Science.gov

Sample records for fuel safety criteria

  1. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  2. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  3. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  4. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  5. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  6. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  7. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  8. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  9. Uncertainties in the effects of burnup and their impact on criticality safety licensing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fisher, L.E.

    1990-07-13

    Current criteria for criticality safety for spent fuel shipping and storage casks are conservative because no credit is permitted for the effects of burnup of the fuel inside the cask. Cask designs that will transport and store large numbers of fuel assemblies (20 or more) must devote a substantial part of their payload to criticality control measures if they are to meet this criteria. The Department of Energy is developing the data necessary to support safety analyses that incorporate the effects of burnup for the next generation of spent fuel shipping casks. The efforts described here are devoted to the development of acceptance criteria that will be the basis for accepting safety analyses. Preliminary estimates of the uncertainties of the effects of burnup have been developed to provide a basis for the consideration of critically safety criteria. The criticality safety margins in a spent fuel shipping or storage cask are dominated by the portions of a fuel assembly that are in low power regions of a reactor core, and the reactor operating conditions are very different from spent fuel storage or transport cask conditions. Consequently, the experience that has been gathered during years of reactor operation does not apply directly to the prediction of criticality safety margins for spent fuel shipping or storage casks. The preliminary estimates of the uncertainties presented in this paper must be refined by both analytical and empirical studies that address both the magnitude of the uncertainties and their interdependence. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  10. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  11. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  12. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  13. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  14. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  15. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  16. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  17. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  18. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  19. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  20. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  1. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  2. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  3. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is...

  4. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  5. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes.

  6. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. This paper will describe the manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility will be presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  7. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. The manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria are described. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility is presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  8. Fuel Fracture (Crumbling) Safety Impact (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-12-08

    The safety impact of experimentally observed N Reactor fuel sample fracture and fragmentation is evaluated using an average reaction rate enhancement derived from data from thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments on fuel samples. The enhanced reaction rates attributed to fragmentation were within the existing safety basis.

  9. Fuel Fracture (Crumbling) Safety Impacts (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-01-24

    The safety impact of experimentally observed N Reactor fuel sample fracture and fragmentation is evaluated using an average reaction rate enhancement derived from data from thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments on fuel samples. The enhanced reaction rates attributed to fragmentation were within the existing safety basis. Peer review comments for the Revision 0 version were incorporated.

  10. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  12. Risk-based versus deterministic explosives safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) is actively considering ways to apply risk-based approaches in its decision- making processes. As such, an understanding of the impact of converting to risk-based criteria is required. The objectives of this project are to examine the benefits and drawbacks of risk-based criteria and to define the impact of converting from deterministic to risk-based criteria. Conclusions will be couched in terms that allow meaningful comparisons of deterministic and risk-based approaches. To this end, direct comparisons of the consequences and impacts of both deterministic and risk-based criteria at selected military installations are made. Deterministic criteria used in this report are those in DoD 6055.9-STD, `DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standard.` Risk-based criteria selected for comparison are those used by the government of Switzerland, `Technical Requirements for the Storage of Ammunition (TLM 75).` The risk-based criteria used in Switzerland were selected because they have been successfully applied for over twenty-five years.

  13. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H.; Atcheson, Donald B.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  14. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Charles R.

    1995-09-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.

  15. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

  16. Criteria for Modeling in LES of Multicomponent Fuel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Selle, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    A report presents a study addressing the question of which large-eddy simulation (LES) equations are appropriate for modeling the flow of evaporating drops of a multicomponent liquid in a gas (e.g., a spray of kerosene or diesel fuel in air). The LES equations are obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) equations in which the solution is computed at all flow length scales, by applying a spatial low-pass filter. Thus, in LES the small scales are removed and replaced by terms that cannot be computed from the LES solution and instead must be modeled to retain the effect of the small scales into the equations. The mathematical form of these models is a subject of contemporary research. For a single-component liquid, there is only one LES formulation, but this study revealed that for a multicomponent liquid, there are two non-equivalent LES formulations for the conservation equations describing the composition of the vapor. Criteria were proposed for selecting the multicomponent LES formulation that gives the best accuracy and increased computational efficiency. These criteria were applied in examination of filtered DNS databases to compute the terms in the LES equations. The DNS databases are from mixing layers of diesel and kerosene fuels. The comparisons resulted in the selection of one of the multicomponent LES formulations as the most promising with respect to all criteria.

  17. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

  18. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed. PMID:22467662

  19. (UA1 reactor fuels safety and performance)

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1990-07-13

    The traveler visited several reactor and hot cell experimental facilities connected with JAERI at the Oarai and Tokai establishments. Uranium silicide fission product release experimental data and related acquisition systems were discussed. A presentation was made by the traveler on analysis and modeling of fission product release from UAl reactor fuels. Data obtained by JAERI thus far were offered to the traveler for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) review and analysis. This data confirmed key aspects of ORNL theoretical model predictions and will be useful for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) design. The Oarai establishment expressed their interest and willingness to pursue ORNL/JAERI cooperative efforts in understanding volatile fission product release behavior from silicide fuels. The traveler also presented a perspective overview on ORNL severe accident analysis technology and identified areas for cooperation in JAERI's forthcoming transient testing program. JAERI staff presented plans for evaluating silicide fuel performance under transient reactivity insertion accident conditions in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) facility. A surprise announcement was made concerning JAERI's most recent initiative relating to the construction of a safety demonstration reactor (SDR) at the Tokai site. The purpose of this reactor facility would be to demonstrate operational safety of both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) in support of Japan's nuclear power industry.

  20. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  1. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  2. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  3. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.128 Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor... reactor-related GTCC waste, must be designed to ensure adequate safety under normal and accident..., reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling....

  4. A study of commercial vehicle safety alliance's out-of-service criteria.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, S U; Miller, S G; Bell, C A; Montagne, P E

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes a two-phase project that reviewed the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance's out-of-service criteria for vehicles. The first phase examined relevant background information and conducted a questionnaire survey of CVSA inspectors and industry representatives. The second phase of the project involved extensive collection and evaluation of accident data. The results of both phases show a high level of support, in terms of contribution to vehicle accidents, for four of the vehicle criteria (regarding brakes, load securement, tires, and wheels and rims). There was some support for coupling devices, fuel systems, lighting devices, steering and suspension. The support for the remaining vehicle criteria (exhaust systems, frames, van and open top trailer bodies, and windshield wipers) was little to none. Further research continuing the study of accident data is recommended to confirm these findings. However, the data must be collected in a consistent and detailed manner if accurate information on the relationship of accidents and vehicle criteria is to be established.

  5. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Katsounaros, Ioannis; Witte, Jonathon; Bongard, Hans J; Topalov, Angel A; Baldizzone, Claudio; Mezzavilla, Stefano; Schüth, Ferdi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS). All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested. PMID:24605273

  6. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  7. 10 CFR 32.31 - Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. 32.31 Section 32.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO... Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. (a) An applicant for a...

  8. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-10-02

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established.

  9. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... safety conduct. 240.109 Section 240.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... eligibility based on prior safety conduct. (a) Each railroad's program shall include criteria and procedures to implement this section. (b) A railroad shall evaluate the prior safety conduct of any person it...

  10. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  11. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this design calculation is to perform a criticality evaluation of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) and the operations and processes performed therein. The current intent of the FHF is to receive transportation casks whose contents will be unloaded and transferred to waste packages (WP) or MGR Specific Casks (MSC) in the fuel transfer bays. Further, the WPs will also be prepared in the FHF for transfer to the sub-surface facility (for disposal). The MSCs will be transferred to the Aging Facility for storage. The criticality evaluation of the FHF features the following: (I) Consider the types of waste to be received in the FHF as specified below: (1) Uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF); (2) Canistered CSNF (with the exception of horizontal dual-purpose canister (DPC) and/or multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)); (3) Navy canistered SNF (long and short); (4) Department of Energy (DOE) canistered high-level waste (HLW); and (5) DOE canistered SNF (with the exception of MCOs). (II) Evaluate the criticality analyses previously performed for the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified transportation casks (under 10 CFR 71) to be received in the FHF to ensure that these analyses address all FHF conditions including normal operations, and Category 1 and 2 event sequences. (III) Evaluate FHF criticality conditions resulting from various Category 1 and 2 event sequences. Note that there are currently no Category 1 and 2 event sequences identified for FHF. Consequently, potential hazards from a criticality point of view will be considered as identified in the ''Internal Hazards Analysis for License Application'' document (BSC 2004c, Section 6.6.4). (IV) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the fuel transfer bay for defense in depth. The SNF/HLW waste transfer activity (i.e., assembly and canister transfer) that is being carried out in the FHF has been classified as safety category in the ''Q-list'' (BSC 2003, p. A-6

  12. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  13. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  14. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  15. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  16. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  17. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above the vehicle manufacturer's designated height (49 CFR 570.8). (b) The criteria listed in paragraph... starburst or spider webbing effect greater than 3 inches by 3 inches. No opaque or solid material...

  18. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  19. Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Barsell, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core.

  20. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-06

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility.

  1. Updating of Safety Criteria for Basic Diagnostic Indicators of Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L. A.; Skvortsova, A. E.

    2013-09-15

    Values of diagnostic indicators [K]-limitations placed on radial displacements and turn angles of horizontal sections of the dam - which are permitted for each upper-pool level within the range from 520 to 539 m are determined and proposed for inclusion in the Declaration of Safety. Empirical relationships used to develop safety criteria K1 and K2 are modified.

  2. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  3. Impact of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2012-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for considerably longer periods than originally intended (e.g., <40 years). Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation of nuclear fuel to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. This effort is primarily motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES. The criticality analyses consider representative UNF designs and cask systems and a range of fuel enrichments, burnups, and cooling times. The various failed-fuel configurations considered are designed to bound the anticipated effects of individual rod and general cladding failure, fuel rod deformation, loss of neutron absorber materials, degradation of canister internals, and gross assembly failure. The results quantify the potential impact on criticality safety associated with fuel reconfiguration and may be used to guide future research, design, and regulatory activities. Although it can be concluded that the criticality safety impacts of fuel reconfiguration during transportation subsequent to ES are manageable, the results indicate that certain configurations can result in a large increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. Future work to inform decision making relative to which configurations are credible, and therefore need to be considered in a safety evaluation, is recommended.

  4. 40 CFR 600.115-11 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... economy label calculation method. 600.115-11 Section 600.115-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.115-11 Criteria...

  5. 40 CFR 600.115-11 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... economy label calculation method. 600.115-11 Section 600.115-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.115-11 Criteria...

  6. 40 CFR 600.115-11 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.115-11 Criteria for... derived 5-cycle method for determining fuel economy label values, as specified in § 600.210-08(a)(2) or (b... economy label values must be determined according to the vehicle-specific 5-cycle method specified...

  7. Nuclear energy with inherent safety: Change of outdated paradigm, criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Orlov, V. V.; Rachkov, V. I.; Slessarev, I. S.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern nuclear power technology still has significant sources of risk, and, weak links, such as, a threat of severe accidents with catastrophic unpredictable consequences and damage to the population, proliferation of nuclear weapon-usable materials, risks of long-term storage of toxic radioactive waste, risks of loss of major investments in nuclear facilities and their construction, lack of fuel resources for the ambitious role of nuclear power in the competitive balance of energy. Each of these risks is important and almost independent, though the elimination of some of them does not significantly alter the overall assessment of nuclear power.

  8. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  9. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  10. Evaluation of criteria for developing traffic safety materials for Latinos.

    PubMed

    Streit-Kaplan, Erica L; Miara, Christine; Formica, Scott W; Gallagher, Susan Scavo

    2011-03-01

    This quantitative study assessed the validity of guidelines that identified four key characteristics of culturally appropriate Spanish-language traffic safety materials: language, translation, formative evaluation, and credible source material. From a sample of 190, the authors randomly selected 12 Spanish-language educational materials for analysis by 15 experts. Hypotheses included that the experts would rate materials with more of the key characteristics as more effective (likely to affect behavioral change) and rate materials originally developed in Spanish and those that utilized formative evaluation (e.g., pilot tests, focus groups) as more culturally appropriate. Although results revealed a weak association between the number of key characteristics in a material and the rating of its effectiveness, reviewers rated materials originally created in Spanish and those utilizing formative evaluation as significantly more culturally appropriate. The findings and methodology demonstrated important implications for developers and evaluators of any health-related materials for Spanish speakers and other population groups.

  11. Safety aspects of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, R.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Charak, I.; Tessier, J.H.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gabor, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the important safety considerations related to the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle technology, the pyroprocess. Argonne has been developing the IFR since 1984. It is a liquid metal cooled reactor, with a unique metal alloy fuel, and it utilizes a radically new fuel cycle. An existing facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) is being modified and equipped to provide a complete demonstration of the fuel cycle. This paper will concentrate on safety aspects of the future HFEF/S operation, slated to begin late next year. HFEF/S is part of Argonne's complex of reactor test facilities located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. HFEF/S was originally put into operation in 1964 as the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) (Stevenson, 1987). From 1964--69 FCF operated to demonstrate an earlier and incomplete form of today's pyroprocess, recycling some 400 fuel assemblies back to EBR-II. The FCF mission was then changed to one of an irradiated fuels and materials examination facility, hence the name change to HFEF/S. The modifications consist of activities to bring the facility into conformance with today's much more stringent safety standards, and, of course, providing the new process equipment. The pyroprocess and the modifications themselves are described more fully elsewhere (Lineberry, 1987; Chang, 1987). 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Safety criteria for flying E-sail through solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Toivanen, Petri

    2015-09-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) propellantless propulsion device uses long, charged metallic tethers to tap momentum from the solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. If flying through planetary or moon eclipse, the long E-sail tethers can undergo significant thermal contraction and expansion. Rapid shortening of the tether increases its tension due to inertia of the tether and a Remote Unit that is located on the tether tip (a Remote Unit is part of typical E-sail designs). We analyse by numerical simulation the conditions under which eclipse induced stresses are safe for E-sail tethers. We calculate the closest safe approach distances for Earth, Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Ceres and an exemplary 300 km main belt asteroid Interamnia for circular, parabolic and hyperbolic orbits. We find that any kind of eclipsing is safe beyond approximately 2.5 au distance, but for terrestrial planets safety depends on the parameters of the orbit. For example, for Mars the safe distance with 20 km E-sail tether lies between Phobos and Deimos orbits.

  13. Inherent Safety of Fuels for Accelerator-Driven Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, M.; Wallenius, J.; Jolkkonen, M.; Cahalan, J.E

    2005-09-15

    Transient safety characteristics of accelerator-driven systems using advanced minor actinide fuels have been investigated. Results for a molybdenum-based Ceramic-Metal (CerMet) fuel, a magnesia-based Ceramic-Ceramic fuel, and a zirconium-nitride-based fuel are reported. The focus is on the inherent safety aspects of core design. Accident analyses are carried out for the response to unprotected loss-of-flow and accelerator beam-overpower transients and coolant voiding scenarios. An attempt is made to establish basic design limits for the fuel and cladding. Maximum temperatures during transients are determined and compared with design limits. Reactivity effects associated with coolant void, fuel and structural expansion, and cladding relocation are investigated. Design studies encompass variations in lattice pitch and pin diameter. Critical mass studies are performed. The studies indicate favorable inherent safety features of the CerMet fuel. Major consideration is given to the potential threat of coolant voiding in accelerator-driven design proposals. Results for a transient test case study of a postulated steam generator tube rupture event leading to extensive coolant voiding are presented. The study underlines the importance of having a low coolant void reactivity value in a lead-bismuth system despite the high boiling temperature of the coolant. It was found that the power rise following a voiding transient increases dramatically near the critical state. The studies suggest that a reactivity margin of a few dollars in the voided state is sufficient to permit significant reactivity insertions.

  14. Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian; Worrall, Andrew; Powers, Jeffrey; Bowman, Steve; Flanagan, George; Gehin, Jess

    2014-02-01

    Thorium has been widely considered an alternative to uranium fuel because of its relatively large natural abundance and its ability to breed fissile fuel (233U) from natural thorium (232Th). Possible scenarios for using thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle include use in different nuclear reactor types (light water, high temperature gas cooled, fast spectrum sodium, molten salt, etc.), advanced accelerator-driven systems, or even fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on concepts that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2), add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to LWR fuel assemblies, or use mixed plutonium and thorium (PuO2 + ThO2) fuel assemblies. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts on the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have nuclear characteristics that are different from those of uranium. In addition, ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These aspects are key to reactor safety-related issues. The primary objectives of this report are to summarize historical, current, and proposed uses of thorium in nuclear reactors; provide some important properties of thorium fuel; perform qualitative and quantitative evaluations of both in-reactor and out-of-reactor safety issues and requirements specific to a thorium-based fuel cycle for current LWR reactor designs; and identify key knowledge gaps and technical issues that need to be addressed for the licensing of thorium LWR fuel in the United States.

  15. Safety analysis of thorium-based fuels in the General Electric Standard BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.J.; Townsend, D.B.; Kunz, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    A denatured (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/ fuel assembly has been designed which is energy equivalent to and hardware interchangeable with a modern boiling water reactor (BWR) reference reload assembly. Relative to the reference UO/sub 2/ fuel, the thorium fuel design shows better performance during normal and transient reactor operation for the BWR/6 product line and will meet or exceed current safety and licensing criteria. Power distributions are flattened and thermal operating margins are increased by reduced steam void reactivity coefficients caused by U-233. However, a (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR will likely have reduced operating flexibility. A (U-235/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR should perform similar to a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR under all operating conditions. A (Pu/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR may have reduced thermal margins and similar accident response and be less stable than a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR. The assessment is based on comparisions of point model and infinite lattice predictions of various nuclear reactivity parameters, including void reactivity coefficients, Doppler reactivity coefficients, and control blade worths.

  16. Performance of a Fuel-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Using a Hydrogenated Safety Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.

  17. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

    1999-10-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  18. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

    1999-09-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  19. Double-clad nuclear-fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, W.H.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-12-30

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  20. 10 CFR 32.31 - Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. 32.31 Section 32.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items §...

  1. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct. 240.109 Section 240.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements...

  2. Safety issues of dry fuel storage at RSWF

    SciTech Connect

    Clarksean, R.L.; Zahn, T.P.

    1995-02-01

    Safety issues associated with the dry storage of EBR-II spent fuel are presented and discussed. The containers for the fuel have been designed to prevent a leak of fission gases to the environment. The storage system has four barriers for the fission gases. These barriers are the fuel cladding, an inner container, an outer container, and the liner at the RSWF. Analysis has shown that the probability of a leak to the environment is much less than 10{sup {minus}6} per year, indicating that such an event is not considered credible. A drop accident, excessive thermal loads, criticality, and possible failure modes of the containers are also addressed.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  4. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  5. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  6. Radiological criteria for the remediation of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest.

    PubMed

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Titov, A V; Smith, G M; Novikova, N Ya; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s, two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in Northwest Russia, at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and are now designated sites of temporary storage (STSs). An analysis of the radiation situation at these sites demonstrates that substantial long-term remediation work will be required after the removal of the waste and spent nuclear fuel. Regulatory guidance is under development to support this work. Having in mind modern approaches to guaranteeing radiation safety, the primary regulatory focus is on a justification of dose constraints for determining acceptable residual contamination which might lead to exposure to workers and the public. For these sites, four principal options for remediation have been considered-renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. This paper describes a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels formulated for each option. The unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection provides the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimisation principle. The developed criteria relate to the condition of the facilities and the STS areas after the termination of remediation activities. The proposed criteria for renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation are entirely within the dose limits adopted in Russia for the management of man-made radiation sources, and are consistent with ICRP recommendations and national practice in other countries. The proposed criteria for STS remediation and new industrial (non-radiation-hazardous) facilities and buildings on

  7. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  8. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  9. Evaluation of Hygiene and Safety Criteria in the Production of a Traditional Piedmont Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Gorlier, Alessandra; Gramaglia, Monica; Lombardi, Giampiero; Macori, Guerrino; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B). Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw)] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products. PMID:27800354

  10. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  11. Acceptance criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-clad fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Direct repository disposal of foreign and domestic research reactor fuels owned by the United States Department of Energy is an alternative to reprocessing (together with vitrification of the high level waste and storage in an engineered barrier) for ultimate disposition. Neither the storage systems nor the requirements and specifications for acceptable forms for direct repository disposal have been developed; therefore, an interim storage strategy is needed to safely store these fuels. Dry storage (within identified limits) of the fuels received from wet-basin storage would avoid excessive degradation to assure post-storage handleability, a full range of ultimate disposal options, criticality safety, and provide for maintaining confinement by the fuel/clad system. Dry storage requirements and technologies for US commercial fuels, specifically zircaloy-clad fuels under inert cover gas, are well established. Dry storage requirements and technologies for a system with a design life of 40 years for dry storage of aluminum-clad foreign and domestic research reactor fuels are being developed by various groups within programs sponsored by the DOE.

  12. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Jill M; D'Oria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems, describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, and provides considerations for local implementation. PMID:25203897

  13. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Jill M; DʼOria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; DʼAlton, Mary E

    2014-10-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems and describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, along with considerations for local implementation. PMID:25198266

  14. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    PubMed

    Mhyre, Jill M; DʼOria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; DʼAlton, Mary E

    2014-10-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems and describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, along with considerations for local implementation.

  15. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  16. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  17. Estimation of Inherent Safety Margins in Loaded Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Robb, Kevin R.; Radulescu, Georgeta; Scaglione, John M.

    2016-06-15

    We completed a novel assessment to determine the unquantified and uncredited safety margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and as-loaded calculations) available in as-loaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks. This assessment was performed as part of a broader effort to assess issues and uncertainties related to the continued safety of casks during extended storage and transportability following extended storage periods. Detailed analyses crediting the actual as-loaded cask inventory were performed for each of the casks at three decommissioned pressurized water reactor (PWR) sites to determine their characteristics relative to regulatory safety criteria for criticality, thermal, and shielding performance.more » These detailed analyses were performed in an automated fashion by employing a comprehensive and integrated data and analysis tool—Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF-ST&DARDS). Calculated uncredited criticality margins from 0.07 to almost 0.30 Δkeff were observed; calculated decay heat margins ranged from 4 to almost 22 kW (as of 2014); and significant uncredited transportation dose rate margins were also observed. The results demonstrate that, at least for the casks analyzed here, significant uncredited safety margins are available that could potentially be used to compensate for SNF assembly and canister structural performance related uncertainties associated with long-term storage and subsequent transportation. The results also suggest that these inherent margins associated with how casks are loaded could support future changes in cask licensing to directly or indirectly credit the margins. Work continues to quantify the uncredited safety margins in the SNF casks loaded at other nuclear reactor sites.« less

  18. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  19. Criteria for development of a database for safety evaluation of fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ford, R A; Domeyer, B; Easterday, O; Maier, K; Middleton, J

    2000-04-01

    Over 2000 different ingredients are used in the manufacture of fragrances. The majority of these ingredients have been used for many decades. Despite this long history of use, all of these ingredients need continued monitoring to ensure that each ingredient meets acceptable safety standards. As with other large databases of existing chemicals, fulfilling this need requires an organized approach to identify the most important potential hazards. One such approach, specifically considering the dermal route of exposure as the most relevant one for fragrance ingredients, has been developed. This approach provides a rational selection of materials for review and gives guidance for determining the test data that would normally be considered necessary for the elevation of safety under intended conditions of use. As a first step, the process takes into account the following criteria: quantity of use, consumer exposure, and chemical structure. These are then used for the orderly selection of materials for review with higher quantity, higher exposure, and the presence of defined structural alerts all contributing to a higher priority for review. These structural alerts along with certain exposure and volume limits are then used to develop guidelines for determining the quality and quantity of data considered necessary to support an adequate safety evaluation of the chosen materials, taking into account existing data on the substance itself as well as on closely related analogs. This approach can be considered an alternative to testing; therefore, it is designed to be conservative but not so much so as to require excessive effort when not justified.

  20. A Criteria Standard for Conflict Resolution: A Vision for Guaranteeing the Safety of Self-Separation in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky; Narkawicz, Anthony; Maddalon, Jeffrey; Hagen, George

    2010-01-01

    Distributed approaches for conflict resolution rely on analyzing the behavior of each aircraft to ensure that system-wide safety properties are maintained. This paper presents the criteria method, which increases the quality and efficiency of a safety assurance analysis for distributed air traffic concepts. The criteria standard is shown to provide two key safety properties: safe separation when only one aircraft maneuvers and safe separation when both aircraft maneuver at the same time. This approach is complemented with strong guarantees of correct operation through formal verification. To show that an algorithm is correct, i.e., that it always meets its specified safety property, one must only show that the algorithm satisfies the criteria. Once this is done, then the algorithm inherits the safety properties of the criteria. An important consequence of this approach is that there is no requirement that both aircraft execute the same conflict resolution algorithm. Therefore, the criteria approach allows different avionics manufacturers or even different airlines to use different algorithms, each optimized according to their own proprietary concerns.

  1. Choices, choices: the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to a food safety decision-making problem.

    PubMed

    Fazil, A; Rajic, A; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S

    2008-11-01

    In the food safety arena, the decision-making process can be especially difficult. Decision makers are often faced with social and fiscal pressures when attempting to identify an appropriate balance among several choices. Concurrently, policy and decision makers in microbial food safety are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their policies and decisions are made using transparent and accountable processes. In this article, we present a multi-criteria decision analysis approach that can be used to address the problem of trying to select a food safety intervention while balancing various criteria. Criteria that are important when selecting an intervention were determined, as a result of an expert consultation, to include effectiveness, cost, weight of evidence, and practicality associated with the interventions. The multi-criteria decision analysis approach we present is able to consider these criteria and arrive at a ranking of interventions. It can also provide a clear justification for the ranking as well as demonstrate to stakeholders, through a scenario analysis approach, how to potentially converge toward common ground. While this article focuses on the problem of selecting food safety interventions, the range of applications in the food safety arena is truly diverse and can be a significant tool in assisting decisions that need to be coherent, transparent, and justifiable. Most importantly, it is a significant contributor when there is a need to strike a fine balance between various potentially competing alternatives and/or stakeholder groups.

  2. Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol.

    PubMed

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2009-03-15

    The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria.

  3. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  4. Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on the Vaporization of Safety Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1932-01-01

    Tests were conducted with the N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus to determine the effect of compression ratio and engine temperature on the vaporization of a hydrogenated "safety fuel" during the compression stroke under conditions similar to those in a spark-ignition engine. The effects of fuel boiling temperature on vaporization using gasoline, safety fuel, and Diesel fuel oil was also investigated. The results show that increasing the compression ratio has little effect on the rate of fuel vaporization, but that increasing the air temperature by increasing the engine temperature increases the rate of fuel vaporization. The results also show that the vaporized fuel forms a homogeneous mixture with the air more rapidly that does the atomized fuel spray.

  5. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-12

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation for the gas and liquid sampling activities associated with the fuel characterization program at the 100 K West (KW) fuel storage basin. The scope of this safety evaluation is limited to the movement of canisters between the main storage basin, weasel pit, and south loadout pit transfer channel (also known as the decapping station); gas and liquid sampling of fuel canisters in the weasel pit; mobile laboratory preliminary sample analysis in or near the 105 KW basin building; and the placement of sample containers in an approved shipping container. It was concluded that the activities and potential accident consequences associated with the gas and liquid sampling of 100 KW fuel canisters are bounded by the current safety basis documents and do not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question.

  6. Safety analysis of B and W Standard PWR using thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Uotinen, V.O.; Carroll, W.P.; Jones, H.M.; Toops, E.C.

    1980-06-01

    A study was performed to assess the safety and licenseability of the Babcock and Wilcox standard 205-fuel assembly PWR when it is fueled with three types of thoria-based fuels denatured (/sup 233/U//sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, denatured (/sup 235//U/sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, and (Th-Pu)O/sub 2/. Selected transients were analyzed using typical PWR safety analysis calculational methods. The results support the conclusion that it is feasible from a safety standpoint to utilize either of the denatured urania-thoria fuels in the standard B and W plant. In addition, it appears that the use of thoria-plutonia fuels would probably also be feasible. These tentative conclusions depend on a data that is more limited than that available for UO/sub 2/ fuels.

  7. An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

  8. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  9. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multiple-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic In-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  10. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Poh -Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  11. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

    2011-01-01

    The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described.

  12. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

    2011-01-01

    The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. PMID:21399407

  13. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  14. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (iii) N-version programming concept. This concept requires a processor-based product to use at least... for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems. Volume II: Development of a Safety...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (iii) N-version programming concept. This concept requires a processor-based product to use at least... for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems. Volume II: Development of a Safety...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... management controls. The Secretary, in turn, delegated this to the FMCSA. (b) To meet the safety standard, a motor carrier must demonstrate to the FMCSA that it has basic safety management controls in place which function adequately to ensure minimum acceptable compliance with the applicable safety requirements....

  18. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  19. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  20. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S.; Delicate, W.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  1. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  2. Packaging Strategies for Criticality Safety for "Other" DOE Fuels in a Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Larry L Taylor

    2004-06-01

    Since 1998, there has been an ongoing effort to gain acceptance of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the national repository. To accomplish this goal, the fuel matrix was used as a discriminating feature to segregate fuels into nine distinct groups. From each of those groups, a characteristic fuel was selected and analyzed for criticality safety based on a proposed packaging strategy. This report identifies and quantifies the important criticality parameters for the canisterized fuels within each criticality group to: (1) demonstrate how the “other” fuels in the group are bounded by the baseline calculations or (2) allow identification of individual type fuels that might require special analysis and packaging.

  3. Criticality safety evaluation for pathfinder fuel elements in model No. RA-3 shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1986-11-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently processes approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which will require shipment from their nuclear facility. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-IV, and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of these fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. Except for a slightly higher U-235 enrichment in the UO/sub 2/ rods of the Pathfinder fuel elements, the parameters for the proposed shipment are within those limits currently approved in Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 17, for shipment of UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in the Model RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis in this report verifies an adequate margin of criticality safety for the Pathfinder fuel elements in Model RA-3 containers for a Fissile Class 1 shipment.

  4. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... elements of this safety review, including basic safety management controls. The Secretary, in turn.... Recordable accident, as defined in 49 CFR 390.5, means an accident involving a commercial motor vehicle... radius of less than 100 air miles (normally urban areas), have a higher exposure to accident...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... elements of this safety review, including basic safety management controls. The Secretary, in turn.... Recordable accident, as defined in 49 CFR 390.5, means an accident involving a commercial motor vehicle... radius of less than 100 air miles (normally urban areas), have a higher exposure to accident...

  7. Promoting positive safety news - the American Ref-Fuel VPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    American Ref-Fuel has a documented record of being a safety leader in their industry. In fact, American Ref-Fuel is only the third company of any industry to have all of its operating facilities designated as Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star worksites by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). While they are proud of their safety accomplishments, this has presented a whole new challenge -- namely how to promote this message to a media and public who may be largely indifferent to the existance of such safety practices unless there is a major problem. This paper examines the company`s rationale for pursuing publicity of their safety record as well as detailing implementation of that strategy to date.

  8. Modeling and optimization of a typical fuel cell-heat engine hybrid system and its parametric design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yingru; Chen, Jincan

    A theoretical modeling approach is presented, which describes the behavior of a typical fuel cell-heat engine hybrid system in steady-state operating condition based on an existing solid oxide fuel cell model, to provide useful fundamental design characteristics as well as potential critical problems. The different sources of irreversible losses, such as the electrochemical reaction, electric resistances, finite-rate heat transfer between the fuel cell and the heat engine, and heat-leak from the fuel cell to the environment are specified and investigated. Energy and entropy analyses are used to indicate the multi-irreversible losses and to assess the work potentials of the hybrid system. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the hybrid system are derived and the performance characteristics of the system are presented and discussed in detail. The effects of the design parameters and operating conditions on the system performance are studied numerically. It is found that there exist certain optimum criteria for some important parameters. The results obtained here may provide a theoretical basis for both the optimal design and operation of real fuel cell-heat engine hybrid systems. This new approach can be easily extended to other fuel cell hybrid systems to develop irreversible models suitable for the investigation and optimization of similar energy conversion settings and electrochemistry systems.

  9. Alternate analysis criteria for the seismic qualification of the supplementary safety system in Reactor Building 105-L, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, C.N.; Wong, P.W.

    1982-09-01

    This system consists of a series of stainless-steel, safety-related pipelines, 1/2 to 2 in. in diameter, which run from the control room to the reactor tank. The alternate analysis criteria were developed for the seismic qualification of the piping system, according to the requirements of the 1967 Housner criteria. The application of alternate analysis criteria is a widely employed and accepted procedure for the seismic qualification of large lengths of nuclear power plant small-diameter piping (generally 2 in. in diameter and smaller). Objective of this procedure is to eliminate the need for extensive and costly individual mathematical modeling and dynamic analysis of a great number of small-bore piping systems. The procedure used to develop the alternate analysis criteria consisted of applying equivalent static seismic loading to the various pipe sizes to determine maximum support spacings for each pipe size based on the allowable stress or deflection limits. Guidelines were also developed to provide for sufficient thermal growth capacity, which is typically in direct conflict with seismic requirements.

  10. 77 FR 58607 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance..., Licensing and Evaluation Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800... Space Transportation. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  11. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  12. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  13. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  14. On the Criticality Safety of Transuranic Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Transport Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Bays; Ayodeji Alajo

    2010-05-01

    This work addresses the neutronic performance and criticality safety issues of transport casks for fuel pertaining to low conversion ratio sodium cooled fast reactors, conventionally known as Advanced Burner Reactors. The criticality of a one, three, seven and 19-assembly cask capacity is presented. Both dry “helium” and flooded “water” filled casks are considered. No credit for fuel burnup or fission products was assumed. As many as possible of the conservatisms used in licensing light water reactor universal transport casks were incorporated into this SFR cask criticality design and analysis. It was found that at 7-assemblies or more, adding moderator to the SFR cask increases criticality margin. Also, removal of MAs from the fuel increases criticality margin of dry casks and takes a slight amount of margin away for wet casks. Assuming credit for borated fuel tube liners, this design analysis suggests that as many as 19 assemblies can be loaded in a cask if limited purely by criticality safety. If no credit for boron is assumed, the cask could possibly hold seven assemblies if low conversion ratio fast reactor grade fuel and not breeder reactor grade fuel is assumed. The analysis showed that there is a need for new cask designs for fast reactors spent fuel transportation. There is a potential of modifying existing transportation cask design as the starting point for fast reactor spent fuel transportation.

  15. Inherent safety advantages of carbide fuel systems and technical issues regarding natural convection in LMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Barthold, W.P.

    1984-08-01

    The scope of work is to summarize inherent safety advantages that are unique to the use of a carbide based fuel system and to summarize the technical issues regarding natural convection flow in LMFBR cores. As discussed in this report, carbide fuel provides the designer with far greater flexibility than oxide fuel. Carbide fuel systems can be designed to eliminate major accident initiators. They turn quantitative advantages into a qualitative advantage. The author proposed to LANL a series of core design and component concepts that would greatly enhance the safety of carbide over oxide systems. This report cites a series of safety advantages which potentially exist for a carbide fuel system. Natural convection issues have not been given much attention in the past. Only during the last few years has this issue been addressed in some detail. Despite claims to the contrary by some of the LMR contractors, the author does not think that the natural convection phenomena is fully understood. Some of the approximations made in natural convection transient analyses have probably a greater impact on calculated transient temperatures than the effects under investigation. Only integral in-pile experimental data and single assembly out-of-pile detailed data are available for comparisons with analytical models and correlations. Especially for derated cores, the natural convection capability of a LMR should be far superior to that of a LWR. The author ranks the natural convection capability of the LMR as the most important inherent safety feature.

  16. The JRC-ITU approach to the safety of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Fanghaenel, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Somers, J.; Konings, R.; Erdmann, N.; Uffelen, P. van; Glatz, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    The JRC-ITU safety studies of advanced fuels and cycles adopt two main axes. First the full exploitation of still available and highly relevant knowledge and samples from past fuel preparation and irradiation campaigns (complementing the limited number of ongoing programmes). Secondly, the shift of focus from simple property measurement towards the understanding of basic mechanisms determining property evolution and behaviour of fuel compounds during normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The final objective of the second axis is the determination of predictive tools applicable to systems and conditions different from those from which they were derived. State of the art experimental facilities, extensive networks of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations worldwide, and a developing programme for training and education are essential in this approach. This strategy has been implemented through various programs and projects. The SUPERFACT programme constitutes the main body of existing knowledge on the behavior in-pile of MOX fuel containing minor actinides. It encompassed all steps of a closed fuel cycle. Another international project investigating the safety of a closed cycle is METAPHIX. In this case a U-Pu19-Zr10 metal alloy containing Np, Am and Cm constitutes the fuel. 9 test pins have been prepared and irradiated. In addition to the PIE (Post Irradiation Examination), pyrometallurgical separation of the irradiated fuel has been performed, to demonstrate all the steps of a multiple recycling closed cycle and characterize their safety relevant aspects. Basic studies like thermodynamic fuel properties, fuel-cladding-coolant interactions have also been carried out at JRC-ITU.

  17. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  18. K Basin sludge packaging design criteria (PDC) and safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) approval plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1996-03-06

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the Packaging Design Crieteria for the K Basin Sludge Transportation System and the Associated on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. The transportation system addressed in the subject documents will be used to transport sludge from the K Basins using bulk packaging.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management controls. The Secretary, in turn, delegated this to the FMCSA. (b) To meet the safety standard, a... months. Recordable accident, as defined in 49 CFR 390.5, means an accident involving a commercial motor... within a radius of less than 100 air miles (normally urban areas), have a higher exposure to...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management controls. The Secretary, in turn, delegated this to the FMCSA. (b) To meet the safety standard, a... months. Recordable accident, as defined in 49 CFR 390.5, means an accident involving a commercial motor... within a radius of less than 100 air miles (normally urban areas), have a higher exposure to...

  1. 76 FR 30232 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance... associated with suborbital space flight. The reduced gravity levels are: --0.00 g 0.05 g for 17 continuous... Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue, SW.,...

  2. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liess, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S

  3. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect

    Liess, Martin

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  4. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G.; Swain, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  5. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  6. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  7. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  8. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  9. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for the N Reactor/single pass reactor fuel characterization shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-10-13

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the ChemNuclear CNS 1-13G packaging to ship samples of irradiated fuel elements from the 100 K East and 100 K West basins to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) in support of the spent nuclear fuel characterization effort. It also authorizes the return of the fuel element samples to the 100 K East facility using the same packaging. The CNS 1-13G cask has been-chosen to transport the fuel because it has a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for transporting irradiated oxide and metal fuel in commerce. It is capable of being loaded and offloaded underwater and may be shipped with water in the payload compartment.

  10. The importance of safety in achieving the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.

    1997-09-01

    The advantages of hydrogen fuel have been adequately demonstrated on numerous occasions. However, two major disadvantages have prevented any significant amount of corresponding development. These disadvantages have been in the economics of producing sufficient quantities of hydrogen and in the safety (both real and perceived) of its use. To date work has mostly been properly centered on solving the economic problems. However, a greater effort on the safety of new hydrogen systems now being proposed also deserves consideration. To achieve the greatest safety in the expansion of the use of hydrogen into its wide-spread use as a fuel, attention must be given to four considerations. These are, obtaining knowledge of all the physical principles involved in the new uses, having in place the regulations that allow the safe interfacing of the new systems, designing and constructing the new systems with safety in mind, and the training of the large number of people that will become the handlers of the hydrogen. Existing organizations that produce, transport, or use hydrogen on a large scale have an excellent safety record. This safety record comes as a consequence of dedicated attention to the above-mentioned principles. However, where these principles were not closely followed, accidents have resulted. Some examples can be cited. As the use of hydrogen becomes more widespread, there must be a mechanism for assuring the universal application of these principles. Larger and more numerous fleet operations with hydrogen fuel may be the best way to begin the indoctrination of the general public to the more general use of hydrogen fuel. Demonstrated safe operation with hydrogen is vital to its final acceptance as the fuel of choice.

  11. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered.

  12. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. PMID:25510979

  13. ASCO steam generators operating experience. Safety criteria for defect management and effectiveness of preventive measures

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, E.L.

    1997-02-01

    ASCO NPP is a two W-PWR 930 Mwe Units. Each Unit is provided with three Westinghouse Model D3 steam generators which are of preheater type and Inconel 600 MA as tube material. The Secondary side was designed and erected with copper alloys. Unit I: 81.072 EFPH, and Unit II: 69.720 EFPH. The results of the Eddy Currents Inspections performed during the first refueling outage showed Denting at tube support plates and PWSCC at roll transition zone in Unit I and Denting in Unit II. Later inspections showed other types of damages, such as: (1) ODSCC at tube support plates intersections. (2) Circumferential cracks OD and ID at roll transition zone. (3) Wear at antivibration bars and preheater baffles level. Consequently, in order to limit the plugging rate, A.N. ASCO decided to license new plugging criteria in addition to the 40% depth criterion included in Technical Specification. The new licensing criteria and surveillance requirements, varying with tube zone, are explained in the paper.

  14. Secondary Protection for 70 MPa Fueling - A White Paper from the Hydrogen Safety Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Kallman, Richard A.

    2009-07-01

    In developing a 70 megapascal (MPa) fueling infrastructure, it is critical to ensure that a vehicle equipped with a lower service pressure fuel tank is never filled from a 70 MPa fueling source. Filling of a lower service pressure vehicle at a 70 MPa fueling source is likely to result in a catastrophic event with severe injuries or fatalities. The Hydrogen Safety Panel recommends that DOE undertake a two-step process to address this issue: 1. Perform an independent risk analysis of a 70MPa dispenser filling a lower pressure vehicle tank and develop different approaches for prevention and mitigation to meet an acceptable level of safety. Cost effectiveness, reliability, advantages and disadvantages are among the factors that should be evaluated for each approach considered. 2. Until such time as this analysis is complete and any recommended actions implemented, communicate the potential risk to responsible parties and strongly encourage those parties to add a secondary layer of protection to the existing system of mechanically non-interchangeable nozzles/receptacles. This will reduce the probability of a pressure mismatch during this developmental phase for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and infrastructure. This step can be reassessed after further analysis is completed and the need and effectiveness of secondary protection methods are evaluated. This paper provides background discussion of the problem, current safety systems and strategy and examples of potential future solutions to support the above recommendations.

  15. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Risoluti, P.

    2004-10-06

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention) is the only legally binding international treaty in the area of radioactive waste management. It was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference in September 1997 and opened for signature on 29 September 1997. The Convention entered into force on 18 June 1998, and to date (September 04) has been signed by 42 States, of which 34 have formally ratified, thus becoming Contracting Parties. The Joint Convention applies to spent fuel and radioactive waste resulting from civilian application. Its principal aim is to achieve and maintain a high degree of safety in their management worldwide. The Convention is an incentive instrument, not designed to ensure fulfillment of obligations through control and sanction, but by a peer pressure. The obligations of the Contracting Parties are mainly based on the international safety standards developed by the IAEA in past decades. The Convention is intended for all countries generating radioactive waste. Therefore it is relevant not only for those using nuclear power, but for any country where application of nuclear energy in medicine, conventional industry and research is currently used. Obligations of Contracting Parties include attending periodic Review Meetings and prepare National Reports for review by the other Contracting Parties. The National Reports should describe how the country is complying with the requirements of the Articles of the Convention. The first such meeting was held at the IAEA headquarters in November 2003. This paper will describe the origin of the Convention, present its content, the expected outcome for the worldwide safety, and the benefits for a country to be part of it.

  16. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool

  17. The flammability limits of lean fuel-air mixtures: thermochemical and kinetic criteria for explosion hazards.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D; Hertzberg, M

    1975-01-01

    The present state of knowledge is reviewed concisely in terms of the experimental methods used, the effect of apparatus size, accuracy of data, methods of data presentation, and the sensitivity of the limits to initial temperature and pressure. The heat of combustion per mole of gas mixture at the lean limit is a reliable thermochemical criterion for the flammability of organic fuels with comparable reactivities. The limit calorific value for the heavy paraffins is 11.5 +/- 0.1 kcal mole -1. However, kinetic effects strongly influence this value. Highly reactive fuels (hydrogen, acetylene) require lower energy contents, whereas less reactive fuels (ammonia) require higher values. Hydrogen-starved fuels (carbon monoxide, cyanogen) show marked anomalies and are sensitive to impurities that can provide H-atom chain carriers. These kinetic effects are reflected in the experimentally measurable burning velocity of the fuel. This parameter is a key ingredient in the theory of flammable limits, which is briefly sketched. Five competing processes dissipate power from the combustion wave and quench it at some characteristic limit velocity. The prevalent consensus that the limits are controlled by natural convection is clearly demonstrated, and the complex interplay of kinetics and thermochemistry follows logically therefrom.

  18. A Critical Review of Practice of Equating the Reactivity of Spent Fuel to Fresh Fuel in Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Parks, C.V.

    2000-09-01

    This research examines the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to that of fresh fuel for the purpose of performing burnup credit criticality safety analyses for PWR spent fuel pool (SFP) storage conditions. The investigation consists of comparing k{sub inf} estimates based on reactivity equivalent fresh fuel enrichment (REFFE) to k{sub inf} estimates using the actual spent fuel isotopics. Analyses of selected storage configurations common in PWR SFPs show that this practice yields nonconservative results (on the order of a few tenths of a percent) in configurations in which the spent fuel is adjacent to higher-reactivity assemblies (e.g., fresh or lower-burned assemblies) and yields conservative results in configurations in which spent fuel is adjacent to lower-reactivity assemblies (e.g., higher-burned fuel or empty cells). When the REFFE is determined based on unborated water moderation, analyses for storage conditions with soluble boron present reveal significant nonconservative results associated with the use of the REFFE. This observation is considered to be important, especially considering the recent allowance of credit for soluble boron up to 5% in reactivity. Finally, it is shown that the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to fresh fuel is acceptable, provided the conditions for which the REFFE was determined remain unchanged. Determination of the REFFE for a reference configuration and subsequent use of the REFFE for different configurations violates the basis used for the determination of the REFFE and, thus, may lead to inaccurate, and possibly, nonconservative estimates of reactivity. A significant concentration ({approximately}2000 ppm) of soluble boron is typically (but not necessarily required to be) present in PWR SFPs, of which only a portion ({le} 500 ppm) may be credited in safety analyses. Thus, a large subcritical margin currently exists that more than accounts for errors or uncertainties associated with the use of

  19. Integrated indicator to evaluate vehicle performance across: Safety, fuel efficiency and green domains.

    PubMed

    Torrao, G; Fontes, T; Coelho, M; Rouphail, N

    2016-07-01

    In general, car manufacturers face trade-offs between safety, efficiency and environmental performance when choosing between mass, length, engine power, and fuel efficiency. Moreover, the information available to the consumers makes difficult to assess all these components at once, especially when aiming to compare vehicles across different categories and/or to compare vehicles in the same category but across different model years. The main objective of this research was to develop an integrated tool able to assess vehicle's performance simultaneously for safety and environmental domains, leading to the research output of a Safety, Fuel Efficiency and Green Emissions (SEG) indicator able to evaluate and rank vehicle's performance across those three domains. For this purpose, crash data was gathered in Porto (Portugal) for the period 2006-2010 (N=1374). The crash database was analyzed and crash severity prediction models were developed using advanced logistic regression models. Following, the methodology for the SEG indicator was established combining the vehicle's safety and the environmental evaluation into an integrated analysis. The obtained results for the SEG indicator do not show any trade-off between vehicle's safety, fuel consumption and emissions. The best performance was achieved for newer gasoline passenger vehicles (<5year) with a smaller engine size (<1400cm(3)). According to the SEG indicator, a vehicle with these characteristics can be recommended for a safety-conscious profile user, as well as for a user more interested in fuel economy and/or in green performance. On the other hand, for larger engine size vehicles (>2000cm(3)) the combined score for safety user profile was in average more satisfactory than for vehicles in the smaller engine size group (<1400cm(3)), which suggests that in general, larger vehicles may offer extra protection. The achieved results demonstrate that the developed SEG integrated methodology can be a helpful tool for

  20. Integrated indicator to evaluate vehicle performance across: Safety, fuel efficiency and green domains.

    PubMed

    Torrao, G; Fontes, T; Coelho, M; Rouphail, N

    2016-07-01

    In general, car manufacturers face trade-offs between safety, efficiency and environmental performance when choosing between mass, length, engine power, and fuel efficiency. Moreover, the information available to the consumers makes difficult to assess all these components at once, especially when aiming to compare vehicles across different categories and/or to compare vehicles in the same category but across different model years. The main objective of this research was to develop an integrated tool able to assess vehicle's performance simultaneously for safety and environmental domains, leading to the research output of a Safety, Fuel Efficiency and Green Emissions (SEG) indicator able to evaluate and rank vehicle's performance across those three domains. For this purpose, crash data was gathered in Porto (Portugal) for the period 2006-2010 (N=1374). The crash database was analyzed and crash severity prediction models were developed using advanced logistic regression models. Following, the methodology for the SEG indicator was established combining the vehicle's safety and the environmental evaluation into an integrated analysis. The obtained results for the SEG indicator do not show any trade-off between vehicle's safety, fuel consumption and emissions. The best performance was achieved for newer gasoline passenger vehicles (<5year) with a smaller engine size (<1400cm(3)). According to the SEG indicator, a vehicle with these characteristics can be recommended for a safety-conscious profile user, as well as for a user more interested in fuel economy and/or in green performance. On the other hand, for larger engine size vehicles (>2000cm(3)) the combined score for safety user profile was in average more satisfactory than for vehicles in the smaller engine size group (<1400cm(3)), which suggests that in general, larger vehicles may offer extra protection. The achieved results demonstrate that the developed SEG integrated methodology can be a helpful tool for

  1. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  2. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  3. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  4. Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; McNair, G.W.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1980-05-01

    Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuel disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close-packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close-packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded that disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation. Several topics for additional research were identified during this limited study.

  5. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-08-01

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models.

  6. Evaluation of transient fuel pin cladding failure criteria for application to inherently safe LMFBR designs

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J M; DiMelfi, R J

    1984-03-01

    Purpose of report is to evaluate the methods for determining time-temperature-stress limits for cladding failure under accident conditions for inherently safe LMFBR designs. The range of expected thermal-mechanical cladding loading conditions is outlined for generic accident events, and application of existing mechanistic and empirical cladding failure models to these conditions is evaluated. The study is restricted to reference oxide fuel pins with austenitic stainless steel cladding.

  7. Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, S

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  8. Assessment of the safety of spent fuel transportation in urban environs

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, R.P.; Weber, J.P.; Levine, H.S.; Romig, A.D.; Johnson, J.D.; Luna, R.E.; Newton, G.J.; Wong, B.A.; Marshall, R.W. Jr.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    The results of a program to provide an experimental data base for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a light-water-reactor spent fuel shipping cask in a densely populated area are presented. The results of subscale and full-scale experiments in conjunction with an analytical modeling study are described. The experimental data were used as input to a reactor-safety consequence model to predict radiological health consequences resulting from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a spent-fuel shipping cask in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The results of these calculations are presented.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  10. Development of Criteria for Flameholding Tendencies within Premixer Passages for High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Elliot; McDonell, Vincent

    2015-03-31

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. The two main approaches for coping with flashback are either to design a combustor that is resistant to flashback, or to design a premixer that will not anchor a flame if flashback occurs. Even with a well-designed combustor flashback can occur under certain circumstances, thus it is necessary to determine how to avoid flameholding within the premixer passageways of a gas turbine. To this end, an experiment was designed that would determine the flameholding propensities at elevated pressures and temperatures of three different classes of geometric features commonly found in gas turbine premixers, with both natural gas and hydrogen fuel. Experiments to find the equivalence ratio at blow off were conducted within an optically accessible test apparatus with four flameholders: 0.25 and 0.50 inch diameter cylinders, a reverse facing step with a height of 0.25 inches, and a symmetric airfoil with a thickness of 0.25 inches and a chord length of one inch. Tests were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 750 K, at pressures up to 9 atmospheres. Typical bulk velocities were between 40 and 100 m/s. The effect of airfoil’s angle of rotation was also investigated. Blow off for hydrogen flames was found to occur at much lower adiabatic flame temperatures than natural gas flames. Additionally it was observed that at high pressures and high turbulence intensities, reactant velocity does not have a noticeable effect on the point of blow off due in large part to corresponding increases in turbulent flame speed. Finally a semi empirical correlation was developed that predicts flame extinction for both

  11. Criticality safety evaluation for pathfinder fuel elements in model No. RA-3 shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1990-02-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently possesses approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which require shipment from their nuclear facility. It is planned to use Model No. RA-3 shipping containers for shipment of these elements. Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 22, Docket No. 71-4986 authorizes the use of these containers for Fissile Class 1 shipments of UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies and UO{sub 2} fuel rods with parameters similar to the Pathfinder fuel elements. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-V.a and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of Pathfinder fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis is described and the results are given in this report. This analysis demonstrates that the RA-3 container with Pathfinder fuel elements complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.59 for Fissile Class 2 shipping containers with six as the allowable number of containers in a single shipment. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Criticality safety evaluation for Pathfinder fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently possesses approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which require shipment from their nuclear facility. It is planned to use Model No. RA-3 shipping containers for shipment of these elements. Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 18, Docket No. 71-4986 authorizes the use of these containers for Fissile Class I shipments of UO/sub 2/ fuel assemblies and UO/sub 2/ fuel rods with parameters similar to the Pathfinder fuel elements. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-V.a and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of Pathfinder fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis is described and the results are given in this report. This analysis demonstrates that the RA-3 container with Pathfinder fuel elements complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.59 for Fissile Class II shipping containers with six as the allowable number of containers in a single shipment. 5 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Accident safety analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the accident safety analysis is to identify and analyze a range of credible events, their cause and consequences, and to provide technical justification for the conclusion that uranium billets, fuel assemblies, uranium scrap, and chips and fines drums can be safely stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, the contaminated equipment, High-Efficiency Air Particulate filters, ductwork, stacks, sewers and sumps can be cleaned (decontaminated) and/or removed, the new concretion process in the 304 Building will be able to operate, without undue risk to the public, employees, or the environment, and limited fuel handling and packaging associated with removal of stored uranium is acceptable.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Use of Burnup Credit as a Safety Factor in Handling of NIST Fuel Assemblies in the L Basin of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, DA

    2004-01-07

    Burnup credit was recently used for the first time in criticality safety analysis to support the handling of the National Institute of Standards and Technology spent fuel assemblies in the L Basin of Savannah River Site. Previous criticality safety analyses were based on the fissile content of fresh, unirradiated fuel assemblies, resulting in handling of a group of 10 or less fuel assemblies at a time. Using burnup credit, it was demonstrated that an isolated configuration of up to 14 NITS fuel assemblies, the maximum number of fuel assemblies in a full basket, submerged in a concrete-lined, water-filled pool is subcritical, resulting in several administrative controls being modified or eliminated without compromising safety.

  17. Roadmap to an Engineering-Scale Nuclear Fuel Performance & Safety Code

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A; Clarno, Kevin T; Hansen, Glen A

    2009-09-01

    -development activities. Realizing the full benefits of this approach will likely take some time. However, it is important that the developmental activities for modeling and simulation be tightly coupled with the experimental activities to maximize feedback effects and accelerate both the experimental and analytical elements of the program toward a common objective. The close integration of modeling and simulation and experimental activities is key to developing a useful fuel performance simulation capability, providing a validated design and analysis tool, and understanding the uncertainties within the models and design process. The efforts of this project are integrally connected to the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC), which maintains as a primary objective to formulate, fabricate, and qualify a transuranic-based fuel with added minor actinides for use in future fast reactors. Additional details of the TFC scope can be found in the Transmutation Fuels Campaign Execution Plan. This project is an integral component of the TFC modeling and simulation effort, and this multiyear plan borrowed liberally from the Transmutation Fuels Campaign Modeling and Simulation Roadmap. This document provides the multiyear staged development plan to develop a continuum-level Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) to predict the behavior of the fuel and cladding during normal reactor operations and anticipated transients up to the point of clad breach.

  18. Optimum design of a fuel-cell powertrain based on multiple design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarioglu, Ismail Levent; Czapnik, Bartosch; Bostanci, Emine; Klein, Olaf P.; Schröder, Hendrik; Küçükay, Ferit

    2014-11-01

    As the number of fuel-cell vehicles on the roads increase, the vehicle designs are gaining more importance. Clearly, one major topic in this field is the optimization of powertrain designs. In this design process, the aim of the car manufacturers is to meet the expectations of the potential customer best, while creating a sustainable product. However, due to several trade-offs in the design, it would be non-realistic to expect a single solution that fulfills all design objectives. Therefore, a systematical approach, which includes a trade-off analysis and evaluation methods for this multiobjective design problem, is required. In this paper, a suitable methodology is presented and applied in a case study, where an optimum powertrain design for a typical European long-range passenger car is sought. Simulation-aided powertrain models and scalable component models are used to increase the accuracy of the design process. Furthermore, various visual and quantitative evaluation techniques are applied in order to support the decision making process.

  19. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100K East and 100K West in-basin fuel characterization program activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-12

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation of the 105K East (KE) and 105K West (KW) in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program as described in the characterization shipping plan. The significant activities that are common to both 105 KE and 105 KW basins are the movement of canisters from their main basin storage locations (or potentially from the 105 KE Tech View Pit if a dump table is available) to the south loadout pit transfer channel, hydrogen generation testing in the single element fuel container, loading the single element fuel container into the shipping cask, loading of the shipping cask onto a flat-bed trailer, return of the test fuel elements or element pieces from the 327 facility, placement of the fuel elements back into Mark 2 canisters, and placement of the canisters in the main storage basin. Decapping of canisters in the south loadout pit transfer channel and re-encapsulation of canisters are activities specific to the 105 KW basin. The scope of this safety evaluation includes only those characterization fuel shipment activities performed in the 105 KE and 105 KW fuel storage basin structures up to installation of the overpack. The packaging safety evaluation report governs the shipment of the fuel elements. The K Basins Plant Review Committee has determined that the in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program fuel shipments are bounded by the current safety envelop and do not constitute an unreviewed safety question. This determination is documented on Attachment 1.

  20. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized. PMID:26134739

  1. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety analysis of a spent fuel waste package in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    Weren, B.H.; Capo, M.A.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    An assessment has been performed of the criticality potential associated with the disposal of spent fuel in a tuff geology above the water table. Eleven potential configurations were defined which cover a vast range of geometries and conditions from the nominal configuration at emplacement to a hypothetical configuration thousands of years after emplacement in which the structure is gone, the fuel pellets disintegrated and the borehole flooded. Of these eleven configurations, four have been evaluated at this time. The results of this evaluation indicate that even with very conservative assumptions (4.5 w/o fresh fuel), criticality is not a problem for the nominal configuration either dry or fully flooded. In the cases where the condition of the waste package is assumed to have severely deteriorated, over long times, calculations were performed with less conservative assumptions (depleted fuel). An assessment of these calculations indicates that criticality safety could be demonstrated if the depletion of the fissile inventory during fuel irradiation is taken into account. A detailed discussion of the calculations performed is presented in this report. Also included are a description of the configurations which were considered, the analytical methods and models used, and a discussion of additional related work which should be performed. 15 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  4. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  5. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-08-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  6. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Andrew; Matthews, Topher; Lenhof, Renae; Deason, Wesley; Harter, Jackson

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  7. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis of spent fuel transportation cask in research reactors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified. PMID:26720262

  9. Shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis of spent fuel transportation cask in research reactors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified.

  10. Submersion criticality safety of tungsten-rhenium urania cermet fuel for space propulsion and power applications

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Craft; R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. C. King

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear thermal rockets are the preferred propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars, and tungsten–uranium oxide cermet fuels could provide significant performance and cost advantages for nuclear thermal rockets. A nuclear reactor intended for use in space must remain subcritical before and during launch, and must remain subcritical in launch abort scenarios where the reactor falls back to Earth and becomes submerged in terrestrial materials (including seawater, wet sand, or dry sand). Submersion increases reflection of neutrons and also thermalizes the neutron spectrum, which typically increases the reactivity of the core. This effect is typically very significant for compact, fast-spectrum reactors. This paper provides a submersion criticality safety analysis for a representative tungsten/uranium oxide fueled reactor with a range of fuel compositions. Each submersion case considers both the rhenium content in the matrix alloy and the uranium oxide volume fraction in the cermet. The inclusion of rhenium significantly improves the submersion criticality safety of the reactor. While increased uranium oxide content increases the reactivity of the core, it does not significantly affect the submersion behavior of the reactor. There is no significant difference in submersion behavior between reactors with rhenium distributed within the cermet matrix and reactors with a rhenium clad in the coolant channels. The combination of the flooding of the coolant channels in submersion scenarios and the presence of a significant amount of spectral shift absorbers (i.e. high rhenium concentration) further decreases reactivity for short reactor cores compared to longer cores.

  11. Rates of time preference and consumer valuations of automobile safety and fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyfus, M.K.; Viscusi, W.K.

    1995-04-01

    This article estimates hedonic price models for automobiles using a data set on almost 3,000 households from the US Department of Energy Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey. The standard hedonic models are generalized to recognize the role of discounting of fuel efficiency and safety, yielding an estimated rate of time preference ranging from 11 to 17 percent. This range includes the prevailing rate of interest for car loans in 1988 and is consequently consistent with market rates. Purchasers exhibit an implicit value of life ranging from $2.6 to $3.7 million, which is within the range found in the labor market as well as other market contexts. The model also estimates a significant price effect for auto injury risks and fuel efficiency. 31 refs.

  12. First high temperature safety tests of AGR-1 TRISO fuel with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Scates, Dawn M.; Scott, Les; Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-09-01

    Three TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment were subjected to safety tests at 1600 and 1800 °C for approximately 300 h to evaluate the fission product retention characteristics. Silver behavior was dominated by rapid release of an appreciable fraction of the compact inventory (3–34%) at the beginning of the tests, believed to be from inventory residing in the compact matrix and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) prior to the safety test. Measurable release of silver from intact particles appears to become apparent only after ~60 h at 1800 °C. The release rate for europium and strontium was nearly constant for 300 h at 1600 °C (reaching maximum values of approximately 2×10⁻³ and 8×10⁻⁴ respectively), and at this temperature the release may be mostly limited to inventory in the compact matrix and OPyC prior to the safety test. The release rate for both elements increased after approximately 120 h at 1800 °C, possibly indicating additional measurable release through the intact particle coatings. Cesium fractional release from particles with intact coatings was <10⁻⁶ after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C, but release from the rare particles that experienced SiC failure during the test could be significant. However, Kr release was still very low for 300 h 1600 °C (<2 × 10⁻⁶). At 1800 °C, krypton release increased noticeably after SiC failure, reflecting transport through the intact outer pyrocarbon layer. Nonetheless, the krypton and cesium release fractions remained less than approximately 10⁻³ after 277 h at 1800 °C.

  13. First high temperature safety tests of AGR-1 TRISO fuel with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkowicz, Paul A.; Reber, Edward L.; Scates, Dawn M.; Scott, Les; Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-09-01

    Three TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment were subjected to safety tests at 1600 and 1800 °C for approximately 300 h to evaluate the fission product retention characteristics. Silver behavior was dominated by rapid release of an appreciable fraction of the compact inventory (3-34%) at the beginning of the tests, believed to be from inventory residing in the compact matrix and outer pyrocarbon (OPyC) prior to the safety test. Measurable release of silver from intact particles appears to become apparent only after ∼60 h at 1800 °C. The release rate for europium and strontium was nearly constant for 300 h at 1600 °C (reaching maximum values of approximately 2 × 10-3 and 8 × 10-4 respectively), and at this temperature the release may be mostly limited to inventory in the compact matrix and OPyC prior to the safety test. The release rate for both elements increased after approximately 120 h at 1800 °C, possibly indicating additional measurable release through the intact particle coatings. Cesium fractional release from particles with intact coatings was <10-6 after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C, but release from the rare particles that experienced SiC failure during the test could be significant. However, Kr release was still very low for 300 h 1600 °C (<2 × 10-6). At 1800 °C, krypton release increased noticeably after SiC failure, reflecting transport through the intact outer pyrocarbon layer. Nonetheless, the krypton and cesium release fractions remained less than approximately 10-3 after 277 h at 1800 °C.

  14. Full-Length High-Temperature Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 5: Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the final safety analysis for the preparation, conduct, and post-test discharge operation for the Full-Length High Temperature Experiment-5 (FLHT-5) to be conducted in the L-24 position of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test is sponsored by an international group organized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test is designed and conducted by staff from Pacific Northwest Laboratory with CRNL staff support. The test will study the consequences of loss-of-coolant and the progression of severe fuel damage.

  15. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  16. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-12-31

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ``Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards``. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life.

  17. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  18. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

  19. Study for the optimization of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency. Volume 1: Methodology, criteria, aeroelastic model definition and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.

    1985-01-01

    Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.

  20. Probabilistic Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Compliance of Ready-To-Eat Foods with New European Union Safety Criteria for Listeria monocytogenes▿

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Apostolos S.

    2007-01-01

    Among the new microbiological criteria that have been incorporated in EU Regulation 2073/2005, of particular interest are those concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to eat (RTE) foods, because for certain food categories, they no longer require zero tolerance but rather specify a maximum allowable concentration of 100 CFU/g or ml. This study presents a probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of RTE sliced meat products with the new safety criteria for L. monocytogenes. The approach was based on the combined use of (i) growth/no growth boundary models, (ii) kinetic growth models, (iii) product characteristics data (pH, aw, shelf life) collected from 160 meat products from the Hellenic retail market, and (iv) storage temperature data recorded from 50 retail stores in Greece. This study shows that probabilistic analysis of the above components using Monte Carlo simulation, which takes into account the variability of factors affecting microbial growth, can lead to a realistic estimation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes throughout the food supply chain, and the quantitative output generated can be further used by food managers as a decision-making tool regarding the design or modification of a product's formulation or its “use-by” date in order to ensure its compliance with the new safety criteria. The study also argues that compliance of RTE foods with the new safety criteria should not be considered a parameter with a discrete and binary outcome because it depends on factors such as product characteristics, storage temperature, and initial contamination level, which display considerable variability even among different packages of the same RTE product. Rather, compliance should be expressed and therefore regulated in a more probabilistic fashion. PMID:17557858

  1. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant.

  2. Measurement of Fresh Fuel Rods to Demonstrate Compliance with Criticality Safety Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Miko, David K.; Desimone, David J.

    2015-11-03

    In order to operate TA-66 as a radiological facility with the quantity of nuclear material required to fulfil its mission, a criticality safety evaluation was required. This evaluation defined the control parameters for operations at the facility. The resulting evaluation for TA-66 placed limits on the amount of SNM, as well as other materials such as beryllium. In addition, there is a limit on the number of uranium fuel rods allowed subject to enrichment, outer diameter, and overall length restrictions. The enrichments for the rods to be shipped to TA-66 were documented in LA-UR-13-23581, but the outer diameter and length were not documented. This report provides this information.

  3. Safety of interim storage solutions of used nuclear fuel during extended term

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, C.; Bader, S.; Issard, H.; Arslan, M.

    2013-07-01

    In 2013, the total amount of stored used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the world will reach 225,000 T HM. The UNF inventory in wet storage will take up over 80% of the available total spent fuel pool (SFP) capacity. Interim storage solutions are needed. They give flexibility to the nuclear operators and ensure that nuclear reactors continue to operate. However, we need to keep in mind that they are also an easy way to differ final decision and implementation of a UNF management approach (recycling or final disposal). In term of public perception, they can have a negative impact overtime as it may appear that nuclear industry may have significant issues to resolve. In countries lacking an integrated UNF management approach, the UNF are being discharged from the SFPs to interim storage (mostly to dry storage) at the same rate as UNF is being discharged from reactors, as the SFPs at the reactor sites are becoming full. This is now the case in USA, Taiwan, Switzerland, Spain, South Africa and Germany. For interim storage, AREVA has developed different solutions in order to allow the continued operation of reactors while meeting the current requirements of Safety Authorities: -) Dry storage canisters on pads, -) Dual-purpose casks (dry storage and transportation), -) Vault dry storage, and -) Centralized pool storage.

  4. 77 FR 60479 - Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Information The draft SFST-ISG-8, Revision 3, was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2012 (77 FR... safety analyses of pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in transportation packages and...) optional credit for fission product and minor actinide neutron absorbing isotopes in the SNF...

  5. Landscape modeling for dose calculations in the safety assessment of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik; Brydsten, Lars

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,(SKB), pursues site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at two sites in the south eastern part of Sweden, the Forsmark- and the Laxemar site. Data from the two site investigations are used to build site descriptive models of the areas. These models describe the bedrock and surface system properties important for designing the repository, the environmental impact assessment, and the long-term safety, i.e. up to 100,000 years, in a safety assessment. In this paper we discuss the methodology, and the interim results for, the landscape model, used in the safety assessment to populate the Forsmark site in the numerical dose models. The landscape model is built upon ecosystem types, e.g. a lake or a mire, (Biosphere Objects) that are connected in the landscape via surface hydrology. Each of the objects have a unique set of properties derived from the site description. The objects are identified by flow transport modeling, giving discharge points at the surface for all possible flow paths from the hypothetical repository in the bedrock. The landscape development is followed through time by using long-term processes e.g. shoreline displacement and sedimentation. The final landscape model consists of a number of maps for each chosen time period and a table of properties that describe the individual objects which constitutes the landscape. The results show a landscape that change over time during 20,000 years. The time period used in the model equals the present interglacial and can be used as an analogue for a future interglacial. Historically, the model area was covered by sea, and then gradually changes into a coastal area and, in the future, into a terrestrial inland landscape. Different ecosystem types are present during the landscape development, e.g. sea, lakes, agricultural areas, forest and wetlands (mire). The biosphere objects may switch from one ecosystem type to another during the

  6. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  7. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  8. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management: development and technical content.

    PubMed

    Webb, G A

    1998-12-01

    During the process of negotiation of the Convention on Nuclear Safety it was recognised that the safe management of radioactive waste was also a subject of great international concern. It was not possible to cover this subject comprehensively in a Convention focusing on the safety of civil nuclear power plants but the need for a further Convention was identified in the preamble to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Accordingly the procedures were started that led to the setting-up of an open-ended Group of Experts to agree the text of a new Convention. This article describes from a scientific and technical viewpoint the deliberations of the Group of Experts, the compromises needed to cover in a single Convention the safety of both spent fuel management and radioactive waste management, the last minute expansion of the scope to admit reprocessing, the delicate negotiations on the inclusion of material from military programmes and the contentious question of the transboundary movement of spent fuel and radioactive waste. The article also summarises and provides some commentary on the final provisions of the Convention as adopted by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna in September 1997 and now open for signature.

  9. Reactor physics and safety aspects of various design options of a Russian light water reactor with rock-like fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, A. V.; Komissarov, O. V.; Kozmenkov, Ya. K.; Matveev, Yu. V.; Orekhov, Yu. I.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Sharapov, V. N.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents results of analytical studies on weapons grade plutonium incineration in VVER (640) medium size light water reactors using a special composition of rock-like fuel (ROX-fuel) to assure spent fuel long-term storage without its reprocessing. The main goal is to achieve high degree of plutonium incineration in once-through cycle. In this paper we considered two fuel compositions. In both compositions weapons grade plutonium is used as fissile material. Spinel (MgAl 2O 4) is used as the 'preserving' material assuring safe storage of the spent fuel. Besides an inert matrix, the option of rock-like fuel with thorium dioxide was studied. One of principal problems in the realization of the proposed approach is the substantial change of properties of the light water reactor core when passing to the use of the ROX-fuel, in particular: (i) due to the absence of 238U the Doppler effect playing a crucial role in reactor's self-regulation and limiting the consequences of reactivity accidents, decreases significantly, (ii) no fuel breeding on one hand, and the quest to attain the maximum plutonium burnup on the other hand, would result in a drastical change of the fuel assembly power during the lifetime and, as a consequence, the rise in irregularity of the power density of fuel assemblies, (iii) both the control rods worth and dissolved boron worth decrease in view of neutron spectrum hardening brought on by the larger absorption cross-section of plutonium as compared to uranium, (iv) βeff is markedly reduced. All these distinctive features are potentially detrimental to the reactor nuclear safety. The principal objective of this work is that to identify a variant of the fuel composition and the reactor layout, which would permit neutralize the negative effect of the above-mentioned distinctive features.

  10. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    SciTech Connect

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  11. Evaluating the road safety effects of a fuel cost increase measure by means of zonal crash prediction modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Bellemans, Tom; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand management (TDM) consists of a variety of policy measures that affect the transportation system's effectiveness by changing travel behavior. The primary objective to implement such TDM strategies is not to improve traffic safety, although their impact on traffic safety should not be neglected. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the traffic safety impact of conducting a fuel-cost increase scenario (i.e. increasing the fuel price by 20%) in Flanders, Belgium. Since TDM strategies are usually conducted at an aggregate level, crash prediction models (CPMs) should also be developed at a geographically aggregated level. Therefore zonal crash prediction models (ZCPMs) are considered to present the association between observed crashes in each zone and a set of predictor variables. To this end, an activity-based transportation model framework is applied to produce exposure metrics which will be used in prediction models. This allows us to conduct a more detailed and reliable assessment while TDM strategies are inherently modeled in the activity-based models unlike traditional models in which the impact of TDM strategies are assumed. The crash data used in this study consist of fatal and injury crashes observed between 2004 and 2007. The network and socio-demographic variables are also collected from other sources. In this study, different ZCPMs are developed to predict the number of injury crashes (NOCs) (disaggregated by different severity levels and crash types) for both the null and the fuel-cost increase scenario. The results show a considerable traffic safety benefit of conducting the fuel-cost increase scenario apart from its impact on the reduction of the total vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). A 20% increase in fuel price is predicted to reduce the annual VKT by 5.02 billion (11.57% of the total annual VKT in Flanders), which causes the total NOCs to decline by 2.83%. PMID:23200453

  12. Evaluating the road safety effects of a fuel cost increase measure by means of zonal crash prediction modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Bellemans, Tom; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand management (TDM) consists of a variety of policy measures that affect the transportation system's effectiveness by changing travel behavior. The primary objective to implement such TDM strategies is not to improve traffic safety, although their impact on traffic safety should not be neglected. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the traffic safety impact of conducting a fuel-cost increase scenario (i.e. increasing the fuel price by 20%) in Flanders, Belgium. Since TDM strategies are usually conducted at an aggregate level, crash prediction models (CPMs) should also be developed at a geographically aggregated level. Therefore zonal crash prediction models (ZCPMs) are considered to present the association between observed crashes in each zone and a set of predictor variables. To this end, an activity-based transportation model framework is applied to produce exposure metrics which will be used in prediction models. This allows us to conduct a more detailed and reliable assessment while TDM strategies are inherently modeled in the activity-based models unlike traditional models in which the impact of TDM strategies are assumed. The crash data used in this study consist of fatal and injury crashes observed between 2004 and 2007. The network and socio-demographic variables are also collected from other sources. In this study, different ZCPMs are developed to predict the number of injury crashes (NOCs) (disaggregated by different severity levels and crash types) for both the null and the fuel-cost increase scenario. The results show a considerable traffic safety benefit of conducting the fuel-cost increase scenario apart from its impact on the reduction of the total vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). A 20% increase in fuel price is predicted to reduce the annual VKT by 5.02 billion (11.57% of the total annual VKT in Flanders), which causes the total NOCs to decline by 2.83%.

  13. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: Criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-11-01

    Ingredients of commercial herbal medicines are assessed for quality primarily to ensure their safety. However, as complex mixtures of different groups of plant secondary metabolites, retention of overall phytochemical consistency of herbal medicines is pivotal to their efficacy. Authenticity and homogeneity of the herbs and strict regimes of physical processing and extract manufacturing are critical factors to maintain phytochemical consistency in commercial products. To ensure both safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, implementation of and adherence to good agricultural and collection practice (GACP), good plant authentication and identification practice (GPAIP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) before and during the manufacturing process, and good laboratory practice (GLP) in analysis are necessary. Establishment and application of harmonized multilaboratory-validated analytical methods and transparency in the supply (value) chain through vendor audits are additional requirements in quality assurance. In this article, we outline steps of a comprehensive quality assurance paradigm aimed at achieving and maintaining safety, consistent phytochemical composition, and clinical efficacy of ingredients of herbal medicines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Botanicals for Epilepsy.

  14. An advanced deterministic method for spent-fuel criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1998-09-01

    Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, nonorthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real-world problems. In the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due to shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple-pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constrains in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for nonorthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitation of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built on the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper demonstrates the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

  15. A case study on the influence of THM coupling on the near field safety of a spent fuel repository in sparsely fractured granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thanh Son; Börgesson, Lennart; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Hernelind, Jan; Jing, Lanru; Kobayashi, Akira; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of geological disposal of spent CANDU fuel in Canada, a safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical repository in the Canadian Shield. The assessment shows that the maximum long term radionuclide release from such repository would meet international criteria for dose rate; however, uncertainties in the assumed evolution of the repository were identified. Such uncertainties could be resolved by the consideration of coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes. In Task A of the DECOVALEX-THMC project, THM models were developed within the framework of the theory of poroelasticity. Such model development was performed in an iterative manner, using experimental data from laboratory and field tests. The models were used to perform near-field simulations of the evolution of the repository in order to address the above-mentioned uncertainties. This paper presents the definition and rationale of task A and the results of the simulations. From a repository safety point of view, the simulations predict that the maximum temperature would be well below the design target of 100°C; however, the stress on the container can marginally exceed the design value of 15 MPa. However, the most important finding from the simulations is that a rock damage zone could form around the emplacement borehole. Such damage zone can extend a few metres from the walls of the emplacement holes, with permeability values that are orders of magnitude higher than the initial values. The damage zone has the potential to increase the radionuclide transport flux from the geosphere; the effect of such an increase should be taken into account in the safety assessment and mitigated if necessary by the provision of sealing systems.

  16. A case study on the influence of THM coupling on the near field safety of a spent fuel repository in sparsely fractured granite

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.S.; Borgesson, L.; Chijimatsu, M.; Hernelind, J.; Jing, L.; Kobayashi, A.; Rutqvist, J.

    2009-03-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of geological disposal of spent CANDU fuel in Canada, a safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical repository in the Canadian Shield. The assessment shows that such repository would meet international criteria for dose rate; however, uncertainties in the assumed evolution of the repository were identified. Such uncertainties could be resolved by the consideration of coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes. In Task A of the DECOVALEX-THMC project, THM models were developed within the framework of the theory of poroelasticity. Such model development was performed in an iterative manner, using experimental data from laboratory and field tests. The models were used to perform near-field simulations of the evolution of the repository in order to address the above uncertainties. This paper presents the definition and rationale of task A and the results of the simulations. From a repository safety point of view, the simulations predict that the maximum temperature would be well below the design target of 100 C, however the load on the container can marginally exceed the design value of 15 MPa. However, the most important finding from the simulations is that a rock damage zone could form around the emplacement borehole. Such damage zone can extend a few metres from the walls of the emplacement holes, with permeability values that are orders of magnitude higher than the initial values. The damage zone has the potential to increase the radionuclide transport flux from the geosphere; the effect of such an increase should be taken into account in the safety assessment and mitigated if necessary by the provision of sealing systems.

  17. Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. B Appendix B to Part 50—Quality Assurance... report a description of the quality assurance program to be applied to the design,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  8. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project Integrated Safety Management System phase I and II Verification Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    CARTER, R.P.

    1999-11-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commits to accomplishing its mission safely. To ensure this objective is met, DOE issued DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and incorporated safety management into the DOE Acquisition Regulations ([DEAR] 48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 90.5204-78). Integrated Safety Management (ISM) requires contractors to integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are achieved while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. The contractor is required to describe the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to be used to implement the safety performance objective.

  10. Application of the MERIT survey in the multi-criteria quality assessment of occupational health and safety management.

    PubMed

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management systems apply audit examinations as an integral element of these systems. The examinations are used to verify whether the undertaken actions are in compliance with the accepted regulations, whether they are implemented in a suitable way and whether they are effective. One of the earliest solutions of that type applied in the mining industry in Poland involved the application of audit research based on the MERIT survey (Management Evaluation Regarding Itemized Tendencies). A mathematical model applied in the survey facilitates the determination of assessment indexes WOPi for each of the assessed problem areas, which, among other things, can be used to set up problem area rankings and to determine an aggregate (synthetic) assessment. In the paper presented here, the assessment indexes WOPi were used to calculate a development measure, and the calculation process itself was supplemented with sensitivity analysis.

  11. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A

    2008-10-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations. PMID:18727951

  12. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A

    2008-10-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations.

  13. Application of the MERIT survey in the multi-criteria quality assessment of occupational health and safety management.

    PubMed

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management systems apply audit examinations as an integral element of these systems. The examinations are used to verify whether the undertaken actions are in compliance with the accepted regulations, whether they are implemented in a suitable way and whether they are effective. One of the earliest solutions of that type applied in the mining industry in Poland involved the application of audit research based on the MERIT survey (Management Evaluation Regarding Itemized Tendencies). A mathematical model applied in the survey facilitates the determination of assessment indexes WOPi for each of the assessed problem areas, which, among other things, can be used to set up problem area rankings and to determine an aggregate (synthetic) assessment. In the paper presented here, the assessment indexes WOPi were used to calculate a development measure, and the calculation process itself was supplemented with sensitivity analysis. PMID:26414772

  14. Application of the MERIT survey in the multi-criteria quality assessment of occupational health and safety management

    PubMed Central

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management systems apply audit examinations as an integral element of these systems. The examinations are used to verify whether the undertaken actions are in compliance with the accepted regulations, whether they are implemented in a suitable way and whether they are effective. One of the earliest solutions of that type applied in the mining industry in Poland involved the application of audit research based on the MERIT survey (Management Evaluation Regarding Itemized Tendencies). A mathematical model applied in the survey facilitates the determination of assessment indexes WOPi for each of the assessed problem areas, which, among other things, can be used to set up problem area rankings and to determine an aggregate (synthetic) assessment. In the paper presented here, the assessment indexes WOPi were used to calculate a development measure, and the calculation process itself was supplemented with sensitivity analysis. PMID:26414772

  15. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  16. An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P.; Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

  17. Environmental, health and safety impact analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicular applications and impact analysis associated with its overall fuel cycle. Volume 1. Battery and fuel cycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1981-11-30

    This volume considers the potential environmental, health, and safety concerns of the aluminum-air battery and its overall fuel cycle. It quantifies the consumption of natural resources and the generation of environmental residuals due to the battery's fuel cycle. A comparison of the air emissions of the aluminum-air battery vehicle to an internal combustion engine vehicle is presented. Methods of mitigating potentially adverse impacts are examined along with the areas requiring further environmental, health and safety research.

  18. Safety considerations in testing a fuel-rich aeropropulsion gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James; Hulligan, David D.

    1991-01-01

    A catalyst containing reactor is being tested using a fuel-rich mixture of Jet A fuel and hot input air. The reactor product is a gaseous fuel that can be utilized in aeropropulsion gas turbine engines. Because the catalyst material is susceptible to damage from high temperature conditions, fuel-rich operating conditions are attained by introducing the fuel first into an inert gas stream in the reactor and then displacing the inert gas with reaction air. Once a desired fuel-to-air ratio is attained, only limited time is allowed for a catalyst induced reaction to occur; otherwise the inert gas is substituted for the air and the fuel flow is terminated. Because there presently is not a gas turbine combustor in which to burn the reactor product gas, the gas is combusted at the outlet of the test facility flare stack. This technique in operations has worked successfully in over 200 tests.

  19. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477

  20. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26th and 28th, 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477

  1. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions.

  2. Criticality Safety Scoping Study for the Transport of Weapons-Grade Mixed-Oxide Fuel Using the MO-1 Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.E.; Fox, P.B.

    1999-05-01

    This report provides the criticality safety information needed for obtaining certification of the shipment of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel using the MO-1 [USA/9069/B()F] shipping package. Specifically, this report addresses the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as certified under Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. The report further addresses the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel using a possible Westinghouse fuel design. Criticality safety analysis information is provided to demonstrate that the requirements of 10 CFR S 71.55 and 71.59 are satisfied for the MO-1 package. Using NUREG/CR-5661 as a guide, a transport index (TI) for criticality control is determined for the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as specified in Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. A TI for criticality control is also determined for the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel. Since the possible weapons-grade fuel design is preliminary in nature, this report is considered to be a scoping evaluation and is not intended as a substitute for the final criticality safety analysis of the MO-1 shipping package. However, the criticality safety evaluation information that is presented in this report does demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining certification for the transport of weapons-grade MOX lead test fuel using the MO-1 shipping package.

  3. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  4. Criticality Safety of Low-Enriched Uranium and High-Enriched Uranium Fuel Elements in Heavy Water Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, Milan P

    2003-10-15

    The RB reactor was designed as a natural-uranium, heavy water, nonreflected critical assembly in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1958. From 1962 until 2002, numerous critical experiments were carried out with low-enriched uranium and high-enriched uranium fuel elements of tubular shape, known as the Russian TVR-S fuel assembly type, placed in various heavy water square lattices within the RB cylindrical aluminum tank. Some of these well-documented experiments were selected, described, evaluated, and accepted for inclusion in the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments', contributing to the preservation of a rather small number of heavy water benchmark critical experiments.

  5. TITLE: Environmental, health, and safety issues offuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoricacid fuel-cell buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Shan

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase 1 of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase 3. After completing Phase 2, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase H1) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase 3 study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  6. WNA's worldwide overview on front-end nuclear fuel cycle growth and health, safety and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pierre, Sylvain; Kidd, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the WNA's worldwide nuclear industry overview on the anticipated growth of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to conversion and enrichment, and on the related key health, safety, and environmental (HSE) issues and challenges. It also puts an emphasis on uranium mining in new producing countries with insufficiently developed regulatory regimes that pose greater HSE concerns. It introduces the new WNA policy on uranium mining: Sustaining Global Best Practices in Uranium Mining and Processing-Principles for Managing Radiation, Health and Safety and the Environment, which is an outgrowth of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) cooperation project that closely involved industry and governmental experts in uranium mining from around the world.

  7. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  8. Review of Halden Reactor Project high burnup fuel data that can be used in safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenack, W.

    1996-03-01

    The fuels and materials testing programmes carried out at the OECD Halden Reactor Project are aimed at providing data in support of a mechanistic understanding of phenomena, especially as related to high burnup fuel. The investigations are focused on identifying long term property changes, and irradiation techniques and instrumentation have been developed over the years which enable to assess fuel behaviour and properties in-pile. The fuel-cladding gap has an influence on both thermal and mechanical behaviour. Improved gap conductance due to gap closure at high exposure is observed even in the case of a strong contamination with released fission gas. On the other hand, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction, which is measured with cladding elongation detectors and diameter gauges, is re-established after a phase with less interaction and is increasing. These developments are exemplified with data showing changes of fuel temperature, hydraulic diameter and cladding elongation with burnup. Fuel swelling and cladding primary and secondary creep have been successfully measured in-pile. They provide data for, e.g., the possible cladding lift-off to be accounted for at high burnup. Fuel conductivity degradation is observed as a gradual temperature increase with burnup. This affects stored heat, fission gas release and temperature dependent fuel behaviour in general. The Halden Project`s data base on fission gas release shows that the phenomenon is associated with an accumulation of gas atoms at the grain boundaries to a critical concentration before appreciable release occurs. This is accompanied by an increase of the surface-to-volume ratio measured in-pile in gas flow experiments. A typical observation at high burnup is also that a burst release of fission gas may occur during a power decrease. Gas flow and pressure equilibration experiments have shown that axial communication is severely restricted at high burnup.

  9. Severe accidents in spent fuel pools in support of generic safety, Issue 82

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, V.L.; Perkins, K.R.; Weeks, J.R.; Connell, H.R.

    1987-07-01

    This investigation provides an assessment of the likelihood and consequences of a severe accident in a spent fuel storage pool - the complete draining of the pool. Potential mechanisms and conditions for failure of the spent fuel, and the subsequent release of the fission products, are identified. Two older PWR and BWR spent fuel storage pool designs are considered based on a preliminary screening study which tried to identify vulnerabilities. Internal and external events and accidents are assessed. Conditions which could lead to failure of the spent fuel Zircaloy cladding as a result of cladding rupture or as a result of a self-sustaining oxidation reaction are presented. Propagation of a cladding fire to older stored fuel assemblies is evaluated. Spent fuel pool fission product inventory is estimated and the releases and consequences for the various cladding scenarios are provided. Possible preventive or mitigative measures are qualitatively evaluated. The uncertainties in the risk estimate are large, and areas where additional evaluations are needed to reduce uncertainty are identified.

  10. HTGR fuel element structural design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1986-09-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabalistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabalistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistent with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the USA is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development.

  11. Inherent safety phenomenon of fission-gas induced axial extrusion in oxide and metal fueled LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, K.J.; Kalimullah

    1985-01-01

    The current emphasis in LMFBR design is to develop reactor systems that contain as many features as possible to limit the severity of hypothetical accidents and provide the maximum time before corrective action is required while maintaining low capital costs. One feature is the possibility of fission-gas induced axial extrusion of the fuel within the intact cladding. The potential exists for this phenomenon to enable the reactor to withstand most accidents of the TOP variety, or at least provide an extended time for corrective action to be taken. Under transient conditions which produce a heating of the fuel above its nominal operating temperature, thermal expansion of the material axially produces a negative reactivity effect. This effect is presently considered in most accident analysis codes. The phenomenon of fission-gas induced axial extrusion has received renewed interest because of the consideration of metal alloys of uranium and plutonium for the fuel in some current reactor designs.

  12. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle. [Glossaries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output.

  13. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-03-14

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles.

  14. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  15. [Classification of Histopathological Findings in the Liver Cited in the Pesticides Risk Assessment Reports Published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan and Thesaurus Construction Based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Umemura, Takashi; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological findings are important to the understanding of toxicity profiles of pesticides. The liver is often a target organ of chemicals. In the present study, histopathological findings in the liver cited in the pesticides risk assessment reports published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan were classified. The histopathological findings were obtained in repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity studies of mice, rats and dogs and carcinogenicity studies of rodents. After the classification, a thesaurus was constructed based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria. We recommend the use of INHAND criteria in risk assessment reports to improve mutual understanding between applicants and risk assessors.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesel fuel storage facilities, be placed on supports constructed of noncombustible material so that the... normally flow; and (7) An automatic closing, heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the... capacity of 5 gallons or less; (2) Equipped with a flexible or rigid tubular nozzle attached to a...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel fuel storage facilities, be placed on supports constructed of noncombustible material so that the... normally flow; and (7) An automatic closing, heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the... capacity of 5 gallons or less; (2) Equipped with a flexible or rigid tubular nozzle attached to a...

  18. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  19. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches.

  20. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  1. Covariance Applications in Criticality Safety, Light Water Reactor Analysis, and Spent Fuel Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Wiarda, D.; Ilas, G.; Marshall, W. J.; Rearden, B. T.

    2015-01-01

    A new covariance data library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 was recently processed for the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. The multigroup covariance data are discussed here, along with testing and application results for critical benchmark experiments. The cross section covariance library, along with covariances for fission product yields and decay data, is used to compute uncertainties in the decay heat produced by a burned reactor fuel assembly.

  2. Covariance Applications in Criticality Safety, Light Water Reactor Analysis, and Spent Fuel Characterization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Williams, M. L.; Wiarda, D.; Ilas, G.; Marshall, W. J.; Rearden, B. T.

    2014-06-15

    Recently, we processed a new covariance data library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 for the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. The multigroup covariance data are discussed here, along with testing and application results for critical benchmark experiments. Moreover, the cross section covariance library, along with covariances for fission product yields and decay data, is used to compute uncertainties in the decay heat produced by a burned reactor fuel assembly.

  3. Covariance Applications in Criticality Safety, Light Water Reactor Analysis, and Spent Fuel Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L. Wiarda, D.; Ilas, G.; Marshall, W.J.; Rearden, B.T.

    2015-01-15

    A new covariance data library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 was recently processed for the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. The multigroup covariance data are discussed here, along with testing and application results for critical benchmark experiments. The cross section covariance library, along with covariances for fission product yields and decay data, is used to compute uncertainties in the decay heat produced by a burned reactor fuel assembly.

  4. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

  5. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cover at least 50 percent of estimated truck traffic in any year. All records and documents must be made... basic safety management controls in place which function adequately to ensure minimum acceptable... provisional operating authority has basic safety management controls in place. (e) The safety audit...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cover at least 50 percent of estimated truck traffic in any year. All records and documents must be made... basic safety management controls in place which function adequately to ensure minimum acceptable... provisional operating authority has basic safety management controls in place. (e) The safety audit...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... safety management controls. (l) Notwithstanding FMCSA verification of the items listed in part III (a)(1... basic safety management controls of the motor carrier. (c) Critical regulations are those where... critical regulations are indicators of inadequate safety management controls and usually higher...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix to Subpart H of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Non-North America-Domiciled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appendix and other basic safety management controls in place which function adequately to ensure minimum... safety audit will include: (1) Verification of available performance data and safety management programs... facilities or management systems, including verification of records of periodic vehicle inspections;...

  10. Health and Safety Considerations Associated with Sodium-Cooled Experimental Nuclear Fuel Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Carvo, Alan E.

    2015-04-01

    Between the mid-1970s and the mid-1980s Sandia National Laboratory constructed eleven experimental assemblies to simulate debris beds formed in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. All but one of the assemblies were irradiated. The experimental assemblies were transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2007 and 2008 for storage, dismantlement, recovery of the uranium for reuse in the nuclear fuel cycle, and disposal of unneeded materials. This paper addresses the effort to dismantle the assemblies down to the primary containment vessel and repackage them for temporary storage until such time as equipment necessary for sodium separation is in place.

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1986-05-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. Most of the wastes from the MOX plant (exclusive of the lagoon wastes) will require interim storage (11% Class A 49 m/sup 3/; 89% interim storage, 383 m/sup 3/). The MOX plant lagoon wastes are Class A waste (2930 m/sup 3/). All of the wastes from the U-Fab and UF/sub 6/ plants are designated as Class A waste (U-Fab 1090 m/sup 3/, UF/sub 6/ 1259 m/sup 3/).

  12. 16 CFR 1105.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1105.6 Section 1105.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.6 Criteria. The...

  13. Cost update: Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-06-01

    The cost estimates originally developed in NUREG/CR-1266 for commissioning a reference low-enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plant are updated from 1978 to early 1993 dollars. During this time, the costs for labor and materials increased approximately at the rate of inflation, the cost of energy increased more slowly than the rate of inflation, and the cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal increased much more rapidly than the rate of inflation. The results of the analysis indicate that the estimated costs for the immediate dismantlement and decontamination for unrestricted facility release (DECON) of the reference plant have increased from the mid-1978 value of $3.57 million to $8.08 million in 1993 with in-compact low-level radioactive waste disposal at the US Ecoloay facility near Richland, Washington. The cost estimate rises to $19.62 million with out-of-compact radioactive waste disposal at the Chem-Nuclear facility near Barnwell, South Carolina. A methodology and a formula are presented for estimating the cost of decommissioning the reference uranium fuel fabrication plant at some future time, based on these early 1993 cost estimates. The formula contains essentially the same elements as the formula given in 10 CFR 50.75 for escalating the decommissioning costs for nuclear power reactors to some future time.

  14. Nuclear Criticality Control and Safety of Plutonium-Uranium Fuel Mixtures Outside Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, D; Mennerdahl, D

    2008-06-23

    The ANSI/ANS 8.12 standard was first approved in July 1978. At that time, this edition was applicable to operations with plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel mixtures outside reactors and was limited to subcritical limits for homogeneous systems. The next major revision, ANSI/ANS-8.12-1987, included the addition of subcritical limits for heterogeneous systems. The standard was subsequently reaffirmed in February 1993. During late 1990s, substantial work was done by the ANS 8.12 Standard Working Group to re-examine the technical data presented in the standard using the latest codes and cross section sets. Calculations performed showed good agreement with the values published in the standard. This effort resulted in the reaffirmation of the standard in March 2002. The standard is currently in a maintenance mode. After 2002, activities included discussions to determine the future direction of the standard and to follow the MOX standard development by the International Standard Organization (ISO). In 2007, the Working Group decided to revise the standard to extend the areas of applicability by providing a wider range of subcritical data. The intent is to cover a wider domain of MOX fuel fabrication and operations. It was also decided to follow the ISO MOX standard specifications (related to MOX density and isotopics) and develop a new set of subcritical limits for homogeneous systems. This has resulted in the submittal (and subsequent approval) of the project initiation notification system form (PINS) in 2007.

  15. AREVA NP next generation fresh UO{sub 2} fuel assembly shipping cask: SCALE - CRISTAL comparisons lead to safety criticality confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Doucet, M.; Landrieu, M.; Montgomery, R.; O' Donnell, B.

    2007-07-01

    AREVA NP as a worldwide PWR fuel provider has to have a fleet of fresh UO{sub 2} shipping casks being agreed within a lot of countries including USA, France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, China, and South Africa - and to accommodate foreseen EPR Nuclear Power Plants fuel buildings. To reach this target the AREVA NP Fuel Sector decided to develop an up-to-date shipping cask (so called MAP project) gathering experience feedback of the today fleet and an improved safety allowing the design to comply with international regulations (NRC and IAEA) and local Safety Authorities. Based on pre design features a safety case was set up to highlight safety margins. Criticality hypothetical accidental assumptions were defined: - Preferential flooding; - Fuel rod lattice pitch expansion for full length of fuel assemblies; - Neutron absorber penalty; -... Well known computer codes, American SCALE package and French CRISTAL package, were used to check configurations reactivity and to ensure that both codes lead to coherent results. Basic spectral calculations are based on similar algorithms with specific microscopic cross sections ENDF/BV for SCALE and JEF2.2 for CRISTAL. The main differences between the two packages is on one hand SCALE's three dimensional fuel assembly geometry is described by a pin by pin model while an homogenized fuel assembly description is used by CRISTAL and on the other hand SCALE is working with either 44 or 238 neutron energy groups while CRISTAL is with a 172 neutron energy groups. Those two computer packages rely on a wide validation process helping defining uncertainties as required by regulations in force. The shipping cask with two fuel assemblies is designed to maximize fuel isolation inside a cask and with neighboring ones even for large array configuration cases. Proven industrial products are used: - Boral{sup TM} as neutron absorber; - High density polyethylene (HDPE) or Nylon as neutron moderator; - Foam as thermal and mechanical protection. The

  16. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems: A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Norman; Wang, Michael; Weber, Trudy; Darlington, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. This WTW study analyzes energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use and emissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW]) activities.

  17. Oxygen and Fuel Jet Diffusion Flame Studies in Microgravity Motivated by Spacecraft Oxygen Storage Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Yuan, Z.-G.; Krishnan, S. S.; Abshire, J. M.; Gore, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the absence of past work involving flames similar to the Mir fire namely oxygen-enhanced, inverse gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity the objectives of this work are as follows: 1. Observe the effects of enhanced oxygen conditions on laminar jet diffusion flames with ethane fuel. 2. Consider both earth gravity and microgravity. 3. Examine both normal and inverse flames. 4. Compare the measured flame lengths and widths with calibrated predictions of several flame shape models. This study expands on the work of Hwang and Gore which emphasized radiative emissions from oxygen-enhanced inverse flames in earth gravity, and Sunderland et al. which emphasized the shapes of normal and inverse oxygen-enhanced gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity.

  18. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  19. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in an Average Power Position (I-24) in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. M . Ryskamp; R. C. Howard; R. C. Pedersen; S. T. Khericha

    1998-10-01

    The Fissile Material Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan details a series of test irradiations designed to investigate the use of weapons-grade plutonium in MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWR) (Cowell 1996a, Cowell 1997a, Thoms 1997a). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons-derived test fuel contains small amounts of gallium (about 2 parts per million). A concern exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel and into the clad, inducing embrittlement. For preliminary out-of-pile experiments, Wilson (1997) states that intermetallic compound formation is the principal interaction mechanism between zircaloy cladding and gallium. This interaction is very limited by the low mass of gallium, so problems are not expected with the zircaloy cladding, but an in-pile experiment is needed to confirm the out-of-pile experiments. Ryskamp (1998) provides an overview of this experiment and its documentation. The purpose of this Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP) is to demonstrate the safe irradiation and handling of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) Fuel Average Power Test (APT) experiment as required by Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) 3.9.1 (LMITCO 1998). This ESAP addresses the specific operation of the MOX Fuel APT experiment with respect to the operating envelope for irradiation established by the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO 1997a). Experiment handling activities are discussed herein.

  20. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination for TOPAZ II uranium fuel pellet production at the Plutonium Handling Facility (PF-4), Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.J.P.

    1993-09-29

    Enriched uranium oxide, nitride, and carbide fuel pellets have been produced at PF-4 since the facility became operational in the late 1970s. The TOPAZ II reactors require fuel enriched to 97% uranium-235. Approximately 75 kilograms (kgs) of uranium will be processed per year in support of this program. The amount of fuel processed per year at PF-4 will not be increased for these programs, but the batch size will be increased to approximately 3 kgs of uranium. The current DOE-approved Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) calls for batches containing 45 grams (gms) of plutonium-239 and 172 gms of uranium-235. The impact of increasing the uranium batch size on the facility authorization basis is analyzed in the attached Safety Evaluation Worksheet. In addition, the structural modification for the transformer and vacuum pump installation, required to support the operation, is evaluated. Based on the attached Safety Evaluation, it has been determined that the change in uranium batch size does not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ), the increase in uranium batch size does not increase the probability or consequences of any accidents previously analyzed and does not create the possibility for a new type of accident or reduce the margin of safety in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). Similarly, the structural modifications required for the transformer and vacuum pump installation do not increase the probability or consequence of any accident previously analyzed and do not create the possibility for a new type of accident or reduce any margin of safety in the OSRS.

  1. 49 CFR Appendix to Subpart H of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Non-North America-Domiciled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... safety management controls of the motor carrier. (c) Critical regulations are those where noncompliance... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  2. Nuclide Importance to Criticality Safety, Decay Heating, and Source Terms Related to Transport and Interim Storage of High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I. C.; Ryman, J. C.

    2000-12-11

    This report investigates trends in the radiological decay properties and changes in relative nuclide importance associated with increasing enrichments and burnup for spent LWR fuel as they affect the areas of criticality safety, thermal analysis (decay heat), and shielding analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks. To facilitate identifying the changes in the spent fuel compositions that most directly impact these application areas, the dominant nuclides in each area have been identified and ranked by importance. The importance is investigated as a function of increasing burnup to assist in identifying the key changes in spent fuel characteristics between conventional- and extended-burnup regimes. Studies involving both pressurized water-reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies and boiling-water-reactor (BWR) assemblies are included. This study is seen to be a necessary first step in identifying the high-burnup spent fuel characteristics that may adversely affect the accuracy of current computational methods and data, assess the potential impact on previous guidance on isotopic source terms and decay-heat values, and thus help identify areas for methods and data improvement. Finally, several recommendations on the direction of possible future code validation efforts for high-burnup spent fuel predictions are presented.

  3. Key Differences in the Fabrication, Irradiation, and Safety Testing of U.S. and German TRISO-coated Particle Fuel and Their Implications on Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hobbins, Richard Redfield

    2002-06-01

    High temperature gas reactor technology is achieving a renaissance around the world. This technology relies on high quality production and performance of coated particle fuel. Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the United States. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than U.S. fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the U.S. and Germany and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the U.S. fuel has not faired as well, and what process/ production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer U.S. irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, and degree of acceleration) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance.

  4. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  5. Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Information Document, Amendment 10. GCFR residual heat removal system criteria, design, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of safety design bases to support the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) residual heat removal (RHR) systems. The report is structured to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review and comment in the licensability of these design bases. This report also presents information concerning a specific plant design and its performance as an auxiliary part to assist the NRC in evaluating the safety design bases.

  6. 40 CFR 600.115-08 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year vehicles. 600.115-08 Section 600.115-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...

  7. 40 CFR 600.115-08 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year vehicles. 600.115-08 Section 600.115-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model...

  8. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  9. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  10. Space Tethers: Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.; Faile, G. C.; Hayashida, K. B.; Frost, C. L.; Wagner, C. Y.; Mitchell, M. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Galuska, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is prepared to provide a systematic process for the selection of tethers for space applications. Criteria arc provided for determining the strength requirement for tether missions and for mission success from tether severing due to micrometeoroids and orbital debris particle impacts. Background information of materials for use in space tethers is provided, including electricity-conducting tethers. Dynamic considerations for tether selection is also provided. Safety, quality, and reliability considerations are provided for a tether project.

  11. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  12. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  13. 7 CFR 2903.13 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 2903.13 Section 2903.13..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Application Review and Evaluation § 2903.13 Evaluation criteria. (a) The following evaluation criteria will be used in reviewing applications...

  14. Safety assessment document for the spent reactor fuel calorimeter for use in the E-MAD facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    A calorimeter has been designed to measure the decay heat generation rates of spent fuel assemblies prior to their encapsulation in the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility at the Nevada Test Site. The decay heat from a spent fuel assembly is determined by immersing the assembly in boiling water contained within a closed calorimeter vessel. The calorimeter has been designed to accommodate a single PWR or BWR type fuel assembly with a decay heat generation rate in the range of 0.1 kW to 2.5 kW. The expected accuracy of decay heat measurement within the design range is +-10%. A safety assessment of the design, installation and operation of the calorimeter has been conducted.

  15. Nuclear safety analyses and core design calculations to convert the Texas A & M University Nuclear Science Center reactor to low enrichment uranium fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, T.A.

    1995-03-02

    This project involved performing the nuclear design and safety analyses needed to modify the license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to allow operation of the Texas A& M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) with a core containing low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. The specific type of LEU fuel to be considered was the TRIGA 20-20 fuel produced by General Atomic. Computer codes for the neutronic analyses were provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the assistance of William Woodruff of ANL in helping the NSCR staff to learn the proper use of the codes is gratefully acknowledged. The codes applied in the LEU analyses were WIMSd4/m, DIF3D, NCTRIGA and PARET. These codes allowed full three dimensional, temperature and burnup dependent calculations modelling the NSCR core to be performed for the first time. In addition, temperature coefficients of reactivity and pulsing calculations were carried out in-house, whereas in the past this modelling had been performed at General Atomic. In order to benchmark the newly acquired codes, modelling of the current NSCR core with highly enriched uranium fuel was also carried out. Calculated results were compared to both earlier licensing calculations and experimental data and the new methods were found to achieve excellent agreement with both. Therefore, even if an LEU core is never loaded at the NSCR, this project has resulted in a significant improvement in the nuclear safety analysis capabilities established and maintained at the NSCR.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retirement criteria. 77.1434 Section 77.1434 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 104.3 - Pattern criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recurrence of violations of mandatory safety standards or health standards which significantly and substantially contribute to the cause and effect of mine safety or health hazards. These criteria are— (1) A... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS PATTERN...

  18. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report CSER-96-019 for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Processing and Storage Facilities Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    1999-10-20

    This criticality evaluation is for Spent N Reactor fuel unloaded from the existing canisters in both KE and KW Basins, and loaded into multiple canister overpack (MCO) containers with specially built baskets containing a maximum of either 54 Mark IV or 48 Mark IA fuel assemblies. The criticality evaluations include loading baskets into the cask-MCO, operation at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility,a nd storage in the Canister Storage Building. Many conservatisms have been built into this analysis, the primary one being the selection of the K{sub eff} = 0.95 criticality safety limit. This revision incorporates the analyses for the sampling/weld station in the Canister Storage Building and additional analysis of the MCO during the draining at CVDF. Additional discussion of the scrap basket model was added to show why the addition of copper divider plates was not included in the models.

  19. Assumptions and Criteria for Performing a Feasability Study of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Core to Use Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R.T., III; Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Moses, D.L.; Binder, J.L.; Xoubi, N.

    2006-02-01

    A computational study will be initiated during fiscal year 2006 to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium. The study will be limited to steady-state, nominal operation, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel powder--U{sub 3}O{sub 8} mixed with aluminum. The purposes of this document are to (1) define the scope of studies to be conducted, (2) define the methodologies to be used to conduct the studies, (3) define the assumptions that serve as input to the methodologies, (4) provide an efficient means for communication with the Department of Energy and American research reactor operators, and (5) expedite review and commentary by those parties.

  20. White paper on the proposed design, development, and implementation of a monitored retrievable storage module and the siting criteria for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, B.; Knobeloch, D.

    1996-01-01

    Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy (NWP) Act in 1982 as comprehensive legislation for the DOE to locate, build, and operate repositories to permanently dispose of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level wastes. In 1987, Congress amended the NWP Act and authorized the DOE to site, construct, and operate one Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS facility was planned as a means to enhance the flexibility and reliability of the overall waste management system. This white paper presents a broad prospectus of the scientific and regulatory capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory and outlines the methodology to design and implement an MRS test module. This proposed module will incorporate the flexibility to store all types of spent nuclear fuel above or below ground level and will be fully monitored for the residence time of the spent fuel in the MRS module. The purpose of this test module is to define the parameters necessary to build a simple and economical MRS system. Demonstration of the proposed MRS test module will be important because it will form the basis for an integrated MRS site model.

  1. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Control

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J

    2007-01-12

    This report describes the analysis and modeling approaches used in the evaluation for criticality-control applications of the neutron-absorbing structural-amorphous metal (SAM) coatings. The applications of boron-containing high-performance corrosion-resistant material (HPCRM)--amorphous metal as the neutron-absorbing coatings to the metallic support structure can enhance criticality safety controls for spent nuclear fuel in baskets inside storage containers, transportation casks, and disposal containers. The use of these advanced iron-based, corrosion-resistant materials to prevent nuclear criticality in transportation, aging, and disposal containers would be extremely beneficial to the nuclear waste management programs.

  2. Fire-safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in New York State. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The study found that solid fuel (primarily wood) was a major heat source in 707,000, or 18% of the State's households (excluding Metropolitan New York City and southern Westchester County). Based on a safety evaluation system of 15 quantifiable installation, maintenance, and operation criteria developed during this study, the State's solid fuel heating systems were classified as being either safe (5.5%), unsafe (24.7%), hazardous (57.7%), or extremely hazardous (12.1%). The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. Availability and affordability of safety information, and professional installation and inspection services generally were adequate; however, none of these had a substantial effect on the overall safety of the State's solid fuel systems. Results of the fire chief survey reflected a consensus of opinion on several key solid fuel safety issues. Fire chiefs believed that mandatory compliance by solid fuel users may be necessary for substantial improvement of the solid fuel safety situation due to the prevalence of certain attitudinal barriers. Recommendations designed to correct this situation through new, aggressive information and education programs and/or mandatory rules and regulations are presented and discussed. In addition, recommendations are presented for monitoring solid fuel safety, for cost assistance for homeowners to encourage the use of competent professionals, and for future research efforts. 25 references, 4 figures, 97 tables.

  3. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  4. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1996-09-11

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design,fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

  5. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  6. Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

    2013-07-01

    FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

  7. Safety Assurance for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the world’s premiere test reactor for performing high fluence, large volume, irradiation test programs. The ATR has many capabilities and a wide variety of tests are performed in this truly one of a kind reactor, including isotope production, simple self-contained static capsule experiments, instrumented/controlled experiments, and loop testing under pressurized water conditions. Along with the five pressurized water loops, ATR may also have gas (temperature controlled) lead experiments, fuel boosted fast flux experiments, and static sealed capsules all in the core at the same time. In addition, any or all of these tests may contain fuel or moderating materials that can affect reactivity levels in the ATR core. Therefore the safety analyses required to ensure safe operation of each experiment as well as the reactor itself are complex. Each test has to be evaluated against stringent reactor control safety criteria, as well as the effects it could have on adjacent tests and the reactor as well as the consequences of those effects. The safety analyses of each experiment are summarized in a document entitled the Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP). The ESAP references and employs the results of the reactor physics, thermal, hydraulic, stress, seismic, vibration, and all other analyses necessary to ensure the experiment can be irradiated safely in the ATR. The requirements for reactivity worth, chemistry compatibilities, pressure limitations, material issues, etc. are all specified in the Technical Safety Requirements and the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) for the ATR. This paper discusses the ESAP process, types of analyses, types of safety requirements and the approvals necessary to ensure an experiment can be safely irradiated in the ATR.

  8. High radon levels in subterranean environments: monitoring and technical criteria to ensure human safety (case of Castañar cave, Spain).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gallego, Miriam; Garcia-Anton, Elena; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Castañar cave contains the highest radon gas ((222)Rn) concentration in Spain with an annual average of 31.9 kBq m(-)(3). Seasonal variations with summer minimums and maximum values in fall were recorded. The reduction of air-filled porosity of soil and rock by condensation or rainfalls hides the radon exchange by gas diffusion, determining this seasonal stair-step pattern of the radon activity concentration in underground air. The effective total dose and the maximum hours permitted have been evaluated for the guides and public safety with a highly detailed radon measurement along 2011 and 2012. A network of 12 passive detectors (kodalphas) has been installed, as well as, two radon continuous monitoring in the most interesting geological sites of the subterranean environment. A follow up of the recommended time (max. 50 min) inside the underground environment has been analysed since the reopen to public visitors for not surpassing the legal maximum effective dose for tourists and guides. Results shown that public visitors would receive in fall a 12.1% of the total effective dose permitted per visit, whereas in summer it is reduced to 8.6%, while the cave guide received a total effective dose of 6.41 mSv in four months. The spatial radon maps allow defining the most suitable touristic paths according to the radon concentration distribution and therefore, appropriate fall and summer touristic paths are recommended.

  9. High radon levels in subterranean environments: monitoring and technical criteria to ensure human safety (case of Castañar cave, Spain).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gallego, Miriam; Garcia-Anton, Elena; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Castañar cave contains the highest radon gas ((222)Rn) concentration in Spain with an annual average of 31.9 kBq m(-)(3). Seasonal variations with summer minimums and maximum values in fall were recorded. The reduction of air-filled porosity of soil and rock by condensation or rainfalls hides the radon exchange by gas diffusion, determining this seasonal stair-step pattern of the radon activity concentration in underground air. The effective total dose and the maximum hours permitted have been evaluated for the guides and public safety with a highly detailed radon measurement along 2011 and 2012. A network of 12 passive detectors (kodalphas) has been installed, as well as, two radon continuous monitoring in the most interesting geological sites of the subterranean environment. A follow up of the recommended time (max. 50 min) inside the underground environment has been analysed since the reopen to public visitors for not surpassing the legal maximum effective dose for tourists and guides. Results shown that public visitors would receive in fall a 12.1% of the total effective dose permitted per visit, whereas in summer it is reduced to 8.6%, while the cave guide received a total effective dose of 6.41 mSv in four months. The spatial radon maps allow defining the most suitable touristic paths according to the radon concentration distribution and therefore, appropriate fall and summer touristic paths are recommended. PMID:25863322

  10. A Modified Nitride-Based Fuel for Long Core Life and Proliferation Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B; Choi, J; Meier, T

    2003-10-22

    A modified nitride-based uranium fuel to support the small, secured, transportable, and autonomous reactor (SSTAR) concept is initiated at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL). This project centers on the evaluation of modified uranium nitride fuels imbedded with other inert (e.g. ZrN), neutron-absorbing (e.g. HfN) , or breeding (e.g. ThN) nitrides to enhance the fuel properties to achieve long core life with a compact reactor design. A long-life fuel could minimize the need for on-site refueling and spent-fuel storage. As a result, it could significantly improve the proliferation resistance of the reactor/fuel systems. This paper discusses the potential benefits and detriments of modified nitride-based fuels using the criteria of compactness, long-life, proliferation resistance, fuel safety, and waste management. Benefits and detriments are then considered in recommending a select set of compositions for further study.

  11. Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. 2. Reentrainment and discharge of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W Jr

    1981-07-01

    This report describes results of a parametric study of quantities of radioactive materials that might be discharged by a tornado-generated depressurization on contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services' (NFS) fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, New York. The study involved the following tasks: determining approximate quantities of radioactive materials in the cells and characterizing particle-size distribution; estimating the degree of mass reentrainment from particle-size distribution and from air speed data presented in Part 1; and estimating the quantities of radioactive material (source term) released from the cells to the atmosphere. The study has shown that improperly sealed manipulator ports in the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) present the most likely pathway for release of substantial quantities of radioactive material in the atmosphere under tornado accident conditions at the facility.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  13. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is requesting comments on revised instruction guides for coal... guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify...

  14. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  15. [Safety nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa-Espinoza, Teodoro Julio

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a specific medication belonging to a drug class is under the criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and suitability. NSAIDs currently constitute one of the most consumed drug in the world, so it is very important review of the safety aspects of this drug class. This review has the objective of analyze the safety of NSAIDs on 3 main criteria: gastrolesivity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  16. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  17. 10 CFR 830.122 - Quality assurance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Quality Assurance Requirements § 830.122 Quality assurance criteria. The QAP must address the following management, performance, and assessment criteria: (a) Criterion 1—Management/Program. (1) Establish an organizational structure, functional...

  18. 10 CFR 830.122 - Quality assurance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Quality Assurance Requirements § 830.122 Quality assurance criteria. The QAP must address the following management, performance, and assessment criteria: (a) Criterion 1—Management/Program. (1) Establish an organizational structure, functional...

  19. 10 CFR 830.122 - Quality assurance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Quality Assurance Requirements § 830.122 Quality assurance criteria. The QAP must address the following management, performance, and assessment criteria: (a) Criterion 1—Management/Program. (1) Establish an organizational structure, functional...

  20. Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Volume I. Tornado effects on head-end cell airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, L.J.; Andrae, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes results of a parametric study of the impacts of a tornado-generated depressurization on airflow in the contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, NY. The study involved the following tasks: (1) mathematical modeling of installed ventilation and abnormal exhaust pathways from the cells and prediction of tornado-induced airflows in these pathways; (2) mathematical modeling of individual cell flow characteristics and prediction of in-cell velocities induced by flows from step 1; and (3) evaluation of the results of steps 1 and 2 to determine whether any of the pathways investigated have the potential for releasing quantities of radioactively contaminated air from the main process cells. The study has concluded that in the event of a tornado strike, certain pathways from the cells have the potential to release radioactive materials of the atmosphere. Determination of the quantities of radioactive material released from the cells through pathways identified in step 3 is presented in Part II of this report.

  1. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  2. 77 FR 26050 - Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... nuclear fuel (SNF) in transportation packages and storage casks. The draft SFST-ISG proposes to revise the... SNF systems, (d) add a recommendation for an optional misload analysis coupled with additional administrative SNF system loading procedures, in lieu of a direct burnup measurement, and (e) make...

  3. 30 CFR 762.12 - Additional criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... whether they provide for greater protection of the public health, safety and welfare or the environment... UNSUITABLE FOR MINING CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATING AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762... criteria for determining whether lands within the State should be designated as unsuitable for coal...

  4. 77 FR 13070 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing that the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods...

  5. 76 FR 56143 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing that the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods...

  6. 78 FR 28183 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing that the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods...

  7. 78 FR 4830 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of reestablishment of Committee... reestablishment of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). The...

  8. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  10. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  11. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  12. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  13. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  14. 16 CFR 1301.5 - Banning criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banning criteria. 1301.5 Section 1301.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF... being distributed in commerce on or after the effective date of this ban and which has an...

  15. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  16. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  17. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  18. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  19. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  20. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  1. Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask

    SciTech Connect

    FLANAGAN, B.D.

    2000-08-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters.

  2. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  4. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  5. JAEA Studies on High Burnup Fuel Behaviors during Reactivity-Initiated Accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Suzuki, Motoe

    2007-07-01

    The objectives of fuel safety research program at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are; to evaluate adequacy of present safety criteria and safety margins; to provide a database for future regulation on higher burnup UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels, new cladding and pellets; and to provide reasonably mechanistic computer codes for regulatory application. The JAEA program is comprised of reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) studies including pulse-irradiation experiments in the NSRR and cladding mechanical tests, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests including integral thermal shock test and oxidation rate measurement, development and verification of computer codes FEMAXI-6 and RANNS, and so on. In addition to an overview of the fuel safety research at JAEA, most recent progresses in the RIA and LOCA tests programs and the codes development are described and discussed in the paper. (authors)

  6. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  7. Standard format and content for the safety analysis report for an independent spent fuel storage installation or monitored retrievable storage installation (dry storage): Revision 1, Task CE 406-4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste,'' of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations specifies the information to be supplied in applications for licenses to store spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) installation. However, Part 72 does not specify the format for presentation of the safety analysis report (SAR). Guidance on the content of the SAR will vary, depending on the type of installation that is planned. This guide represents a Standard Format that is acceptable to the NRC staff for the SAR required for the license application. Conformance with this Standard Format, however, is not mandatory. License applications with differing SAF formats will be acceptable to the staff if they provide an adequate basis for the findings required for the issuance of a license.

  8. Safety and Performance Advantages of Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blends (NOFBX) Propellants for Manned and Unmanned Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrazine, N2H4, is the current workhorse monopropellant in the spacecraft industry. Although widely used since the 1960's, hydrazine is highly toxic and its specific impulse (ISP) performance of ~230s is far lower than bipropellants and solid motors. NOFBX™ monopropellants were originally developed under NASA's Mars Advanced Technology program (2004-2007) for deep space Mars missions. This work focused on characterizing various Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFB) monopropellants which exhibited many favorable attributes to include: (1) Mono-propulsion, (2) Isp > 320s, (3) Non-toxic constituents, (4) Non-toxic effluents, (5) Low Cost, (6) High Density Specific Impulse, (7) Non-cryogenic, (8) Wide Storable Temperature Range, (9) Deeply throttlable [between 5 - 100lbs], (10) Self Pressurizing, (11) Wide Range of materials compatibility, along with many, many other benefits. All rocket propellants carry with them a history or stigma associated with either the development or implementation of that propellant and NOFBX™ is no exception. This paper examines the benefits of NOFBX™ propellants while addressing or dispelling a number of critiques N2O based propellants acquired through the decades of rocket propellant testing.

  9. 49 CFR 511.63 - Criteria for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.63 Criteria for settlement. Settlement of a case of violation of an average fuel economy standard is discretionary with the Administrator. The Administrator will... seeking settlement, or (b) That the violation of the average fuel economy standard resulted, as shown...

  10. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  11. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  12. Strength criteria for composite materials (a literature survey)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roode, F.

    1982-01-01

    Literature concerning strength (failure) criteria for composite materials is reviewed with emphasis on phenomenological failure criteria. These criteria are primarily intended to give a good estimation of the safety margin with respect to failure for arbitrary multiaxial stress states. The failure criteria do not indicate the types of fracture that will occur in the material. The collection of failure criteria is evaluated for applicability for the glass reinforced plastics used in mine detectors. Material tests necessary to determine the parameters in the failure criteria are discussed.

  13. DIPS Space Exploration Initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issue were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.

  14. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a

  15. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75.1403-5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1403-5 Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75.1403-5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1403-5 Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting...

  17. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  18. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  19. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  1. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  2. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  3. Design criteria document, electrical system, K-Basin essential systems recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, J.R.

    1994-12-12

    This Design Criteria Document provides the criteria for design and construction of electrical system modifications for 100K Area that are essential to protect the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in the K-Basin facilities.

  4. 50 CFR 665.965 - Fishing permit procedures and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Rose Atoll Marine National Monument § 665.965 Fishing permit procedures and criteria. (a) Rose Atoll... expenses, including but not limited to ice, bait, fuel, or food. (b) Rose Atoll Monument...

  5. 50 CFR 665.965 - Fishing permit procedures and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Rose Atoll Marine National Monument § 665.965 Fishing permit procedures and criteria. (a) Rose Atoll... expenses, including but not limited to ice, bait, fuel, or food. (b) Rose Atoll Monument...

  6. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    SciTech Connect

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  7. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-05-17

    This design calculation updates the previous criticality evaluation for the fuel handling, transfer, and staging operations to be performed in the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF) including the remediation area. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that operations performed in the DTF and RF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Dry Transfer Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173737], p. 3-8). A description of the changes is as follows: (1) Update the supporting calculations for the various Category 1 and 2 event sequences as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171429], Section 7). (2) Update the criticality safety calculations for the DTF staging racks and the remediation pool to reflect the current design. This design calculation focuses on commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, i.e., pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) SNF. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) owned SNF is evaluated in depth in the ''Canister Handling Facility Criticality Safety Calculations'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173284]) and is also applicable to DTF operations. Further, the design and safety analyses of the naval SNF canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. Also, note that the results for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Site specific Cask (MSC) calculations are limited to the

  8. 30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.222 Roof control plan-approval criteria. (a) This section sets forth the criteria that shall be considered on a...

  9. Revision of testing criteria for air cleaning unit of renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPPS.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    2011-07-01

    Designing Air Cleaning Units (ACU) of an Engineered Safety Feature and normal atmosphere clean-up system at the renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPP, and fuel cycle facilities in Korea, is required to meet the standards of ASME AG-1 (1997), ASME N509/N510 (1989) and KEPIC-MH (2001) to enhance the removal efficiency of aerosols and particulates from the effluents. The revised ACU testing criteria are allowed to use alternative challenge agents of the dioctyl phthalate and Refrigerant-11 for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and adsorption banks. The operability testing time of engineered safety feature (ESF) trains was changed from 10 h to 15 min. The activated carbon in adsorption banks should undergo laboratory tests at a temperature of 30 °C and relative humidity 95 %. The removal criteria of methyl iodide should be over 99.5 % for ESF and 99 % for normal systems. This paper provides the background of the changed criteria for designing and testing of the ACU system in nuclear facilities.

  10. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    A recent accomplishment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Nuclear Safety analysis group was to obtain DOE-ID approval for the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantity radioactive/fissionable waste in Department of Transportation (DOT) Type A drums at MFC. This accomplishment supported excellence in operations through safety analysis by better integrating nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements in the Transportation Safety Document (TSD); reducing container and transport costs; and making facility operations more efficient. The MFC TSD governs and controls the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials in non-DOT approved containers. Previously, the TSD did not include the capability to transfer payloads of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials using DOT Type A drums. Previous practice was to package the waste materials to less-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantities when loading DOT Type A drums for transfer out of facilities to reduce facility waste accumulations. This practice allowed operations to proceed, but resulted in drums being loaded to less than the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) waste limits, which was not cost effective or operations friendly. An improved and revised safety analysis was used to gain DOE-ID approval for adding this container configuration to the MFC TSD safety basis. In the process of obtaining approval of the revised safety basis, safety analysis practices were used effectively to directly support excellence in operations. Several factors contributed to the success of MFC’s effort to obtain approval for the use of DOT Type A drums, including two practices that could help in future safety basis changes at other facilities. 1) The process of incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the TSD at MFC helped to better integrate nuclear safety

  11. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 73

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 73 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTR) FSAR set. This page change incorporates Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) issued subsequent to Amendment 72 and approved for incorparoration before May 6, 1993. These changes include: Chapter 3, design criteria structures, equipment, and systems; chapter 5B, reactor coolant system; chapter 7, instrumentation and control systems; chapter 9, auxiliary systems; chapter 11, reactor refueling system; chapter 12, radiation protection and waste management; chapter 13, conduct of operations; chapter 17, technical specifications; chapter 20, FFTF criticality specifications; appendix C, local fuel failure events; and appendix Fl, operation at 680{degrees}F inlet temperature.

  12. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  13. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.

  14. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  15. PCES 2.0. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.L.

    1992-04-01

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  16. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Horning, W.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Donahue, D.J.

    1959-10-01

    A fuel slug for a reactor which acts as a safety device is described. The fuel slug is an aluminum tube with a foil lining the inside surface of the tube, the foil being fabricated of uranium in a lead matrix.

  18. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  19. Thermal-Hydraulic Bases for the Safety Limits and Limiting Safety System Settings for HFIR Operation at 100 MW and 468 psig Primary Pressure, Using Specially Selected Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rothrock, R.B.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes thermal hydraulic analyses performed to support HFIR operation at 100 MW and 468 psig pressure using specially selected fuel elements. The analyses were performed with the HFIR steady state heat transfer code, originally developed during HFIR design. This report addresses the increased core heat removal capability which can be achieved in fuel elements having coolant channel thicknesses that exceed the minimum requirements of the HFIR fuel fabrication specifications. Specific requirements for the minimum value of effective uniform as-built coolant channel thickness are established for fuel elements to be used at 100 MW. The burnout correlation currently used in the steady-state heat transfer code was also compared with more recent experimental results for stability of high-velocity flow in narrow heated channels, and the burnout correlation was found to be conservative with respect to flow stability at typical HFIR hot channel exit conditions at full power.

  20. Liquid fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  1. Liquid fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  2. 43 CFR 429.14 - What criteria will Reclamation consider when reviewing applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the following criteria when reviewing applications: (a) Compatibility with authorized project purposes, project operations, safety, and security; (b) Environmental compliance; (c) Compatibility with...

  3. 43 CFR 429.14 - What criteria will Reclamation consider when reviewing applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the following criteria when reviewing applications: (a) Compatibility with authorized project purposes, project operations, safety, and security; (b) Environmental compliance; (c) Compatibility with...

  4. 43 CFR 429.14 - What criteria will Reclamation consider when reviewing applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the following criteria when reviewing applications: (a) Compatibility with authorized project purposes, project operations, safety, and security; (b) Environmental compliance; (c) Compatibility with...

  5. 43 CFR 429.14 - What criteria will Reclamation consider when reviewing applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the following criteria when reviewing applications: (a) Compatibility with authorized project purposes, project operations, safety, and security; (b) Environmental compliance; (c) Compatibility with...

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  7. 44 CFR 150.4 - Nomination and selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nomination and selection criteria. 150.4 Section 150.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL PUBLIC SAFETY AWARDS TO PUBLIC SAFETY...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.95 - Criteria for personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for personal protective equipment. 1926.95 Section 1926.95 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment § 1926.95...

  9. Evaluation of Launch Accident Safety Options for Low-Power Surface Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung Poon, Cindy; Poston, David I.

    2006-01-01

    Safety options for surface reactors of less than 800 kW (thermal power) are analyzed. The concepts under consideration are heat pipe cooled reactors fueled with either uranium nitride or uranium dioxide. This study investigates the impact of launch accident criteria on the system mass, while ensuring the mechanical integrity and reliability of the system through launch accident scenarios. The four criticality scenarios analyzed for shutdown determination are dry sand surround with reflectors stripped, water submersion on concrete, water submersion with all control drums in, and the nominal shutdown reactor condition. Additionally the following two operational criteria are analyzed: reactor is warm and swelled, and reactor is warm and swelled with one drum in (where swelled includes both thermal mechanical expansion and irradiation induced swelling of the fuel).

  10. Evaluation of Launch Accident Safety Options for Low-Power Surface Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fung Poon, Cindy; Poston, David I.

    2006-01-20

    Safety options for surface reactors of less than 800 kW (thermal power) are analyzed. The concepts under consideration are heat pipe cooled reactors fueled with either uranium nitride or uranium dioxide. This study investigates the impact of launch accident criteria on the system mass, while ensuring the mechanical integrity and reliability of the system through launch accident scenarios. The four criticality scenarios analyzed for shutdown determination are dry sand surround with reflectors stripped, water submersion on concrete, water submersion with all control drums in, and the nominal shutdown reactor condition. Additionally the following two operational criteria are analyzed: reactor is warm and swelled, and reactor is warm and swelled with one drum in (where swelled includes both thermal mechanical expansion and irradiation induced swelling of the fuel)

  11. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  13. Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R.T. III; Hopper, C.M.; Smolen, G.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits.

  14. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  15. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  16. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  17. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  18. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  19. 33 CFR 183.538 - Metallic fuel line materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metallic fuel line materials. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.538 Metallic fuel line materials. Each metallic fuel line connecting the fuel tank with the fuel inlet connection...

  20. A Silent Safety Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) referred 8 times to the NASA "Silent Safety Program." This term, "Silent Safety Program" was not an original observation but first appeared in the Rogers Commission's Investigation of the Challenger Mishap. The CAIB on page 183 of its report in the paragraph titled 'Encouraging Minority Opinion,' stated "The Naval Reactor Program encourages minority opinions and "bad news." Leaders continually emphasize that when no minority opinions are present, the responsibility for a thorough and critical examination falls to management. . . Board interviews revealed that it is difficult for minority and dissenting opinions to percolate up through the agency's hierarchy. . ." The first question and perhaps the only question is - what is a silent safety program? Well, a silent safety program may be the same as the dog that didn't bark in Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of the Silver Blaze" because system safety should behave as a devil's advocate for the program barking on every occasion to insure a critical review inclusion. This paper evaluates the NASA safety program and provides suggestions to prevent the recurrence of the silent safety program alluded to in the Challenger Mishap Investigation. Specifically targeted in the CAM report, "The checks and balances the safety system was meant to provide were not working." A silent system safety program is not unique to NASA but could emerge in any and every organization. Principles developed by Irving Janis in his book, Groupthink, listed criteria used to evaluate an organization's cultural attributes that allows a silent safety program to evolve. If evidence validates Jams's criteria, then Jams's recommendations for preventing groupthink can also be used to improve a critical evaluation and thus prevent the development of a silent safety program.

  1. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Lee, Chuck; Farmer, Joseph; Day, Dan; Wall, Mark; Saw, Cheng; Boussoufi, Moe; Liu, Ben; Egbert, Harold; Branagan, Dan; D'Amato, Andy

    2007-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains fissionable materials ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, etc.). To prevent nuclear criticality in spent fuel storage, transportation, and during disposal, neutron-absorbing materials (or neutron poisons, such as borated stainless steel, Boral{sup TM}, Metamic{sup TM}, Ni-Gd, and others) would have to be applied. The success in demonstrating that the High-Performance Corrosion- Resistant Material (HPCRM){sup [1]} can be thermally applied as coating onto base metal to provide for corrosion resistance for many naval applications raises the interest in applying the HPCRM to USDOE/OCRWM spent fuel management program. The fact that the HPCRM relies on the high content of boron to make the material amorphous - an essential property for corrosion resistance - and that the boron has to be homogeneously distributed in the HPCRM qualify the material to be a neutron poison. (authors)

  2. Safety evaluation report related to the evaluation of low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion fuel for use in non-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion plate-type fuels have been extensively researched and developed under the international program, Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactors. The international effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States. This evaluation is based primarily on reports issued by ANL that discuss and summarize the developmental tests and experiments, including postirradiation examinations, of both miniature and full-sized plates of prototypical fuel compositions. This evaluation concludes that plate-type fuels suitable and acceptable for use in research and test reactors can be fabricated with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al dispersion compacts with uranium densities up to 4.8 g/cm/sup 3/. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  4. NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel Model Systems Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.; Haller, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes criteria for the design, analysis, quality assurance, and documentation of models or test articles that are to be tested in the aeropropulsion facilities at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The report presents three methods for computing model allowable stresses on the basis of the yield stress or ultimate stress, and it gives quality assurance criteria for models tested in Lewis' aeropropulsion facilities. Both customer-furnished model systems and in-house model systems are discussed. The functions of the facility manager, project engineer, operations engineer, research engineer, and facility electrical engineer are defined. The format for pretest meetings, prerun safety meetings, and the model criteria review are outlined Then, the format for the model systems report (a requirement for each model that is to be tested at NASA Lewis) is described, the engineers that are responsible for developing the model systems report are listed, and the time table for its delivery to the facility manager is given.

  5. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  6. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each.... (b) The test pressure shall be obtained with air or inert gas. Manufacturer Requirements...

  7. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operated fuel pump must not operate except when the engine is operating or when the engine is started. (c... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  9. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  10. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to...

  11. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to...

  12. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  13. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  14. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  15. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to...

  16. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  17. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  18. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to...

  19. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  20. 33 CFR 183.510 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks. 183.510 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.510 Fuel tanks. (a) Each fuel tank in a boat must have been tested by its manufacturer under § 183.580 and not leak...

  1. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous Metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Lee, C; Day, D; Wall, M; Saw, C; MoberlyChan, W; Farmer, J; Boussoufl, M; Liu, B; Egbert, H; Branagan, D; D'Amato, A

    2006-11-13

    Spent nuclear fuel contains fissionable materials ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, etc.). Neutron multiplication and the potential for criticality are enhanced by the presence of a moderator during cask loading in water, water incursion in accidents conditions during spent fuel storage or transport. To prevent nuclear criticality in spent fuel storage, transportation, and during disposal, neutron-absorbing materials (or neutron poisons, such as borated stainless steel, Boral{trademark}, Metamic{trademark}, Ni-Gd, and others) would have to be applied. The success in demonstrating that the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant material (HPCRM) can be thermally applied as coating onto base metal to provide for corrosion resistance for many naval applications raises the interest in applying the HPCRM to USDOE/OCRWM spent fuel management program. The fact that the HPCRM relies on the high content of boron to make the material amorphous--an essential property for corrosion resistance--and that the boron has to be homogeneously distributed in the HPCRM qualify the material to be a neutron poison.

  2. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Severe accident research, thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs, high-burnup fuel behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24-26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting.

  3. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  4. 77 FR 16807 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... membership to fill 16 vacancies on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1912 - What criteria for management of change must my SEMS program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1912 What criteria for management of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What criteria for management of change must my SEMS program meet? 250.1912 Section 250.1912 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1912 - What criteria for management of change must my SEMS program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1912 What criteria for management of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What criteria for management of change must my SEMS program meet? 250.1912 Section 250.1912 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1912 - What criteria for management of change must my SEMS program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1912 What criteria for management of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What criteria for management of change must my SEMS program meet? 250.1912 Section 250.1912 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND...

  8. 75 FR 63433 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Re-Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Re-Establishment AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of re... announcing the re-chartering of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods...

  9. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  10. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  11. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-07

    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections 3.1.1.3.4.13 and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the CHF and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility

  12. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  13. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  14. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  15. HANSF 1.3 Users Manual FAI/98-40-R2 Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Safety Analysis Model [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-10-07

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. This manual reflects the HANSF version 1.3.2, a revised version of 1.3.1. HANSF 1.3.2 was written to correct minor errors and to allow modeling of condensate flow on the MCO inner surface. HANSF 1.3.2 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under Lahey TI or digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  16. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  17. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

  18. State of Washington Department of Ecology criteria pollutants and toxic air polluntants phase II notice of construction for the Hanford Site spent nuclear fuel project--cold vacuum dryingfacility, Project W-441

    SciTech Connect

    Jansky, M.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1997-01-24

    This Phase 11 notice of construction (NOC) provides the additional information committed to in the Phase I NOC submittal (DOE/RL-96- 55) regarding the air toxic and criteria pollutants that could potentially be emitted during operation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This Phase 11 NOC is being submitted to ensure the CVDF is in full compliance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-460-040(8), `Commencement of Construction`. The Phase I NOC (approved September 30, 1996) was defined as constructing the substructure, including but not limited to, pouring the concrete for the floor, and construction of the exterior. This Phase 11 NOC is being submitted for approval before installation and operation of the process equipment that will generate any potential air emissions at the CVDF, and installation and operation of the emissions control equipment.

  19. Handling glacially induced faults in the assessment of the long term safety of a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munier, R.

    2011-12-01

    Located deep into the Baltic shield, far from active plate boundaries and volcanism, Swedish bedrock is characterised by a low frequency of earthquakes of small magnitudes. Yet, faults, predominantly in the Lapland region, offsetting the quarternary regolith ten meters or more, reveal that Swedish bedrock suffered from substantial earthquake activity in connection to the retreat of the latest continental glacier, Weichsel. Storage of nuclear wastes, hazardous for hundreds of thousand years, requires, firstly, isolation of radionuclides and, secondly, retardation of the nuclides should the barriers fail. Swedish regulations require that safety is demonstrated for a period of a million years. Consequently, the repository must be designed to resist the impact of several continental glaciers. Large, glacially induced, earthquakes near the repository have the potential of triggering slip along fractures across the canisters containing the nuclear wastes, thereby simultaneously jeopardising isolation, retardation and, hence, long term safety. It has therefore been crucial to assess the impact of such intraplate earthquake upon the primary functions of the repository. We conclude that, by appropriate design of the repository, the negative impact of earthquakes on long term safety can be considerably lessened. We were, additionally, able to demonstrate compliance with Swedish regulations in our safety assessment, SR-Site, submitted to the authorities earlier this year. However, the assessment required a number of critical assumptions, e.g. concerning the strain rate and the fracture properties of the rock, many of which are subject of current research in the geoscientific community. By a conservative approach, though, we judge to have adequately propagated critical uncertainties through the assessment and bound the uncertainty space.

  20. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  1. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  2. Preliminary criteria for the fracture control of space shuttle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The complex and multidisciplinary factors are presented which relate to the prevention of structural failure due to the initiation or propagation of cracks or crack-like defects. The fracture control criteria are applicable to space shuttle components which are: (1) susceptible to cracking or fracture on the basis of anticipated loads and environment, and (2) critical to either crew safety or system performance. The criteria define the design, fabrication, environmental control, inspection, maintenance, repair, and verification procedures required for adequate fracture control.

  3. TRANSPORTATION CASK RECEIPT/RETURN FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-26

    The purpose of this design calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of transportation casks performed in the Transportation Cask Receipt and Return Facility (TCRRF) and Buffer Area meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''Transportation Cask Receipt/Return Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170217], Section 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of the following items: (1) Evaluate criticality effects for both dry and fully flooded conditions pertaining to TCRRF and Buffer Area operations for defense in depth. (2) Evaluate Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the TCRRF as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). This evaluation includes credible fuel reconfiguration conditions. In addition to the scope of work listed above, an evaluation was also performed of modeling assumptions for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) regarding inclusion of plenum and end regions of the active fuel. This calculation is limited to CSNF and US Department of Energy (DOE) SNF. it should be mentioned that the latter waste form is evaluated more in depth in the ''Canister Handling Facility Criticality Safety Calculations (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167614]). Further, the design and safety analyses of the naval SNF canisters are the responsibility of the US Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the TCRRF and Buffer Area and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility. However, it is anticipated that design changes to the facility layout will have little or no impact on the criticality results and/or conclusions

  4. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  5. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  6. Enhanced Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Element for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, M. A.; DeHart, M. D.; Morrell, S. R.; Jamison, R. K.; Nef, E. C.; Nigg, D. W.

    2015-03-01

    Under the current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy and planning scenario, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its associated critical facility (ATRC) will be reconfigured to operate on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort has produced a conceptual design for an Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) element. This fuel features monolithic U-10Mo fuel foils and aluminum cladding separated by a thin zirconium barrier. As with previous iterations of the ELF design, radial power peaking is managed using different U-10Mo foil thicknesses in different plates of the element. The lead fuel element design, ELF Mk1A, features only three fuel meat thicknesses, a reduction from the previous iterations meant to simplify manufacturing. Evaluation of the ELF Mk1A fuel design against reactor performance requirements is ongoing, as are investigations of the impact of manufacturing uncertainty on safety margins. The element design has been evaluated in what are expected to be the most demanding design basis accident scenarios and has met all initial thermal-hydraulic criteria.

  7. 30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Roof control plan-approval criteria. 75.222 Section 75.222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.222 Roof...

  8. 30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Roof control plan-approval criteria. 75.222 Section 75.222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.222 Roof...

  9. 30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roof control plan-approval criteria. 75.222 Section 75.222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.222 Roof...

  10. 30 CFR 75.222 - Roof control plan-approval criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Roof control plan-approval criteria. 75.222 Section 75.222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.222 Roof...

  11. Gout Classification Criteria: Update and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Taylor, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis, with a rising prevalence and incidence worldwide. There has been a resurgence in gout research, fueled, in part, by a number of advances in pharmacologic therapy for gout. The conduct of clinical trials and other observational research in gout requires a standardized and validated means of assembling well-defined groups of patients with gout for such research purposes. Recently, an international collaborative effort that involved a data-driven process with state-of-the art methodology supported by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism led to publication of new gout classification criteria. PMID:27342957

  12. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  13. Gout Classification Criteria: Update and Implications.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Taylor, William J; Neogi, Tuhina

    2016-07-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis, with a rising prevalence and incidence worldwide. There has been a resurgence in gout research, fueled, in part, by a number of advances in pharmacologic therapy for gout. The conduct of clinical trials and other observational research in gout requires a standardized and validated means of assembling well-defined groups of patients with gout for such research purposes. Recently, an international collaborative effort that involved a data-driven process with state-of-the art methodology supported by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism led to publication of new gout classification criteria. PMID:27342957

  14. FY2015 ceramic fuels development annual highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James

    2015-09-22

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2015 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY15 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  15. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  16. Criteria of quality and methods of measurement in multichannel biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Kaltschmidt, H

    1975-01-01

    In contrast with one-channel biotelemetry, multichannel biotelemetry systems permit the analysis of biological systems by means of cybernetics. Some simple examples are given. The basic concept of a multichannel system is described. The criteria of quality of which the nonevident ones are defined by detailing the test circuits are the following (input criteria): number of channels, bandwidth, voltage range, impedance, maximum voltage outside the signal band, stability of the power supply for transducers, factor of safety against multipath propagation, distance between transmitter and receiver, shock, vibration and temperature range, weight, volume and operating time. Output criteria: signal-to-noise ratio, linearity, crosstalk transfer function, different time lags.

  17. Evaluating Environmental, Health and Safety Impacts from Two Nuclear Fuel Cycles: A Comparative Analysis of Once-Through Uranium Use and Plutonium Recycle in Light Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bethan L.

    The work presented in this dissertation represents a systems-level approach to investigate potential net impacts with respect to human health and the environment associated with transitioning to the MOC for the U.S. In Chapter 2, an updated systems-level conceptual model of the OTC is presented to more accurately portray the OTC as currently implemented in the U.S. The conceptual model is the basis for estimating the worker collective doses at each operational stage, and the first demonstration of a quantitative comparative radiological impact assessment from expected normal operations is presented. In the course of evaluating worker collective dose associated with modern OTC practices, it was found that the relative contributions from the two grouped operations (front-end operations for preparing reactor fuel and reactor operations) were substantially different from historical data and conventional wisdom. As a bookend to Chapter 2, a summary is provided that describes the nature of the differences and factors that led to these differences. Detailed information of the work as part of the published journal article based off of this corollary work is included as an Appendix (C). In Chapter 3, the study of worker collective doses from the phased introduction of reprocessing in the MOC scenario, and is presented similarly to the results in Chapter 2. MOC performance was also estimated by evaluating the radioactive waste generated that can be disposed and managed through known disposal practices in shallow-land burial. Relative to the OTC, MOC performance with respect to worker collective dose was not discernibly different; while the volume of radioactive waste generated decreased. It was found that although the sheer volume of radioactive waste avoided is large, the waste disposition pathway is known for the majority of this waste. The radioactive waste that requires disposal at a licensed off-site facility is examined in closer detail. The verification process for

  18. Delta nitrogen tetroxide fueling operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, R. B.; Cross, T. M.; Rucci, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Delta second stage nitrogen tetroxide fueling system is briefly summarized. The nitrogen tetroxide fueling system and the equipment used to protect the spacecraft environment from the toxic nitrogen tetroxide fumes are described. Topics covered include: the nitrogen tetroxide transfer system; loading operations; safety precautions; and chemical treatment of all toxic vapors.

  19. Dryout of BWR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, Frigyes

    2006-07-01

    To increase the power output of the presently operating power reactors is a worldwide trend. One limiting factor from the safety and commercial point of views is the maximum allowable thermal load of the fuel. The findings of the presented loop experiments are that the margin to the burnout of the fuel elements can be defined by a single parameter the void. (authors)

  20. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  1. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work.

  2. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The safety audit. 385.107 Section 385.107... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.107 The safety audit. (a) The criteria used in a safety audit to determine whether a Mexico-domiciled carrier exercises the necessary...

  3. Prognosis and comparison of performances of composite CERCER and CERMET fuels dedicated to transmutation of TRU in an EFIT ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V.; Uyttenhove, W.; Thetford, R.; Maschek, W.

    2011-07-01

    The neutronic and thermomechanical performances of two composite fuel systems: CERCER with (Pu,Np,Am,Cm)O 2-x fuel particles in ceramic MgO matrix and CERMET with metallic Mo matrix, selected for transmutation of minor actinides in the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT), were analysed aiming at their optimisation. The ALEPH burnup code system, based on MNCPX and ORIGEN codes and JEFF3.1 nuclear data library, and the modern version of the fuel rod performance code TRAFIC were used for this analysis. Because experimental data on the properties of the mixed minor-actinide oxides are scarce, and the in-reactor behaviour of the T91 steel chosen as cladding, as well as of the corrosion protective layer, is still not well-known, a set of "best estimates" provided the properties used in the code. The obtained results indicate that both fuel candidates, CERCER and CERMET, can satisfy the fuel design and safety criteria of EFIT. The residence time for both types of fuel elements can reach about 5 years with the reactivity swing within ±1000 pcm, and about 22% of the loaded MA is transmuted during this period. However, the fuel centreline temperature in the hottest CERCER fuel rod is close to the temperature above which MgO matrix becomes chemically instable. Moreover, a weak PCMI can appear in about 3 years of operation. The CERMET fuel can provide larger safety margins: the fuel temperature is more than 1000 K below the permitted level of 2380 K and the pellet-cladding gap remains open until the end of operation.

  4. Quasi-Static Probabilistic Structural Analyses Process and Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B.; Verderaime, V.

    1999-01-01

    Current deterministic structural methods are easily applied to substructures and components, and analysts have built great design insights and confidence in them over the years. However, deterministic methods cannot support systems risk analyses, and it was recently reported that deterministic treatment of statistical data is inconsistent with error propagation laws that can result in unevenly conservative structural predictions. Assuming non-nal distributions and using statistical data formats throughout prevailing stress deterministic processes lead to a safety factor in statistical format, which integrated into the safety index, provides a safety factor and first order reliability relationship. The embedded safety factor in the safety index expression allows a historically based risk to be determined and verified over a variety of quasi-static metallic substructures consistent with the traditional safety factor methods and NASA Std. 5001 criteria.

  5. Quartic Rotation Criteria and Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Douglas B.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the current analytic rotation criteria for simple structure in factor analysis are summarized and identified as members of a general symmetric family of quartic criteria. A unified development of algorithms for orthogonal and direct oblique rotation using arbitrary criteria from this family is presented. (Author/TJH)

  6. Criteria for Restructuring Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    Criteria most often used by higher education administrators in restructuring higher education in the 1980s and 1990s are outlined. A distinction is made between retrenchment and restructuring. Criteria recommended in the literature are compared with criteria actually used, and the results. Some alternatives are suggested. (MSE)

  7. Shared safety management

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, L.; Stumpf, C.

    1995-11-01

    In the past 18 months, American Ref-Fuel, a Houston-based waste-to-energy company, has had three of its plants designated as Star facilities under the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) administered by OSHA. The VPP Star participants are a select group of facilities that have designed and implemented exemplary health and safety programs. They must show performance consistent with the VPP goal of aligning labor, management and OSHA into a cooperative relationship. Having a safe work environment has always been one of the core culture issues at American Ref-Fuel. They have learned the best way to maintain excellence is to listen to how each employee is affected in daily activities by safety issues and take actions to constantly reinforce the message that safety concerns never fall on deaf ears. The VPP process encourages identification of potential safety problems before they occur. The program promotes ongoing integration of safety into all facility activities, with the overall objective of eliminating employee injuries and improving plant performance; two important considerations for plant owners and facility managers searching for new tools to improve their overall bottom line.

  8. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  9. Experimental Study of Turbine Fuel Thermal Stability in an Aircraft Fuel System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranos, A.; Marteney, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability of aircraft gas turbines fuels was investigated. The objectives were: (1) to design and build an aircraft fuel system simulator; (2) to establish criteria for quantitative assessment of fuel thermal degradation; and (3) to measure the thermal degradation of Jet A and an alternative fuel. Accordingly, an aircraft fuel system simulator was built and the coking tendencies of Jet A and a model alternative fuel (No. 2 heating oil) were measured over a range of temperatures, pressures, flows, and fuel inlet conditions.

  10. Systems Analysis in Support of the NASA Fuel Cell Upgrade Program for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996 as part of NASA's overall efforts to improve space shuttle operations, NASA undertook an internal assessment of the shuttle to identify subsystems in the greatest need of upgrading. The criteria used to rank the candidate subsystems were safety improvement, reduction in acquisition and operational costs, improvement in fleet supportability, improvement in mission effectiveness, implementation risk, and commonality with future NASA missions. On the basis of the preliminary results of the NASA assessment, the Fuel Cell Power Plant (FCP) for the shuttle orbiter was among those subsystems selected for further consideration.

  11. New developments in RTR fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.

    2013-07-01

    As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

  12. Regulatory views on current criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    1996-12-31

    The nuclear facilities in Spain of interest from the stand-point of criticality are a fuel fabrication facility, handling only fresh fuel; seven pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants with different nuclear steam supply system designs; two boiling water reactor (BWR) plants; and an ongoing program of dual-purpose casks (storage and transport) for spent fuel. Given the spent-fuel storage space problems with the original rack designs, a plan was developed and started in 1990 to incorporate high-density racks (borated steel or Boral) in the spent-fuel storage of all plants, giving credit for fuel burnup. Following this plan, five PWR units have licensed burnup-credited criticality safety analyses using a two-zone approach (fresh and spent fuel) for the spent-fuel pool. The two BWR plants have also licensed a criticality safety analysis with credit for the reactivity reduction provided by the gadolinia rods. The only spent-fuel cask yet licensed has followed the expected fresh fuel assumption for the criticality safety evaluation. However, it can be expected that the industry will submit burnup-credit safety analyses for the future casks designs.

  13. Magnetic resonance safety.

    PubMed

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation, and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy, and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed, and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  14. The procedure safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Maureen E.

    1990-01-01

    Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

  15. Mixed oxide fuel development

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.D.; Omberg, R.P.

    1987-05-08

    This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 9 CFR 590.610 - Criteria for exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for exemption. 590.610 Section 590.610 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... testing procedures, and making all such records available for review. (b) The eggs received or used in...

  17. 9 CFR 590.610 - Criteria for exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for exemption. 590.610 Section 590.610 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... testing procedures, and making all such records available for review. (b) The eggs received or used in...

  18. 47 CFR 101.509 - Interference protection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference protection criteria. 101.509 Section 101.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service §...

  19. 16 CFR 1610.7 - Test sequence and classification criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1610.7 Section 1610.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... classification. (b) Test sequence and classification criteria. (1) Step 1, Plain Surface Textile Fabrics in the... burning direction of the fabric. (ii) Prepare and test five specimens from the fastest burning...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human performance. The documentation shall be in such a form as to facilitate later comparisons with in... B to Part 236—Risk Assessment Criteria The safety-critical performance of each product for which.... The human factor impact must be included in the assessment, whenever applicable, to provide...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human performance. The documentation shall be in such a form as to facilitate later comparisons with in... B to Part 236—Risk Assessment Criteria The safety-critical performance of each product for which.... The human factor impact must be included in the assessment, whenever applicable, to provide...

  2. 47 CFR 90.313 - Frequency loading criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency loading criteria. 90.313 Section 90.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) §...

  3. 47 CFR 90.313 - Frequency loading criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency loading criteria. 90.313 Section 90.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) §...

  4. 47 CFR 90.313 - Frequency loading criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency loading criteria. 90.313 Section 90.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) §...

  5. 47 CFR 90.313 - Frequency loading criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency loading criteria. 90.313 Section 90.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) §...

  6. 47 CFR 90.313 - Frequency loading criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency loading criteria. 90.313 Section 90.313 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV Sharing) §...

  7. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pedestrian traffic, safety, community quality of life, and area commerce; (e) The effects of the rail line... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for selection of projects. 262.9 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL...

  8. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pedestrian traffic, safety, community quality of life, and area commerce; (e) The effects of the rail line... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria for selection of projects. 262.9 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL...

  9. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pedestrian traffic, safety, community quality of life, and area commerce; (e) The effects of the rail line... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for selection of projects. 262.9 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL...

  10. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pedestrian traffic, safety, community quality of life, and area commerce; (e) The effects of the rail line... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for selection of projects. 262.9 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL...

  11. 49 CFR 262.9 - Criteria for selection of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pedestrian traffic, safety, community quality of life, and area commerce; (e) The effects of the rail line... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for selection of projects. 262.9 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM FOR CAPITAL GRANTS FOR RAIL...

  12. Evaluation Criteria for Solid Waste Processing Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, J. A.; Alazraki, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary list of criteria is proposed for evaluation of solid waste processing technologies for research and technology development (R&TD) in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. Completion of the proposed list by current and prospective ALS technology developers, with regard to specific missions of interest, may enable identification of appropriate technologies (or lack thereof) and guide future development efforts for the ALS Program solid waste processing area. An attempt is made to include criteria that capture information about the technology of interest as well as its system-wide impacts. Some of the criteria in the list are mission-independent, while the majority are mission-specific. In order for technology developers to respond to mission-specific criteria, critical information must be available on the quantity, composition and state of the waste stream, the wast processing requirements, as well as top-level mission scenario information (e.g. safety, resource recovery, planetary protection issues, and ESM equivalencies). The technology readiness level (TRL) determines the degree to which a technology developer is able to accurately report on the list of criteria. Thus, a criteria-specific minimum TRL for mandatory reporting has been identified for each criterion in the list. Although this list has been developed to define criteria that are needed to direct funding of solid waste processing technologies, this list processes significant overlap in criteria required for technology selection for inclusion in specific tests or missions. Additionally, this approach to technology evaluation may be adapted to other ALS subsystems.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    conclusion is that the fuel can be stored in L Basin, meeting general safety functions for fuel storage, for an additional 50 years and possibly beyond contingent upon continuation of existing fuel management activities and several augmented program activities. It is concluded that the technical bases and well-founded technologies have been established to store spent nuclear fuel in the L Basin. Methodologies to evaluate the fuel condition and characteristics, and systems to prepare fuel, isolate damaged fuel, and maintain water quality storage conditions have been established. Basin structural analyses have been performed against present NPH criteria. The aluminum fuel storage experience to date, supported by the understanding of the effects of environmental variables on materials performance, demonstrates that storage systems that minimize degradation and provide full retrievability of the fuel up to and greater than 50 additional years will require maintaining the present management programs, and with the recommended augmented/additional activities in this report.

  14. Hydrogen Safety Training for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is emerging in the U.S. through vehicle demonstration programs and early deployments of fuel cells for onsite power generation, materials handling, and other applications. To help first responders prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell use in their communities, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has developed hydrogen safety training for first responders. A web-based awareness-level course, 'Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders,' launched in 2007, is available at http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/FirstResponders/. Approximately 17,000 first responders have accessed the online training.

  15. Assuring the quality of safety analyses and safety analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Johnson

    2000-05-03

    Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.

  16. Assuring the Quality of Safety Analyses and Safety Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Edwin

    2000-05-01

    Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.

  17. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  18. Summary of high burnup fuel issues and NRC`s plan of action

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    For the past two years the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has concentrated mostly on the so-called reactivity-initiated accidents -- the RIAs -- in this session of the Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting, but this year there is a more varied agenda. RIAs are, of course, not the only events of interest for reactor safety that are affected by extended burnup operation. Their has now been enough time to consider a range of technical issues that arise at high burnup, and a list of such issues being addressed in their research program is given here. (1) High burnup capability of the steady-state code (FRAPCON) used for licensing audit calculations. (2) General capability (including high burnup) of the transient code (FRAPTRAN) used for special studies. (3) Adequacy at high burnup of fuel damage criteria used in regulation for reactivity accidents. (4) Adequacy at high burnup of models and fuel related criteria used in regulation for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). (5) Effect of high burnup on fuel system damage during normal operation, including control rod insertion problems. A distinction is made between technical issues, which may or may not have direct licensing impacts, and licensing issues. The RIAs became a licensing issue when the French test in CABRI showed that cladding failures could occur at fuel enthalpies much lower than a value currently used in licensing. Fuel assembly distortion became a licensing issue when control rod insertion was affected in some operating plants. In this presentation, these technical issues will be described and the NRC`s plan of action to address them will be discussed.

  19. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  20. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor.