which demands the use of beam-based lattice measurements for optics correction. In the proton mode, the low-energy proton beam does not represent a good probe for this application; hence we consider the use of a low-intensity reverse-injected electron beam of matched momentum (70 MeV). Such an injector could be implemented with the use of laser-driven acceleration techniques. This report presents the consideration for a laser-plasma injector for IOTA and discusses the requirements determined by the ring design.

  5. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William A; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-01

    A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle reduced the output irregularity further to 13%, with an air supply of 50 slpm as the minimum air supply to drive this injector. After commissioning of this final system to the FBG reactor, the injection nozzle was found to plug with char however, and was subsequently removed from the system. Final operation of the reactor continues satisfactorily with the two screw conveyors operating at matching pressure with the fluidized bed, with the output rate of the system estimated based on system characteristic equations, and confirmed by static weight measurements made before

  6. Raman Spectroscopy for Instantaneous Multipoint, Multispecies Gas Concentration and Temperature Measurements in Rocket Engine Propellant Injector Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Trinh, Huu Phuoc

    2001-01-01

    Propellant injector development at MSFC includes experimental analysis using optical techniques, such as Raman, fluorescence, or Mie scattering. For the application of spontaneous Raman scattering to hydrocarbon-fueled flows a technique needs to be developed to remove the interfering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence from the relatively weak Raman signals. A current application of such a technique is to the analysis of the mixing and combustion performance of multijet, impinging-jet candidate fuel injectors for the baseline Mars ascent engine, which will burn methane and liquid oxygen produced in-situ on Mars to reduce the propellant mass transported to Mars for future manned Mars missions. The present technique takes advantage of the strongly polarized nature of Raman scattering. It is shown to be discernable from unpolarized fluorescence interference by subtracting one polarized image from another. Both of these polarized images are obtained from a single laser pulse by using a polarization-separating calcite rhomb mounted in the imaging spectrograph. A demonstration in a propane-air flame is presented.

  7. Flow Distribution Around the SSME Main Injector Assembly Using Porosity Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    1995-01-01

    Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Liquid Oxidizer (LOX) flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn- around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. 2-D numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows both through tube banks and around the shielded posts over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficient as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts, LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

  8. Flow Distribution Around the SSME Main Injector Assembly Using Porosity Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    1995-01-01

    Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Liquid Oxidizer (LOX) flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. 2-D numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows both through tube banks and around the shielded posts over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficient as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts, LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

  9. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  10. Noncircular orifice holes and advanced fabrication techniques for liquid rocket injectors. Phase 3: Analytical and cold-flow experimental evaluation of rectangular concentric tube injector elements for gas/liquid application. Phase 4: Analytical and experimental evaluation of noncircular injector elements for gas/liquid and liquid/liquid application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchale, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a cold-flow and hot-fire experimental study of the mixing and atomization characteristics of injector elements incorporating noncircular orifices. Both liquid/liquid and gas/liquid element types are discussed. Unlike doublet and triplet elements (circular orifices only) were investigated for the liquid/liquid case while concentric tube elements were investigated for the gas/liquid case. It is concluded that noncircular shape can be employed to significant advantage in injector design for liquid rocket engines.

  11. Conceptual design of the DEMO neutral beam injectors: main developments and R&D achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Cismondi, F.; Fantz, U.; Fassina, A.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Hopf, C.; Jenkins, I.; Sartori, E.; Tran, M. Q.; Varje, J.; Vincenzi, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of the nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, to be built after the ITER experimental reactor, are usually understood to lie somewhere between those of ITER and a ‘first of a kind’ commercial plant. Hence, in DEMO the issues related to efficiency and RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) are among the most important drivers for the design, as the cost of the electricity produced by this power plant will strongly depend on these aspects. In the framework of the EUROfusion Work Package Heating and Current Drive within the Power Plant Physics and Development activities, a conceptual design of the neutral beam injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor has been developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. In order to improve efficiency and RAMI aspects, several innovative solutions have been introduced in comparison to the ITER NBI, mainly regarding the beam source, neutralizer and vacuum pumping systems.

  12. Diagnostics and Identification of Injection Duration of Common Rail Diesel Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogerus, Tomi R.; Huhtala, Kalevi J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the diagnostics and identification of injection duration of common rail (CR) diesel pilot injectors of dual-fuel engines. In these pilot injectors, the injected volume is small and the repeatability of the injections and identification of the drifts of the injectors are important factors, which need to be taken into account in achieving good repeatability (shot-to-shot with every cylinder) and therefore a well-balanced engine and reduced overall wear. A diagnostics method based on analysis of CR pressure signal with experimental verification results is presented. Using the developed method, the relative duration of injection events can be identified. In the method, the pressure signal during the injection is first extracted after the control of each injection event. After that, the signal is normalized and filtered. Then a derivative of the filtered signal is calculated. Change in the derivative of the filtered signal larger than a predefined threshold indicates an injection event which can be detected and its relative duration can be identified. The efficacy of the proposed diagnostics method is presented with the experimental results, which show that the developed method detects drifts in injection duration and the magnitude of drift. According to the result, ≥ 10 μs change (2%, 500 μs) in injection time can be identified.

  13. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  14. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  15. Effect of Axially Staged Fuel Introduction on Performance of One-quarter Sector of Annular Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zettle, Eugene V; Mark, Herman

    1953-01-01

    The design principle of injecting liquid fuel at more than one axial station in an annual turbojet combustor was investigated. Fuel was injected into the combustor as much as 5 inches downstream of the primary fuel injectors. Many fuel-injection configurations were examined and the performance results are presented for 11 configurations that best demonstrate the trends in performance obtained. The performance investigations were made at a constant combustor-inlet pressure of 15 inches of mercury absolute and at air flows up to 70 percent higher than values typical of current design practice. At these higher air flows, staging the fuel introduction improved the combustion efficiency considerably over that obtained in the combustor when no fuel staging was employed. At air flows currently encountered in turbojet engines, fuel staging was of minor value. Radial temperature distribution seemed relatively unaffected by the location of fuel-injection stations.

  16. A new biolistic intradermal injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

  17. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, T. L.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Vanecek, D. L.; Westenskow, G. A.; Yu, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    We are constructing a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5″-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150 ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 π-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4 kA, 3 MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepperpot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  18. Space transportation booster engine thrust chamber technology, large scale injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Large Scale Injector (LSI) program was to deliver a 21 inch diameter, 600,000 lbf thrust class injector to NASA/MSFC for hot fire testing. The hot fire test program would demonstrate the feasibility and integrity of the full scale injector, including combustion stability, chamber wall compatibility (thermal management), and injector performance. The 21 inch diameter injector was delivered in September of 1991.

  19. Fuel cell design and assembly

    DOEpatents

    Myerhoff, Alfred

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

  20. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a) Water... water to the boiler, at least one of which is a live steam injector. (b) Maintenance and testing... delivering water to the boiler. Boiler checks, delivery pipes, feed water pipes, tank hose and tank valves...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The...

  6. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  7. Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Scramjets. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Diskin, Glenn S.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2006-01-01

    At flight speeds, the residence time for atmospheric air ingested into a scramjet inlet and exiting from the engine nozzle is on the order of a millisecond. Therefore, fuel injected into the air must efficiently mix within tens of microseconds and react to release its energy in the combustor. The overall combustion process should be mixing controlled to provide a stable operating environment; in reality, however, combustion in the upstream portion of the combustor, particularly at higher Mach numbers, is kinetically controlled where ignition delay times are on the same order as the fluid scale. Both mixing and combustion time scales must be considered in a detailed study of mixing and reaction in a scramjet to understand the flow processes and to ultimately achieve a successful design. Although the geometric configuration of a scramjet is relatively simple compared to a turbomachinery design, the flow physics associated with the simultaneous injection of fuel from multiple injector configurations, and the mixing and combustion of that fuel downstream of the injectors is still quite complex. For this reason, many researchers have considered the more tractable problem of a spatially developing, primarily supersonic, chemically reacting mixing layer or jet that relaxes only the complexities introduced by engine geometry. All of the difficulties introduced by the fluid mechanics, combustion chemistry, and interactions between these phenomena can be retained in the reacting mixing layer, making it an ideal problem for the detailed study of supersonic reacting flow in a scramjet. With a good understanding of the physics of the scramjet internal flowfield, the designer can then return to the actual scramjet geometry with this knowledge and apply engineering design tools that more properly account for the complex physics. This approach will guide the discussion in the remainder of this section.

  8. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is...

  11. Micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    1999-11-09

    A micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules. The injector is used for collecting and delivering controlled amounts of charged molecule samples for subsequent analysis. The injector delivery system can be scaled to large numbers (>96) for sample delivery to massively parallel high throughput analysis systems. The essence of the injector system is an electric field controllable loading tip including a section of porous material. By applying the appropriate polarity bias potential to the injector tip, charged molecules will migrate into porous material, and by reversing the polarity bias potential the molecules are ejected or forced away from the tip. The invention has application for uptake of charged biological molecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, polymers, etc.) for delivery to analytical systems, and can be used in automated sample delivery systems.

  12. Mixing enhancement of reacting parallel fuel jets in a supersonic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pursuant to a NASA-Langley development program for a scramjet HST propulsion system entailing the optimization of the scramjet combustor's fuel-air mixing and reaction characteristics, a numerical study has been conducted of the candidate parallel fuel injectors. Attention is given to a method for flow mixing-process and combustion-efficiency enhancement in which a supersonic circular hydrogen jet coflows with a supersonic air stream. When enhanced by a planar oblique shock, the injector configuration exhibited a substantial degree of induced vorticity in the fuel stream which increased mixing and chemical reaction rates, relative to the unshocked configuration. The resulting heat release was effective in breaking down the stable hydrogen vortex pair that had inhibited more extensive fuel-air mixing.

  13. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a...

  15. Installation and first operation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector at the Rokkasho site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Raphael; Bogard, Daniel; Bolzon, Benoit; Bourdelle, Gilles; Chauvin, Nicolas; Chel, Stéphane; Girardot, Patrick; Gomes, Adelino; Guiho, Patrice; Harrault, Francis; Loiseau, Denis; Lussignol, Yves; Misiara, Nicolas; Roger, Arnaud; Senée, Franck; Valette, Matthieu; Cara, Philippe; Duglué, Daniel; Gex, Dominique; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Marcos Ayala, Juan; Knaster, Juan; Marqueta, Alvaro; Kasugai, Atsushi; O'Hira, Shigeru; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) linear IFMIF prototype accelerator injector dedicated to high intensity deuteron beam production has been designed, built, and tested at CEA/Saclay between 2008 and 2012. After the completion of the acceptance tests at Saclay, the injector has been fully sent to Japan. The re-assembly of the injector has been performed between March and May 2014. Then after the check-out phase, the production of the first proton beam occurred in November 2014. Hydrogen and deuteron beam commissioning is now in progress after having proceeded with the final tests on the entire injector equipment including high power diagnostics. This article reports the different phases of the injector installation pointing out the safety and security needs, as well as the first beam production results in Japan and chopper tests. Detailed operation and commissioning results (with H+ and D+ 100 keV beams) are reported in a second article.

  16. DIFMOS - A floating-gate electrically erasable nonvolatile semiconductor memory technology. [Dual Injector Floating-gate MOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosney, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Electrically alterable read-only memories (EAROM's) or reprogrammable read-only memories (RPROM's) can be fabricated using a single-level metal-gate p-channel MOS technology with all conventional processing steps. Given the acronym DIFMOS for dual-injector floating-gate MOS, this technology utilizes the floating-gate technique for nonvolatile storage of data. Avalanche injection of hot electrons through gate oxide from a special injector diode in each bit is used to charge the floating gates. A second injector structure included in each bit permits discharge of the floating gate by avalanche injection of holes through gate oxide. The overall design of the DIFMOS bit is dictated by the physical considerations required for each of the avalanche injector types. The end result is a circuit technology which can provide fully decoded bit-erasable EAROM-type circuits using conventional manufacturing techniques.

  17. Twenty barrel in situ pipe gun type solid hydrogen pellet injector for the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Motojima, Gen; Hayashi, Hiromi; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Ogawa, Hideki; Takami, Shigeyuki; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    A 20 barrel solid hydrogen pellet injector, which is able to inject 20 cylindrical pellets with a diameter and length of between 3.0 and 3.8 mm at the velocity of 1200 m/s, has been developed for the purpose of direct core fueling in LHD (Large Helical Device). The in situ pipe gun concept with the use of compact cryo-coolers enables stable operation as a fundamental facility in plasma experiments. The combination of the two types of pellet injection timing control modes, i.e., pre-programing mode and real-time control mode, allows the build-up and sustainment of high density plasma around the density limit. The pellet injector has demonstrated stable operation characteristics during the past three years of LHD experiments.

  18. Dual nozzle single pump fuel injection system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes an improvement in a fuel injection system in a stratified charge hybrid internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, a precombustion chamber connected with the main chamber, fuel injectors in the main combustion chamber and precombustion chamber which open at higher and lower pressure levels respectively to sequentially inject fuel into the prechamber and the main chamber, timed spark ignition means in the prechamber for ignition of the fuel-air mixture therein, and an engine driven and timed fuel injection pump having a variable output capacity that varies with power level position, the injection pump is suppliedmore » by a low pressure charging pump. The improvement comprises: a shuttle valve including a bore therein; a shuttle spool means positioned within the bore defining a prechamber supply chamber on one side thereof and a spool activation chamber on the opposite side thereof the spool means having a first and second position; biasing means urging the spool towards it first position with the spool actuation chamber at its minimum volume; first conduit means connecting charging pressure to the prechamber supply camber in the first position oil the spool means; second conduit means connecting the injection pump to spool actuation chamber; third conduit means connecting the spool actuating chamber with the main injector; forth conduit means connecting the prechamber supply chamber with the prechamber injector; the initial charge from the injection pump actuates the spool means from its fir to its second position.« less

  19. Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Robust approaches for joining silicon carbide (SiC) to silicon carbide sub-elements have been developed for a micro-electro-mechanical systems lean direct injector (MEMS LDI) application. The objective is to join SiC sub-elements to form a leak-free injector that has complex internal passages for the flow and mixing of fuel and air. Previous bonding technology relied upon silicate glass interlayers that were not uniform or leak free. In a newly developed joining approach, titanium foils and physically vapor deposited titanium coatings were used to form diffusion bonds between SiC materials during hot pressing. Microscopy results show the formation of well adhered diffusion bonds. Initial tests show that the bond strength is much higher than required for the component system. Benefits of the joining technology are fabrication of leak free joints with high temperature and mechanical capability.

  20. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  1. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

  2. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coil, Millicent

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  3. Transient response of a liquid injector to a steep-fronted transverse pressure wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D.; Heister, S.; Stechmann, D.; Kan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the dynamic injection environment posed by unsteady pressure gain combustion processes, an experimental apparatus was developed to visualize the dynamic response of a transparent liquid injector subjected to a single steep-fronted transverse pressure wave. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with a variety of acrylic injector passage designs using water as the working fluid. High-speed visual observations were made of the injector exit near field, and the extent of backflow and the time to refill the orifice passage were characterized over a range of injection pressures. A companion transient one-dimensional model was developed for interpretation of the results and to elucidate the trends with regard to the strength of the transverse pressure wave. Results from the model were compared with the experimental observations.

  4. Transient response of a liquid injector to a steep-fronted transverse pressure wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D.; Heister, S.; Stechmann, D.; Kan, B.

    2018-07-01

    Motivated by the dynamic injection environment posed by unsteady pressure gain combustion processes, an experimental apparatus was developed to visualize the dynamic response of a transparent liquid injector subjected to a single steep-fronted transverse pressure wave. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with a variety of acrylic injector passage designs using water as the working fluid. High-speed visual observations were made of the injector exit near field, and the extent of backflow and the time to refill the orifice passage were characterized over a range of injection pressures. A companion transient one-dimensional model was developed for interpretation of the results and to elucidate the trends with regard to the strength of the transverse pressure wave. Results from the model were compared with the experimental observations.

  5. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.

    2004-06-01

    The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

  6. Mixing enhancement in a scramjet combustor using fuel jet injection swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesberg, Sonja M.

    swirling jets would produce increased mixing and to study how the distance between the two fuel injector exits would affect mixing. Three swirl patterns were investigated: 1) the first swirl pattern as viewed by an observer looking downstream had the right fuel annular jet swirling counter clockwise and the left fuel annular jet swirling clockwise, 2) the second swirl pattern as viewed by an observer looking downstream had the right fuel jet swirling clockwise and the left fuel jet swirling counter clockwise, 3) the third swirl pattern as viewed by an observer looking downstream had both the right and left fuel jet swirling in the same clockwise direction. Each one of the swirl patterns were simulated with the distances between the center points of the fuel jets modelled 3, 4, and 5 times the fuel injector radius. The swirl pattern that produced the greatest increase in burning efficiency differed according to the fuel injector spacing. The maximum increase in burning efficiency compared to the corresponding non-swirling two jet baseline case was 24.6% and was produced by the first swirl pattern with the distance between the center points of the fuel jets being 5 times the fuel injector radius. The burning efficiency for the single jet non-swirling baseline case and the first swirl pattern with the distance between the center points of the fuel jets being 5 times the fuel injector radius was 0.70 and 0.90 respectively indicating a 29% increase due to dual fuel injection swirl.

  7. Injector-concentrator electrodes for microchannel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2003-05-06

    An input port geometry, with injector-concentrator electrodes, for planar microchannel array for electrophoresis. This input port geometry enables efficient extraction and injection of the DNA sample from a single input port. The geometry, which utilizes injector-concentrator electrodes, allows simultaneous concentration, in different channels, of the sample into a longitudinally narrow strip just before releasing it for a run with enhanced injection spatial resolution, and time resolution. Optional multiple electrodes, at a different bias than the concentrator electrodes, may be used to discriminate against sample impurity ions. Electrode passivation can be utilized to prevent electrolysis. An additional electrode in or on the input hole can better define the initial loading. The injector-concentrator electrodes are positioned so that they cross the drift channel in a narrow strip at the bond plane between the top and bottom plates of the instrument and are located close to the inlet hole. The optional sample purification electrodes are located at a greater distance from the input hole than the injector-concentrate electrodes.

  8. Experimental Study on Relationship between NOx Emission and Fuel Consumption of a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Liu, Chunjiang; Feng, Zhiqiang; Xia, Yijiang

    2018-01-01

    For YC6112 diesel engine assembled Delphl model single fuel pump electric controlled, in the premise of not changing its overall unit structure parameters of other systems, three different types of camshaft for single pumps, two kinds of fuel injectors, two types of superchargers and some phase shifting angle of different camshafts were chosen to match with the engine precisely, the experiments under thirteen kinds of working conditions for the engine with different matching were carried out, the change regulation between NOX emission and fuel consumption for the engine with different kinds of configurations was analyzed. The experiment results show the NOX emission and fuel consumption can be reduced greatly by configuring proper camshaft, fuel injectors and superchargers with YC6112 diesel engine.

  9. Design of Training Systems. Computerization of the Educational Technology Assessment Model (ETAM). Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    444 EN 2 31043 TEST UNIT INJECTORS AND/OR FUEL INJECTION NOZZLES 445 EN 2 31044 MAINTENANCE OF FUEL OIL INJECTORS 446 EN 2 31049 PREVENTION OF...OPERATIONAL MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINES OPERATE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES JACKING GEAR ON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES CARRYOUT TURNING OVER OF MAIN...ENGINES ALIGN LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM USE OF STANDBY LUBRICATING OIL PUMPS PURGE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM ENTRIES TO MAIN PROPULSION

  10. Numerical investigation of a laser gun injector at CEBAF

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Byung Yunn; Charles Sinclair; David Neuffer

    1993-08-23

    A laser gun injector is being developed based on the superconducting rf technologies established at CEBAF. This injector will serve as a high charge cw source for a high power free electron laser. It consists of a dc laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. Its space-charge-dominated performance has been thoroughly investigated using the time-consuming but more appropriate point-by-point space charge calculation method in PARMELA. The notion of ``conditioning for final bunching'' will be introduced. This concept has been built into the code and has greatly facilitated the optimization of the whole system to achieve the highest possiblemore » peak current while maintaining low emittance and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies have shown that the design will perform better than the specifications.« less

  11. Transverse Injection into Subsonic Crossflow with Various Injector Orifice Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lancert E.; Zaman, Khairul B.

    2010-01-01

    Computational and experimental results are presented for a case study of single injectors employed in 90 deg transverse injection into a non-reacting subsonic flow. Different injector orifice shapes are used (including circular, square, diamond-shaped, and wide rectangular slot), all with constant cross-sectional area, to observe the effects of this variation on injector penetration and mixing. Whereas the circle, square, and diamond injector produce similar jet plumes, the wide rectangular slot produces a plume with less vertical penetration than the others. There is also some evidence that the diamond injector produces slightly faster penetration with less mixing of the injected fluid. In addition, a variety of rectangular injectors were analyzed, with varying length/width ratios. Both experimental and computational data show improved plume penetration with increased streamwise orifice length. 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) results are obtained for the various injector geometries using NCC (National Combustion Code) with the kappa-epsilon turbulence model in multi-species modes on an unstructured grid. Grid sensitivity results are also presented which indicate consistent qualitative trends in the injector performance comparisons with increasing grid refinement.

  12. Thermal investigation of an internally cooled strut injector for scramjet application at moderate and hot gas conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dröske, Nils C.; Förster, Felix J.; Weigand, Bernhard; von Wolfersdorf, Jens

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a combined experimental and numerical approach to assess the thermal loads and the cooling mechanism of an internally cooled strut injector for a supersonic combustion ramjet. Infrared measurements of the injector surface are conducted at a moderate external flow temperature. In addition, the main flow field is investigated with the LITA technique. Main features of the cooling mechanism are identified based on experimental data. However, a full evaluation can only be obtained using a complex, conjugate CFD simulation, which couples the external and internal flow fields to the heat conduction inside the injector body. Furthermore, numerical simulations are also presented for hot gas conditions corresponding to combustion experiments. Both hydrogen, which would be used as fuel for flight tests, and air are considered as coolants. While the main features of the cooling mechanism will be shown to remain unchanged, the combustor wall temperature is found to have a significant influence on the cooling. This emphasizes the importance and the usefulness of such complex conjugate numerical simulations.

  13. Accelerator structure and beam transport system for the KEK photon factory injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Isamu

    1980-11-01

    The injector is a 2.5 GeV electron linac which serves multiple purposes, being not only the injector for the various storage rings of the Photon Factory but also for the next planned project, the TRISTAN RING, and also as an intense electron or γ-ray source for research on phenomena in widely diverse scientific fields. The accelerator structure and beam transport system for the linac were designed with the greatest care in order to avoid beam blow-up difficulties, and also to be as suitable as possible to enable the economical mass production of the accelerator guides and focusing magnets.

  14. Conceptual design of the beam source for the DEMO Neutral Beam Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Simonin, A.; Tran, M. Q.

    2016-12-01

    DEMO (DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant) is a proposed nuclear fusion power plant that is intended to follow the ITER experimental reactor. The main goal of DEMO will be to demonstrate the possibility to produce electric energy from the fusion reaction. The injection of high energy neutral beams is one of the main tools to heat the plasma up to fusion conditions. A conceptual design of the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor, is currently being developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. High efficiency and low recirculating power, which are fundamental requirements for the success of DEMO, have been taken into special consideration for the DEMO NBI. Moreover, particular attention has been paid to the issues related to reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability. A conceptual design of the beam source for the DEMO NBI is here presented featuring 20 sub-sources (two adjacent columns of 10 sub-sources each), following a modular design concept, with each sub-source featuring its radio frequency driver, capable of increasing the reliability and availability of the DEMO NBI. Copper grids with increasing size of the apertures have been adopted in the accelerator, with three main layouts of the apertures (circular apertures, slotted apertures and frame-like apertures for each sub-source). This design, permitting to significantly decrease the stripping losses in the accelerator without spoiling the beam optics, has been investigated with a self-consistent model able to study at the same time the magnetic field, the electrostatic field and the trajectory of the negative ions. Moreover, the status on the R&D carried out in Europe on the ion sources is presented.

  15. Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-05

    Particle Counter Methodology • Particle counts are taken utilizing calibration methodologies and standardized cleanliness code ratings – ISO 11171 – ISO...Limits Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18/16/13 14/10/7 Pamas / Parker / Particle Solutions 19/17...12 U.S. DOD 19/17/14/13* Diesel Fuel World Wide Fuel Charter 5th 18/16/13 DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Caterpillar 18/16/13 Detroit Diesel 18/16/13 MTU

  16. Development of probabilistic design method for annular fuels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ozawa, Takayuki

    2007-07-01

    The increase of linear power and burn-up during the reactor operation is considered as one measure to ensure the utility of fast reactors in the future; for this the application of annular oxide fuels is under consideration. The annular fuel design code CEPTAR was developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and verified by using many irradiation experiences with oxide fuels. In addition, the probabilistic fuel design code BORNFREE was also developed to provide a safe and reasonable fuel design and to evaluate the design margins quantitatively. This study aimed at the development of a probabilistic design method formore » annular oxide fuels; this was implemented in the developed BORNFREE-CEPTAR code, and the code was used to make a probabilistic evaluation with regard to the permissive linear power. (author)« less

  17. Engine Hydraulic Stability. [injector model for analyzing combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesselring, R. C.; Sprouse, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical injector model was developed specifically to analyze combustion instability coupling between the injector hydraulics and the combustion process. This digital computer dynamic injector model will, for any imposed chamber of inlet pressure profile with a frequency ranging from 100 to 3000 Hz (minimum) accurately predict/calculate the instantaneous injector flowrates. The injector system is described in terms of which flow segments enter and leave each pressure node. For each flow segment, a resistance, line lengths, and areas are required as inputs (the line lengths and areas are used in determining inertance). For each pressure node, volume and acoustic velocity are required as inputs (volume and acoustic velocity determine capacitance). The geometric criteria for determining inertances of flow segments and capacitance of pressure nodes was set. Also, a technique was developed for analytically determining time averaged steady-state pressure drops and flowrates for every flow segment in an injector when such data is not known. These pressure drops and flowrates are then used in determining the linearized flow resistance for each line segment of flow.

  18. ELM Triggering with the New PPPL Lithium Granular Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Maingi, R.; Hu, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zou, G.

    2012-10-01

    A Li granular injector based on a high-speed rotating impeller has been developed at PPPL. The injector is capable of injecting spherical particles with diameters up to 1.3 mm and velocities of up to 100 m/s and has several possible applications. Primarily, the injector was developed as a tool to induce ELMs for ELM pacing experiments in plasmas operating in the H-mode. It can also operate as a real-time wall conditioning tool or as a method to resupply Li during a discharge to devices where Li is applied to the PFC's prior to a discharge. The injector is also capable of horizontally injecting small dust particles of any variety for plasma-dust transport studies. The first injector has recently been successfully installed on the EAST tokamak in Hefei, China where ELMs were induced with near 100% efficiency when 0.7mm spheres were injected at ˜ 40m/s into the midplane SOL. The injector will be described and supporting data for ELM triggering will be presented.

  19. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  20. Injector Beam Dynamics for a High-Repetition Rate 4th-Generation Light Source

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Papadopoulos, C. F.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.

    2013-05-20

    We report on the beam dynamics studies and optimization methods for a high repetition rate (1 MHz) photoinjector based on a VHF normal conducting electron source. The simultaneous goals of beamcompression and reservation of 6-dimensional beam brightness have to be achieved in the injector, in order to accommodate a linac driven FEL light source. For this, a parallel, multiobjective optimization algorithm is used. We discuss the relative merits of different injector design points, as well as the constraints imposed on the beam dynamics by technical considerations such as the high repetition rate.

  1. Recent GE BWR fuel experience and design evolution

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wood, J.E.; Potts, G.A.; Proebstle, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Reliable fuel operation is essential to the safe, reliable, and economic power production by today's commercial nuclear reactors. GE Nuclear Energy is committed to maximize fuel reliability through the progressive development of improved fuel design features and dedication to provide the maximum quality of the design features and dedication to provide the maximum quality of the design, fabrication, and operation of GE BWR fuel. Over the last 35 years, GE has designed, fabricated, and placed in operation over 82,000 BWR fuel bundles containing over 5 million fuel rods. This experience includes successful commercial reactor operation of fuel assemblies to greatermore » than 45000 MWd/MTU bundle average exposure. This paper reports that this extensive experience base has enabled clear identification and characterization of the active failure mechanisms. With this failure mechanism characterization, mitigating actions have been developed and implemented by GE to provide the highest reliability BWR fuel bundles possible.« less

  2. Bi-fuel System - Gasoline/LPG in A Used 4-Stroke Motorcycle - Fuel Injection Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthisripok, Tongchit; Phusakol, Nachaphat; Sawetkittirut, Nuttapol

    2017-10-01

    Bi-fuel-Gasoline/LPG system has been effectively and efficiently used in gasoline vehicles with less pollutants emission. The motorcycle tested was a used Honda AirBlade i110 - fuel injection type. A 3-litre LPG storage tank, an electronic fuel control unit, a 1-mm LPG injector and a regulator were securely installed. The converted motorcycle can be started with either gasoline or LPG. The safety relief valve was set below 48 kPa and over 110 kPa. The motorcycle was tuned at the relative rich air-fuel ratio (λ) of 0.85-0.90 to attain the best power output. From dynamometer tests over the speed range of 65-100 km/h, the average power output when fuelling LPG was 5.16 hp; dropped 3.9% from the use of gasoline91. The average LPG consumption rate from the city road test at the average speed of 60 km/h was 40.1 km/l, about 17.7% more. This corresponded to lower LPG’s energy density of about 16.2%. In emission, the CO and HC concentrations were 44.4% and 26.5% lower. Once a standard gas equipment set with ECU and LPG injector were securely installed and the engine was properly tuned up to suit LPG’s characteristics, the converted bi-fuel motorcycle offers efficiently, safely and economically performance with environmental friendly emission.

  3. Design and Testing of Non-Toxic RCS Thrusters for Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvignac, Jacky; Tramel, Terri

    2003-01-01

    thruster design includes a LOX-centered pintle injector, consisting of two rows of slots that create a radial spoke spray pattern in the combustion chamber. The main fuel injector creates a continuous sheet of LH2 originating upstream of the LOX pintle injector. The two propellants impinge at the pintle slots, where the resulting momentum ratio and spray pattern determines the combustion efficiency and thermal effects on the hardware. Another enabling technology used in the design of this thruster is fuel film cooling through a duct, lining the inner wall of the combustion chamber barrel section. The duct is also acts as a secondary fuel injection point. The variation in the amount of LH2 used for the duct allows for adjustments in the cooling capacity for the thruster. The Non-Toxic LOX-LH2 RCS Workhorse Thruster was tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Test Stand 500. Hot-fire tests were conducted between March 08, 2002 and April 05, 2002. All testing during the program base period were performed at sea-level conditions. During the test program, 7 configurations were tested, including 2 combustion chambers, 3 LOX injector pintle tips, and 4 LH2 injector stroke settings. The operating conditions that were surveyed varied thrust levels, mixture ratio and LH2 duct cooling flow. The copper heat sink chamber was used for 16 burns, each burn lasting from 0.4 to 10 seconds, totaling 51.4 seconds, followed by Haynes chamber testing ranging from 0.9 to 120 seconds, totaling 300.9 seconds. The total accumulated burn time for the test program is 352.3 seconds. C* efficiency was calculated and found to be within expectable limits for most operating conditions. The temperature on the Haynes combustion chamber remained below established material limits, with the exception of one localized hot spot. The test results demonstrate that both the coaxial liquid-on-liquid pintle injector design and fuel duct concepts are viable for the intended application. The thruster head

  4. Magnetic measurements of the injector synchrotron magnets for the advanced photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Carnegie, D. W.; Doose, C. L.; Hogrefe, R.; Kim, K.; Merl, R.; Turner, L. R.

    1994-07-01

    The magnetic measurement data of the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets for the Advanced Photon Source injector synchrotron are summarized. Magnet design and magnetic measurements of the field strength, field shape, and multipole coefficients are described.

  5. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  6. LOX/hydrocarbon fuel carbon formation and mixing data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, J.

    1983-01-01

    By applying the Priem-Heidmann Generalized-Length vaporization correlation, the computer model developed by the present study predicts the spatial variation of propellant vaporization rate using the injector cold flow results to define the streamtubes. The calculations show that the overall and local propellant vaporization rate and mixture ratio change drastically as the injection element type or the injector operating condition is changed. These results are compared with the regions of carbon formation observed in the photographic combustion testing. The correlation shows that the fuel vaporization rate and the local mixture ratio produced by the injector element have first order effects on the degree of carbon formation.

  7. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  8. Experimental study of combustion processes involved in hypergolic propellant coaxial injector operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballah, M.; Dubois, I.; Gicquel, P.; Foucaud, R.

    1992-07-01

    The first results are presented of an experimental research program to understand the operation of a coaxial injector using hypergolic propellants. Mechanisms and processes involved in coaxial injector operation are identified for a two-plate injector and a coaxial injector. The usefulness of backlight cinematography and laser sheet visualization in the study of coaxial injector operation is examined. A review of the literature on injector elements using highly reactive hypergolic propellants is presented along with an analysis of fundamental mechanisms involved in these propellants.

  9. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  10. Investigation of spray characteristics from a low-pressure common rail injector for use in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kihyung; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2004-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion provides extremely low levels of pollutant emissions, and thus is an attractive alternative for future IC engines. In order to achieve a uniform mixture distribution within the engine cylinder, the characteristics of the fuel spray play an important role in the HCCI engine concept. It is well known that high-pressure common rail injection systems, mainly used in diesel engines, achieve poor mixture formation because of the possibility of direct fuel impingement on the combustion chamber surfaces. This paper describes spray characteristics of a low-pressure common rail injector which is intended for use in an HCCI engine. Optical diagnostics including laser diffraction and phase Doppler methods, and high-speed camera photography, were applied to measure the spray drop diameter and to investigate the spray development process. The drop sizing results of the laser diffraction method were compared with those of a phase Doppler particle analyser (PDPA) to validate the accuracy of the experiments. In addition, the effect of fuel properties on the spray characteristics was investigated using n-heptane, Stoddard solvent (gasoline surrogate) and diesel fuel because HCCI combustion is sensitive to the fuel composition. The results show that the injector forms a hollow-cone sheet spray rather than a liquid jet, and the atomization efficiency is high (small droplets are produced). The droplet SMD ranged from 15 to 30 µm. The spray break-up characteristics were found to depend on the fuel properties. The break-up time for n-heptane is shorter and the drop SMD is smaller than that of Stoddard solvent and diesel fuel.

  11. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  12. Development of Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, S. D.; Dumbacher, P.; Cole, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    This was a small-scale, hot-fire test series to make initial measurements of performance differences of five new liquid fuels relative to rocket propellant-1 (RP-1). The program was part of a high-energy-density materials development at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the fuels tested were quadricyclane, 1-7 octodiyne, AFRL-1, biclopropylidene, and competitive impulse noncarcinogenic hypergol (CINCH) (di-methyl-aminoethyl-azide). All tests were conducted at MSFC. The first four fuels were provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The U.S. Army, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL, provided the CINCH. The data recorded in all hot-fire tests were used to calculate specific impulse and characteristic exhaust velocity for each fuel, then compared to RP-1 at the same conditions. This was not an exhaustive study, comparing each fuel to RP-1 at an array of mixture ratios, nor did it include important fuel parameters, such as fuel handling or long-term storage. The test hardware was designed for liquid oxygen (lox)/RP-1, then modified for gaseous oxygen/RP-1 to avoid two-phase lox at very small flow rates. All fuels were tested using the same thruster/injector combination designed for RP-1. The results of this test will be used to determine which fuels will be tested in future test programs.

  13. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Campbell, William A., E-mail: bill.campbell@usask.ca; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 1-5 g/s fuel feeding system for pilot scale FBG was designed, built and tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple conveying stages improve pressure balancing, flow control and stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary conveyor stage reduced output irregularity from 47% to 15%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic air sparging effective in dealing with poor flow ability of MBM powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic injection port plugs with char at gasification temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designedmore » for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50 mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection

  14. NASA Multipoint LDI Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Multipoint Lean-Direct-Injection (LDI) is a combustor concept in which a large number of fuel injectors and fuel-air mixers are used to quickly and uniformly mix the fuel and air so that ultralow levels of NO, are produced. Each fuel injector has an air swirler associated with it for fuel-air mixing and to establish a small recirculation and burning zone. A concept in which there are 36 fuel injectors in the space of a conventional single fuel injector has been tested in a flame tube. A greater than 80 percent reduction in NO, at high power conditions (400 psia, 1000 "Finlet) was achieved. Alternate concepts with 9,25,36 or 49 fuel injectors are being investigated in flame tube tests for their low NO, potential and with fuel staging to improve the turn-down ratio at low power conditions. A preliminary sector concept of a large engine design has been successfully tested at inlet conditions of 700 psia and 1100 O F . This concept had one half the number of fuel injectors per square inch as the flame tube configuration with 36 fuel injectors, and the NO, reduction was 65 percent of the ICAO standard. Future regional engine size sector tests are planned for the 2nd quarter of FY02 and large engine size sector tests for the 1st quarter of FY03.

  15. LOX/Hydrogen Coaxial Injector Atomization Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is needed to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability margin of liquid propellant rocket engines. To obtain this data, a facility for the study of spray atomization is being established at NASA-Lewis to determine the drop size and velocity distributions occurring in vaporizing liquid sprays at supercritical pressures. Hardware configuration and test conditions are selected to make the cold flow simulant testing correspond as closely as possible to conditions in liquid oxygen (LOX)/gaseous H2 rocket engines. Drop size correlations from the literature, developed for liquid/gas coaxial injector geometries, are used to make drop size predictions for LOX/H2 coaxial injectors. The mean drop size predictions for a single element coaxial injector range from 0.1 to 2000 microns, emphasizing the need for additional studies of the atomization process in LOX/H2 engines. Selection of cold flow simulants, measured techniques, and hardware for LOX/H2 atomization simulations are discussed.

  16. Potential for cross-contamination from use of a needleless injector.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, A M; Ponce de Leon, M P

    1998-08-01

    Medical devices that are used on patients in fields containing potentially infectious body fluids can become contaminated and transmit infectious agents to other sites on the patient or to other patients if the devices are not properly cleaned and decontaminated after use on each patient treatment site. One such device is the needleless or jet injector, which is widely used in medicine and dentistry to deliver local anesthetic in procedures such as bone marrow aspirations, lumbar punctures, and cutaneous and intraoral injections. This study was conducted to determine whether cross-contamination can occur on in vitro reuse of a needleless injector and whether a manufacturer's recommended method of injector decontamination (ie, immersion sterilization) is effective in the prevention of cross-contamination. The study was performed with new autoclaved injectors, fluorescein dye, and Streptococcus crista (the bacteria commonly found in saliva) in the field of use to determine whether these devices can become contaminated during use and carry over the contamination to other sites during immediate reuse. Fluorescein dye and bacteria tests with the needleless injectors showed that contamination or carryover does occur. It appeared to reduced to a minimum when a autoclaved, sterile rubber cap used over the head of the device during injection was replaced between each use, although replacement of the rubber cap alone did not prevent carryover. Immersion of the head of the injector in a 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 minutes followed by a sterile water rinse and the replacement of the rubber cap with a sterile cap between uses was shown to curtail bacterial growth and prevent cross-contamination on immediate reuse of the device. This study demonstrated that needleless injectors become contaminated during in vitro use and direct contact with contaminated surfaces and that needless injectors carry over the contamination to subsequent sites of release. The replacement of the

  17. Beam dynamics simulation of HEBT for the SSC-linac injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ni; Yuan, You-Jin; Xiao, Chen; He, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Sheng, Li-Na

    2012-11-01

    The SSC-linac (a new injector for the Separated Sector Cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou) system to accelerate 238U34+ from 3.72 keV/u to 1.008 MeV/u. As a part of the SSC-linac injector, the HEBT (high energy beam transport) has been designed by using the TRACE-3D code and simulated by the 3D PIC (particle-in-cell) Track code. The total length of the HEBT is about 12 meters and a beam line of about 6 meters are shared with the exiting beam line of the HIRFL system. The simulation results show that the particles can be delivered efficiently in the HEBT and the particles at the exit of the HEBT well match the acceptance of the SSC for further acceleration. The dispersion is eliminated absolutely in the HEBT. The space-charge effect calculated by the Track code is inconspicuous. According to the simulation, more than 60 percent of the particles from the ion source can be transported into the acceptance of the SSC.

  18. Liquid Methane/Oxygen Injector Study for Mars Ascent Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the advancing technology of the cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars exploration mission, this effort aims at evaluating propellant injection concepts for liquid methane/liquid oxygen (LOX) rocket engines. Split-triplet and unlike impinging injectors were selected for this study. A total of four injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows, at MSFC. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure ranging from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were conducted. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability. Initial assessments of the test results showed that the injectors provided stable combustion and there were no injector face overheating problems under all operating conditions. The Raman scattering signal measurement method was successfully demonstrated for the hydrocarbon/oxygen reactive flow field. The near-injector face flow field was visually observed through the use of an infrared camera. Chamber wall temperature, high frequency chamber pressure, and average throat section heat flux were also recorded throughout the test series. Assessments of the injector performance are underway.

  19. 14 CFR 23.343 - Design fuel loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... zero fuel to the selected maximum fuel load. (b) If fuel is carried in the wings, the maximum allowable weight of the airplane without any fuel in the wing tank(s) must be established as “maximum zero wing... part and— (1) The structure must be designed to withstand a condition of zero fuel in the wing at limit...

  20. 14 CFR 23.343 - Design fuel loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... zero fuel to the selected maximum fuel load. (b) If fuel is carried in the wings, the maximum allowable weight of the airplane without any fuel in the wing tank(s) must be established as “maximum zero wing... part and— (1) The structure must be designed to withstand a condition of zero fuel in the wing at limit...

  1. 14 CFR 23.343 - Design fuel loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... zero fuel to the selected maximum fuel load. (b) If fuel is carried in the wings, the maximum allowable weight of the airplane without any fuel in the wing tank(s) must be established as “maximum zero wing... part and— (1) The structure must be designed to withstand a condition of zero fuel in the wing at limit...

  2. 14 CFR 23.343 - Design fuel loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... zero fuel to the selected maximum fuel load. (b) If fuel is carried in the wings, the maximum allowable weight of the airplane without any fuel in the wing tank(s) must be established as “maximum zero wing... part and— (1) The structure must be designed to withstand a condition of zero fuel in the wing at limit...

  3. Description of operation of fast-response solenoid actuator in diesel fuel system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Grekhov, L. V.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Song, E.

    2018-03-01

    The performance of the fast-response solenoid actuator (FRSA) of engine fuel systems is characterized by the response time of less than 0.1 ms and the necessity to take into consideration the non-stationary peculiarities of mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and magnetic processes. Simple models for magnetization in static and dynamic hysteresis are used for this purpose. The experimental study of the FRSA performance within the electro-hydraulic injector of the Common Rail demonstrated an agreement between the computational and experimental results. The computation of the processes is not only a tool for analysis, but also a tool for design and optimization of the solenoid actuator of new engine fuels systems.

  4. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  5. Magnetic tunnel spin injectors for spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Roger

    Research in spin-based electronics, or "spintronics", has a universal goal to develop applications for electron spin in a broad range of electronics and strives to produce low power nanoscale devices. Spin injection into semiconductors is an important initial step in the development of spintronic devices, with the goal to create a highly spin polarized population of electrons inside a semiconductor at room temperature for study, characterization, and manipulation. This dissertation investigates magnetic tunnel spin injectors that aim to meet the spin injection requirements needed for potential spintronic devices. Magnetism and spin are inherently related, and chapter 1 provides an introduction on magnetic tunneling and spintronics. Chapter 2 then describes the fabrication of the spin injector structures studied in this dissertation, and also illustrates the optical spin detection technique that correlates the measured electroluminescence polarization from quantum wells to the electron spin polarization inside the semiconductor. Chapter 3 reports the spin injection from the magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) spin injector, which is capable of producing highly spin polarized tunneling currents by spin selective scattering in its multilayer structure. The MTT achieves ˜10% lower bound injected spin polarization in GaAs at 1.4 K. Chapter 4 reports the spin injection from CoFe-MgO(100) tunnel spin injectors, where spin dependent tunneling through MgO(100) produces highly spin polarized tunneling currents. These structures achieve lower bound spin polarizations exceeding 50% at 100 K and 30% in GaAs at 290 K. The CoFe-MgO spin injectors also demonstrate excellent thermal stability, maintaining high injection efficiencies even after exposure to temperatures of up to 400 C. Bias voltage and temperature dependent studies on these structures indicate a significant dependence of the electroluminescence polarization on the spin and carrier recombination lifetimes inside the

  6. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER.

    PubMed

    Schunke, B; Boilson, D; Chareyre, J; Choi, C-H; Decamps, H; El-Ouazzani, A; Geli, F; Graceffa, J; Hemsworth, R; Kushwah, M; Roux, K; Shah, D; Singh, M; Svensson, L; Urbani, M

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB's) based on 1 MeV 40 A D(-) negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H(0) at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started, and the essential test beds-for the prototype route chosen-will soon be ready to start.

  7. Measurements of admittances and characteristic combustion times of reactive gaseous propellant coaxial injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation that was concerned with the quantitative determination of the capabilities of combustion processes associated with coaxial injectors to amplify and sustain combustor oscillations was described. The driving provided by the combustion process was determined by employing the modified standing-wave method utilizing coaxial injectors and air-acetylene mixtures. Analyses of the measured data indicate that the investigated injectors are capable of initiating and amplifying combustion instabilities under favorable conditions of injector-combustion coupling and over certain frequency ranges. These frequency ranges and the frequency at which an injector's driving capacity is maximum are observed to depend upon the equivalence ratio, the pressure drop across the injector orifices and the number of injector elements. The characteristic combustion times of coaxial injectors were determined from steady state temperature measurements.

  8. Air/fuel ratio visualization in a diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabell, Kevin David

    1993-01-01

    To investigate some features of high pressure diesel spray ignition, we have applied a newly developed planar imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb. The bomb is designed to give flow characteristics similar to those in a direct injection diesel engine yet provide nearly unlimited optical access. A high pressure electronic unit injector system with on-line manually adjustable main and pilot injection features was used. The primary scalar of interest was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly near the spray plumes. To make this measurement quantitative, we have developed a calibration LIF technique. The development of this technique is the key contribution of this dissertation. The air/fuel ratio measurement was made using biacetyl as a seed in the air inlet to the engine. When probed by a tripled Nd:YAG laser the biacetyl fluoresces, with a signal proportional to the local biacetyl concentration. This feature of biacetyl enables the fluorescent signal to be used as as indicator of local fuel vapor concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling estimates of the local concentration of air and the approximate local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. The results indicate that the image quality generated with this method is sufficient for generating air/fuel ratio contours. The processes during the ignition delay have a marked effect on ignition and the subsequent burn. These processes, vaporization and pre-flame kinetics, very much depend on the mixing of the air and fuel. This study has shown that poor mixing and over-mixing of the air and fuel will directly affect the type of ignition. An optimal mixing arrangement exists and depends on the swirl ratio in the engine, the number of holes in the fuel injector and the distribution of fuel into a pilot and main injection. If a short delay and a diffusion burn is desired, the best mixing parameters among those surveyed would be a high swirl ratio, a 4-hole nozzle and a

  9. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single and Small Multi-element Coaxial Element-Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support NASA's Vision for Space Exploration mission, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines with regeneratively cooled chamber walls, as well as in small thrust chambers with few elements in the injector. In this program, single and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges, Injector configurations were tested with both shear coaxial elements and swirl coaxial elements. Both a straight and a scarfed single element swirl injector were tested. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three coaxial shear and swirl elements. Detailed geometry and test results the for shear coax elements has already been published. Detailed test result for the remaining 6 swirl coax element for the will be published in a future JANNAF presentation to provide well-defined data sets for development and model validation.

  10. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Anthony P.; Stachowski, Russell E.

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced.

  11. Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  12. Ducted fuel injection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mueller, Charles J.

    Various technologies presented herein relate to enhancing mixing inside a combustion chamber to form one or more locally premixed mixtures comprising fuel and charge-gas with low peak fuel to charge-gas ratios to enable minimal, or no, generation of soot and other undesired emissions during ignition and subsequent combustion of the locally premixed mixtures. To enable sufficient mixing of the fuel and charge-gas, a jet of fuel can be directed to pass through a bore of a duct causing charge-gas to be drawn into the bore creating turbulence to mix the fuel and the drawn charge-gas. The duct can be locatedmore » proximate to an opening in a tip of a fuel injector. The duct can comprise of one or more holes along its length to enable charge-gas to be drawn into the bore, and further, the duct can cool the fuel and/or charge-gas prior to combustion.« less

  13. Combustion behaviors of GO2/GH2 swirl-coaxial injector using non-intrusive optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GuoBiao, Cai; Jian, Dai; Yang, Zhang; NanJia, Yu

    2016-06-01

    This research evaluates the combustion behaviors of a single-element, swirl-coaxial injector in an atmospheric combustion chamber with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as the propellants. A brief simulated flow field schematic comparison between a shear-coaxial injector and the swirl-coaxial injector reveals the distribution characteristics of the temperature field and streamline patterns. Advanced optical diagnostics, i.e., OH planar laser-induced fluorescence and high-speed imaging, are simultaneously employed to determine the OH radical spatial distribution and flame fluctuations, respectively. The present study focuses on the flame structures under varying O/F mixing ratios and center oxygen swirl intensities. The combined use of several image-processing methods aimed at OH instantaneous images, including time-averaged, root-mean-square, and gradient transformation, provides detailed information regarding the distribution of the flow field. The results indicate that the shear layers anchored on the oxygen injector lip are the main zones of chemical heat release and that the O/F mixing ratio significantly affects the flame shape. Furthermore, with high-speed imaging, an intuitionistic ignition process and several consecutive steady-state images reveal that lean conditions make it easy to drive the combustion instabilities and that the center swirl intensity has a moderate influence on the flame oscillation strength. The results of this study provide a visualized analysis for future optimal swirl-coaxial injector designs.

  14. Collimation system design for beam loss localization with slipstacking injection in the Fermilab Main Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Brown, B.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2007-06-01

    Results of modeling with the 3-D STRUCT and MARS15 codes of beam loss localization and related radiation effects are presented for the slipstacking injection to the Fermilab Main Injector. Simulations of proton beam loss are done using multi-turn tracking with realistic accelerator apertures, nonlinear fields in the accelerator magnets and time function of the RF manipulations to explain the results of beam loss measurements. The collimation system consists of one primary and four secondary collimators. It intercepts a beam power of 1.6 kW at a scraping rate of 5% of 5.5E+13 ppp, with a beam loss rate in the ringmore » outside the collimation region of 1 W/m or less. Based on thorough energy deposition and radiation modeling, a corresponding collimator design was developed that satisfies all the radiation and engineering constraints.« less

  15. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

  16. Computation of Transverse Injection Into Supersonic Crossflow With Various Injector Orifice Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lancert; Engblom, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Computational results are presented for the performance and flow behavior of various injector geometries employed in transverse injection into a non-reacting Mach 1.2 flow. 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) results are obtained for the various injector geometries using the Wind code with the Mentor s Shear Stress Transport turbulence model in both single and multi-species modes. Computed results for the injector mixing, penetration, and induced wall forces are presented. In the case of rectangular injectors, those longer in the direction of the freestream flow are predicted to generate the most mixing and penetration of the injector flow into the primary stream. These injectors are also predicted to provide the largest discharge coefficients and induced wall forces. Minor performance differences are indicated among diamond, circle, and square orifices. Grid sensitivity study results are presented which indicate consistent qualitative trends in the injector performance comparisons with increasing grid fineness.

  17. On the prediction of spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Qinglian; Xu, Shun; Kang, Zhongtao

    2017-09-01

    The pintle injector is famous for its capability of deep throttling and low cost. However, the pintle injector has been seldom investigated. To get a good prediction of the spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors, theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments were conducted. Under the hypothesis of incompressible and inviscid flow, a spray angle formula was deduced from the continuity and momentum equations based on a control volume analysis. The formula was then validated by numerical and experimental data. The results indicates that both geometric and injection parameters affect the total momentum ratio (TMR) and then influence the spray angle formed by liquid-liquid pintle injectors. TMR is the pivotal non-dimensional number that dominates the spray angle. Compared with gas-gas pintle injectors, spray angle formed by liquid-liquid injectors is larger, which benefits from the local high pressure zone near the pintle wall caused by the impingement of radial and axial sheets.

  18. Use of individual auto-injector kits ‘IZAS-05’ on the contemporary battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Summary In crisis situations, such as transportation catastrophes, terrorist attacks or contamination with chemical warfare agents, it is crucial to properly organize and sensibly conduct rescue operations. Among chemical warfare agents, the most toxic ones are the derivatives of organophosphorus compounds. An individual auto-injector kit ‘IZAS-05’ contains auto-injectors, which are devices designed for intramuscular administration of drugs in self-aid or buddy-aid on the battlefield. This paper describes in detail the components of the ‘IZAS-05’ kit, as well as its mode of use and possible contraindications. PMID:22207129

  19. NLC Injector Systems

    Science.gov Websites

    text only NLC Home Page NLC Technical SLAC Sources Damping Rings S & L Band Linacs Engineering ; Presentations Injector System Documentation Talks and Presentations The NLC ZDR ISG Reports Sources Lasers Photocathodes Electron Source Laser Maintenance Facility Positron Source Sources Technical Notes Sources Meeting

  20. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, A.P.; Stachowski, R.E.

    1995-08-08

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced. 10 figs.

  1. High-density fuel combustion and cooling investigation. [kengine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labotz, R. J.; Rousar, D. C.; Valler, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of several engine configurations are discussed with respect to the combustion and heat transfer characteristics of LOX/RP-1 at chamber pressures between 6895 and 13790 kPa (1000 and 2000 psia). The different engine configurations discussed include: 8274 kPa and 13790 kPa (1200 psia and 2000 psia) chamber pressure injectors with like doublet and preatomized triplet elements; cooled and uncooled acoustic resonators; and graphite, regeneratively cooled and calorimetric chambers ranging in length from 27.9 to 37.5 cm (11 to 15 in.). A high pressure LOX/RP-1 spark igniter is also evaluated.

  2. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  3. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872.4465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A...

  4. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnetsmore » and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.« less

  5. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm3), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  6. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm(3)), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  7. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schunke, B., E-mail: email@none.edu; Boilson, D.; Chareyre, J.

    2016-02-15

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB’s) based on 1 MeV 40 A D{sup −} negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H{sup 0} at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started,more » and the essential test beds—for the prototype route chosen—will soon be ready to start.« less

  8. NASA Engineers Test Combustion Chamber to Advance 3-D Printed Rocket Engine Design

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    A series of test firings like this one in late August brought a group of engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a big step closer to their goal of a 100-percent 3-D printed rocket engine, said Andrew Hanks, test lead for the additively manufactured demonstration engine project. The main combustion chamber, fuel turbopump, fuel injector, valves and other components used in the tests were of the team's new design, and all major engine components except the main combustion chamber were 3-D printed. (NASA/MSFC)

  9. Combustion of Drops and Sprays of Heavy Fuel Oils and Their Emulsions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Details of the Injector Mount .... .............. ... 144 5. Arrangement to Remove Soot from Windows .. ......... ... 145 6. Modified Injector Plug...the carbon deposits could be attributed to the increased residual carbon Residual fuel oils are known to contain polynuclear aromatic and naphthenic ...cleaned to remove the fine soot which clings to the windows and can- not be blown away by the jets. (iv ) For spray combustion tests, as the nozzles

  10. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  11. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  12. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments. PMID:22409884

  13. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    PubMed

    Macadam, Clare; Barnett, Julie; Roberts, Graham; Stiefel, Gary; King, Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Holloway, Judith A; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-02-02

    Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  14. Analysis and design of lean direct injection fuel nozzles by eddy resolved turbulence simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryon, Jason Allen

    Combustion systems in gas turbine engines are subjected to particular scrutiny in regards to the emissions which they produce. Of special interest are the emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), which have a direct impact on air quality as well as health aspects. There is a need in the industry for elegant designs for these combustion systems which reduce the formation of NOx. The present study includes an in depth analysis of a state-of-the art prefilming airblast injector which is designed for achieving low NOx. The design has been studied through the use of turbulence resolving simulation to differentiate what is important for the design of this system. The OpenFOAM CFD software, with a Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) model recently developed at Iowa State University, is shown to provide a suitable design tool which has been used to accurately predict a variety of parameters important to this combustion system. Of particular interest are the mixing characteristics of the atomizer, which have been studied through a series of CFD simulations including single-phase, multi-species, and multi-phase simulations. Turbulence simulations are validated by comparison to United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS) data with air only. It is shown how DDES is able to capture the downstream mixing of air streams. Finally, a novel atomizer has been designed with these methods which is intended to promote thorough mixing. The CFD mixing characteristics are described and compared to the existing injector.

  15. Fuel Injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelson, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality data relevant to prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) equipment was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM) and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  16. Fuel injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality relevant to a prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with the combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.

  17. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  18. Jet Propellant (JP)-8 Fuel Evaluation Test Mk II - Reset (Mk II R) Bridge Erection Boat (BEB)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    diesel engines (fig. 2 and 3) equipped with Delphi rotary fuel injection pumps. Figure 1. Mk II R BEB pushing a two-bay IRB raft. TR No. WF-E-83 2... nozzles . The new pump (serial No. 08813K7B) and gasket were installed. 24 May 07 51.0 50.4 44.9 103 Port Fuel Pump and Injectors Replaced. At the...part No. 3909356) were installed on the injector nozzles . The new pump (serial No. 59640HZB) and gasket were installed. 31 May 07 51.5 50.5 44.9 104

  19. 78 FR 70240 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19 to make your request. (g) Related Information (1) For more information about... mounted fuel injector fuel lines. Since we issued AD 2011-26-04, we received revised service information... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information...

  20. Investigation of the cavitating flow in injector nozzles for diesel and biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wenjun; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Zhaochen; Fu, Yanan

    2013-07-01

    In diesel engines, the cavitating flow in nozzles greatly affects the fuel atomization characteristics and then the subsequent combustion and exhaust emissions. At present the biodiesel is a kind of prospective alternative fuel in diesel engines, the flow characteristics for the biodiesel fuel need to be investigated. In this paper, based on the third-generation synchrotrons of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation facility (SSRF), a high-precision three-dimension structure of testing nozzle with detailed internal geometry information was obtained using X-ray radiography for a more accurate physical model. A flow visualization experiment system with a transparent scaled-up vertical multi-hole injector nozzle tip was setup. A high resolution and speed CCD camera equipped with a long distance microscope device was used to acquire flow images of diesel and biodiesel fuel, respectively. Then, the characteristics of cavitating flow and their effects on the fuel atomization characteristics were investigated. The experimental results show that the nozzle cavitating flow of both the diesel and biodiesel fuel could be divided into four regimes: turbulent flow, cavitation inception, development of cavitation and hydraulic flip. The critical pressures of both the cavitating flow and hydraulic flip of biodiesel are higher than those of diesel. The spray cone angle increases as the cavitation occurs, but it decreases when the hydraulic flip appears. Finally, it can be concluded that the Reynolds number decreases with the increase of cavitation number, and the discharge coefficient increases with the increase of cavitation number.

  1. Basic elements of light water reactor fuel rod design. [FUELROD code

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weisman, J.; Eckart, R.

    1981-06-01

    Basic design techniques and equations are presented to allow students to understand and perform preliminary fuel design for normal reactor conditions. Each of the important design considerations is presented and discussed in detail. These include the interaction between fuel pellets and cladding and the changes in fuel and cladding that occur during the operating lifetime of the fuel. A simple, student-oriented, fuel rod design computer program, called FUELROD, is described. The FUELROD program models the in-pile pellet cladding interaction and allows a realistic exploration of the effect of various design parameters. By use of FUELROD, the student can gain anmore » appreciation of the fuel rod design process. 34 refs.« less

  2. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  3. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  4. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.

    2011-11-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. Themore » system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.« less

  5. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B. C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J. D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.; Pordes, S.; Shi, Z.; Still, D.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Utes, M.; Wu, J.

    2011-11-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  6. PEM Fuel Cells Redesign Using Biomimetic and TRIZ Design Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Keith Kin Kei

    Two formal design methodologies, biomimetic design and the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, were applied to the redesign of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Proof of concept prototyping was performed on two of the concepts for water management. The liquid water collection with strategically placed wicks concept demonstrated the potential benefits for a fuel cell. Conversely, the periodic flow direction reversal concepts might cause a potential reduction water removal from a fuel cell. The causes of this water removal reduction remain unclear. In additional, three of the concepts generated with biomimetic design were further studied and demonstrated to stimulate more creative ideas in the thermal and water management of fuel cells. The biomimetic design and the TRIZ methodologies were successfully applied to fuel cells and provided different perspectives to the redesign of fuel cells. The methodologies should continue to be used to improve fuel cells.

  7. Upper Stage Flight Experiment 10K Engine Design and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R.; Morgan, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; Anderson, W.; McNeal, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 10,000 lbf thrust chamber was developed for the Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE). This thrust chamber uses hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 oxidizer/fuel combination. The thrust chamber comprises an oxidizer dome and manifold, catalyst bed assembly, fuel injector, and chamber/nozzle assembly. Testing of the engine was done at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) to verify its performance and life for future upper stage or Reusable Launch Vehicle applications. Various combinations of silver screen catalyst beds, fuel injectors, and combustion chambers were tested. Results of the tests showed high C* efficiencies (97% - 100%) and vacuum specific impulses of 275 - 298 seconds. With fuel film cooling, heating rates were low enough that the silica/quartz phenolic throat experienced minimal erosion. Mission derived requirements were met, along with a perfect safety record.

  8. New injectors and the social context of injection initiation

    PubMed Central

    Harocopos, Alex; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Kobrak, Paul; Jost, John J.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preventing the onset of injecting drug use is an important public health objective yet there is little understanding of the process that leads to injection initiation. This paper draws extensively on narrative data to describe how injection initiation is influenced by social environment. We examine how watching other people inject can habitualise non-injectors to administering drugs with a needle and consider the process by which the stigma of injecting is replaced with curiosity. Method In-depth interviews (n=54) were conducted as part of a two-year longitudinal study examining the behaviours of new injecting drug users. Results Among our sample, injection initiation was the result of a dynamic process during which administering drugs with a needle became acceptable or even appealing. Most often, this occurred as a result of spending time with current injectors in a social context and the majority of this study’s participants were given their first shot by a friend or sexual partner. Initiates could be tenacious in their efforts to acquire an injection trainer and findings suggest that once injecting had been introduced to a drug-using network, it was likely to spread throughout the group. Conclusion Injection initiation should be viewed as a communicable process. New injectors are unlikely to have experienced the negative effects of injecting and may facilitate the initiation of their drug-using friends. Prevention messages should therefore aim to find innovative ways of targeting beginning injectors and present a realistic appraisal of the long-term consequences of injecting. Interventionists should also work with current injectors to develop strategies to refuse requests from non-injectors for their help to initiate. PMID:18790623

  9. STME Hydrogen Mixer Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenthal, Rob; Kim, Dongmoon; Bache, George

    1992-01-01

    The hydrogen mixer for the Space Transportation Main Engine is used to mix cold hydrogen bypass flow with warm hydrogen coolant chamber gas, which is then fed to the injectors. It is very important to have a uniform fuel temperature at the injectors in order to minimize mixture ratio problems due to the fuel density variations. In addition, the fuel at the injector has certain total pressure requirements. In order to achieve these objectives, the hydrogen mixer must provide a thoroughly mixed fluid with a minimum pressure loss. The AEROVISC computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to analyze the STME hydrogen mixer, and proved to be an effective tool in optimizing the mixer design. AEROVISC, which solves the Reynolds Stress-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variable form, was used to assess the effectiveness of different mixer designs. Through a parametric study of mixer design variables, an optimal design was selected which minimized mixed fuel temperature variation and fuel mixer pressure loss. The use of CFD in the design process of the STME hydrogen mixer was effective in achieving an optimal mixer design while reducing the amount of hardware testing.

  10. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  11. Ducted fuel injection: A new approach for lowering soot emissions from direct-injection engines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Nilsen, Christopher W.; Ruth, Daniel J.

    Designers of direct-injection compression-ignition engines use a variety of strategies to improve the fuel/charge-gas mixture within the combustion chamber for increased efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. Strategies include the use of high fuel-injection pressures, multiple injections, small injector orifices, flow swirl, long-ignition-delay conditions, and oxygenated fuels. This is the first journal publication paper on a new mixing-enhancement strategy for emissions reduction: ducted fuel injection. The concept involves injecting fuel along the axis of a small cylindrical duct within the combustion chamber, to enhance the mixture in the autoignition zone relative to a conventional free-spray configuration (i.e., a fuel spray thatmore » is not surrounded by a duct). Finally, the results described herein, from initial proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel, show dramatically lower soot incandescence from ducted fuel injection than from free sprays over a range of charge-gas conditions that are representative of those in modern direct-injection compression-ignition engines.« less

  12. Ducted fuel injection: A new approach for lowering soot emissions from direct-injection engines

    DOE PAGES

    Mueller, Charles J.; Nilsen, Christopher W.; Ruth, Daniel J.; ...

    2017-07-18

    Designers of direct-injection compression-ignition engines use a variety of strategies to improve the fuel/charge-gas mixture within the combustion chamber for increased efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. Strategies include the use of high fuel-injection pressures, multiple injections, small injector orifices, flow swirl, long-ignition-delay conditions, and oxygenated fuels. This is the first journal publication paper on a new mixing-enhancement strategy for emissions reduction: ducted fuel injection. The concept involves injecting fuel along the axis of a small cylindrical duct within the combustion chamber, to enhance the mixture in the autoignition zone relative to a conventional free-spray configuration (i.e., a fuel spray thatmore » is not surrounded by a duct). Finally, the results described herein, from initial proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel, show dramatically lower soot incandescence from ducted fuel injection than from free sprays over a range of charge-gas conditions that are representative of those in modern direct-injection compression-ignition engines.« less

  13. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  14. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Biarrotte, J. L.; Canet, C.; Denis, J.-F.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jacob, J.; Jardin, P.; Lamy, T.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Peaucelle, C.; Roger, A.; Sole, P.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D.

    2016-02-01

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ˜50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  15. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning.

    PubMed

    Thuillier, T; Angot, J; Barué, C; Bertrand, P; Biarrotte, J L; Canet, C; Denis, J-F; Ferdinand, R; Flambard, J-L; Jacob, J; Jardin, P; Lamy, T; Lemagnen, F; Maunoury, L; Osmond, B; Peaucelle, C; Roger, A; Sole, P; Touzery, R; Tuske, O; Uriot, D

    2016-02-01

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  16. Durability Testing of Biomass Based Oxygenated Fuel Components in a Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; McCormick, Robert L; Baumgardner, Marc E.

    Blending cellulosic biofuels with traditional petroleum-derived fuels results in transportation fuels with reduced carbon footprints. Many cellulosic fuels rely on processing methods that produce mixtures of oxygenates which must be upgraded before blending with traditional fuels. Complete oxygenate removal is energy-intensive and it is likely that such biofuel blends will necessarily contain some oxygen content to be economically viable. Previous work by our group indicated that diesel fuel blends with low levels (<4%-vol) of oxygenates resulted in minimal negative effects on short-term engine performance and emissions. However, little is known about the long-term effects of these compounds on engine durabilitymore » issues such as the impact on fuel injection, in-cylinder carbon buildup, and engine oil degradation. In this study, four of the oxygenated components previously tested were blended at 4%-vol in diesel fuel and tested with a durability protocol devised for this work consisting of 200 hrs of testing in a stationary, single-cylinder, Yanmar diesel engine operating at constant load. Oil samples, injector spray patterns, and carbon buildup from the injector and cylinder surfaces were analyzed. It was found that, at the levels tested, these fuels had minimal impact on the overall engine operation, which is consistent with our previous findings.« less

  17. Energy efficient engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeisser, M. H.; Greene, W.; Dubiel, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The combustor for the Energy Efficient Engine is an annular, two-zone component. As designed, it either meets or exceeds all program goals for performance, safety, durability, and emissions, with the exception of oxides of nitrogen. When compared to the configuration investigated under the NASA-sponsored Experimental Clean Combustor Program, which was used as a basis for design, the Energy Efficient Engine combustor component has several technology advancements. The prediffuser section is designed with short, strutless, curved-walls to provide a uniform inlet airflow profile. Emissions control is achieved by a two-zone combustor that utilizes two types of fuel injectors to improve fuel atomization for more complete combustion. The combustor liners are a segmented configuration to meet the durability requirements at the high combustor operating pressures and temperatures. Liner cooling is accomplished with a counter-parallel FINWALL technique, which provides more effective heat transfer with less coolant.

  18. Carbide fuel pin and capsule design for irradiations at thermionic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. L.; Slaby, J. G.; Mattson, W. F.; Dilanni, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a capsule assembly to evaluate tungsten-emitter - carbide-fuel combinations for thermionic fuel elements is presented. An inpile fuel pin evaluation program concerned with clad temperture, neutron spectrum, carbide fuel composition, fuel geometry,fuel density, and clad thickness is discussed. The capsule design was a compromise involving considerations between heat transfer, instrumentation, materials compatibility, and test location. Heat-transfer calculations were instrumental in determining the method of support of the fuel pin to minimize axial temperature variations. The capsule design was easily fabricable and utilized existing state-of-the-art experience from previous programs.

  19. Development and Characterization of the Bonding and Integration Technologies Needed for Fabricating Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig,Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding technology, titanium interlayers (coatings and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness, and processing time were investigated. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases. In the diffusion bonds, an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner interlayers of pure titanium and/or longer processing times resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  20. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays.

    PubMed

    Powell, C F; Yue, Y; Poola, R; Wang, J

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 micros. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date.

  1. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  2. A laboratory model of a hydrogen/oxygen engine for combustion and nozzle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil H.; Myers, Roger M.; Benko, Stephen E.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    A small laboratory diagnostic thruster was developed in order to evaluate approaches for the use of temperature and pressure sensors for the investigation of low thrust rocket flowfields. Tests were performed at chamber pressures of about 255 kPa, 370 kPa, and 500 kPa with oxidizer/fuel mixture ratios between 4.0 and 8.0. Two gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen injector designs were tested with 60 and 75 fuel film cooling. The results of hot-wire tests showed the thruster and instrumentation designs to be effective. Azimuthal temperature distributions were found to be a function of operating conditions and hardware configuration. Results indicated that small differences in injector design can result in dramatically different thruster performance and wall temperature behavior. However, the importance of these injector effects may be decreased by operating at a high fuel film cooling rate.

  3. Effects of fuel nozzle design on performance of an experimental annular combustor using natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Schultz, D. F.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of various fuel nozzles were conducted with natural gas fuel in a full-annulus combustor. The nozzles were designed to provide either axial, angled, or radial fuel injection. Each fuel nozzle was evaluated by measuring combustion efficiency at relatively severe combustor operating conditions. Combustor blowout and altitude ignition tests were also used to evaluate nozzle designs. Results indicate that angled injection gave higher combustion efficiency, less tendency toward combustion instability, and altitude relight characteristics equal to or superior to those of the other fuel nozzles that were tested.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Renfro, David G; Chandler, David; Cook, David Howard

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully convertedmore » using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Renfro, David; Chandler, David; Cook, David

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted usingmore » the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline

  6. Challenges and Plans for the Proton Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoby, R.

    The flexibility of the LHC injectors combined with multiple longitudinal beam gymnastics have significantly contributed to the excellent performance of the LHC during its first run, delivering beam with twice the ultimate brightness with 50 ns bunch spacing. To meet the requirements of the High Luminosity LHC, 25 ns bunch spacing is required, the intensity per bunch at injection has to double and brightness shall almost triple. Extensive hardware modifications or additions are therefore necessary in all accelerators of the injector complex, as well as new beam gymnastics.

  7. Performance characteristics of LOX-H2, tangential-entry, swirl-coaxial, rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Doug; Petersen, Eric; Clark, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Development of a high performing swirl-coaxial injector requires an understanding of fundamental performance characteristics. This paper addresses the findings of studies on cold flow atomic characterizations which provided information on the influence of fluid properties and element operating conditions on the produced droplet sprays. These findings are applied to actual rocket conditions. The performance characteristics of swirl-coaxial injection elements under multi-element hot-fire conditions were obtained by analysis of combustion performance data from three separate test series. The injection elements are described and test results are analyzed using multi-variable linear regression. A direct comparison of test results indicated that reduced fuel injection velocity improved injection element performance through improved propellant mixing.

  8. Front-end simulation of injector for terawatt accumulator.

    PubMed

    Kropachev, G N; Balabin, A I; Kolomiets, A A; Kulevoy, T V; Pershin, V I; Shumshurov, A V

    2008-02-01

    A terawatt accumulator (TWAC) accelerator/storage ring complex with the laser ion source is in progress at ITEP. The new injector I4 based on the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and interdigital H-mode (IH) linear accelerator is under construction. The front end of the new TWAC injector consists of a laser ion source, an extraction system, and a low energy beam transport (LEBT). The KOBRA3-INP was used for the simulation and optimization of the ion source extraction system. The optimization parameter is the maximum brightness of the beam generated by the laser ion source. Also the KOBRA3-INP code was used for LEBT investigation. The LEBT based on electrostatic grid lenses is chosen for injector I4. The results of the extraction system and LEBT investigations for ion beam matching with RFQ are presented.

  9. Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2001-10-01

    We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

  10. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Fuel Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar; Webb, Jon; Qualls, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) is a game changing technology for space exploration. Goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS includes these overall tasks: (1) Pre-conceptual design of the NCPS and architecture integration (2) NCPS Fuel Design and Testing (3) Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) (4) Affordable NCPS Development and Qualification Strategy (5) Second Generation NCPS Concepts. There is a critical need for fuels development. Fuel task objectives are to demonstrate capabilities and critical technologies using full scale element fabrication and testing.

  11. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Fuel Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Broadway, Jeramie; Mireles, Omar; Webb, Jon; Qualls, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) is a game changing technology for space exploration. Goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS includes thses overall tasks: (1) Pre-conceptual design of the NCPS and architecture integration (2) NCPS Fuel Design and Testing (3) Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) (4) Affordable NCPS Development and Qualification Strategy (5) Second Generation NCPS Concepts. There is a critical need for fuels development. Fuel task objectives are to demonstrate capabilities and critical technologies using full scale element fabrication and testing.

  12. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan.

    PubMed

    Korematsu, Seigo; Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. "Guardians" at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was "hesitation about the timing of administration." If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis.

  13. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  14. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil)more » and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.« less

  15. Army Demonstration of Light Obscuration Particle Counters for Monitoring Aviation Fuel Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    Hydraulic industry has utilized this technology for decades and created a mature process •Hydraulic industry has developed recognized calibration ...Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18/16/13 14/10/7 Pamas/Parker/Particle Solutions 19/17/12 U.S. Army 19...17/14/13* Diesel Fuel World Wide Fuel Charter 4th 18/16/13 DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Bosch/Cummins 18/16/13 Donaldson 22/21/18 14/13/11 12/9/6 P ll

  16. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Injectors for Potential Future Mars Ascent Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary mission studies for human exploration of Mars have been performed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These studies indicate that for chemical rockets only a cryogenic propulsion system would provide high enough performance to be considered for a Mars ascent vehicle. Although the mission is possible with Earth-supplied propellants for this vehicle, utilization of in-situ propellants is highly attractive. This option would significantly reduce the overall mass of launch vehicles. Consequently, the cost of the mission would be greatly reduced because the number and size of the Earth launch vehicle(s) needed for the mission would decrease. NASA/Johnson Space Center has initiated several concept studies of in-situ propellant production plants. Liquid oxygen (LOX) is the primary candidate for an in-situ oxidizer. In-situ fuel candidates include methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and methanol (CH3OH). MSFC initiated a technology development program for a cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars human exploration mission in 1998. One part of this technology program is the effort described here: an evaluation of propellant injection concepts for a LOX/liquid methane Mars Ascent Engine (MAE) with an emphasis on light-weight, high efficiency, reliability, and thermal compatibility. In addition to the main objective, hot-fire tests of the subject injectors will be used to test other key technologies including light-weight combustion chamber materials and advanced ignition concepts. This paper will address the results of the liquid methane/LOX injector study conducted at MSFC. A total of four impinging injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure varied from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were performed. The test matrix also

  17. Low Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John; Smith, Timothy D.; Kundu, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 600 to 1000 deg F, 60 to 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia), and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over seven times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 2.5 and 3.5-in. diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NOx emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 1.0, 3.125, and 5.375 in. from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NOx emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.

  18. Low-Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John; Smith, Timothy D.; Kundu, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 588 to 811 K, 0.4 to 1.4 MPa, and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen-based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over 7 times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 6.35- and 8.9-cm-diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NO(x) emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 2.540, 7.937, and 13.652 cm from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NO(x) emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.

  19. Method and apparatus for duct sealing using a clog-resistant insertable injector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark P.

    2010-12-14

    A method for forming a duct access region through one side of a previously installed air duct, wherein the air duct has an air flow with an air flow direction by inserting an aerosol injector into a previously installed air duct through the access region. The aerosol injector includes a liquid tube having a liquid tube orifice for ejecting a liquid to be atomized; and a propellant cap. The method is accomplished by aligning the aerosol injector with the direction of air flow in the duct; activating an air flow within the duct; and spraying a sealant through the aerosol injector to seal the duct in the direction of the air flow.

  20. Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of Gasoline-Like Fuels under Diesel Operating Conditions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Torelli, R.; Som, S.; Pei, Y.

    Spray formation in internal combustion engines with direct injection is strictly correlated with internal nozzle flow characteristics, which are in turn influenced by fuel physical properties and injector needle motion. This paper pre-sents a series of 3D simulations that model the in-nozzle flow in a 5-hole mini-sac diesel injector. Two gasoline-like naphtha fuels, namely full-range and light naphtha, were tested under operating conditions typical of diesel applica-tions and were compared with n-dodecane, selected from a palette used as diesel surrogates. Validated methodolo-gies from our previous work were employed to account for realistic needle motion. The multi-phase nature of the problemmore » was described by the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Cavitation effects were included by means of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and turbulence closure was achieved with the Standard k-ε model in an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation. The results revealed that injector perfor-mance and propensity to cavitation are influenced by the fuel properties. Analyses of several physical quantities were carried out to highlight the fuel-to-fuel differences in terms of mass flow rate, discharge coefficients, and fuel vapor volume fraction inside the orifices. A series of parametric investigations was also performed to assess the fuel response to varied fuel injection temperature, injection pressure, and cross-sectional orifice area. For all cases, the strict correlation between cavitation magnitude and saturation pressure was confirmed. Owing to their higher volatil-ity, the two gasoline-like fuels were characterized by higher cavitation across all the simulated conditions. Occur-rence of cavitation was mostly found at the needle seat and at the orifice inlets during the injection event’s transient, when very small gaps exist between the needle and its seat. This behavior tended to disappear at maximum needle lift, where cavitation

  1. Terahertz quantum cascade laser with an X-valley-based injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mithun; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) design where Γ-valley states are used for lasing transition and X-valley states—in particular, Xz-states—are used as injector subbands. Since the lasing states in our proposed structure are populated and depopulated mainly through the interface roughness assisted Γ-Xz electron scattering, we present a model to describe this intervalley carrier transport. In the injector region of the proposed THz QCL, we use a quaternary AlGaAsP material to introduce tensile strain, which plays a crucial role in increasing the gain. To compensate the strain per period, we propose to grow the periodic heterostructure on a GaAs 0.94 P 0.06 virtual substrate. To simulate the carrier transport and hence calculate the gain and lasing performance of the proposed THz QCL, we use a simplified density matrix formalism that considers resonant tunneling, dephasing, and the important intersubband scattering mechanisms. Since electron temperature significantly varies from lattice temperature for QCLs, we take their difference into account using the kinetic energy balance method. We show that the proposed structure is capable of lasing up to a maximum lattice temperature of ˜119 K at 4.8 THz. For future improvements of the device, we identify major performance-degrading factors of the proposed design.

  2. Injector Element which Maintains a Constant Mean Spray Angle and Optimum Pressure Drop During Throttling by Varying the Geometry of Tangential Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, William Neill (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage is calculated. The correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values is used to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry. An injector designed using the method includes a plurality of geometrically calculated tangential inlets in an injection tube; an injection tube cap with a plurality of inlet slots slidably engages the injection tube. A pressure differential across the injector element causes the cap to slide along the injection tube and variably align the inlet slots with the tangential inlets.

  3. The Conceptual Design for a Fuel Assembly of a New Research Reactor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ryu, J-S.; Cho, Y-G.; Yoon, D-B.

    2004-10-06

    A new Research Reactor (ARR) has been under design by KAERI since 2002. In this work, as a first step for the design of the fuel assembly of the ARR, the conceptual design has been carried out. The vibration characteristics of the tubular fuel model and the locking performance of the preliminary designed locking devices were investigated. In order to investigate the effects of the stiffener on the vibration characteristics of the tubular fuel, a modal analysis was performed for the finite element models of the tubular fuels with stiffeners and without stiffeners. The analysis results show that the vibrationmore » characteristics of the tubular fuel with stiffeners are better than those of the tubular fuel without stiffeners. To investigate the locking performance of the preliminary designed locking devices for the fuel assembly of the ARR, the elements of the locking devices were fabricated. Then the torsional resistance, fixing status and vibration characteristics of the locking devices were tested. The test results show that using the locking device with fins on the bottom guide can prevent the torsional motion of the fuel assembly, and that additional springs or guides on the top of the fuel assembly are needed to suppress the lateral motion of the fuel assembly. Based on the modal analysis and experimental results, the fuel assembly and locking devices of the ARR were designed and its prototype was fabricated. The locking performance, pressure drop characteristics and vibration characteristics of the newly designed fuel assembly will be tested in the near future.« less

  4. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  5. Structural design considerations for micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikar, V. T.; Turner, Kevin T.; Andrew Ie, Tze Yung; Spearing, S. Mark

    Micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells (μSOFCs) are among a class of devices being investigated for portable power generation. Optimization of the performance and reliability of such devices requires robust, scale-dependent, design methodologies. In this first analysis, we consider the structural design of planar, electrolyte-supported, μSOFCs from the viewpoints of electrochemical performance, mechanical stability and reliability, and thermal behavior. The effect of electrolyte thickness on fuel cell performance is evaluated using a simple analytical model. Design diagrams that account explicitly for thermal and intrinsic residual stresses are presented to identify geometries that are resistant to fracture and buckling. Analysis of energy loss due to in-plane heat conduction highlights the importance of efficient thermal isolation in microscale fuel cell design.

  6. An automatic bolus injector for use in radiotracer studies of blood flow: design and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R E; Overton, T R; Boisvert, D P; Petruk, K C

    1976-12-01

    An electromechanical device is described which automatically injects the radiotracer bolus used in the measurement of cerebral blood flow. It consists of two electronically controlled, solenoid operated syringes, one containing the radiotracer solution and the other heparinized saline. Results are presented which show that use of the automatic bolus injector in place of hand injection leads to an improvement in the precision of measured flow values. Additional advantages of the device are discussed.

  7. X-ray Radiography Measurements of Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    injector EPL profiles have elliptical shape expected from a solid liquid jet  EPL decreases as liquid core is atomized and droplets are...study diesel, swirl, gas-centered swirl-coaxial, impingers, and aerated liquid jet injectors  Use a monochromatic beam of x-rays at a synchrotron...Shear coaxial jets can be found in a number of combustion devices – Turbofan engine exhaust, air blast furnaces, and liquid rocket engines

  8. Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Synthetic Jet Fuel Analysis in the Ultra Compact Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    In the primary zone, high- temperature, high-pressure air enters from the compressor and flows around fuel injectors spraying atomized liquid -droplet...chemical reaction in which synthesis gas , a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. The most...the fuel lines needed to be rebuilt due to a recent COAL lab renovation. The liquid fuel system had not been used for nearly two years so some

  9. Aircraft-Fuel-Tank Design for Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T W

    1955-01-01

    Some of the considerations involved in the design of aircraft fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen are discussed herein. Several of the physical properties of metals and thermal insulators in the temperature range from ambient to liquid-hydrogen temperatures are assembled. Calculations based on these properties indicate that it is possible to build a large-size liquid-hydrogen fuel tank which (1) will weigh less then 15 percent of the fuel weight, (2) will have a hydrogen vaporization rate less than 30 percent of the cruise fuel-flow rate, and (3) can be held in a stand-by condition and readied for flight in a short time.

  10. Photographic combustion characterization of LOX/Hydrocarbon type propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred twenty-seven tests were conducted over a chamber pressure range of 125-1500 psia, a fuel temperature range of -245 F to 158 F, and a fuel velocity range of 48-707 ft/sec to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of using high speed photography to identify potential combustion anomalies such as pops, fuel freezing, reactive stream separation and carbon formations. Combustion evaluation criteria were developed to guide selection of the fuels, injector elements, and operating conditions for testing. Separate criteria were developed for fuel and injector element selection and evaluation. The photographic test results indicated conclusively that injector element type and design directly influence carbon formation. Unlike spray fan, impingement elements reduce carbon formation because they induce a relatively rapid near zone fuel vaporization rate. Coherent jet impingement elements, on the other hand, exhibit increased carbon formation.

  11. Self-regulating fuel staging port for turbine combustor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Van Nieuwenhuizen, William F.; Fox, Timothy A.; Williams, Steven

    2014-07-08

    A port (60) for axially staging fuel and air into a combustion gas flow path 28 of a turbine combustor (10A). A port enclosure (63) forms an air path through a combustor wall (30). Fuel injectors (64) in the enclosure provide convergent fuel streams (72) that oppose each other, thus converting velocity pressure to static pressure. This forms a flow stagnation zone (74) that acts as a valve on airflow (40, 41) through the port, in which the air outflow (41) is inversely proportion to the fuel flow (25). The fuel flow rate is controlled (65) in proportion to enginemore » load. At high loads, more fuel and less air flow through the port, making more air available to the premixing assemblies (36).« less

  12. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  13. Investigation of transient ignition process in a cavity based scramjet combustor using combined ethylene injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Cai, Zun; Tong, Yiheng; Zheng, Hongtao

    2017-08-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and experiment were employed to investigate the transient ignition and flame propagation process in a rearwall-expansion cavity scramjet combustor using combined fuel injection schemes. The compressible supersonic solver and three ethylene combustion mechanisms were first validated against experimental data and results show in reasonably good agreement. Fuel injection scheme combining transverse and direct injectors in the cavity provides a benefit mixture distribution and could achieve a successful ignition. Four stages are illustrated in detail from both experiment and LES. After forced ignition in the cavity, initial flame kernel propagates upstream towards the cavity front edge and ignites the mixture, which acts as a continuous pilot flame, and then propagates downstream along the cavity shear layer rapidly to the combustor exit. Cavity shear layer flame stabilization mode can be concluded from the heat release rate and local high temperature distribution during the combustion process.

  14. Gaseous hydrogen/oxygen injector performance characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, W. A.; Tsuei, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    Results are presented of spontaneous Raman scattering measurements in the combustion chamber of a 110 N thrust class gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket. Temperature, oxygen number density, and water number density profiles at the injector exit plane are presented. These measurements are used as input profiles to a full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Predictions of this code while using the measured profiles are compared with predictions while using assumed uniform injector profiles. Axial and radial velocity profiles derived from both sets of predictions are compared with Rayleigh scattering measurements in the exit plane of a 33:1 area ratio nozzle. Temperature and number density Raman scattering measurements at the exit plane of a test rocket with a 1:1.36 area ratio nozzle are also compared with results from both sets of predictions.

  15. Molecular Beam Studies of Volatile Liquids and Fuel Surrogates Using Liquid Microjets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    themselves. Detailed discussions of the microjet technique are carried out in the following publications. Nozzle Liquid Jet Chopper Wheel...heating and evaporation occur within 1 ms of fuel leaving the fuel injector . This atomization proves is often the limiting process in combustion...This analysis leads to criteria for selecting the temperature and nozzle radius for producing stable jets in vacuum. Figure 4 depicts the

  16. Design and Performance of LPG Fuel Mixer for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrial; Saputro, W.; Garcia, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    Small horizontal diesel engines are commonly used for agricultural machinery, however, availability of diesel fuel become one of big problems especially in remote area. Conversely, in line with government policy for conversion of kerosene into LPG for cooking, then LPG become more popular and available even in remote area. Therefore, LPG is potential fuel to replace the shortage of diesel fuel for operating diesel engine in remote area. The purpose of this study was to design mixing device for using dual fuel i.e. LPG and diesel fuel and evaluate its performance accordingly. Simulation by using CFD was done in order to analyze mixture characteristics of LPG in air intake manifold. The performance test was done by varying the amount of LPG injected in intake air at 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, until 40%, respectively. Result of CFD contour simulation showed the best combination when mixing 30% LPG into the intake air. Performance test of this research revealed that mixing LPG in air intake can reduce the diesel fuel consumption about 0.7 l/hour (without load) and 1.14 l/hour (with load). Diesel engine revolution increases almost 300 rpm faster than when using diesel fuel only. Based on economic analysis, using the fuel combination (diesel fuel – LPG) is not recommended in the area near SPBU where the price of diesel fuel is standard. However, using the fuel combination LPG-diesel fuel is highly recommended in the remote areas in Indonesia where price of diesel fuel is comparatively expensive which will provide cheaper total fuel cost for diesel engine operation.

  17. Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rod design and performance characteristics (LWBR Development Program)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Campbell, W.R.; Giovengo, J.F.

    1987-10-01

    Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel rods were designed to provide a reliable fuel system utilizing thorium/uranium-233 mixed-oxide fuel while simultaneously minimizing structural material to enhance fuel breeding. The fuel system was designed to be capable of operating successfully under both load follow and base load conditions. The breeding objective required thin-walled, low hafnium content Zircaloy cladding, tightly spaced fuel rods with a minimum number of support grid levels, and movable fuel rod bundles to supplant control rods. Specific fuel rod design considerations and their effects on performance capability are described. Successful completion of power operations to over 160 percentmore » of design lifetime including over 200 daily load follow cycles has proven the performance capability of the fuel system. 68 refs., 19 figs., 44 tabs.« less

  18. Designing the microturbine engine for waste-derived fuels.

    PubMed

    Seljak, Tine; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper deals with adaptation procedure of a microturbine (MGT) for exploitation of refuse derived fuels (RDF). RDF often possess significantly different properties than conventional fuels and usually require at least some adaptations of internal combustion systems to obtain full functionality. With the methodology, developed in the paper it is possible to evaluate the extent of required adaptations by performing a thorough analysis of fuel combustion properties in a dedicated experimental rig suitable for testing of wide-variety of waste and biomass derived fuels. In the first part key turbine components are analyzed followed by cause and effect analysis of interaction between different fuel properties and design parameters of the components. The data are then used to build a dedicated test system where two fuels with diametric physical and chemical properties are tested - liquefied biomass waste (LW) and waste tire pyrolysis oil (TPO). The analysis suggests that exploitation of LW requires higher complexity of target MGT system as stable combustion can be achieved only with regenerative thermodynamic cycle, high fuel preheat temperatures and optimized fuel injection nozzle. Contrary, TPO requires less complex MGT design and sufficient operational stability is achieved already with simple cycle MGT and conventional fuel system. The presented approach of testing can significantly reduce the extent and cost of required adaptations of commercial system as pre-selection procedure of suitable MGT is done in developed test system. The obtained data can at the same time serve as an input for fine-tuning the processes for RDF production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Large Eddy Simulations of Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-Element Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    Instability in a Multi- Element Injector 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew Harvazinski, Yogin...Simulations of Transverse  Combustion Instability in a Multi‐ Element  Injector 2 History Damaged engine injector  faceplate caused by combustion...Clearance #16346 3 Single  Element  Studies Short Post Marginally Stable Intermediate Post Unstable Long Post Stable Long Post Unstable CVRC Experiment

  20. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results