Science.gov

Sample records for full scale pipe

  1. Full-scale Testing and Numerical Modeling oF Axial and Lateral Soil Pipe Interaction in Deepwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf Joshaghani, M.; M Raheem, A.

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the behavior of deep sea pipes is crucial for off-shore oil & gas industry. During the service life, network of oil and gas pipelines that connect the floating platforms to the subsea wells in deepwater undergo significant changes in temperature and pressure resulting in high shears, strains and movement. These pipelines laid on the very soft seabed become susceptible to large movement and lateral buckling resulting in global instability of the entire system. Hence, it is of paramount importance to address the aforementioned issues through combined numerical modeling and experimental study of various conditions in the field. Modeling this behavior needs to take into account the complex interactions between pipe, water, and soil (which, in this case, will be a saturated porous media). Physical experiments can be challenging as the undrained shear strength is very low of the order of 0.01 kPa. In this research, we have performed large-scale experiments as well as numerical modeling. Several full-scale models have been designed and constructed to investigate the behavior of various types of pipes (steel, plastic) on the simulated clayey sea bed (undrained shear strength ranged from 0.01 kPa to 0.11 kPa). Axial and lateral pipe soil interactions have been characterized, and appropriate mitigation solutions for axial walking and lateral buckling have been proposed. On the numerical modeling front, the pipe-soil behavior is simulated using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) and Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulations.

  2. Laser propagation through full-scale, high-gain MagLIF gas pipes using the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Bradley; Sefkow, Adam; Goyon, Clement; Strozzi, David; Khan, Shahab; Rosen, Mordy; Campbell, Mike; Logan, Grant; Peterson, Kyle; Moody, John

    2016-10-01

    The first relevant measurements of laser propagation through surrogate high-gain MagLIF gas pipe targets at full scale have been performed at the NIF, using 30 kJ of laser drive from one quad in a 10 ns pulse at an intensity of 2e14 W/cm2. The unmagnetized pipe is filled with 1 atm of 99%/1% neopentane/Ar, and uses an entrance window of 0.75 um polyimide and an exit window of 0.3 um of Ta backed with 5 um of polyimide. Side-on x-ray emission from the plasma is imaged through the 100 um-thick epoxy wall onto a framing camera at four times during the drive, and is in excellent agreement with pre-shot HYDRA radiation-hydrodynamics modeling. X-ray emission from the Ta exit plane is imaged onto a streak camera to determine the timing and intensity of the laser burning through the pipe, and the Ar emission from the center of the pipe is spectrally- and temporally-resolved to determine the plasma electron temperature. Backscatter is measured throughout the laser drive, and is found to be of significance only when the laser reaches the Ta exit plane and produces SBS. These first results in unmagnetized surrogate gas fills are encouraging since they demonstrate sufficient laser energy absorption and low LPI losses within high-density long-scale-length plasmas for proposed high-gain MagLIF target designs. We will discuss plans to magnetize targets filled with high-density DT gas in future experiments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Fracture mechanics and full scale pipe break testing for the Department of Environment's New Production Reactor-Heavy Water Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, A. B.

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is completing a major task for the Department of Energy (DOE) in the demonstration that the primary piping of the New Production Heavy Water Reactor (NPR-HWR), with its relatively moderate temperature and pressure, should not suffer an instantaneous Double-Ended-Guillotine-Break (DEGB) under design basis loadings and conditions. The growth of possible small preexisting defects in the piping wall was estimated over a plant life of 60 years. This worst case flaw was then evaluated using fracture mechanics methods. J estimation methods and tearing instability approximations used in this analysis are discussed in this paper. It was established that this worst case flaw would increase in size by at least 14 times before pipe instability during an earthquake would even begin to be possible. The fatigue crack growth analysis is discussed in this paper.

  4. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  5. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  6. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  7. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  8. Elimination of Acid Cleaning of High Temperature Salt Water Heat Exchangers: Redesigned Pre-Production Full-Scale Heat Pipe Bleed Air Cooler for Shipboard Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    inadequate brazing quality were investigated. Using a consumable insert gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, a micro torch, a balanced welding ...tungsten arc welding (GTAW) procedure with a micro GTAW torch was used to produce mock-up samples that were subsequently cross-sectioned to...copper-nickel alloy heat pipes that penetrate a 70/30 copper-nickel tube-sheet. The design includes both brazed and arc - welded joints. 0.835-in

  9. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  10. 3. DETAIL OF WOODSTAVE PIPE (Tenths of a foot scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WOODSTAVE PIPE (Tenths of a foot scale in photograph) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  11. Radiological assessment of petroleum pipe scale from pipe-rattling operations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, I S; Arno, M G; Rock, J C; Berry, R O; Poston, J W; Cezeaux, J R; Park, J-M

    2004-10-01

    Petroleum pipe scale, consisting of concentrated inorganic solids such as barium sulfate, can deposit on the inside of down-hole pipes during the normal course of oil field pumping operations. A portion of this scale has been shown to contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), predominantly compounds of radium. When these pipes are removed from the well, there is a potential for radiation doses to the oil field workers handling the pipes, especially as the pipes are cleaned for reuse. A thorough sampling and measurement protocol was applied under a variety of weather conditions in an outdoor laboratory to obtain an accurate indication of the radiological and aerodynamic characteristics of scale release and dust dispersion during petroleum pipe scale removal from out-of-service pipes with a restored, historically relevant outdoor pipe-cleaning machine. Exposure rate data were also obtained for both the pre-cleaned pipes, and the general area inhabited by workers during the descaling operation. Four radiation exposure pathways were investigated: inhalation of pipe scale dust generated during pipe rattling, incidental ingestion of the pipe scale dust, external exposure from uncleaned pipes, and external exposure from pipe scale dispersed on the ground. Pipes from three oil fields were rattled to collect as much industry-representative data as possible. The Ra specific activity of the pipe scale ranged from 33.6 +/- 0.4 to 65.5 +/- 0.7 Bq g, depending on the formation. A median atmospheric dust loading of 0.13 mg m was measured in the operator breathing zone. The respirable fraction was observed to be about 42% to 46%. Based on cleaning 20 pipes per day,250 d per year on average, annual committed effective doses for the operator and helper ranged from 0.11 mSv (11 mrem) to 0.45 mSv(45 mrem) for inhalation and from 19 microSv (1.9 mrem) to 97 microSv (9.7 mrem) for incidental ingestion. Worker annual external dose from the pipe racks ranged from 0 to 0

  12. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Steam pile driver for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22

  13. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Pile driving for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  14. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    General view of concrete column base for Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Work on the foundation began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  15. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). Construction of balance housing. Smith DeFrance noted the need for this housing in his NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire floating frame and scale assembly is enclosed in a room for protection from air currents and the supporting struts are shielded by streamlined fairings which are secured to the roof of the balance room and free from the balance.'

  16. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

  17. Asymptotic scaling in turbulent pipe flow.

    PubMed

    McKeon, B J; Morrison, J F

    2007-03-15

    The streamwise velocity component in turbulent pipe flow is assessed to determine whether it exhibits asymptotic behaviour that is indicative of high Reynolds numbers. The asymptotic behaviour of both the mean velocity (in the form of the log law) and that of the second moment of the streamwise component of velocity in the outer and overlap regions is consistent with the development of spectral regions which indicate inertial scaling. It is shown that an 'inertial sublayer' in physical space may be considered as a spatial analogue of the inertial subrange in the velocity spectrum and such behaviour only appears for Reynolds numbers R+>5 x 10(3), approximately, much higher than was generally thought.

  18. Comparison of corrosion scales in full and partially replaced ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preliminary results from scales formed 38 weeks following the LSL replacement simulations revealed differences in scale formations amongst varying water qualities and pipe sequence. Rigs fed with dechlorinated tap water show distinct pH gradients between the galvanic and the background zones. Hydrocerussite and litharge are found both in field and pilot rigs. However, plumbonacrite, massicot, scrutinyite and plattnerite are only present in pipes harvested directly from the field. Laurionite, leadhillite, cerussite and calcite are found in rigs from the pilot. Cerussite is mostly present in the galvanic zones, close to the connection to the Cu pipe. Different types of scales are present in the rigs from the pilot and from the field, suggesting that differences in the formation in the scales and therefore differences in lead release from the pipes. The particulate Pb fraction in water samples is more important in samples from the pilot than from the field, median concentrations are 85X higher in partial LSL and 10X higher in full LSL in the pilot. Lead phosphates are present in the scales from the rigs treated with orthophosphate. Complete results will be obtained by the end of July 2016. The main objective is to compare scales from full and partial LSLs harvested from the field and from a pilot setup fed with water from the same distribution system and subjected to water quality changes.

  19. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Modification of entrance cone Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  20. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Modified propeller and spinner in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project

  1. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Wing and nacelle set-up in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests in 1931 on a P3M-1 nacelle which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1)

  2. Bench-scale testing of a heat-pipe receiver for solar thermal electric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Dudley, Vernon

    Electric power generating systems that couple parabolic-dish solar-concentrators with Stirling engines and generators are currently being developed under the Department of Energy's solar thermal electric program. These systems will use liquid metal heat pipes to transfer energy from the focal point of a solar concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. The heat-pipe solar-receivers are required to operate in adverse orientations and accept flux levels on the order of 100 W/sq. cm. To explore the operating limits of heat-pipe solar-receivers, a series of bench-scale heat pipe receivers are being designed and tested. Results from the bench-scale tests and their implications on a full-scale heat-pipe solar receiver are presented in this paper.

  3. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST): 120-Foot Truss hoisting, one and two point suspension. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  4. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  5. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Modification of entrance cone of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). To the left are the FST guide vanes which Smith DeFrance described in NACA TR No. 459: 'The air is turned at the four corners of each return passage by guide vanes. The vanes are of the curved-airfoil type formed by two intersecting arcs with a rounded nose. The arcs were so chosen as to give a practically constant area through the vanes.' (p. 295) These vanes 'have chords of 3 feet 6 inches and are spaced at 0.41 of a chord length. By a proper adjustment of the angular setting of the vanes, a satisfactory velocity distribution has been obtained and no honeycomb has been found necessary.' (p. 295). Close inspection of the photograph will reveal a number of workers on the scaffolding. The heights were great and the work was quite dangerous. In October 1930, one construction worker working on the roof of the tunnel would die when he stepped off the planking to fetch a tool and fell through an unsupported piece of Careystone to the floor some 70 feet below.

  6. 14. PIPE MACHINE, WORK BENCH, SCALE, RADIAL DRILL AND STOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PIPE MACHINE, WORK BENCH, SCALE, RADIAL DRILL AND STOVE (L TO R) LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  7. Design, Development, Pre-Testing and Preparation for Full Scale Cold Testing of a System for Field Remediation of Vertical Pipe Units at the Hanford Site 618-10 Burial Grounds -12495

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    At the Hanford site, in the 1950's and 60's, radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from a number of laboratories were stored in vertical pipe units (VPUs) in what are now the 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. Although the current physical condition of the VPUs is unknown, initial R and D studies had shown that in-ground size reduction and stabilization of VPU contents was feasible. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities to validate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of VPU contents, and the design and pre-testing of major plant items and augering systems on full size simulated VPUs. The paper also describes the full size prototype equipment which will be used in full size cold testing of simulated VPUs off the Hanford site, to prove the equipment, develop operating procedures, and train operators prior to deployment on site. Safe and effective field remediation, removal and disposal of the VPUs in the 600 area are critical to the success of the River Corridor Closure Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Safe and effective field remediation, removal and disposal of the VPUs in the 600 area are critical to the success of the River Corridor Closure Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. (authors)

  8. From lab to full-scale ultrafiltration in microalgae harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenten, I. G.; Steven, S.; Dwiputra, A.; Khoiruddin; Hakim, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    Ponding system is generally used for microalgae cultivation. However, selection of appropriate technology for the harvesting process is challenging due to the low cell density of cultivated microalgae from the ponding system and the large volume of water to be handled. One of the promising technologies for microalgae harvesting is ultrafiltration (UF). In this study, the performance of UF during harvesting of microalgae in a lab- and a full-scale test is investigated. The performances of both scales are compared and analyzed to provide an understanding of several aspects which affect the yield produced from lab and actual conditions. Furthermore, a unique self-standing non-modular UF is introduced in the full-scale test. The non-modular UF exhibits several advantages, such as simple piping and connection, single pump for filtration and backwashing, and smaller footprint. With those advantages, the non-modular UF could be a promising technology for microalgae harvesting in industrial-scale.

  9. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  10. Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein, we compared the characterization of lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using two different cross section methods (conventional polishing and argon ion beam etching). The pipe scale solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

  11. Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein, we compared the characterization of lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using two different cross section methods (conventional polishing and argon ion beam etching). The pipe scale solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

  12. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.

    2014-07-21

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10 μm to 31 nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77 K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18 K) to above the critical point (5.2 K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 0–31 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  13. 78 FR 12784 - Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would be...

  14. 78 FR 74161 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order on Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China and the Antidumping Duty Orders on Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea...

  15. Education, Wechler's Full Scale IQ and "g."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Garcia, Luis F.; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether average Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) differences can be attributed to "g" using the Spanish standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III) (n=703 females and 666 men). Results support the conclusion that WAIS III FSIQ does not directly or exclusively measure "g" across the full range…

  16. JWST Full Scale Model Being Built

    NASA Image and Video Library

    : The full-scale model of the James Webb Space Telescope is constructed for the 2010 World Science Festival in Battery Park, NY. The model takes about five days to construct. This video contains a ...

  17. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  18. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  19. Behavior of local dissipation scales in turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sean; Hultmark, Marcus; Schumacher, Joerg; Yakhot, Victor; Smits, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    Classically, dissipation of turbulence has been thought to occur around the Kolmogorov scales. However, the Kolmogorov scales are prescribed using mean dissipation rate, whereas dissipation is spatially intermittent. It therefore seems natural to instead describe dissipation using a continuum of local length scales rather than a single scale. By connecting a local dissipation scale η to the velocity increment across this scale δuη, it is possible to derive a probability density function (PDF) of η which show how the dissipation is contained in scales larger and smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Here we present a comparison between measured PDFs in turbulent pipe flow, the analytically derived PDF, and PDFs determined from direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It was found that there is good general agreement between experiment, simulation and theory amongst both homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, pointing to universality in the dissipation scales amongst different flows. It was also found that the PDFs are invariant with distance from the wall except for a region very near the wall (y^+<80), where dissipation was found to occur at increasingly larger length scales as the wall is approached.

  20. Very large-scale motions in a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Jang, Seong Jae; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent pipe flow with ReD=35000 was performed to investigate the spatially coherent structures associated with very large-scale motions. The corresponding friction Reynolds number, based on pipe radius R, is R+=934, and the computational domain length is 30 R. The computed mean flow statistics agree well with previous DNS data at ReD=44000 and 24000. Inspection of the instantaneous fields and two-point correlation of the streamwise velocity fluctuations showed that the very long meandering motions exceeding 25R exist in logarithmic and wake regions, and the streamwise length scale is almost linearly increased up to y/R ~0.3, while the structures in the turbulent boundary layer only reach up to the edge of the log-layer. Time-resolved instantaneous fields revealed that the hairpin packet-like structures grow with continuous stretching along the streamwise direction and create the very large-scale structures with meandering in the spanwise direction, consistent with the previous conceptual model of Kim & Adrian (1999). This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives of NRF/MEST of Korea (No. 2011-0000423).

  1. Full-scale studies of alum recovery

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    Full-scale testing was conducted at the Williams Water Treatment Plant to evaluate alum recovery. Two tests were conducted, one in August and one is September. The objective was to determine the dewaterability of the solids remaining after alum recovery on sand drying beds and to evaluate the effectiveness of the recovered alum as a coagulant in the water plant and for phosphorus removal at the wastewater plant.

  2. IRAC Full-Scale Flight Testbed Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, James A.; Pahle, Joseph; Cogan, Bruce R.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Overview: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation in a representative avionics architecture. Develop an understanding of aircraft dynamics of current vehicles in damaged and upset conditions Real-world conditions include: a) Turbulence, sensor noise, feedback biases; and b) Coupling between pilot and adaptive system. Simulated damage includes 1) "B" matrix (surface) failures; and 2) "A" matrix failures. Evaluate robustness of control systems to anticipated and unanticipated failures.

  3. Large scale shaking table test on modal responses of 3-D piping system with friction support

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Kohei; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroe

    1996-12-01

    Friction between pipe and supporting structure is generally known to reduce seismic responses of the piping system. Vibration tests using large-scale piping model of three dimensional configuration with friction support were carried out to evaluate reduction effect of piping response. The piping responses were governed by the first and the second mode of vibration. The test data of load and velocity via displacement showed that the mathematical model of friction in plane motion was reasonably described by f = {minus}{mu}N{nu}/{vert_bar}{nu}{vert_bar}, and was applicable to evaluate the response of the piping with friction support. A seismic response analysis procedure of the piping system with friction was developed by an approximate modal analysis and confirmed to be adequate to evaluate the piping response by comparing simulated results and test results, and consequently, response reduction effect due to friction was evaluated.

  4. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  6. Full-Scale Tests of NACA Cowlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Brevoort, M J; Stickle, George W

    1937-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation has been carried on with full-scale models in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel, the general purpose of which is to furnish information in regard to the physical functioning of the composite propeller-nacelle unit under all conditions of take-off, taxiing, and normal flight. This report deals exclusively with the cowling characteristics under condition of normal flight and includes the results of tests of numerous combinations of more than a dozen nose cowlings, about a dozen skirts, two propellers, two sizes of nacelle, as well as various types of spinners and other devices.

  7. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. Small included angle for the exit cone; 2. Carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. Tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  8. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  9. A full-scale STOVL ejector experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.

    1993-01-01

    The design and development of thrust augmenting short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) ejectors has typically been an iterative process. In this investigation, static performance tests of a full-scale vertical lift ejector were performed at primary flow temperatures up to 1560 R (1100 F). Flow visualization (smoke generators, yarn tufts and paint dots) was used to assess inlet flowfield characteristics, especially around the primary nozzle and end plates. Performance calculations are presented for ambient temperatures close to 480 R (20 F) and 535 R (75 F) which simulate 'seasonal' aircraft operating conditions. Resulting thrust augmentation ratios are presented as functions of nozzle pressure ratio and temperature. Full-scale experimental tests such as this are expensive, and difficult to implement at engine exhaust temperatures. For this reason the utility of using similarity principles -- in particular, the Munk and Prim similarity principle for isentropic flow -- was explored. At different primary temperatures, exit pressure contours are compared for similarity. A nondimensional flow parameter is then shown to eliminate primary nozzle temperature dependence and verify similarity between the hot and cold flow experiments. Under the assumption that an appropriate similarity principle can be established, then properly chosen performance parameters should be similar for both hot flow and cold flow model tests.

  10. X-38 Full Scale TPS Flight Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfer, G.

    2002-01-01

    The X-38 of NASA which is an experimental vehicle to prove crucial technologies of a future Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station (ISS) will be equipped with a large number of newly developed components and systems. In particular, the thermal protection system of the most severely loaded surface areas such as the nose cap and the control surfaces represent a promising approach with respect to thermal endurance and re-usability aspects. The foremost nose section, the body flaps and a wing leading edge segment are all made from SiC-based fiber ceramics. Moreover, the body flap is an entire hot structure. The Nose Skirt Assembly and the Body Flap were developed and manufactured by German industry (MAN Technologie, DLR and ASTRIUM) within the frame of the national TETRA program. The Leading Edge Unit was developed and manufactured by MAN Technologie within the ESA-ARTP. As another effort within the TETRA program aimed at extending the national competence range, IABG developed and built a high-temperature test facility enabling full-scale flight qualification of thermal protection components. The main purpose of this facility was to allow application of all relevant load categories encountered during re-entry flight, i.e. thermal, mechanical and oxidative loads. The facility is in service since April 1999. Within the scope of the X-38 qualification tests the flexibility of the test facility could be demonstrated. Three full scale thermal protection components of X-38 which were very different in size, shape and test requirements were successfully flight qualified in the years 1999 - 2001. For all of the three components, namely the Leading Edge Unit, the Nose Skirt Assembly and the Body Flap, the time- dependent and locally variable temperature profiles of the re-entry flight had to be simulated in order to verify the structural integrity under thermal loads. Within these tests a superposition of the thermal loads with oxidative loads, with the

  11. Experimental investigation of coherent structures in turbulent pipe flow using a large-scale pipe flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, David

    2012-11-01

    In recent years it has been shown by various researchers, using either experimental techniques or direct numerical simulations, that coherent structures (i.e. features of the flow that persist in space and time) such as hairpin vortices, vortex packets, and very large scale motions (or superstructures) play an important role in wall-bounded turbulent flows (boundary layers, pipes and channel flows). A large-scale recirculating pipe flow facility at the University of Liverpool has been developed to enable the investigation of large and very large scale coherent motions in turbulent pipe flow. The facility includes a 100mm-diameter working section, consisting of individual modules of precision-bore borosilicate glass tubes each 1.027m long, totalling 22 metres in length. Experimental measurements using high-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at approximately 210 pipe diameters downstream of the inlet are made possible using a unique mechanical arrangement for performing the calibration. Reynolds numbers of up to ReD =105 can be reached when the working fluid is water.

  12. Full-scale tilt rotor download reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Stephen

    A large-scale model of a tiltrotor wing and flap was built and tested to determine how the size and spacing of fluidic actuators for active flow control should be scaled up from laboratory size models to aircraft size. Flow control was provided by sweeping jet actuators mounted in the flap follower. Chordwise pressure data was collected through pressure taps located along the model centerline. The maximum flap deflection to which the flow could be attached with actuation was compared to previous experiments on a 10% 3D model. An ideal actuator spacing was found and the momentum coefficient was comparable between the various sized models. These results were used in the design of an industrial wind tunnel-scale model of a wing built for cruise and tiltrotor-like download testing. These tests have shown that actuators located in the flap follower are effective in both the hover and cruise phases of flight.

  13. Lead pipe scale analysis using broad-beam argon ion milling to elucidate drinking water corrosion.

    PubMed

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; White, Colin; Lytle, Darren

    2011-04-01

    Herein, we characterized lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using argon ion beam etching and a variety of solids analysis approaches. Specifically, pipe scale cross sections and solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The pipe scale consisted of at least five layers that contained Pb(II) and Pb(IV) minerals, and magnesium, aluminum, manganese, iron, and silicon solids. The outer layer was enriched with crystalline amorphous manganese and iron, giving it a dark orange to red color. The middle layers consisted of hydrocerussite and plattnerite, and the bottom layer consisted primarily of litharge. Over the litharge layer, hydrocerussite crystals were grown vertically away from the pipe wall, which included formations of plattnerite. Significant amounts of trace contaminant vanadium, likely in the form of vanadinite, and copper accumulated in the scale as well.

  14. 50. PIPING FOR SUBMARINE SECTION, Y&D No. 107728 Scale 3/8' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. PIPING FOR SUBMARINE SECTION, Y&D No. 107728 Scale 3/8' = 1'; August 26, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  15. Wind tunnel simulation of full scale vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffitt, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the important scaling parameters for the flow in the core region of a vortex generated by a rectangular wing tip. The effect of an unconventional planform, the ogee tip, on the tip vortex is also determined. For rectangular planform wings, the measured vortex core diameter to chord ratios, peak tangential velocity ratios, and axial velocity ratios are shown to be functions only of wing lift coefficient and elapsed time from vortex formation, and appear to be independent of both Mach number and Reynolds number. The peak tangential velocities in the diffuse vortex generated by the ogee tip are only 25 percent of those in the vortex generated by the rectangular wing.

  16. Full-scale Experiments for Roadbed Cavity Detection with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Kang, W.; Son, J.

    2015-12-01

    Past few decades, deterioration of the underground facilities such as sewage facilities has increased significantly with growing urban development in Korea. The old damaged sewage pipes or conduits have washed away the surrounding soils beneath the roadbed, causing underground cavities and eventual ground depressions or sinkholes in the urban areas. Therefore, the detection of the roadbed cavities is increasingly required to prevent property damage and loss of human lives for precautionary measures. 3-D GPR technique was applied to conduct the full-scale experiment for roadbed cavity detection. The physical experiment has employed the soil characteristics of silty sand soils. The experimental site is composed of physically simulated cavities (Styrofoam, ɛr = 1.03) with dome-shaped structure and concrete sewage conduit. The simulated cavities were installed at regular intervals in spatial distribution. The land surface of the site was not paved with asphalt concrete at the current stage of the experiments. The results of the GPR measurements over the experimental site show that the reflection patterns from the simulated cavities are hyperbolic returns typical to the point source in 2-D perspective. A closer inspection of 3-D GPR volume data has yielded more clear interpretation than 2-D GPR data regarding where the cavities are situated in space. However, in case sewage conduits adjacent to the cavities are present, they could mask the GPR signals from cavities, leading misinterpretations. Therefore, data processing procedures should be more appropriately applied compared to the data for linear target detections. It is strongly believed that 3-D high density GPR data could be usefully applied to the roadbed cavity detections in the experiments. This study is an ongoing project of KIGAM and more realistic environments of the underground conditions would be prepared for the future study.

  17. Pipe network model for scaling of dynamic interfaces in porous media

    PubMed

    Lam; Horvath

    2000-08-07

    We present a numerical study on the dynamics of imbibition fronts in porous media using a pipe network model. This model quantitatively reproduces the anomalous scaling behavior found in imbibition experiments [Phys. Rev. E 52, 5166 (1995)]. Using simple scaling arguments, we derive a new identity among the scaling exponents in agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Post-Processing of the Full Matrix of Ultrasonic Transmit-Receive Array Data for Guided Wave Pipe Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes a method for processing data from a guided wave transducer array on a pipe. The raw data set from such an array contains the full matrix of time-domain signals from each transmitter-receiver combination. It is shown that for certain configurations of an array the total focusing method can be applied which allows the array to be focused at every point on a pipe surface in both transmission and reception. The effect of array configuration parameters on the sensitivity of the proposed method to the random and coherent noise is discussed. Experimental results are presented using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for exciting and detecting the S0 Lamb wave mode in a 12 inch steel pipe at 200 kHz excitation frequency. The results show that using the imaging algorithm a 2-mm-diameter (0.08 wavelength) half-thickness hole can be detected.

  19. Nonlinear Seismic Correlation Analysis of the JNES/NUPEC Large-Scale Piping System Tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,J.; DeGrassi, G.; Hofmayer, C.; Ali, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization/Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (JNES/NUPEC) large-scale piping test program has provided valuable new test data on high level seismic elasto-plastic behavior and failure modes for typical nuclear power plant piping systems. The component and piping system tests demonstrated the strain ratcheting behavior that is expected to occur when a pressurized pipe is subjected to cyclic seismic loading. Under a collaboration agreement between the US and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed a correlation analysis of the large-scale piping system tests using derailed state-of-the-art nonlinear finite element models. Techniques are introduced to develop material models that can closely match the test data. The shaking table motions are examined. The analytical results are assessed in terms of the overall system responses and the strain ratcheting behavior at an elbow. The paper concludes with the insights about the accuracy of the analytical methods for use in performance assessments of highly nonlinear piping systems under large seismic motions.

  20. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals.

  1. Distinct large-scale turbulent-laminar states in transitional pipe flow

    PubMed Central

    Moxey, David; Barkley, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    When fluid flows through a channel, pipe, or duct, there are two basic forms of motion: smooth laminar motion and complex turbulent motion. The discontinuous transition between these states is a fundamental problem that has been studied for more than 100 yr. What has received far less attention is the large-scale nature of the turbulent flows near transition once they are established. We have carried out extensive numerical computations in pipes of variable lengths up to 125 diameters to investigate the nature of transitional turbulence in pipe flow. We show the existence of three fundamentally different turbulent states separated by two distinct Reynolds numbers. Below Re 1 ≃ 2,300, turbulence takes the form of familiar equilibrium (or longtime transient) puffs that are spatially localized and keep their size independent of pipe length. At Re 1 the flow makes a striking transition to a spatio-temporally intermittent flow that fills the pipe. Irregular alternation of turbulent and laminar regions is inherent and does not result from random disturbances. The fraction of turbulence increases with Re until Re 2 ≃ 2,600 where there is a continuous transition to a state of uniform turbulence along the pipe. We relate these observations to directed percolation and argue that Re 1 marks the onset of infinite-lifetime turbulence. PMID:20404193

  2. Scaling laws for fully developed turbulent flow in pipes: Discussion of experimental data

    PubMed Central

    Barenblatt, G. I.; Chorin, A. J.; Prostokishin, V. M.

    1997-01-01

    We compare mean velocity profiles measured in turbulent pipe flows (and also in boundary layer flows) with the predictions of a recently proposed scaling law; in particular, we examine the results of the Princeton “superpipe” experiment and assess their range of validity. PMID:9023332

  3. Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L; Vidic, Radisav

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that temperature and total organic carbon in drinking water would cause chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) loss in a water distribution system and affect the efficiency of ClO(2) for Legionella control. However, among the various causes of ClO(2) loss in a drinking water distribution system, the loss of disinfectant due to the reaction with corrosion scales has not been studied in detail. In this study, the corrosion scales from a galvanized iron pipe and a copper pipe that have been in service for more than 10 years were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impact of these corrosion scale materials on ClO(2) decay was investigated in de-ionized water at 25 and 45 degrees C in a batch reactor with floating glass cover. ClO(2) decay was also investigated in a specially designed reactor made from the iron and copper pipes to obtain more realistic reaction rate data. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were identified as the main components of iron corrosion scale. Cuprite (Cu(2)O) was identified as the major component of copper corrosion scale. The reaction rate of ClO(2) with both iron and copper oxides followed a first-order kinetics. First-order decay rate constants for ClO(2) reactions with iron corrosion scales obtained from the used service pipe and in the iron pipe reactor itself ranged from 0.025 to 0.083 min(-1). The decay rate constant for ClO(2) with Cu(2)O powder and in the copper pipe reactor was much smaller and it ranged from 0.0052 to 0.0062 min(-1). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the corrosion scale will cause much more significant ClO(2) loss in corroded iron pipes of the distribution system than the total organic carbon that may be present in finished water.

  4. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-05

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  5. Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

  6. Full scale computer simulators in anesthesia training and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Anne K

    2004-05-01

    With the advent of competency-based curriculum, technology such as full scale computer simulators have acquired an increasingly important role in anesthesia both in training and evaluation. This article reviews the current role of full scale computer simulators in teaching and evaluation in anesthesia. This review draws from existing anesthesia and medical education literature in order to examine and assess the current role of full scale computer simulators in anesthesia education today. The last decade has witnessed a major increase in the use of full scale computer simulators in anesthesia. Many applications have been found for these simulators including teaching and training, evaluation and research. Despite the increasing use and application of full scale computers in anesthesia in the area of teaching and training, definitive studies evaluating its cost effectiveness, its efficacy compared to traditional training methods or its impact on patient outcome are still pending. Although there is some preliminary evidence of reliability and validity in using the simulator to evaluate clinical competence, development in this area has not progressed enough to justify its use in formal, summative evaluation of competence in anesthesia at this time. As technology acquires an increasingly important role in medical education, full scale computer simulators represent an exciting potential in anesthesia. However, the full potential and role of simulators in anesthesia is still in development and will require a dovetailing of clinical theory and practice with current research in medical education.

  7. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange softening on strontium removal. To inform the public on strontium removal techniques

  8. Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

    2014-10-01

    Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated Pĺeiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

  9. SPF Full-scale emissions test method development status ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a non-technical presentation that is intended to inform ASTM task group members about our intended approach to full-scale emissions testing that includes the application of spray foam in an environmental chamber. The presentation describes the approach to emissions characterization, types of measurement systems employed, and expected outcomes from the planned tests. Purpose of this presentation is to update the ASTM D22.05 work group regarding status of our full-scale emissions test method development.

  10. Acoustic Emission and Guided Wave Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Growth on a Full Pipe Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-05-06

    Continuous on-line monitoring of active and passive systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants will be critical to extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants in the US beyond 60 years. Acoustic emission and guided ultrasonic waves are two tools for continuously monitoring passive systems, structures and components within nuclear power plants and are the focus of this study. These tools are used to monitor fatigue damage induced in a SA 312 TP304 stainless steel pipe specimen. The results of acoustic emission monitoring indicate that crack propagation signals were not directly detected. However, acoustic emission monitoring exposed crack formation prior to visual confirmation through the detection of signals caused by crack closure friction. The results of guided ultrasonic wave monitoring indicate that this technology is sensitive to the presence and size of cracks. The sensitivity and complexity of GUW signals is observed to vary with respect to signal frequency and path traveled by the guided ultrasonic wave relative to the crack orientation.

  11. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: pipe leakage, urban hydrogeology, catchment scale, OpenGeoSys, HYSTEM-EXTRAN Wastewater leakage from subsurface sewer pipe defects leads to contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater (Ellis, 2002; Wolf et al., 2004). Leakage rates at pipe defects have to be known in order to quantify contaminant input. Due to inaccessibility of subsurface pipe defects, direct (in-situ) measurements of leakage rates are tedious and associated with a high degree of uncertainty (Wolf, 2006). Proposed catchment-scale models simplify leakage rates by neglecting unsaturated zone flow or by reducing spatial dimensions (Karpf & Krebs, 2013, Boukhemacha et al., 2015). In the present study, we present a physically based 3-dimensional numerical model incorporating flow in the pipe network, in the saturated zone and in the unsaturated zone to quantify leakage rates on the catchment scale. The model consists of the pipe network flow model HYSTEM-EXTAN (itwh, 2002), which is coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). We also present the newly developed coupling scheme between the two flow models. Leakage functions specific to a pipe defect are derived from simulations of pipe leakage using spatially refined grids around pipe defects. In order to minimize computational effort, these leakage functions are built into the presented numerical model using unrefined grids around pipe defects. The resulting coupled model is capable of efficiently simulating spatially distributed pipe leakage coupled with subsurficial water flow in a 3-dimensional environment. References: Boukhemacha, M. A., Gogu, C. R., Serpescu, I., Gaitanaru, D., & Bica, I. (2015). A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(3), 437-450. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3. Ellis, J. B., & Revitt, D. M. (2002). Sewer losses and interactions with groundwater quality. Water Science and Technology, 45(3), 195

  12. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  13. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  14. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  15. A new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-25

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%.

  16. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  17. Scale incidence on production pipes of Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, S.; Hurtado, R. ); Bermejo, F.; Terrazas, B.; Hernandez, L. . Coordinadora Ejecutiva de Cerro Prieto)

    1989-01-01

    Scaling of geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field is a problem that has been experienced since the plant start-up, but has been diminished by selection of the main productive strata (avoiding the mixing of water from different temperature layers) and using orifice restrictions at the wellhead discharge. This last technique works in some new wells with a wellhead pressure of 120 bars. One hundred fifty wells have been drilled with the deepest production well being 3650 m. The drilling for exploration and production wells continues at the present time. Around one hundred million tons of a water-steam mixture is extracted every year; 40% is separated steam which is used in three geothermoelectric power stations having a total of 620 MWe of installed capacity.

  18. Full-scale results for TAM limestone injection

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, S.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the use of thermally active marble (TAM) sorbents in boilers. Data are presented on: the comparison of TAM to limestone; NOVACON process development history; CFB test history; CFB pilot scale test; full-scale CFB trial; August, 1996 CFB demonstration; Foster Wheeler Mount Carmel sorbent feed rate comparison and Ca:S comparison; unburned carbon is ash; and advantages and savings in CFB boilers.

  19. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  20. Full-scale system impact analysis: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage Full Scale System can provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The desired functionality of the DDS system is highly dependent on the assumed requirements for remote access used in this Impact Analysis. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with a phased, communications requirement analysis to ensure that adequate communications service can be supplied at a reasonable cost in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS Full Scale System is dependent.

  1. Analysis of panthers full-scale heat transfer tests with RELAP5

    SciTech Connect

    Parlatan, Y.; Boyer, B.D.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The RELAP5 code is being assessed on the full-scale Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in the Performance ANalysis and Testing of HEat Removal Systems (PANTHERS) facility at Societa Informazioni Termoidrauliche (SIET) in Italy. PANTHERS is a test facility with fall-size prototype beat exchangers for the PCCS in support of the General Electric`s (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) program. PANTHERS tests with a low noncondensable gas concentration and with a high noncondensable gas concentration were analyzed with RELAP5. The results showed that beat transfer rate decreases significantly along the PCCS tubes. In the test case with a higher inlet noncondensable gas fraction, the PCCS removed 35% less heat than in the test case with the lower noncondensable gas fraction. The dominant resistance to the overall heat transfer is the condensation beat transfer resistance inside the tubes. This resistance increased by about 5-fold between the inlet and exit of the tube due to the build up of noncondensable gases along the tube. The RELAP5 calculations also predicted that 4% to 5% of the heat removed to the PCCS pool occurs in the inlet steam piping and PCCS upper and lower headers. These piping needs to be modeled for other tests systems. The full-scale PANTHERS predictions are also compared against 1/400 scale GIRAFFE tests. GIRAFFE has 33% larger heat surface area, but its efficiency is only 15% and 23% higher than PANTHERS for the two cases analyzed This was explained by the high heat transfer resistance inside the tubes near the exit.

  2. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale.

  3. JWST Full-Scale Model on Display in Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    JWST Full-Scale Model on Display. A full-scale model of the James Webb Space Telescope was built by the prime contractor, Northrop Grumman, to provide a better understanding of the size, scale and complexity of this satellite. The model is constructed mainly of aluminum and steel, weighs 12,000 lb., and is approximately 80 feet long, 40 feet wide and 40 feet tall. The model requires 2 trucks to ship it and assembly takes a crew of 12 approximately four days. This model has travelled to a few sites since 2005. The photographs below were taken at some of its destinations. The model is pictured here in Munich, Germany Credit: EADS Astrium

  4. Operational experience from three full scale methane digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Coppinger, E.R.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    Three full scale anaerobic digesters are described and operational experience is discussed. The digesters are located in Monroe, Washington on a 200 head dairy; in Bartow, Florida on a 10,000 head feedlot; and in Bedford, Virginia on a 100 head dairy. 11 refs.

  5. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, aerials of East Area. L5169: Langley's seaplane towing facility (right) and the Full Scale Tunnel (left) were photographed in November of 1930. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 39), by James Schultz.

  6. Hypersonic Glider Model in Full Scale Tunnel 1957

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-09-07

    L57-1439 A model based on Langley s concept of a hypersonic glider was test flown on an umbilical cord inside the Full Scale Tunnel in 1957. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 374.

  7. Characterization of convective heating in full scale wildland fires

    Treesearch

    Bret Butler

    2010-01-01

    Data collected in the International Crown Fire modeling Experiment during 1999 are evaluated to characterize the magnitude and duration of convective energy heating in full scale crown fires. To accomplish this objective data on total and radiant incident heat flux, air temperature, and horizontal and vertical gas velocities were evaluated. Total and radiant energy...

  8. The requirements for a new full scale subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. W.; Mckinney, M. O.; Luidens, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Justification and requirements are presented for a large subsonic wind tunnel capable of testing full scale aircraft, rotor systems, and advanced V/STOL propulsion systems. The design considerations and constraints for such a facility are reviewed, and the trades between facility test capability and costs are discussed.

  9. Experimental study on seismic responses of piping systems with friction. Part 1: Large-scale shaking table vibration test

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Watanabe, T.; Mitsumori, T.; Shimizu, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Ogawa, N.

    1995-08-01

    This report deals with the experimental study of seismic response behavior of piping systems in industrial facilities such as petrochemical, oil refinery, and nuclear plants. Special attention is focused on the nonlinear dynamic response of piping systems due to frictional vibration appearing in piping and supporting devices. A three-dimensional mock-up piping and supporting structure model wherein piping is of 30-m length and 200-mm diameter is excited by a large-scale (15 m x 15 m) shaking table belong to the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention in Tsukuba, Ibaraki. Power spectra of the response vibration and the loading-response relationship in the form of a hysteresis loop under several loading conditions are obtained. The response reduction effect caused by frictional vibration is evaluated and demonstrated in terms of response reduction factor.

  10. Simulation-Based Airframe Noise Prediction of a Full-Scale, Full Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    A previously validated computational approach applied to an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model was extended to the full-scale, full-span aircraft in the present investigation. The full-scale flap and main landing gear geometries used in the simulations are nearly identical to those flown on the actual aircraft. The lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW® was used to perform time-accurate predictions of the flow field associated with this aircraft. The simulations were performed at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected 39 deg. and main landing gear deployed (landing configuration). Special attention was paid to the accurate prediction of major sources of flap tip and main landing gear noise. Computed farfield noise spectra for three selected baseline configurations (flap deflected 39 deg. with and without main gear extended, and flap deflected 0 deg. with gear deployed) are presented. The flap brackets are shown to be important contributors to the farfield noise spectra in the mid- to high-frequency range. Simulated farfield noise spectra for the baseline configurations, obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach, were found to be in close agreement with acoustic measurements acquired during the 2006 NASA-Gulfstream joint flight test of the same aircraft.

  11. Characteristics of iron corrosion scales and water quality variations in drinking water distribution systems of different pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Manjie; Liu, Zhaowei; Chen, Yongcan; Hai, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze micromorphology and chemical composition of corrosion scales. In bench testing, water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, color, Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+), were determined. Scale analysis and bench-scale testing results demonstrated a significant effect of pipe materials on scale characteristics and thereby water quality variations in WDS. Characteristics of corrosion scales sampled from different pipe segments show obvious differences, both in physical and chemical aspects. Corrosion scales were found highly amorphous. Thanks to the protection of zinc coatings, GIP system was identified as the best water quality stability, in spite of high zinc release potential. It is deduced that the complicated composition of corrosion scales and structural break by the weld result in the diminished water quality stability in HP system. Measurement results showed that iron is released mainly in ferric particulate form.

  12. Computational Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts at Full Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Duda, Benjamin; Hazir, Andreas; Fares, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity simulations focused on full-scale evaluation of new technologies for mitigating flap and landing gear noise are presented. These noise reduction concepts were selected because of their superior acoustic performance, as demonstrated during NASA wind tunnel tests of an 18%-scale, semi-span model of a Gulfstream aircraft. The full-scale, full-aircraft, time-accurate simulations were performed with the lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(Registered Trademark) solver for free air at a Mach number of 0.2. Three aircraft configurations (flaps deflected at 39? without and with main gear deployed, and 0? flaps with main gear extended) were used to determine the aero-acoustic performance of the concepts on component-level (individually) and system-level (concurrent applica-tion) bases. Farfield noise spectra were obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Comparison of the predicted spectra without (baseline) and with the noise treatments applied showed that noise reduction benefits between 2-3 dB for the flap and 1.3-1.7 dB for the main landing gear are obtained. It was also found that the full extent of the benefits is being masked by the noise generated from the flap brackets and main gear cavities, which act as prominent secondary sources.

  13. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation: From Laboratory to Full-Scale Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    From discovery in the early 1990s to completion of full-scale anammox reactor, it took almost two decades to uncover the secret veil of anammox bacteria. There were three milestones during the commercialization of anammox: the development of the first enrichment culture medium, the completion of the first commercial anammox reactor, and the fast start-up of full-scale anammox plant. Till now, the culture of anammox bacteria experienced a big progress through two general strategies: (a) to start up a reactor from scratch and (b) to seed the reactor with enriched anammox sludge. The first full-scale anammox reactor took 3.5 years to realize full operation using the first approach due to several reasons besides the lack of anammox sludge. On the other hand, the first Asian anammox reactor started up in two months, thanks to the availability of anammox seed. Along with the implementation of anammox plants, anammox eventually becomes the priority choice for ammonium wastewater treatment. PMID:23956985

  14. Approximate similarity principle for a full-scale STOVL ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.; Perusek, Gail P.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1994-03-01

    Full-scale ejector experiments are expensive and difficult to implement at engine exhaust temperatures. For this reason the utility of using similarity principles, in particular the Munk and prim principle for isentropic flow, was explored. Static performance test data for a full-scale thrust augmenting ejector were analyzed for primary flow temperature up to 1560 R. At different primary temperatures, exit pressure contours were compared for similarity. A nondimensional flow parameter is then used to eliminate primary nozzle temperature dependence and verify similarity between the hot and cold flow experiments. Under the assumption that an appropriate similarity principle can be established, properly chosen performance parameters were found to be similar for both flow and cold flow model tests.

  15. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale entrance cone looking north, exit cone looking south, wind vanes north end, wind vanes north end of east return passage, wind vanes south end of west exit cone looking north east, wind vanes at south end of east exit cone looking north west, entrance cone looking south from north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) entrance cone under construction. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  16. Full-Scale Flight Research Testbeds: Adaptive and Intelligent Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the adaptive and intelligent control methods used for aircraft survival. The contents include: 1) Motivation for Adaptive Control; 2) Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project; 3) Full-scale Flight Assets in Use for IRAC; 4) NASA NF-15B Tail Number 837; 5) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 6) Limited Authority System; and 7) 837 Flight Experiments. A simulated destabilization failure analysis along with experience and lessons learned are also presented.

  17. Full scale LANDSAT-D antenna pattern measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design verification of the LANDSAT-D antenna subsystem is addressed. In particular, the analysis of the antenna radiation patterns utilizing a full scale mockup of the LANDSAT-D satellite is discussed. Test antennas included two S-Band shaped beam antennas, two S-Band omni unit radiators (to operate in array), a GPS antenna, an X-Band shaped beam antenna, and one S-Band high-gain parabolic antenna.

  18. Preliminary Design of a Full-Scale, Wearable, Exoskeletal Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-02-01

    design of a wearable, full-scale exoskeleton is described. The proposed exoskeleton is intended (1) to follow the major movements of the wearer (except...for the fingers, toes, and neck), and (2) to be adjustable so that it can be worn by different subjects•. A feature of the proposed exoskeleton is that... exoskeleton have been specified on the basis that the resultant structure should be able to resist any combination of muscular forces caused by the wearer

  19. Seismic texture and amplitude analysis of large scale fluid escape pipes using time lapses seismic surveys: examples from the Loyal Field (Scotland, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Fluid escape pipes are key features of primary interest for the analysis of vertical fluid flow and secondary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basin. Identified worldwide (Løset et al., 2009), they acquired more and more importance as they represent critical pathways for supply of methane and potential structure for leakage into the storage reservoir (Cartwright & Santamarina, 2015). Therefore, understanding their genesis, internal characteristics and seismic expression, is of great significance for the exploration industry. Here we propose a detailed characterization of the internal seismic texture of some seal bypass system (e.g fluid escape pipes) from a 4D seismic survey (released by the BP) recently acquired in the Loyal Field. The seal by pass structure are characterized by big-scale fluid escape pipes affecting the Upper Paleogene/Neogene stratigraphic succession in the Loyal Field, Scotland (UK). The Loyal field, is located on the edge of the Faroe-Shetland Channel slope, about 130 km west of Shetland (Quadrants 204/205 of the UKCS) and has been recently re-appraised and re developed by a consortium led by BP. The 3D detailed mapping analysis of the full and partial stack survey (processed using amplitude preservation workflows) shows a complex system of fluid pipe structure rooted in the pre Lista formation and developed across the paleogene and Neogene Units. Geometrical analysis show that pipes got diameter varying between 100-300 m and a length of 500 m to 2 km. Most pipes seem to terminate abruptly at discrete subsurface horizons or in diffuse termination suggesting multiple overpressured events and lateral fluid migration (through Darcy flows) across the overburden units. The internal texture analysis of the large pipes, (across both the root and main conduit zones), using near, medium and far offset stack dataset (processed through an amplitude preserved PSTM workflow) shows a tendency of up-bending of reflection (rather than pulls up artefacts

  20. Full scale tests of all-steel buckling restrained braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Wu, Bin; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Yang, Weibiao

    2009-03-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) are widely used seismic response-controlling members with excellent energy dissipation capacity without buckling at design deformation. However, the property of all-steel BRBs with cruciform cross section encased in a square steel tube remains insufficiently studied. In this paper, the properties of this kind of BRBs, which were used in two office buildings in Beijing, were examined by full-scale test. First, initial design was done according to the client's requirement. Then, two full-scale specimens were tested under uniaxial quasi-static cyclic loading. The test results indicate that there should be no welding in yielding portion of the core. Finally, the full-scale subassemblage test was done with an improved BRB and gusset plates installed in a frame. The result shows that the brace exhibited high energy dissipation capacity and stable hysteretic characteristic. According to the results from above tests, some important issues are summarized to provide advices for practical applications.

  1. An evaluation of performance determination and scaling methods in connected-pipe ramjet testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, John Arthur, Jr.

    The results of an evaluation of performance determination and scaling methods in ramjet connected-pipe testing are presented. The evaluation of scaling methods includes the presentation of "pD" scaling and another method (termed "mA" scaling here) which has not been previously documented. Previous experimental studies have considered only "pD" scaling and have not systematically analyzed the experimental results to determine the success or failure of the scaling techniques. This dissertation presents for the first time such an evaluation, and it is concluded that neither of the two methods is successful in scaling ramjet combustors. In this study, the various performance parameters that are used in connected-pipe testing are reviewed. The efficiencies based on characteristic exhaust velocity Csp* and specific impulse Isp, etasbCsp* and etasbIsp are poor performance parameters for characterizing ramjet combustion because they do not range from 0 to 100 percent and, in fact, the range of possible values for etasbCsp* and etasbIsp varies with altitude. It is concluded that the thermal efficiency etasbDelta T should be used. The data reduction methods for all performance determination methods are assessed from an uncertainty analysis viewpoint. The study is presented in two ways, one general and independent of test facility identity and one based on specific uncertainty estimates for input variables. The general case presents an uncertainty magnification factor illustrating how the uncertainty is magnified or diminished as it propagates through the data reduction method into the result. The specific case presents an uncertainty percentage contribution of each input variable to the uncertainty of the result using specific uncertainty estimates for the input variables. It is shown that for identical input variable values, the different data reduction methods give a wide range of values and uncertainties (a primary reason for this part of the work).

  2. Freezable Radiator Coupon Testing and Full Scale Radiator Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillibridge, Sean T.; Guinn, John; Cognata, Thomas; Navarro, Moses

    2009-01-01

    Freezable radiators offer an attractive solution to the issue of thermal control system scalability. As thermal environments change, a freezable radiator will effectively scale the total heat rejection it is capable of as a function of the thermal environment and flow rate through the radiator. Scalable thermal control systems are a critical technology for spacecraft that will endure missions with widely varying thermal requirements. These changing requirements are a result of the space craft s surroundings and because of different thermal loads during different mission phases. However, freezing and thawing (recovering) a radiator is a process that has historically proven very difficult to predict through modeling, resulting in highly inaccurate predictions of recovery time. This paper summarizes tests on three test articles that were performed to further empirically quantify the behavior of a simple freezable radiator, and the culmination of those tests into a full scale design. Each test article explored the bounds of freezing and recovery behavior, as well as providing thermo-physical data of the working fluid, a 50-50 mixture of DowFrost HD and water. These results were then used as a tool for developing correlated thermal model in Thermal Desktop which could be used for modeling the behavior of a full scale thermal control system for a lunar mission. The final design of a thermal control system for a lunar mission is also documented in this paper.

  3. Microbubble Swarms in a Full-Scale Water Model Tundish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng; Cao, Xiangkun; Zou, Zongshu; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2016-10-01

    Water modeling, using microbubble swarms, was performed in a full-scale, four-strand, delta-shaped tundish, located at the McGill Metals Processing Centre (MMPC). The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of microbubbles in removing inclusions smaller than 50 μm, applying the principles and conditions previously researched using a smaller scale arrangement. Air was injected into a full-scale model of a ladle shroud (the connecting tube through which liquid steel flows into the tundish below). The model ladle shroud was fitted with twelve, laser-drilled orifices, so as to create microbubbles. The bubbles generated using different gas injection protocols were recorded using a high-speed camera, and the bubble images were postprocessed using the commercial software, ImageJ. With this newly designed ladle shroud, bubble sizes could be reduced dramatically, to as small as a 675 µm average diameter. A three-dimensional, CFD model simulation was developed, using parameters obtained from the corresponding water model experiments, in order to predict the behavior of these microbubbles within the tundish and their potential influence on flow patterns and inclusion float-out capability.

  4. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence—first results from CICLoPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örlü, R.; Fiorini, T.; Segalini, A.; Bellani, G.; Talamelli, A.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×104 are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A2≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A2,w≈A2/2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.

  5. Full-Scale Field Test of Wake Steering

    DOE PAGES

    Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Scholbrock, Andrew; ...

    2017-06-13

    Wind farm control, in which turbine controllers are coordinated to improve farmwide performance, is an active field of research. One form of wind farm control is wake steering, in which a turbine is yawed to the inflow to redirect its wake away from downstream turbines. Wake steering has been studied in depth in simulations as well as in wind tunnels and scaled test facilities. This work performs a field test of wake steering on a full-scale turbine. In the campaign, the yaw controller of the turbine has been set to track different yaw misalignment set points while a nacelle-mounted lidarmore » scans the wake at several ranges downwind. The lidar measurements are combined with turbine data, as well as measurements of the inflow made by a highly instrumented meteorological mast. In conclusion, these measurements are then compared to the predictions of a wind farm control-oriented model of wakes.« less

  6. Full-Scale Field Test of Wake Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Scholbrock, Andrew; Quon, Eliot; Dana, Scott; Schreck, Scott; Raach, Steffen; Haizmann, Florian; Schlipf, David

    2017-05-01

    Wind farm control, in which turbine controllers are coordinated to improve farmwide performance, is an active field of research. One form of wind farm control is wake steering, in which a turbine is yawed to the inflow to redirect its wake away from downstream turbines. Wake steering has been studied in depth in simulations as well as in wind tunnels and scaled test facilities. This work performs a field test of wake steering on a full-scale turbine. In the campaign, the yaw controller of the turbine has been set to track different yaw misalignment set points while a nacelle-mounted lidar scans the wake at several ranges downwind. The lidar measurements are combined with turbine data, as well as measurements of the inflow made by a highly instrumented meteorological mast. These measurements are then compared to the predictions of a wind farm control-oriented model of wakes.

  7. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental & Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control.

  8. Self-similarity of the large-scale motions in turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellström, Leo; Marusic, Ivan; Smits, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis assumes the existence of a set of energetic and geometrically self-similar eddies in the logarithmic layer in wall-bounded turbulent flows. These eddies can be completely scaled with the distance from their center to the wall. We performed stereo PIV measurements together with a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis, to address the self-similarity of the energetic motions, or eddies, in fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. The resulting modes/eddies, extracted at Reτ = 2460 , show a self-similar behavior for eddies with wall-normal length scales spanning a decade. This single length scale provides a complete description of the cross-sectional shape of the self-similar eddies. ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2402 and the Australian Research Council.

  9. Full-scale decentralized damage identification using wireless smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Shinae; Sim, Sung-Han; Jo, Hongki; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Wireless Smart Sensor Networks (WSSN) facilitates a new paradigm to structural health monitoring (SHM) for civil infrastructure. Conventionally, SHM systems employing wired sensors and central data acquisition have been used to characterize the state of a structure; however, wide-spread implementation has been limited due to difficulties in cabling and data management, high equipment cost, and long setup time. WSSNs offer a unique opportunity to overcome such difficulties. Recent advances in sensor technology have realized low-cost, smart sensors with on-board computation and wireless communication capabilities, making deployment of a dense array of sensors on large civil structures both feasible and economical. Wireless smart sensors have shown their tremendous potential for SHM in recent full-scale bridge monitoring examples. However, structural damage identification in WSSNs, a primary objective of SHM, has yet to reach its full potential. This paper presents a full-scale validation of the decentralized damage identification application on the Imote2 sensor platform on a historic steel truss bridge. The SHM application for WSSN developed in the previous research is further combined with continuous and autonomous monitoring application. In total, 144 sensor channels and one base station have been deployed on the bridge for damage localization. The efficacy of the developed application has been demonstrated to compare the damage identification results with the traditional centralized processing.

  10. Radon emanation from NORM-contaminated pipe scale and soil at petroleum industry sites.

    PubMed

    White, G J; Rood, A S

    2001-01-01

    Radon-222 emanation fractions were determined for barite scale deposits associated with petroleum production tubing and soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were analyzed for 226Ra concentration, the results of which were used to calculate the 222Rn emanation fraction for the sample. An important parameter determining the overall Rn activity flux from a solid medium, 222Rn emanation fraction represents the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether 222Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale and soil from petroleum production sites are similar to those of uranium mill tailings. Pipe scale samples were collected at four sites representing a wide geographical area, and consisted primarily of barite scale where Ra atoms have replaced a fraction of the Ba within the crystal lattice of the scale. Soil samples were collected at five sites, from areas exhibiting elevated surface gamma exposure rates indicating the presence of NORM. For comparison, 226Ra concentrations and 222Rn emanation fraction were also determined for uranium mill tailings samples provided from a site in Utah. Although 2226Ra concentrations from pipe scale samples were similar to those found in uranium mill tailings, 222Rn emanation fractions from scale were generally lower. Emanation fractions from each data set were statistically different from those of mill tailings (p < or = 0.01). The differences are probably due to physical differences between the two media and to the method by which the Ra is deposited in the material. Radon emanation from soils was extremely variable owing not only to differences in physical and chemical soil properties, but also to the means by which NORM has entered the soil. Although additional emanation measurements from other sites are needed, the data collected

  11. Correlation of full-scale helicopter rotor performance in air with model-scale Freon data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a transonic dynamics tunnel to measure the performance of a 1/5 scale model helicopter rotor in a Freon atmosphere. Comparisons were made between these data and full scale data obtained in air. Both the model and full scale tests were conducted at advance ratios between 0.30 and 0.40 and advancing tip Mach numbers between 0.79 and 0.95. Results show that correlation of model scale rotor performance data obtained in Freon with full scale rotor performance data in air is good with regard to data trends. Mach number effects were found to be essentially the same for the model rotor performance data obtained in Freon and the full scale rotor performance data obtained in air. It was determined that Reynolds number effects may be of the same magnitude or smaller than rotor solidity effects or blade elastic modeling in rotor aerodynamic performance testing.

  12. Freezable Radiator Model Correlation and Full Scale Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillibridge, Sean T.; Navarro, Moses

    2010-01-01

    Freezable radiators offer an attractive solution to the issue of thermal control system scalability. As thermal environments change, a freezable radiator will effectively scale the total heat rejection it is capable of as a function of the thermal environment and flow rate through the radiator. Scalable thermal control systems are a critical technology for spacecraft that will endure missions with widely varying thermal requirements. These changing requirements are a result of the space craft s surroundings and because of different thermal loads during different mission phases. However, freezing and thawing (recovering) a radiator is a process that has historically proven very difficult to predict through modeling, resulting in highly inaccurate predictions of recovery time. This paper summarizes efforts made to correlate a Thermal Desktop (TM) model with empirical testing data from two test articles. A 50-50 mixture of DowFrost HD and water is used as the working fluid. Efforts to scale this model to a full scale design, as well as efforts to characterize various thermal control fluids at low temperatures are also discussed.

  13. Model Wind Turbines Tested at Full-Scale Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. A.; Kiefer, J.; Westergaard, C.; Hultmark, M.

    2016-09-01

    The enormous length scales associated with modern wind turbines complicate any efforts to predict their mechanical loads and performance. Both experiments and numerical simulations are constrained by the large Reynolds numbers governing the full- scale aerodynamics. The limited fundamental understanding of Reynolds number effects in combination with the lack of empirical data affects our ability to predict, model, and design improved turbines and wind farms. A new experimental approach is presented, which utilizes a highly pressurized wind tunnel (up to 220 bar). It allows exact matching of the Reynolds numbers (no matter how it is defined), tip speed ratios, and Mach numbers on a geometrically similar, small-scale model. The design of a measurement and instrumentation stack to control the turbine and measure the loads in the pressurized environment is discussed. Results are then presented in the form of power coefficients as a function of Reynolds number and Tip Speed Ratio. Due to gearbox power loss, a preliminary study has also been completed to find the gearbox efficiency and the resulting correction has been applied to the data set.

  14. Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  15. Full-scale validation of a model of algal productivity.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2014-12-02

    While modeling algal productivity outdoors is crucial to assess the economic and environmental performance of full-scale cultivation, most of the models hitherto developed for this purpose have not been validated under fully relevant conditions, especially with regard to temperature variations. The objective of this study was to independently validate a model of algal biomass productivity accounting for both light and temperature and constructed using parameters experimentally derived using short-term indoor experiments. To do this, the accuracy of a model developed for Chlorella vulgaris was assessed against data collected from photobioreactors operated outdoor (New Zealand) over different seasons, years, and operating conditions (temperature-control/no temperature-control, batch, and fed-batch regimes). The model accurately predicted experimental productivities under all conditions tested, yielding an overall accuracy of ±8.4% over 148 days of cultivation. For the purpose of assessing the feasibility of full-scale algal cultivation, the use of the productivity model was therefore shown to markedly reduce uncertainty in cost of biofuel production while also eliminating uncertainties in water demand, a critical element of environmental impact assessments. Simulations at five climatic locations demonstrated that temperature-control in outdoor photobioreactors would require tremendous amounts of energy without considerable increase of algal biomass. Prior assessments neglecting the impact of temperature variations on algal productivity in photobioreactors may therefore be erroneous.

  16. Full-scale hingeless rotor performance and loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Randall L.

    1995-01-01

    A full-scale BO-105 hingeless rotor system was tested in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel on the rotor test apparatus. Rotor performance, rotor loads, and aeroelastic stability as functions of both collective and cyclic pitch, tunnel velocity, and shaft angle were investigated. This test was performed in support of the Rotor Data Correlation Task under the U.S. Army/German Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperative Research in the Field of Helicopter Aeromechanics. The primary objective of this test program was to create a data base for full-scale hingeless rotor performance and structural blade loads. A secondary objective was to investigate the ability to match flight test conditions in the wind tunnel. This data base can be used for the experimental and analytical studies of hingeless rotor systems over large variations in rotor thrust and tunnel velocity. Rotor performance and structural loads for tunnel velocities from hover to 170 knots and thrust coefficients (C(sub T)/sigma) from 0.0 to 0.12 are presented in this report. Thrust sweeps at tunnel velocities of 10, 20, and 30 knots are also included in this data set.

  17. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale exit cone looking south from entrance cone, east switchboard, west switchboard, wind vanes at north end looking north through entrance cone, north end looking south through entrance cone, entrance cone looking north from exit cone, wind vanes south end of west exit cone, wind vanes south end of east exit cone, Tow Channel trolley lines looking north, east and west incline braces at north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) exit cone construction and installation of fan motors. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'Forward of the propellers and located on the center line of the tunnel is a smooth fairing which transforms the somewhat elliptic section of the single passage into two circular ones at the propellers. From the propellers aft, the exit cone is divided into two passages and each transforms in the length of 132 feet from a 35-foot 61/2-inch circular section to a 46-foot square. The included angle between the sides of each passage is 6 inches.' (p. 293)

  18. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress: Preparation for test of Careystone panels used to cover the exterior of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The corrugated concrete and asbestos panels (1/4 inch thick; 42 inches wide; 62 inches long) which were used as siding and roofing for the Full-Scale Tunnel were manufactured by The Philip Carey Company. The NACA conducted seven different tests to determine the exact properties of the the substance which was called 'Careystone'. Three of these tests involved applying a load until the test panel ruptured. The results of these tests were supplied to the manufacturer but with the condition that the information remain confidential. The Philip Carey Company very much wanted to publicized the NACA test results (They had underbid the project in hopes of getting a strong return through an advertising campaign.) but the company's request was rejected out of hand as a violation of government policy. For the NACA, the choice of Careystone had been based on several factors. First and foremost was its low cost. NACA engineers had observed the very durable, low-maintenance and fireproof qualities of the concrete-asbestos covering of the airship hanger at Langley Field. Further, tests showed the material to be 3.8 times stronger than required (The maximum load the material was expected to withstand was 52 lbs. per square foot; the breaking load was 196 lbs. per sq. ft.).

  19. Cylindrical acoustical holography applied to full-scale jet noise.

    PubMed

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Krueger, David W; James, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Near-field acoustical holography methods are used to predict sound radiation from an engine installed on a high-performance military fighter aircraft. Cylindrical holography techniques are an efficient approach to measure the large and complex sound fields produced by full-scale jets. It is shown that a ground-based, one-dimensional array of microphones can be used in conjunction with a cylindrical wave function field representation to provide a holographic reconstruction of the radiated sound field at low frequencies. In the current work, partial field decomposition methods and numerical extrapolation of data beyond the boundaries of the hologram aperture are required prior to holographic projection. Predicted jet noise source distributions and directionality are shown for four frequencies between 63 and 250 Hz. It is shown that the source distribution narrows and moves upstream, and that radiation directionality shifts toward the forward direction, with increasing frequency. A double-lobe feature of full-scale jet radiation is also demonstrated.

  20. Full scale UASB reactor performance in the brewery industry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y H; Min, K S; Speece, R E

    2001-04-01

    In this paper the 7 year experience of the Oriental Breweries, located in Kumi, Korea utilizing a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the anaerobic pretreatment of brewery wastewater is presented. The anaerobic pretreatment system selected has successfully achieved the desired treatment efficiency for the brewery wastewater during that period and it has also continued operation even with low wastewater concentrations (average CODcr 1,400 mg l-1) and lower flow rates than specified by the design parameters. The CODcr removal of the UASB reactor averaged over 80% throughout the entire period, incurring normal running expenses of only $0.20-0.31 m-3 of treated water. In addition a further economical feature of the process was the utilization of the gas digester production as the municipal gas source, reducing total operating expenses around 30 to 45% and costing the plant only $0.1 m-3. Maintenance of good granule production, which is always a key issue in operating UASB systems, was not possible by this installation, however, so frequent expensive reseeding of the reactor was often necessary due to biomass washout. The full scale and lab scale research revealed that underloading can be as detrimental as overloading, due to excessively long retention time in the UASB system for the overall operating period and to excessive pre-acidification and/or incorrect reactor configuration of the completely mixed type. To enhance the sludge granulation, therefore, the installation of a pre-acidification reactor in the UASB system treating easily biodegradable substrates such as brewery wastewater is not necessary because adequate pre-acidification can occur in the equalization tank.

  1. CaSO4 Scale Inhibition by a Trace Amount of Zinc Ion in Piping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangestiyono, W.; Sutrisno

    2017-05-01

    Usually, a small steam generator is not complemented by equipment such as demineralization and chlorination process apparatus since the economic aspect was a precedence. Such phenomenon was uncovered in a case study of green tea industrial process in which the boiler capacity was not more than 1 ton/hour. The operation of the small boiler affected the scaling process in its piping system. In a year operation, there was already a large scale of calcium attached to the inner surface of the pipe. Such large scale formed a layer and decreased the overall heat transfer coefficient, prolonged the process time and decreased the production. The aim of the current research was to solve the problem through a laboratory research to inhibit the CaSO4 scale formation by the addition of trace amounts of zinc ion. This research was conducted through a built in-house experimental rig which consisted of a dosing pump for controlling the flow rate and a thermocouple to control the temperature. Synthesis solution was prepared with 3,500 ppm concentration of CaCl2 and Na2SO4. The concentration of zinc was set at 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. The data found were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze crystal polymorph as the influence of zinc ion addition. The induction time was also investigated to analyze the nucleation time, and it was found on the 9th, 13th, and 19th minute of the zinc ion addition of 0.00, 5.00 and 10.00 ppm. After running for a four-hour duration, the scale grow-rate was found to be 5.799; 5.501 and 4.950 × 10-3 gr/min for 0.00; 5.00 and 10.00 ppm of zinc addition at 50 °C.

  2. Development of a cavitating descaling technique for on-line geothermal pipe and component cleaning and scale removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.C.; Bohli, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of cavitation for cleaning and removing geothermal scale from pipes and system components is discussed. A study of the technical feasibility of using cavitation to remove scale is described including the preliminary fold test, the GLEF in-plant field demonstration, a production line cleaning trial, and recommendations. (MHR)

  3. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  4. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  5. Scale Build-Up Prediction of FeS and FeCO3 in Gas Production Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, R. K.; Rahmawati, S. D.; Gadesa, A.; Wahyuningrum, D.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of passive layer is important to control the corrosion-erosion rate in gas production pipes. However, passive layer can lead to two possible conditions: corrosion-erosion protection or scale build-up. Accurate prediction of scaling tendency is needed to plan treatment and operating condition during the production from gas field. In this study, we develop mathematical model to predict the scaling tendency in gas production pipes. The model consists of two basic equations: precipitation rate and erosion equation. Precipitation rate is calculated using semi-empirical correlation and erosion is calculated using Salama (2000) equation. Then, a modified parameter of scaling tendency (ST), which is the ratio between net precipitation rate and corrosion rate, is introduced to measure the scaling tendency in each segment of production pipe. From simulation, it was found that the interaction between pressure, temperature and fluid composition affected the scaling tendency at most. However, when sand was introduced in the pipe flow, scale formation occurred at low rate. Every segment of production tubing and pipeline gave different tendency condition.

  6. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  7. Full-scale anaerobic bioremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.B.; Crawford, D.L.; Crawford, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    An anaerobic bioremediation process for the degradation of nitroaromatic compounds in soil was demonstrated. This ex situ process was demonstrated full-scale at a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated site near Weldon Spring, MO. A bioreactor was loaded with approx 23 m{sup 3} of TNT-contaminated soil in the form of a 50:50 soil: water slurry. This slurry was augmented with a starchy carbon source (1-2% w/v) and buffered with phosphate to near-neutral pH. Indigenous soil bacteria utilized the oxygen, making the slurry anaerobic within 1-2 d. Anaerobes then degraded the TNT (3000 mg/kg) in approx 11 wk. A relatively long treatment time for the bioremediation of the TNT-contaminated soil was necessary, possibly because of the cool ambient temperatures, high clay content of the soil, high level of contamination, and high level of recalcitrance of TNT in soils.

  8. Investigation of a low NOx full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric test program was conducted to evaluate a low NOx annular combustor concept suitable for a supersonic, high-altitude aircraft application. The lean premixed combustor, known as the vortex air blast (VAB) concept, was tested as a 22.0-cm diameter model in the early development phases to arrive at basic design and performance criteria. Final demonstration testing was carried out on a full scale combustor of 0.66-m diameter. Variable geometry dilution ports were incorporated to allow operation of the combustor across the range of conditions between idle (T(in) = 422 K, T(out) = 917 K) and cruise (T(in) = 833 K, T(out) - 1778 K). Test results show that the design could meet the program NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at a one-atmospheric simulated cruise condition.

  9. Acoustic measurements of a full-scale coaxial helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, M.; Peterson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Acoustic data were obtained during a full-scale test of the XH-59A Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) Technology Demonstrator in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The XH-59A is a research helicopter with two coaxial rotors and hingeless blades. Performance, vibration, noise at various forward speeds, rotor lift coefficients, and rotor shaft angles of attack were investigated. In general, the noise level is shown to increase with rotor lift coefficient except under certain operating conditions where it is increased by significant impulsive blade/vortex interactions. The impulsivity appears to depend upon how the lift is distributed between the two rotors. The noise levels measured are shown to be slightly higher than on a modern conventional rotor tested in the same facility.

  10. Effects of aerodynamic fairing on full scale blade fatigue test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zujin; Wu, Jianzhong; Sun, Yuanrong; Jian, Liu

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of large blades should be verified by means of full scale fatigue test. In order to solve the problem of lack of exciting force during fatigue test in the flap wise direction, the program that aerodynamic fairing is installed in the tip of blade to reduce the air resistance is proposed. The numerical model of blade vibration and damping ratio calculation is established. The relationship between damping ratio, exciting force and amplitude is constructed by finite element method respectively. The difference of the exciting bending moment of blade and the damping ratio before and after the installation of aerodynamic fairing is compared respectively. The results show that damping ratio decreased by 27.9%. When the vibration of the blade reaches the target bending moment, the exciting force of the equipment decreases by 45.4%. It is an effective way to reduce the exciting force.

  11. Defining Anaerobic Digestion Stability-Full Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demitry, M. E., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and a volatile solids, VS, mass balance was conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters monitored included: pH, alkalinity, VFA, and propionic acid. The values of these parameters showed that steady state had occurred. Finally, at mesophilic temperature and at steady state performance, the anaerobic digester stability was defined as a constant ratio of methane produced per substrate of ΔVS (average ratio=0.404 l/g). This ratio can be used as universal metric to determine the anaerobic digester stability in an easy and inexpensive way.

  12. Full-scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and NASA conducted a full-scale air-to-surface impact-survivable impact demonstration with a remotely piloted transport aircraft on 1 December 1984, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The test article consisted of experiments, special equipment, and supporting systems, such as antimisting kerosene (AMK), crashworthiness structural/restraint, analytical modeling, cabin fire safety, flight data recorders, post-impact investigation, instrumentation/data acquisition systems, remotely piloted vehicle/flight control systems, range and flight safety provisions, etc. This report describes the aircraft, experiments, systems, activities, and events which lead up to the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). An overview of the final unmanned remote control flight and sequence of impact events are delineated. Preliminary post CID observations are presented.

  13. New Orleans full-scale trommel evaluation: interim test report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report presents the data from five tests of a full-scale trommel processing unsegregated municipal solid waste at throughtputs ranging from 58% to 175% of design capacity, or 32 to 98 Mg/h (36 to 109 tph). The tests were conducted between December 1980 and March 1981 at the Recovery 1 solid waste processing facility in New Orleans, La. Included in the report are a description of the equipment, discussion of the test procedures and primary summaries of data on the trommel mass balance and separation efficiency, and on the analysis of infeed and product samples for size, composition, density, and moisture. Heat content and ash values of the trommel oversize and recovery results on surrogate aluminum cans and flakes also are reported.

  14. Full-scale soil washing system remediates Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    One of the first full-scale soil washing systems in the United States is currently being used to remediate the King of Prussia (KOP) Technical Corporation Superfund site (Winslow Township, New Jersey). The soil washing facility began operating at the site in June 1993. About 20,300 tons of soil require remediation, and operations were expected to be completed in October 1993. The soil washing process was supplied by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) of Tampa, Florida, a 50-50 joint venture of Geraghty & Miller, Inc. and the Dutch company, Heidemij Realisatie. Heidemij developed the process and has been involved with hazardous soil washing in the Netherlands for about ten years. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  15. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Aerial and ground views of the overall construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) and the Seaplane Tow Channel. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293). Ground shots of work in progress, aerials of east area.

  16. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction progress, studding in Tow Channel office area, Full Scale motor fairing in west exit cone, motor fairing in east exit cone. Propeller and motor fairing for west exit cone. Smith DeFrance described the propellers and motors in NACA TR No. 459. ' The propellers are located side by side and 48 feet aft of the throat of the exit-cone bell. The propellers are 35 feet 5 inches in diameter and each consists of four cast aluminum alloy blades screwed into a cast steel hub.' 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the full-scale wind tunnel it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  17. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence-first results from CICLoPE.

    PubMed

    Örlü, R; Fiorini, T; Segalini, A; Bellani, G; Talamelli, A; Alfredsson, P H

    2017-03-13

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×10(4) are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A2≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A2,w≈A2/2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A. ); Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2}) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft{sup 2}hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient.

  19. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.; Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C.

    1990-12-31

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2}) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft{sup 2}hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient.

  20. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-11-15

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  1. Behavior of full-scale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; O'Connor, Sean; Nadukuru, Srinivasa; Lynch, Jerome P.; Michalowski, Radoslaw; Green, Russell A.; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammed; Weiss, W. Jason; Bradshaw, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Concrete pipelines are one of the most popular underground lifelines used for the transportation of water resources. Unfortunately, this critical infrastructure system remains vulnerable to ground displacements during seismic and landslide events. Ground displacements may induce significant bending, shear, and axial forces to concrete pipelines and eventually lead to joint failures. In order to understand and model the typical failure mechanisms of concrete segmented pipelines, large-scale experimentation is necessary to explore structural and soil-structure behavior during ground faulting. This paper reports on the experimentation of a reinforced concrete segmented concrete pipeline using the unique capabilities of the NEES Lifeline Experimental and Testing Facilities at Cornell University. Five segments of a full-scale commercial concrete pressure pipe (244 cm long and 37.5 cm diameter) are constructed as a segmented pipeline under a compacted granular soil in the facility test basin (13.4 m long and 3.6 m wide). Ground displacements are simulated through translation of half of the test basin. A dense array of sensors including LVDT's, strain gages, and load cells are installed along the length of the pipeline to measure the pipeline response while the ground is incrementally displaced. Accurate measures of pipeline displacements and strains are captured up to the compressive and flexural failure of the pipeline joints.

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Full-Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B.; Bartling, K.E.; Singer, S.A.

    2008-07-01

    A Full-Scale Test (FST) program was performed by Parsons and its team members General Atomics and Energy Solutions to assess the performance of full-scale centrifugal contactors specified for the Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF, to be located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, will remove highly radioactive waste constituents, principally actinides, strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs) radionuclides, from salt waste solutions currently stored in SRS high-level waste tanks. Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) removes Cs from waste feed that has been treated upstream to remove actinides and Sr. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract Cs from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. The test system comprised (a) eleven 25.4 cm (10'') full-scale contactors (versus 36 in SWPF) for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash stages; (b) two solvent recovery coalescers; and (c) the associated hardware and control system, packaged in four skid mounted modules. This paper describes the results of tests performed to define both hydraulic performance parameters (maximum hydraulic capacity and phase carryover) and solvent extraction performance parameters (Cs mass transfer efficiencies) using simulated SWPF waste and actual CSSX solvent. The test results confirmed key design features of the CSSX process and, as a consequence, the use of CSSX in the SWPF. In conclusion: Total throughput was initially limited to 85% of maximum flow during FST. Minor system modifications performed prior to mass transfer testing series resulted in the realization of 100% throughput. The 100% flow equates to slightly more than 35.6 x 10{sup 6} L/yr (9.4 Mgal/yr) of waste processed in SWPF which is anticipated to be the peak plant throughput. To achieve the best hydraulic performance in extraction, it is recommended that the extraction contactors be operated at the highest reasonable speed possible (>2100 rpm

  3. Full Scale Rotor Aeroacoustic Predictions and the Link to Model Scale Rotor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Conner, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation code, RNM (Rotor Noise Model). Aeroacoustic predictions are made with NAPS for an isolated rotor and compared to results of the second Harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-II) program, which tested a 40% dynamically and Mach-scaled BO-105 main rotor at the DNW. The NAPS is validated with comparisons for three rotor conditions: a baseline condition and two Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) conditions. To establish a link between model and full-scale rotor predictions, a full-scale BO-105 main rotor input deck for NAPS is created from the 40% scale rotor input deck. The full-scale isolated rotor predictions are then compared to the model predictions. The comparisons include aerodynamic loading, acoustic levels, and acoustic pressure time histories for each of the three conditions. With this link established, full-scale predictions are made for a range of descent flight conditions and compared with measured trends from the recent Rotorcraft Operational Noise Abatement Procedures (RONAP) flight test conducted by DLR and ONERA. Additionally, the effectiveness of two HHC conditions from the HART-II program is demonstrated for the full-scale rotor in flight.

  4. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Careystone covering at the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) facility. The corrugated concrete and asbestos panels (1/4 inch thick; 42 inches wide; 62 inches long) which were used as siding and roofing for the Full-Scale Tunnel were manufactured by The Philip Carey Company. For the NACA, the choice of Careystone had been based on several factors. First and foremost was its low cost. NACA engineers had observed the very durable, low-maintenance and fireproof qualities of the concrete-asbestos covering of the airship hanger at Langley Field. Further, tests showed the material to be 3.8 times stronger than required (The maximum load the material was expected to withstand was 52 lbs. per square foot; the breaking load was 196 lbs. per sq. ft.). L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million

  5. An Analysis of Model Scale Data Transformation to Full Scale Flight Using Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford; Bridges, James

    2003-01-01

    Ground-based model scale aeroacoustic data is frequently used to predict the results of flight tests while saving time and money. The value of a model scale test is therefore dependent on how well the data can be transformed to the full scale conditions. In the spring of 2000, a model scale test was conducted to prove the value of chevron nozzles as a noise reduction device for turbojet applications. The chevron nozzle reduced noise by 2 EPNdB at an engine pressure ratio of 2.3 compared to that of the standard conic nozzle. This result led to a full scale flyover test in the spring of 2001 to verify these results. The flyover test confirmed the 2 EPNdB reduction predicted by the model scale test one year earlier. However, further analysis of the data revealed that the spectra and directivity, both on an OASPL and PNL basis, do not agree in either shape or absolute level. This paper explores these differences in an effort to improve the data transformation from model scale to full scale.

  6. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  7. Radium-bearing pipe scale deposits: implications for national waterborne radon sampling methods.

    PubMed Central

    Field, R W; Fisher, E L; Valentine, R L; Kross, B C

    1995-01-01

    A point-of-use waterborne radon-222 (222Rn) survey of a small Iowa town was performed to determine the cause of unnaturally high waterborne 222Rn concentrations in the municipality. The source of the elevated 222Rn concentrations was a newly discovered reservoir of waterborne 222Rn originating from distribution-system radium-226 (226Ra) adsorbed internal pipe scale deposits. Because the proposed national drinking water regulations for 222Rn require sampling at the origin of the distribution system rather than at the point of use, the proposed scheme for collection of water samples may not represent actual consumer waterborne 222Rn exposure in all cases. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7702126

  8. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezza, D.; Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schwandt, J.; Sheviakov, I.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Xia, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 104 ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e- (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e- (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  9. Acoustic modal analysis of a full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic modal decomposition of the measured pressure field in a full scale annular combustor installed in a ducted test rig is described. The modal analysis, utilizing a least squares optimization routine, is facilitated by the assumption of randomly occurring pressure disturbances which generate equal amplitude clockwise and counter-clockwise pressure waves, and the assumption of statistical independence between modes. These assumptions are fully justified by the measured cross spectral phases between the various measurement points. The resultant modal decomposition indicates that higher order modes compose the dominant portion of the combustor pressure spectrum in the range of frequencies of interest in core noise studies. A second major finding is that, over the frequency range of interest, each individual mode which is present exists in virtual isolation over significant portions of the spectrum. Finally, a comparison between the present results and a limited amount of data obtained in an operating turbofan engine with the same combustor is made. The comparison is sufficiently favorable to warrant the conclusion that the structure of the combustor pressure field is preserved between the component facility and the engine.

  10. Evaluation of full-scale biofilter media performance

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas-Gonzalez, B.; Ergas, S.J.; Switzenbaum, M.S.; Phillibert, N.

    1999-09-30

    The objective of this study was to characterize the key physical, chemical and biological properties of compost media from a full-scale biofiltration system used to control VOC emissions. Results of media characterization were used to assess the need for operational changes and media replacement. Biofilter media properties evaluated included: moisture content, pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen content in water extracts and solid matrix, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial plate counts including total heterotrophs, oligotrophs, actinomycetes and fungi. Samples were taken from various locations and depths in the biofilter after three and five years of system operation. Media moisture content was highly variable, with samples from deeper in the bed dryer than surface samples. Low moisture contents were associated with low pH values and low oxygen uptake rates. Total organic carbon contents in water extracts were higher than typical biosolids compost in samples near the inlet to the biofilter, possibly due to extracellular polysaccharides. After five years of use, total nitrogen and organic carbon contents in the solid matrix did not significantly differ from initial levels or those in typical biosolids compost.

  11. Hover performance tests of full scale variable geometry rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorke, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Full scale whirl tests were conducted to determine the effects of interblade spatial relationships and pitch variations on the hover performance and acoustic signature of a 6-blade main rotor system. The variable geometry rotor (VGR) variations from the conventional baseline were accomplished by: (1) shifting the axial position of alternate blades by one chord-length to form two tip path planes; and (2) varying the relative azimuthal spacing from the upper rotor to the lagging hover rotor in four increments from 25.2 degrees to 62.1 degrees. For each of these four configurations, the differential collective pitch between upper and lower rotors was set at + or - 1 deg, 0 deg and -1 deg. Hover performance data for all configurations were acquired at blade tip Mach numbers of 0.523 and 0.45. Acoustic data were recorded at all test conditions, but analyzed only at 0 deg differential pitch at the higher rotor speed. The VGR configurations tested demonstrated improvements in thrust at constant power as high as 6 percent. Reductions of 3 PNdb in perceived noise level and of 4 db in blade passage frequency noise level were achieved at the higher thrust levels. Consistent correlation exists between performance and acoustic improvements. For any given azimuth spacing, performance was consistently better for the differential pitch condition of + or - 1 degree, i.e. with the upper rotor pitch one degree higher than the lower rotor.

  12. Full-Scale Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale crash test was successfully conducted in March 2010 of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The reasons for conducting this test were threefold: 1 To generate data to be used with finite element computer modeling efforts, 2 To study the crashworthiness features typically associated with a small representative helicopter, and 3 To compare aircraft response to data collected from a previously conducted MD-500 crash test, which included an externally deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept. Instrumentation on the airframe included accelerometers on various structural components of the airframe; and strain gages on keel beams, skid gear and portions of the skin. Three Anthropomorphic Test Devices and a specialized Human Surrogate Torso Model were also onboard to collect occupant loads for evaluation with common injury risk criteria. This paper presents background and results from this crash test conducted without the DEA concept. These results showed accelerations of approximately 30 to 50 g on the airframe at various locations, little energy attenuation through the airframe, and moderate to high probability of occupant injury for a variety of injury criteria.

  13. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    L4855: Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) circuit breaker panel prior to installation. In NACA TR No. 459, Smith DeFrance notes that the FST differed from other wind tunnels in is use of alternating current slip-ring induction motors rather than a direct-current motor and motor-generator set. 'Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were ...installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  14. Full-Scale Schlieren Visualization of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. D.; Settles, G. S.

    1996-11-01

    The efficient removal of cooking effluents from commercial kitchens has been identified as the most pressing energy-related issue in the food service industry. A full-scale schlieren optical system with a 2.1x2.7m field-of-view, described at previous APS/DFD meetings, images the convective airflow associated with a typical gas-fired cooking griddle and ventilation hood. Previous attempts to visualize plumes from cooking equipment by smoke and neutrally-buoyant bubbles were not sufficiently keyed to thermal convection. Here, the point where the ventilation hood fails to capture the effluent plume is clearly visible, thus determining the boundary condition for a balanced ventilation system. Further, the strong influence of turbulent entrainment is seen in the behavior of the combustion products vented by the griddle and the interference caused by a makeup-air outlet located too close to the lip of the ventilation hood. Such applications of traditional fluid dynamics techniques and principles are believed to be important to the maturing of ventilation technology. (Research supported by EPRI and IFMA, Inc.)

  15. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate: Phase 3, Full-scale demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Technical problems (higher than target fired density, and poor intermediate strength after burnout but before sintering) were addressed and solved; solution involved use of large loading of CP-5 alumina (controlled pore, rehydratable), increased loading of one of the binders, and a steam aging step. Resistance of the lightweight aggregate in a brick formulation to steel slag penetration was assessed in a preliminary test and found to be almost as good as that of T-64. Pelletized process economic feasibility study was updated, based on production levels of 10,000 and 20,000 mt/year, the most up- to-date raw material costs, and the assumption of a retrofit into the Arkansas plant tabular production facility. For the 10,000 mt/y production level, the required selling price of 35% more than the T- 64 selling price exceeds the {le}25% objective. The market survey will determine whether to proceed with the full scale demonstration that will produce at least 54.4 mt (120,000 lb) of the aggregate for incorporation into products, followed by end-user testing and evaluation.

  16. Full scale biological treatment of heavy metal contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Vegt, A.L. De; Buisman, C.J.N.

    1995-07-01

    Soil and groundwater beneath a zinc production plant in The Netherlands are contaminated with metals and sulfate. To avoid contamination of nearby drinking water aquifers, a hydro-geological containment system and a biological treatment plant for the extracted ground water have been installed. Currently about 5,000 M{sup 3}/day of groundwater is extracted from a combination of 12 shallow and deep wells. Heavy metals and sulfate have to be removed from the extracted water before it can be discharged into a river. Several water treatment methods have been studied and pilot tested at the site. The preferred and selected process is based on the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and combines sulfate removal and heavy metal removal in one single installation. Anaerobic bacteria reduce sulfate to sulfide resulting in the precipitation of metal sulfides. Excess sulfide is biologically converted to elemental sulfur. A full scale biological treatment system was started up in May 1992. Design, start-up, commissioning and operational experiences are reported in this paper. Concentrations of metals and sulfate in the SRB water treatment plant effluent are well within the limits set by the Dutch Authorities for discharge to surface water.

  17. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  18. Occurrence of contaminant accumulation in lead pipe scales from domestic drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Schock, Michael R; Hyland, Robert N; Welch, Meghan M

    2008-06-15

    Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden risk. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of over 40 major scale constituents, regulated metals, and other potential metallic inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution system Pb (lead) or Pb-lined service lines. The primary method of analysis was inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, following complete decomposition of scale material. Contaminants and scale constituents were categorized by their average concentrations, and many metals of potential health concern were found to occur at levels sufficient to result in elevated levels at the consumer's taps if they were to be mobilized. The data indicate distinctly nonconservative behavior for many inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution systems. This finding suggests an imminent need for further research into the transport and fate of contaminants throughout drinking-water distribution system pipes, as well as a re-evaluation of monitoring protocols in order to more accurately determine the scope and levels of potential consumer exposure.

  19. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.

    2016-05-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence

  20. CYMIC{reg_sign} -- Boiler scale-up and full scale demonstration experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kokko, A.; Karvinen, R.; Ahlstedt, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the CYMIC boiler scale-up principles, first full scale experiences from demonstration plant and results from mathematical modelling of the cyclones. CYMIC pilot testing was successfully completed with very positive results, the next step was a CYMIC scale-up and full scale demonstration. The 30 MWth demonstration plant was commissioned during the fall of 1994. The plant is owned by VAPO Oy and it is in the city of Lieksa, eastern Finland. The CYMIC has been scaled up by developing six different cyclones and the multiplication system to cover the capacity range from 30 to 600 MWth. The design of this CYMIC series and the first sold industrial scale CYMIC are presented in the paper. The scale-up of the cyclone was mathematically modelled by Professor Karvinen and his group at Tampere University of Technology. The model which uses Sflow-code was tested and the parameters were set using the pilot test results. The model operated well, so three bigger cyclones were calculated. The first was the cyclone for the Lieksa plant and the other two were bigger standard cyclones. Particles were also included in the model. The variables in the calculations were the cyclone diameter, inlet vane shape and position. Commissioning of the Lieksa plant began in August 1994. The process including operation of the cyclone and the gaslock were then verified at full scale. Flue gas emissions, the combustion efficiency and the performance of the cyclone were also measured. This paper discuss the most interesting results of the measurements.

  1. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  2. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  3. Estimated Full Scale IQ in an Adult Heroin Addict Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; And Others

    The research concerning intellectual functioning in addict populations has not addressed basic questions concerning why and how intelligence quotients (IQ) might be related to drug addiction. A study was undertaken to estimate intellectual functioning based upon a demographic profile for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full…

  4. X-Ray Computed Tomography of Full-Scale Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-31

    Description Defect Type A. Sandcasting , Aluminum Alloy 030106 Reservoir Manifold Porosity 030117 Coupon Porosity 030125 Coupon Voids, Porosity...the radiograph to features. The IQI most commonly used is the plaque penetrameter [9,101. The penetrameter is a thin sheet of material (the same or...products. These numbers scale very well for all sizes of foundries and even for different types of foundries such as sandcasting and investment casting

  5. Airframe Noise Prediction of a Full Aircraft in Model and Full Scale Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Ehab; Duda, Benjamin; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2016-01-01

    Unsteady flow computations are presented for a Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e., flap deflected 39deg and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW(Trademark) to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Two geometry representations of the same aircraft are analyzed: an 18% scale, high-fidelity, semi-span model at wind tunnel Reynolds number and a full-scale, full-span model at half-flight Reynolds number. Previously published and newly generated model-scale results are presented; all full-scale data are disclosed here for the first time. Reynolds number and geometrical fidelity effects are carefully examined to discern aerodynamic and aeroacoustic trends with a special focus on the scaling of surface pressure fluctuations and farfield noise. An additional study of the effects of geometrical detail on farfield noise is also documented. The present investigation reveals that, overall, the model-scale and full-scale aeroacoustic results compare rather well. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that finer geometrical details that are typically not captured at model scales can have a non-negligible contribution to the farfield noise signature.

  6. Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow.

    PubMed

    Willis, Ashley P; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

    2010-09-01

    The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Loève (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1 . The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths λ_{θ}^{+}≈70-90 in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re=5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications.

  7. Full-scale leachate-recirculating MSW landfill bioreactor assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    The integrated waste management hierarchy philosophy continues to develop as a useful tool to solve solid waste issues in an environmentally responsible manner. Recent statistics indicate that approximately two thirds of municipal solid waste in the United States is disposed in landfills. Current landfill operational technique involves the preparation of a waste containment facility, the filling of the waste unit, installation of the final cover, and the maintenance of the unit. This method of operation has proven to be reasonably effective in waste disposal, effectively minimizing risk by collecting the liquid that percolates through the waste, called leachates, at the bottom of the landfill, and controlling landfill gas with collection systems. Concerns over the longevity of containment systems components present questions that cannot be answered without substantial performance data. Landfills, as currently operated, serve to entomb dry waste. Therefore, the facility must be maintained in perpetuity, consuming funds and ultimately driving up waste collection costs. This presentation will describe a new form of solid waste landfill operation, it is a technique that involves controlled natural processes to break down landfilled waste, and further minimize risk to human health and the environment. A landfill operated in an active manner will encourage and control natural decomposition of landfilled waste. This can be accomplished by collecting leachate, and reinjecting it into the landfilled waste mass. Keeping the waste mass moist will lead to a largely anaerobic system with the capacity to rapidly stabilize the landfilled waste mass via physical, chemical and biological methods. The system has proven the ability to breakdown portions of the waste mass, and to degrade toxic materials at the laboratory scale.

  8. End-effects-regime in full scale and lab scale rocket nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Raymundo; Tinney, Charles; Baars, Woutijn; Ruf, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Modern rockets utilize a thrust-optimized parabolic-contour design for their nozzles for its high performance and reliability. However, the evolving internal flow structures within these high area ratio rocket nozzles during start up generate a powerful amount of vibro-acoustic loads that act on the launch vehicle. Modern rockets must be designed to accommodate for these heavy loads or else risk a catastrophic failure. This study quantifies a particular moment referred to as the ``end-effects regime,'' or the largest source of vibro-acoustic loading during start-up [Nave & Coffey, AIAA Paper 1973-1284]. Measurements from full scale ignitions are compared with aerodynamically scaled representations in a fully anechoic chamber. Laboratory scale data is then matched with both static and dynamic wall pressure measurements to capture the associating shock structures within the nozzle. The event generated during the ``end-effects regime'' was successfully reproduced in the both the lab-scale models, and was characterized in terms of its mean, variance and skewness, as well as the spectral properties of the signal obtained by way of time-frequency analyses.

  9. Application of numerical modelling in the design of a full-scale heated Tunnel Sealing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, R.; Chandler, N.; Martino, J.; Dixon, D.

    2005-10-01

    The Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) was a full-scale in situ demonstration of technology for constructing nearly water tight-seals in excavations through crystalline rock deep below the surface of the earth. The experiment has been carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory near Lac du Bonnet, Canada, in support of international programs for geologic disposal of radioactive waste. The TSX, with partners from Canada, Japan, France and the United States, was carried under conditions of high pressure (up to 4 MPa) and elevated temperature (up to 85°C). Comparing numerical model predictions with eight years of data collected from approximately 900 sensors was an important component of this experiment. Model of Transport In Fractured/porous Media (MOTIF), a finite element computer program developed by AECL for simulating fully coupled or uncoupled fluid flow, solute transport and heat transport, was used to model both the ambient temperature and heated phases of the TSX. The plan to heat the water in the TSX to 85°C was developed using model predictions and a comparison of simulated results with measurements during heating of the water in the TSX to about 50°C. The three-dimensional MOTIF simulations were conducted in parallel with axisymmetric modelling using Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC), which computed the heat loss from pipes that carried the heated water through the rock to and from the experiment. The numerical model was initially used to develop a plan for operation of the experiment heaters, and then subsequently used to predict temperatures and hydraulic heads in the TSX bulkhead seals and surrounding rock. Copyright

  10. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim

  11. Development of a full scale selective oil agglomeration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C.; Cooney, B.; Hoare, I.; Waugh, B.; Robinson, R.

    1998-12-31

    A research and development program managed by Australian Mining Investments Limited (AMI) on behalf of an investment syndicate was conducted with the objective of improving the efficiency and economy of the Selective Oil Agglomeration Process (SOAP), and developing viable commercial sized operating plants. Fewer than half the coal preparation plants in Australia beneficiate fine coal by froth flotation, the only viable alternative to SOAP for the recovery of low ash, fine and ultra fine coal. Those plants without flotation generally dispose of the ultra fine material, approximately {minus}100{micro}m in size, as tailings to waste. In the majority of cases this ultra fine waste contains more than 50% relatively low ash coal of saleable quality. It is believed that this coal constitutes a loss of 8--10 million tonnes per annum and that the coal mining industry would welcome a recovery process which has low capital and operating costs and will function automatically with minimal operator attention. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature study of selective oil agglomeration in order to gain a full understanding of the process and to plan the research program. Extensive studies were then undertaken on oil dispersion in the water phase, formation of oil water emulsions with surfactants and the optimization of surfactant selection. Oil and emulsion properties were investigated including stability, viscosity, temperature, concentration of components, time of formation, and cost. This work was followed by characterization studies on coals from the Gunnedah Basin and agglomeration test work on these coals. These agglomeration studies were performed firstly at bench level and then by using a small, 200 kg/hr continuous process development unit. The results were sufficiently encouraging to justify the design and construction of a fully instrumented, PLC controlled, 2 tph pilot plant at Gunnedah Colliery Coal Preparation Plant. Extensive trials were carried out on

  12. Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Mehnert, E.; Lin, Y.-F.; Zhang, K.

    2009-08-15

    Integrated modeling of basin- and plume-scale processes induced by full-scale deployment of CO{sub 2} storage was applied to the Mt. Simon Aquifer in the Illinois Basin. A three-dimensional mesh was generated with local refinement around 20 injection sites, with approximately 30 km spacing. A total annual injection rate of 100 Mt CO{sub 2} over 50 years was used. The CO{sub 2}-brine flow at the plume scale and the single-phase flow at the basin scale were simulated. Simulation results show the overall shape of a CO{sub 2} plume consisting of a typical gravity-override subplume in the bottom injection zone of high injectivity and a pyramid-shaped subplume in the overlying multilayered Mt. Simon, indicating the important role of a secondary seal with relatively low-permeability and high-entry capillary pressure. The secondary-seal effect is manifested by retarded upward CO{sub 2} migration as a result of multiple secondary seals, coupled with lateral preferential CO{sub 2} viscous fingering through high-permeability layers. The plume width varies from 9.0 to 13.5 km at 200 years, indicating the slow CO{sub 2} migration and no plume interference between storage sites. On the basin scale, pressure perturbations propagate quickly away from injection centers, interfere after less than 1 year, and eventually reach basin margins. The simulated pressure buildup of 35 bar in the injection area is not expected to affect caprock geomechanical integrity. Moderate pressure buildup is observed in Mt. Simon in northern Illinois. However, its impact on groundwater resources is less than the hydraulic drawdown induced by long-term extensive pumping from overlying freshwater aquifers.

  13. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  14. Comparison of corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines after changes in water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary results from scales formed 38 weeks following the LSL replacement simulations revealed differences in scale formations amongst varying water qualities and pipe sequence. Rigs fed with dechlorinated tap water show distinct pH gradients between the galvanic and the back...

  15. Comparison of corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines after changes in water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary results from scales formed 38 weeks following the LSL replacement simulations revealed differences in scale formations amongst varying water qualities and pipe sequence. Rigs fed with dechlorinated tap water show distinct pH gradients between the galvanic and the back...

  16. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.

  17. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  18. Graphical Methods for Data Presentation: Full Scale Breaks, Dot Charts, and Multi-based Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, William S.

    Experimentation with graphical methods for data presentation is important for improving graphical communication in science. Several graphical methods are discussed including full scale breaks, dot charts, and multibased logging. Full scale breaks are suggested as replacements for partial scale breaks since partial scale breaks can fail to provide…

  19. Measurement of {sup 222}Rn flux, {sup 222}Rn emanation and {sup 226}Ra concentration from injection well pipe scale

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Kendrick, D.T.

    1996-02-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been recognized since the early 1930s in petroleum reservoirs and in oil and gas production and processing facilities. NORM was typically observed in barite scale that accumulated on the interior of oil production tubing and in storage tank and heater-treater separation sludge. Recent concern has been expressed over the health impacts from the uncontrolled release of NORM to the public. There are several potential exposure pathways to humans from oil-field NORM. Among these is inhalation of radon gas and its daughter products. For this exposure pathway to be of any significance, radon must first be released from the NORM matrix and diffuse in free air. The radon emanation fraction refers to the fraction of radon atoms produced by the decay of radium, that migrate from the bulk material as free gaseous atoms. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the radon release rates from NORM-scale contaminated production tubing being stored above ground, characterize the radon emanation fraction of the bulk scale material when removed from the tubing, and characterize the radium concentrations of the scale. Accurate characterization of {sup 222}Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale may dictate the type of disposal options available for this waste. Characterization of radon release from stored pipes will assist in determining if controls are needed for workers or members of the public downwind from the source. Due to the sensitive nature of this data, the location of this facility is not disclosed.

  20. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a public...

  1. 48 CFR 34.005-5 - Full-scale development contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Full-scale development... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-5 Full-scale development contracts. Whenever practicable, the full-scale development contracts should provide for the contractors to...

  2. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  3. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  4. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  5. 48 CFR 34.005-5 - Full-scale development contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Full-scale development... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-5 Full-scale development contracts. Whenever practicable, the full-scale development contracts should provide for the contractors to...

  6. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a public...

  7. 5 CFR 532.233 - Preparation for full-scale wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation for full-scale wage surveys... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.233 Preparation for full-scale wage surveys. (a) The local wage survey committee, prior to each full-scale survey: (1) Shall hold a public...

  8. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  9. 48 CFR 34.005-5 - Full-scale development contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Full-scale development... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-5 Full-scale development contracts. Whenever practicable, the full-scale development contracts should provide for the contractors to...

  10. 48 CFR 34.005-5 - Full-scale development contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Full-scale development... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-5 Full-scale development contracts. Whenever practicable, the full-scale development contracts should provide for the contractors to...

  11. 48 CFR 34.005-5 - Full-scale development contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Full-scale development... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-5 Full-scale development contracts. Whenever practicable, the full-scale development contracts should provide for the contractors to...

  12. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment. The...

  13. Experimental analysis on a 1:2 scale model of the double light pipe, an innovative technological device for daylight transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Baroncini, C.; Boccia, O.; Chella, F.; Zazzini, P.

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the authors present the double light pipe, an innovative technological device, designed as an evolution of a traditional light pipe, which distributes daylight to underground areas of a building, illuminating, at the same time, the passage areas thanks to a larger collector and a second transparent pipe attached to the first one. Unlike the traditional light pipe, thanks to this double illuminating function it can be located in the middle of a room, despite its encumbrance. In this paper the technological design of the double light pipe is presented and the results of an experimental analysis on a reduced scale (1:2) model are shown. Internal illuminance data over horizontal and vertical work-planes were measured in various sky conditions with or without direct solar radiation. Being this innovative device obtained by a light pipe integrated with a second pipe, it performs like a traditional light pipe for the final room and, at the same time, illuminates the intermediate room giving it uniform and high quality light, particularly indicated for wide plant areas, such as show-rooms or museums. (author)

  14. Glycogen-accumulating organisms in laboratory-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Gregory R; Banfield, Jillian F; Keller, Jürg; Bond, Philip L; Blackall, Linda L

    2002-11-01

    Laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) as models for wastewater treatment processes were used to identify glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are thought to be responsible for the deterioration of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The SBRs (called Q and T), operated under alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions typical for EBPR, generated mixed microbial communities (sludges) demonstrating the GAO phenotype. Intracellular glycogen and poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) transformations typical of efficient EBPR occurred but polyphosphate was not bioaccumulated and the sludges contained 1.8% P (sludge Q) and 1.5% P (sludge T). 16S rDNA clone libraries were prepared from DNA extracted from the Q and T sludges. Clone inserts were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by restriction fragment length polymorphism banding profiles. OTU representatives were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. The Q sludge library comprised four OTUs and all six determined sequences were 99.7% identical, forming a cluster in the gamma-Proteobacteria radiation. The T sludge library comprised eight OTUs and the majority of clones were Acidobacteria subphylum 4 (49% of the library) and candidate phylum OP10 (39% of the library). One OTU (two clones, of which one was sequenced) was in the gamma-Proteobacteria radiation with 95% sequence identity to the Q sludge clones. Oligonucleotide probes (called GAOQ431 and GAOQ989) were designed from the gamma-Proteobacteria clone sequences for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 92% of the Q sludge bacteria and 28% of the T sludge bacteria bound these probes in FISH. FISH and post-FISH chemical staining for PHA were used to determine that bacteria from a novel gamma-Proteobacteria cluster were phenotypically GAOs in one laboratory-scale SBR and two full-scale wastewater treatment plants. It is suggested that the GAOs from the novel cluster in the gamma-Proteobacteria radiation be named

  15. Interrelationships between Blended Phosphate Treatment and Scale Formation for a Utility with Lead Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) in tap water (released from Pb-based plumbing materials) poses a serious public health concern. Water utilities experiencing Pb problems often use orthophosphate treatment, with the theory of forming insoluble Pb(II)-orthophosphate compounds on the pipe wall to inhibit ...

  16. Interrelationships between Blended Phosphate Treatment and Scale Formation for a Utility with Lead Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) in tap water (released from Pb-based plumbing materials) poses a serious public health concern. Water utilities experiencing Pb problems often use orthophosphate treatment, with the theory of forming insoluble Pb(II)-orthophosphate compounds on the pipe wall to inhibit ...

  17. Construction of a full-length cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from lymphocytes of half-pipe snowboarding athletes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Zhang, Z B; Zhao, C Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, Y F; Guan, W J; Zhu, Z Q

    2015-10-21

    The genes of top athletes are a valuable genetic resource for the human race, and could be exploited to identify novel genes related to sports ability, as well as other functions. We analyzed the expressed sequence tags from top half-pipe snowboarding athletes using the SMART complementary DNA (cDNA) library construction method to elucidate the characteristics of the athlete genome and the differential expression of the genes it contains. Overall, we established a full-length cDNA library from the lymphocytes of half-pipe snowboarding athletes and analyzed the inserted gene fragments. We also classified those genes according to molecular function, biological characteristics, cellular composition, protein types, and signal paths. A total of 201 functional genes were noted, which were distributed in 27 pathways. TXN, MDH1, ARL1, ARPC3, ACTG1, and other genes measured in sequence may be associated with physical ability. This suggests that the SMART cDNA library constructed from the genetic material from top athletes is an effective tool for preserving genetic sports resources and providing genetic markers of physical ability for athlete selection.

  18. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    PubMed

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Garbin, Scott; Wylie, Jason; Krishna, K C Bal

    2017-01-01

    A Modified Robbins Device (MRD) was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media) were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. There was a positive correlation between increase of ATP and metal deposition on pipe surfaces of stainless steel and HDPE and no correlation was observed on concrete and glass surfaces. The shared bacterial diversity between bulk water and MRD was less than 20% and the diversity shared between the MRD and KIWA monitor was only 10%. The bacterial diversity on biofilm of plumbing material of MRD however, did not show a significant difference suggesting a lack of influence from plumbing material during early stage of biofilm development.

  19. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Garbin, Scott; Wylie, Jason; Krishna, K. C. Bal

    2017-01-01

    A Modified Robbins Device (MRD) was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media) were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. There was a positive correlation between increase of ATP and metal deposition on pipe surfaces of stainless steel and HDPE and no correlation was observed on concrete and glass surfaces. The shared bacterial diversity between bulk water and MRD was less than 20% and the diversity shared between the MRD and KIWA monitor was only 10%. The bacterial diversity on biofilm of plumbing material of MRD however, did not show a significant difference suggesting a lack of influence from plumbing material during early stage of biofilm development. PMID:28060947

  20. Drinking water quality and formation of biofilms in an office building during its first year of operation, a full scale study.

    PubMed

    Inkinen, Jenni; Kaunisto, Tuija; Pursiainen, Anna; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Riihinen, Kalle; Keinänen-Toivola, Minna M

    2014-02-01

    Complex interactions existing between water distribution systems' materials and water can cause a reduction in water quality and unwanted changes in materials, aging or corrosion of materials and formation of biofilms on surfaces. Substances leaching from pipe materials and water fittings, as well as the microbiological quality of water and formation of biofilms were evaluated by applying a Living Lab theme i.e. a research in a real life setting using a full scale system during its first year of operation. The study site was a real office building with one part of the building lined with copper pipes, the other with cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes thus enabling material comparison; also differences within the cold and hot water systems were analysed. It was found that operational conditions, such as flow conditions and temperature affected the amounts of metals leaching from the pipe network. In particular, brass components were considered to be a source of leaching; e. g. the lead concentration was highest during the first few weeks after the commissioning of the pipe network when the water was allowed to stagnate. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbially available phosphorus (MAP) were found to leach from PEX pipelines with minor effects on biomass of the biofilm. Cultivable and viable biomass (heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) levels in biofilms were higher in the cold than in the hot water system whereas total microbial biomass (total cell count (DAPI)) was similar with both systems. The type of pipeline material was not found to greatly affect the microbial biomass or Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria profiles (16s rRNA gene copies) after the first one year of operation. Also microbiological quality of water was found to deteriorate due to stagnation.

  1. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  2. Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.; Logan, J.A.

    1992-02-01

    Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG&G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, waste-stabilization tests with a mixture of sulfur polymer cement and nonradioactive incinerator ash poured over simulated steel and ash wastes. The container used to contain the simulated waste for the pour was a thin-walled, rectangular, steel container with no appendages. The variable in the tests was that one container and its contents were at 65{degree}F (18{degree}C) at the beginning of the pour, while the other was preheated to 275{degree}F (135{degree}C) and was insulated before the pour. The primary goal was to determine the procedures and equipment deemed operationally acceptable and capable of providing the best probability of passing the only remaining governmental test for sulfur polymer cement, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s full-scale test. The secondary goal was to analyze the ability of the molten cement and ash mixture to fill different size pipes and thus eliminate voids in the resultant 24 ft{sup 3} monolith.

  3. Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.; Logan, J.A.

    1992-02-01

    Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, waste-stabilization tests with a mixture of sulfur polymer cement and nonradioactive incinerator ash poured over simulated steel and ash wastes. The container used to contain the simulated waste for the pour was a thin-walled, rectangular, steel container with no appendages. The variable in the tests was that one container and its contents were at 65{degree}F (18{degree}C) at the beginning of the pour, while the other was preheated to 275{degree}F (135{degree}C) and was insulated before the pour. The primary goal was to determine the procedures and equipment deemed operationally acceptable and capable of providing the best probability of passing the only remaining governmental test for sulfur polymer cement, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's full-scale test. The secondary goal was to analyze the ability of the molten cement and ash mixture to fill different size pipes and thus eliminate voids in the resultant 24 ft{sup 3} monolith.

  4. The use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstell, B. G.; Harry, C. W.

    The paper summarizes the analysis of test data obtained with a 1/12-scale model of the Amphibious Assault Landing Craft (AALC) JEFF(B). The analysis was conducted with the objective of improving the accuracy of drag predictions for a JEFF(B)-type air-cushion vehicle (ACV). Model test results, scaled to full-scale, are compared with full-scale drag obtained in various sea states during JEFF(B) trials. From the results of this comparison, it is found that the Froude-scale model rough-water drag data is consistently greater than full-scale derived drag, and is a function of both wave height and craft forward speed. Results are presented indicating that Froude scaling model data obtained in calm water also causes an over-prediction of calm-water drag at full-scale. An empirical correction that was developed for use on a JEFF(B)-type craft is discussed.

  5. Evolving desiderata for validating engineered-physics systems without full-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Booker, Jane M; Hemez, Francois M; Ross, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    Theory and principles of engineered-physics designs do not change over time, but the actual engineered product does evolve. Engineered components are prescient to the physics and change with time. Parts are never produced exactly as designed, assembled as designed, or remain unperturbed over time. For this reason, validation of performance may be regarded as evolving over time. Desired use of products evolves with time. These pragmatic realities require flexibility, understanding, and robustness-to-ignorance. Validation without full-scale testing involves engineering, small-scale experiments, physics theory and full-scale computer-simulation validation. We have previously published an approach to validation without full-scale testing using information integration, small-scale tests, theory and full-scale simulations [Langenbrunner et al. 2008]. This approach adds value, but also adds complexity and uncertainty due to inference. We illustrate a validation example that manages evolving desiderata without full-scale testing.

  6. The 5 kWe scale-down of the SPAR/SP-100 heat pipe reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, John M.; Benke, Steven M.

    The SPAR/SP-100 heat pipe reactor was designed to operate at 100 kWe. Work done on a 5 kWe scaled-down version of the SPAR/SP-100 is presented. This scale-down was done in order to compare the performance of a small heat pipe reactor to Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). The work on this design is broken into the following categories: reactor core modeling, control drum modeling, heat rejection modeling, and shadow shield modeling. The reactor core modeling will be completed using the already available computer programs FEMP2D and ORIGEN. The REMP2D will be used to complete the neutronics survey through the core and control drums and it will also be used to ensure the core will be subcritical in case of a water abort. Another safety aspect that will be investigated using FEMP2D is ensuring that a fuel element remains subcritical in the event of reactor break-up during reentry. The ORIGEN wil be used to check the burn-up characteristics of the core design. The reactor control drums will be modeled using a FORTRAN program in order to provide atom density information for use in FEMP2D. The heat rejection system will be modeled in order to determine weight requirements of the radiator. The shadow shield model will also provide information on the weight requirements of the shield with respect to the reactor size. The data obtained from the different categories wil be used to compare the performance of a small heat pipe reactor to the RTG. Comparisons will be made in the following areas: specific power, operating characteristics, and safety.

  7. Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration Program Photographic/Video Coverage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    AD-Al71 ?19 FULL-SCALE TRANSPORT CONTROLLED INPRCT DENONSTRTIOU I/5 IPROGRAM PNOTOOGRAPIIC..(U) JET PROPULSION LAS PASM" -5 I CA J D GREGOIRE APR 86...435 _ _-_ _ 4. Ttle and Subtitle S. Report D le Full-Scale Transport Controlled April 1986 Impact Demonstration Program 6. Performing 0,gon .a...Abstract The Full-Scale Transport Controlled Impact Demonstration Program was recorded on both film and video tape by the Photo-Duplication Section

  8. Remedial experiences in the application of full-scale soil washing

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, E.; Corden, F.L.; Mann, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will discuss the experience and lessons learned on the evaluation, design and operational aspects of full-scale soil washing. Although soil washing is becoming more accepted as a treatment technology in the U.S., limited experience in its full-scale application still appears to be a barrier to more widespread implementation. The purpose of this paper is to overcome this barrier by demonstrating actual field experience in the development and use of full-scale soil washing. Three case studies involving full-scale soil washing are presented here.

  9. A Method for Estimating Noise from Full-Scale Distributed Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Schein, David B.

    2004-01-01

    A method to estimate the full-scale noise suppression from a scale model distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) is presented. For a conventional scale model exhaust nozzle, Strouhal number scaling using a scale factor related to the nozzle exit area is typically applied that shifts model scale frequency in proportion to the geometric scale factor. However, model scale DEN designs have two inherent length scales. One is associated with the mini-nozzles, whose size do not change in going from model scale to full scale. The other is associated with the overall nozzle exit area which is much smaller than full size. Consequently, lower frequency energy that is generated by the coalesced jet plume should scale to lower frequency, but higher frequency energy generated by individual mini-jets does not shift frequency. In addition, jet-jet acoustic shielding by the array of mini-nozzles is a significant noise reduction effect that may change with DEN model size. A technique has been developed to scale laboratory model spectral data based on the premise that high and low frequency content must be treated differently during the scaling process. The model-scale distributed exhaust spectra are divided into low and high frequency regions that are then adjusted to full scale separately based on different physics-based scaling laws. The regions are then recombined to create an estimate of the full-scale acoustic spectra. These spectra can then be converted to perceived noise levels (PNL). The paper presents the details of this methodology and provides an example of the estimated noise suppression by a distributed exhaust nozzle compared to a round conic nozzle.

  10. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Full-scale phosphorus recovery from digested waste water sludge in Belgium - part I: technical achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Marchi, A; Geerts, S; Weemaes, M; Schiettecatte, W; Wim, S; Vanhoof, C; Christine, V

    2015-01-01

    To date, phosphorus recovery as struvite in wastewater treatment plants has been mainly implemented on water phases resulting from dewatering processes of the sludge line. However, it is possible to recover struvite directly from sludge phases. Besides minimising the return loads of phosphorus from the sludge line to the water line, placing such a process within the sludge line is claimed to offer advantages such as a higher recovery potential, enhanced dewaterability of the treated sludge, and reduced speed of scaling in pipes and dewatering devices. In the wastewater treatment plant at Leuven (Belgium), a full-scale struvite recovery process from digested sludge has been tested for 1 year. Several monitoring campaigns and experiments provided indications of the efficiency of the process for recovery. The load of phosphorus from the sludge line returning to the water line as centrate accounted for 15% of the P-load of the plant in the reference situation. Data indicated that the process divides this phosphorus load by two. An improved dewaterability of 1.5% of dry solids content was achieved, provided a proper tuning of the installation. Quality analyses showed that the formed struvite was quite pure.

  12. A dynamic mixed subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulation on unstructured grids: application to turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampitella, P.; Colombo, E.; Inzoli, F.

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a consistent large eddy simulation (LES) framework which is particularly suited for implicitly filtered LES with unstructured finite volume (FV) codes. From the analysis of the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress tensor arising in this new LES formulation, a novel form of scale-similar SGS model is proposed and combined with a classical eddy viscosity term. The constants in the resulting mixed model are then computed trough a new, cheaper, dynamic procedure based on a consistent redefinition of the Germano identity within the new LES framework. The dynamic mixed model is implemented in a commercial, unstructured, finite volume solver and numerical tests are performed on the turbulent pipe flow at Reτ = 320-1142, showing the flexibility and improvements of the approach over classical modeling strategies. Some limitations of the proposed implementation are also highlighted.

  13. Design procedure prevents PE pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Grigory, S.C.

    1995-12-01

    A rupture prevention design procedure for plastic gas distribution pipe is nearing completion at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin, and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure can be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program, called PFRAC, has been developed for this purpose and uses Charpy energy as the measurement of fracture toughness of PE. Present efforts, however, involve replacing Charpy energy with a dynamic toughness measurement obtained from the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test that is required in ISO 4437. The program is being financed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago. RCP events in PE pipe have been rare primarily because operating pressures are low and pipe diameters are small in most gas distribution systems. However, controlled RCP experiments in the US and other countries clearly demonstrate that as the gas industry moves toward higher line pressures and larger diameters, the likelihood of an RCP event increases. Recognizing this, ISO includes a requirement for RCP in its ISO 4437 standard for pipe greater than 10 inches in diameter or operating pressures greater than 58 psig. The S4 test may be used on all pipe diameters. A full scale test or the S4 test can be used on pipe greater than 10 inches diameter.

  14. Theoretical analysis of the kinetic performance of laboratory- and full-scale composting systems.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marco; Silveira, Ana; Antunes, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Composting research at laboratory-scale is critical for the development of optimized full-scale plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-scale and full-scale systems have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-scale was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-scale systems for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-scale performance and full-scale systems were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-scale systems. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-scale composting.

  15. Model rotor high-speed impulsive noise - Parametric variations and full-scale comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Schmitz, F. H.; Boxwell, D. A.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a 1/7-scale model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor test in the German-Dutch anechoic wind tunnel are discussed, with emphasis given on exploring the important scaling parameters of helicopter-rotor high-speed impulsive noise. Nondimensional parameters are derived from the governing equations and employed to compare the model rotor measurements with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. The peak acoustic pressure, impulsive noise directivity, and acoustic waveform of the model are found to scale well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Parametric variations of the model-rotor acoustic measurements, such as the change of the high-speed impulsive noise level over a range of advancing-tip Mach numbers at constant advance ratio or constant velocity, are presented. It is concluded that model-scale rotors can be used to explore potential acoustic design innovations on full-scale helicopters.

  16. Heat pipes for wing leading edges of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boman, B. L.; Citrin, K. M.; Garner, E. C.; Stone, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Wing leading edge heat pipes were conceptually designed for three types of vehicle: an entry research vehicle, aero-space plane, and advanced shuttle. A full scale, internally instrumented sodium/Hastelloy X heat pipe was successfully designed and fabricated for the advanced shuttle application. The 69.4 inch long heat pipe reduces peak leading edge temperatures from 3500 F to 1800 F. It is internally instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers to measure sodium vapor qualities. Large thermal gradients and consequently large thermal stresses, which have the potential of limiting heat pipe life, were predicted to occur during startup. A test stand and test plan were developed for subsequent testing of this heat pipe. Heat pipe manufacturing technology was advanced during this program, including the development of an innovative technique for wick installation.

  17. Ultrasonic isolation of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is used routinely for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to above ground configurations due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this paper, the effect of pipe coatings on the guided wave attenuation is investigated with the aim of increasing test ranges for buried pipelines. The attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes is measured using a full-scale experimental apparatus in a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8 in. pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand. Tests are performed over a frequency range typically used in GWT of 10-35 kHz and compared with model predictions. It is shown that the application of a low impedance coating between the FBE layer and the sand effectively decouples the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. Ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe is demonstrated by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both the pipe and sand, and has the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is found to be substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dB m-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to measured attenuation of 1.7-4.7 dB m-1 in the buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry and incorporated into model predictions of guided wave propagation in buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the experimental measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges; such

  18. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  19. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  20. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  1. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  2. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  3. Replicating the microbial community and water quality performance of full-scale slow sand filters in laboratory-scale filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Quince, Christopher; Davies, Robert L; Dorea, Caetano C; Collins, Gavin

    2014-09-15

    Previous laboratory-scale studies to characterise the functional microbial ecology of slow sand filters have suffered from methodological limitations that could compromise their relevance to full-scale systems. Therefore, to ascertain if laboratory-scale slow sand filters (L-SSFs) can replicate the microbial community and water quality production of industrially operated full-scale slow sand filters (I-SSFs), eight cylindrical L-SSFs were constructed and were used to treat water from the same source as the I-SSFs. Half of the L-SSFs sand beds were composed of sterilized sand (sterile) from the industrial filters and the other half with sand taken directly from the same industrial filter (non-sterile). All filters were operated for 10 weeks, with the microbial community and water quality parameters sampled and analysed weekly. To characterize the microbial community phyla-specific qPCR assays and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used in conjunction with an array of statistical techniques. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mimic both the water quality production and the structure of the microbial community of full-scale filters in the laboratory - at all levels of taxonomic classification except OTU - thus allowing comparison of LSSF experiments with full-scale units. Further, it was found that the sand type composing the filter bed (non-sterile or sterile), the water quality produced, the age of the filters and the depth of sand samples were all significant factors in explaining observed differences in the structure of the microbial consortia. This study is the first to the authors' knowledge that demonstrates that scaled-down slow sand filters can accurately reproduce the water quality and microbial consortia of full-scale slow sand filters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    The Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner operates on the principle of staged combustion. The lower burner of each two-nozzle cell is modified to accommodate all the fuel input previously handled by two nozzles. Secondary air, less than theoretically required for complete combustion, is introduced to the lower burner. The remainder of secondary air is directed to the upper port'' of each cell to complete the combustion process. B W/EPRI have thoroughly tested the LNCB{trademark} at two pilot scales (6 million Btu per hour and 100 million Btu per hour), and tested a single full-scale burner in a utility boiler. Combustion tests at two scales have confirmed NO{sub x} reduction with the low-NO{sub x} cell on the order of 50% relative to the standard cell burner at optimum operating conditions. The technology is now ready for full unit, full-scale demonstration.

  5. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million.

  6. Environmental design criteria for the 1/3 scale OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipe At-Sea Test Site off Honolulu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A fully instrumented At-Sea Test of a 1/3 scale OTEC cold water pipe (CWP) will be carried out. The future prototype for this 1/3 scale model is envisioned to be the OTEC Pilot Plant design in the 10 to 40 megawatt-electric size range with an estimated CWP diameter of about 30 ft and an overall vertical length of about 3000 ft. Thus the 1/3 scale CWP consists of a pipe about 10 ft in diameter and 1000 ft long. The selected At-Sea Test site is located at 21/sup 0/15.5'N latitude and 157/sup 0/54.6'W longitude off Honolulu, Hawaii. In order to expedite development of the design of the 1/3 scale At-Sea Test CWP/Platform/Mooring System the report provides environmental design criteria data at the proposed At-Sea Test site evaluated from available historic data.

  7. Numerical Investigation on Large Scale Eddy Structure in Unsteady Pipe Elbow Flow at High Reynolds Number Conditions with Large Eddy Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    Flow induced vibration in primary cooling system of the Japan Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been investigated. The primary cooling system consists of a large diameter pipe and a pipe elbow with short curvature radius corresponding to its diameter (short-elbow). Flow-induced vibration by flow through the short-elbow is an important issue in design study of the JSFR, because it may affect to structural integrity of the piping. In this paper, numerical simulations for several pipe elbows with different pipe diameters and curvature radii in literature were conducted at Reynolds number conditions from Re=500 to 1.47x107 to investigate unsteady flow behavior through the short-elbow, including validation study of an in-house LES code (MUGTHES). Numerical results in each condition were compared with the experimental results in literature. Unsteady flow characteristics and pressure fluctuation generation mechanism in the short-elbow were clarified in relation to the large-scale eddy motion.

  8. StreamLab: Full-scale Experiments in River Science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, P.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental studies of river processes can provide control of essential variables and support detailed technical measurements. Practical constraints often drive experiments toward a reduced scale, but essential features of natural systems are difficult or impossible to scale. These include processes involving aquatic organisms and their interactions with their physical surroundings, as well as features such bed forms and channel pattern that arise from interactions among processes operating across a range of spatial scales. A sound understanding of both local mechanisms and broader interactions is needed to develop predictive models in river science. The solution is to conduct experiments at full scale while maintaining experimental control and using instrumentation that can resolve both local and full-scale processes. Important advances in automated measurement technology play a key role in making such an approach feasible, but considerable conceptual, technical, and organizational challenges remain to be addressed. This paper reports on some of these challenges and opportunities based on experience with StreamLab: a program of full-scale experiments on linked physical/chemical/biological processes initiated by The National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics (NCED) and the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). The essential features of StreamLab are an explicit multi-disciplinary focus, experimental control at the field scale, and the use of advanced technology to support detailed observations typical of small-scale lab experiments. StreamLab has three elements: Indoor StreamLab (ISL), Outdoor StreamLab (OSL), and Virtual StreamLab (VSL). ISL is based on a large rectangular laboratory channel and includes smaller facilities that can be used to isolate individual mechanisms. OSL includes two basins in which full-scale channels can develop with natural riparian vegetation and in-stream biota. VSL extends the StreamLab concept to full-scale, turbulence

  9. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  10. Biogas production from cheese whey wastewater: laboratory- and full-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatou, K; Giantsiou, N; Diamantis, V; Alexandridis, C; Alexandridis, A; Aivasidis, A

    2014-01-01

    A two-phase system for biogas production from cheese whey wastewater (CWW) was designed, set up and operated at laboratory and full scale for a whole cheese production season (8-9 months). The high efficiency and stability of the laboratory-scale system was demonstrated under various organic loading rates (OLRs) reaching 13 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) and producing up to 9 L L(-1)d(-1) of biogas (approximately 55% in methane). The COD removal was above 95% and the pH was maintained above 6.3 without any chemical addition. The full-scale system was operated at lower OLRs than its normal capacity, following the good response and high stability in disturbances of the laboratory-scale unit.

  11. Ultrastiff and Strong Graphene Fibers via Full-Scale Synergetic Defect Engineering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Liu, Yingjun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Peng, Li; Sun, Haiyan; Xu, Yang; Ren, Xibiao; Jin, Chuanhong; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Gao, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Kilometer-scale continuous graphene fibers (GFs) with outstanding mechanical properties and excellent electrical conductivity are produced by high-throughput wet-spinning of graphene oxide liquid crystals followed by graphitization through a full-scale synergetic defect-engineering strategy. GFs with superior performances promise wide applications in functional textiles, lightweight motors, microelectronic devices, and so on. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development and Validation of a Photographic Scale for Assessment of Lip Fullness

    PubMed Central

    Werschler, W. Philip; Fagien, Steven; Thomas, Jane; Paradkar-Mitragotri, Deepali; Rotunda, Adam; Beddingfield, Frederick C.

    2015-01-01

    Background As lip augmentation becomes more popular, validated measures of lip fullness for quantification of outcomes are needed. Objective Develop a scale for rating lip fullness and establish its reliability and sensitivity for assessing clinically meaningful differences. Methods The initial Allergan Lip Fullness Scale (iLFS; a four-point photographic scale with verbal descriptions) was validated by eight physicians rating 55 live subjects during two rounds, conducted on one day. In addition, subjects performed self-evaluations. The revised Allergan Lip Fullness Scale (LFS), a five-point scale with a broader range of lip presentations, was validated by 21 clinicians in two online image rating sessions, ≥14 days apart, in which they used the LFS to rate overall, upper, and lower lip fullness of 144 3-dimensional (3D) images. Physician inter- and intra-rater agreement, subject intra-rater agreement (iLFS), and subject-physician agreement (iLFS) were evaluated. Additionally, during online rating session 1, raters ranked 38 pairs of 3D images, taken before and after lip augmentation, as “clinically different” or “not clinically different.” The median LFS score difference for clinically different pairs was calculated to determine the clinically meaningful difference. Results Clinician inter- and intra-rater agreement for the iLFS and LFS was substantial to almost perfect. Subject self-assessments (iLFS) had substantial intra-rater reliability and a high level of agreement with physician assessments. Median LFS score differences for overall, upper, and lower lip fullness were 1 (mean: 0.63-0.69) for “clinically different” and 0 (mean: 0.28-0.36) for “not clinically different” image pairs; thus, clinical significance of a 1-point difference in LFS score was established. Conclusions The LFS is a reliable instrument for physician classification of lip fullness. A 1-point score difference can detect clinically meaningful differences in lip fullness. PMID

  13. Fatigue life on a full scale test rig: Forged versus cast wind turbine rotor shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, J.; Rauert, T.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce uncertainties associated with the fatigue life of the highly safety relevant rotor shaft and also to review today's design practice, the fatigue behaviour will be tested on a full scale test rig. Until now tests on full scale wind turbine parts are not common. Therefore, a general lack of experience on how to perform accelerated life time tests for those components exists. To clarify how to transfer real conditions to the test environment, the arrangements and deviations for the upcoming experimental test are discussed in detail. In order to complete investigations of weight saving potentials, next to getting a better comprehension of the fatigue behaviour by executing a full scale test, a further outcome are suggestions for the usage of cast and forged materials regarding the fatigue and the remaining life of the rotor shaft. It is shown, that it is worthwhile to think about a material exchange for the forged rotor shaft.

  14. Blade Motion Correlation for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romander, Ethan A.; Meyn, Larry A.; Barrows, Danny; Burner, Alpheus

    2014-01-01

    Testing was successfully completed in May 2010 on a full-scale UH-60A rotor system in the USAF's National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel.[1] The primary objective of this NASA Army sponsored test program was to acquire a comprehensive set of validation-quality measurements ona full-scale pressure-instrumented rotor system at conditions that challenge the most sophisticated modeling andsimulation tools. The test hardware included the same rotor blades used during the UH-60A Airloads flight test.[2] Key measurements included rotor performance, blade loads, blade pressures, blade displacements, and rotorwake measurements using large-field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Retro-reflective Background Oriented Schlieren (RBOS).

  15. Full-Scale Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Processes in the Earth's Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    We present a full-scale simulation study of ionospheric turbulence by means of a generalized Zakharov model based on the separation of variables into high-frequency and slow time scales. The model includes realistic length scales of the ionospheric profile and of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields, and uses ionospheric plasma parameters relevant for high-latitude radio facilities such as Eiscat and HAARP. A nested grid numerical method has been developed to resolve the different length-scales, while avoiding severe restrictions on the time step. The simulation demonstrates the parametric decay of the ordinary mode into Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, followed by a Langmuir wave collapse and short-scale caviton formation, as observed in ionospheric heating experiments.

  16. The Generalizability of Verbal IQ as an Estimate of Full Scale IQ on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Mark E.; Doehrman, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of correlations between Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores for 231 high-IQ psychiatric outpatients indicated that Verbal IQ appears partially valid as a WAIS short form for this higher IQ group. Results are interpreted in terms of Resnick and Entin's short form validity criteria. (Editor/SJL)

  17. The Generalizability of Verbal IQ as an Estimate of Full Scale IQ on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Mark E.; Doehrman, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of correlations between Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores for 231 high-IQ psychiatric outpatients indicated that Verbal IQ appears partially valid as a WAIS short form for this higher IQ group. Results are interpreted in terms of Resnick and Entin's short form validity criteria. (Editor/SJL)

  18. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Studies of F/A-18 Tail Buffet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; James, Kevin D.

    1996-01-01

    Tail buffet studies were conducted on a full-scale, production F/A-18 fighter aircraft in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The F/A-18 was tested over an angle-of-attack range of 18-50 deg, and at wind speeds of up to 168 ft/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 12.3x10(exp 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord and a Mach number of 0.15. The port, vertical tail fin was instrumented and the aircraft was equipped with a removable leading-edge extension (LEX) fence. Time-averaged, power-spectral analysis results are presented for the tail fin bending moment derived from the integrated pressure field, for the zero side-slip condition, both with and without the LEX fence. The LEX fence significantly reduces the magnitude of the rms pressures and bending moments. Scaling issues are addressed by comparing full-scale results for pressures at the 60%-span and 45%-chord location with small-scale, F/A-18 tail-buffet data. The comparison shows that the tail buffet frequency scales very well with length and velocity. Root-mean-square pressures and power spectra do not scale as well. The LEX fence is shown to reduce tail buffet loads at all model scales.

  19. Bioaugmentation of cyanide-degrading microorganisms in a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-04-01

    To enhance biological removal efficiency of total cyanides, bioaugmentation was applied to a full-scale cokes wastewaters treatment process. After a laboratorial-scale cultivation (up to 1.2 m(3)) of a cyanide-degrading yeast (Cryptococcus humicolus) and unidentified cyanide-degrading microorganisms, the microbial consortium was inoculated into a fluidized-bed type process (1280 m(3)), and then enriched for two months with a huge supply of glucose, KCN and other nutrients. Target wastewater was effluent of a biological pre-denitrification process for treating cokes wastewater, and contained about 14 mg/L of total cyanides in the form of ferric cyanide. This may be a first or rare report on the full-scale bioaugmentation of specialized-microorganisms. However, continuous operation of the full-scale cyanides-degrading bioprocess showed poor removal efficiency than expected owing to poor settling performance of microbial flocs, slow biodegradation rate of ferric cyanide and lack of organic carbon sources within the wastewater. Therefore, there is a need for further studies on how to solve these operating problems in full-scale bioaugmentation approach.

  20. Propeller propulsion integration, phase 1. [conducted in langley 30 by 60 foot full scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G.; Koenig, K.; Miley, S. J.; Mcwhorter, J.; Wells, G.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography was compiled of all readily available sources of propeller analytical and experimental studies conducted during the 1930 through 1960 period. A propeller test stand was developed for the measurement of thrust and torque characteristics of full scale general aviation propellers and installed in the LaRC 30 x 60 foot full scale wind tunnel. A tunnel entry was made during the January through February 1980 period. Several propellers were tested, but unforseen difficulties with the shaft thrust torque balance severely degraded the data quality.

  1. Lessons learnt from evaluating full-scale ammonium feedback control in three large wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Åmand, L; Laurell, C; Stark-Fujii, K; Thunberg, A; Carlsson, B

    2014-01-01

    Three large wastewater treatment plants in Sweden participate in a project evaluating different types of ammonium feedback controllers in full-scale operation. The goal is to improve process monitoring, maintain effluent water quality and save energy. The paper presents the outcome of the long-term evaluation of controllers. Based on the experiences gained from the full-scale implementations, a discussion is provided about energy assessment for the purpose of comparing control strategies. The most important conclusions are the importance of long-term experiments and the difficulty of comparing energy consumption based on air flow rate measurements.

  2. A review of pilot- and full-scale bioventing system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Results from over 140 pilot- and full-scale bioventing projects are summarized in this paper. In situ respiration results and biodegradation rates are presented for a variety of contaminant and soil conditions. The impact of site specific variables such as soil type, temperature, and natural nutrient and moisture conditions on the bioventing process are discussed. The performance of long-term bioventing systems, including soil sampling results and full-scale costs are also provided. The objective of this paper is to describe both the success and limitations of this innovative, low-cost technology.

  3. Key results for the NRC`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F.

    1995-04-01

    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The USNCRC program at Battelle was initiated in March 1990 and is scheduled to be completed in December 1994. This paper discusses key results from the overall program with particular emphasis on the efforts since the last WRSIM meeting. The program consists of eight technical tasks as listed below: task 1 short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations; task 2 short surface-cracked (SC) pipe evaluations; task 3 bi-metallic weld crack evaluations; task 4 dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities; task 5 fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe; task 6 crack-opening-area evaluations; task 7 NRCPIPE code improvements; task 8 additional efforts. Task 8 is a collection of new efforts initiated during the coarse of the program. A list of the full-scale pipe experiments in this program is given in Table 1. All of the experiments have been completed. The most recent accomplishments in each of the tasks listed above are discussed below. The details of all the results in the eight tasks are published in the semiannual reports as well as topical reports from the program.

  4. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  5. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  6. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  7. Flow Separation Control on A Full-Scale Vertical Tail Model Using Sweeping Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andino, Marlyn Y.; Lin, John C.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Whalen, Edward A.; Graff, Emilio C.; Wygnanski, Israel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes test results of a joint NASA/Boeing research effort to advance Active Flow Control (AFC) technology to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. A full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail model equipped with sweeping jets AFC was tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The flow separation control optimization was performed at 100 knots, a maximum rudder deflection of 30deg, and sideslip angles of 0deg and -7.5deg. Greater than 20% increments in side force were achieved at the two sideslip angles with a 31-actuator AFC configuration. Flow physics and flow separation control associated with the AFC are presented in detail. AFC caused significant increases in suction pressure on the actuator side and associated side force enhancement. The momentum coefficient (C sub mu) is shown to be a useful parameter to use for scaling-up sweeping jet AFC from sub-scale tests to full-scale applications. Reducing the number of actuators at a constant total C(sub mu) of approximately 0.5% and tripling the actuator spacing did not significantly affect the flow separation control effectiveness.

  8. Full-scale high angle-of-attack tests of an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; Lanser, Wendy R.; James, Kevin D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of high angle-of-attack tests of a full-scale F/A-18 in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California. A production aircraft was tested over an angle-of-attack range of 18 to 50 deg and at wind speeds of up to 100 knots. These tests had three primary test objectives. Pneumatic and mechanical forebody flow control devices were tested at full-scale and shown to produce significant yawing moments for lateral control of the aircraft at high angles of attack. Mass flow requirements for the pneumatic system were found to scale with freestream density and speed rather than freestream dynamic pressure. Detailed measurements of the pressures buffeting the vertical tail were made and spatial variations in the buffeting frequency were found. The LEX fence was found to have a significant effect on the frequency distribution on the outboard surface of the vertical fin. In addition to the above measurements, an extensive set of data was acquired for the validation of computational fluid dynamics codes and for comparison with flight test and small-scale wind tunnel test results.

  9. Characterisation of the physical composition and microbial community structure of biofilms within a model full-scale drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Fish, Katherine E; Collins, Richard; Green, Nicola H; Sharpe, Rebecca L; Douterelo, Isabel; Osborn, A Mark; Boxall, Joby B

    2015-01-01

    Within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), microorganisms form multi-species biofilms on internal pipe surfaces. A matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is produced by the attached community and provides structure and stability for the biofilm. If the EPS adhesive strength deteriorates or is overcome by external shear forces, biofilm is mobilised into the water potentially leading to degradation of water quality. However, little is known about the EPS within DWDS biofilms or how this is influenced by community composition or environmental parameters, because of the complications in obtaining biofilm samples and the difficulties in analysing EPS. Additionally, although biofilms may contain various microbial groups, research commonly focuses solely upon bacteria. This research applies an EPS analysis method based upon fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with digital image analysis (DIA), to concurrently characterize cells and EPS (carbohydrates and proteins) within drinking water biofilms from a full-scale DWDS experimental pipe loop facility with representative hydraulic conditions. Application of the EPS analysis method, alongside DNA fingerprinting of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, was demonstrated for biofilms sampled from different positions around the pipeline, after 28 days growth within the DWDS experimental facility. The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component. Additionally, the greatest proportion of EPS was located above that of the cells. Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse. Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important

  10. Characterisation of the Physical Composition and Microbial Community Structure of Biofilms within a Model Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Katherine E.; Collins, Richard; Green, Nicola H.; Sharpe, Rebecca L.; Douterelo, Isabel; Osborn, A. Mark; Boxall, Joby B.

    2015-01-01

    Within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), microorganisms form multi-species biofilms on internal pipe surfaces. A matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is produced by the attached community and provides structure and stability for the biofilm. If the EPS adhesive strength deteriorates or is overcome by external shear forces, biofilm is mobilised into the water potentially leading to degradation of water quality. However, little is known about the EPS within DWDS biofilms or how this is influenced by community composition or environmental parameters, because of the complications in obtaining biofilm samples and the difficulties in analysing EPS. Additionally, although biofilms may contain various microbial groups, research commonly focuses solely upon bacteria. This research applies an EPS analysis method based upon fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with digital image analysis (DIA), to concurrently characterize cells and EPS (carbohydrates and proteins) within drinking water biofilms from a full-scale DWDS experimental pipe loop facility with representative hydraulic conditions. Application of the EPS analysis method, alongside DNA fingerprinting of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, was demonstrated for biofilms sampled from different positions around the pipeline, after 28 days growth within the DWDS experimental facility. The volume of EPS was 4.9 times greater than that of the cells within biofilms, with carbohydrates present as the dominant component. Additionally, the greatest proportion of EPS was located above that of the cells. Fungi and archaea were established as important components of the biofilm community, although bacteria were more diverse. Moreover, biofilms from different positions were similar with respect to community structure and the quantity, composition and three-dimensional distribution of cells and EPS, indicating that active colonisation of the pipe wall is an important

  11. Comparison of scaled model data to full size energy efficient engine test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.; Chamberlin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic tests of a subscale fan and a subscale mixer nozzle were conducted in anechoic chambers over a variety of operating conditions. The subscale fan test was an investigation into the effects of vane/blade ratio and spacing on fan generated noise. A turbulence control structure (TCS) was used to simulate the 'turbulence-free' condition in flight. The subscale mixer nozzle test investigated the acoustic properties of several different forced mixer designs. A tertiary flow was utilized on the mixer model to simulate the forward velocity effects on the jet. The results were scaled up to full size conditions and compared with measured engine data. The comparisons showed good agreement between the component scaled model results and the full scale engine data.

  12. Comparison of scaled model data to full size energy efficient engine test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.; Chamberlin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic tests of a subscale fan and a subscale mixer nozzle were conducted in anechoic chambers over a variety of operating conditions. The subscale fan test was an investigation into the effects of vane/blade ratio and spacing on fan generated noise. A turbulence control structure (TCS) was used to simulate the 'turbulence-free' condition in flight. The subscale mixer nozzle test investigated the acoustic properties of several different forced mixer designs. A tertiary flow was utilized on the mixer model to simulate the forward velocity effects on the jet. The results were scaled up to full size conditions and compared with measured engine data. The comparisons showed good agreement between the component scaled model results and the full scale engine data.

  13. Some aspects of the comparison of model and full-scale tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D W

    1926-01-01

    This paper was delivered before the Royal Aeronautical Society as the 1925 Wilbur Wright Memorial lecture. It treats the subject of scale effect from the standpoint of the engineer rather than the physicist, in that it shows what compromises are necessary to secure satisfactory engineering model test data and how these test data compare with full scale or with theoretical values. The paper consists essentially of three parts: (1) a brief exposition of the theory of dynamic similarity, (2) application of the theory to airplane model tests, illustrated by test data on airfoils from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics variable-density wind tunnel, and (3) application of the theory to propeller testing, illustrated by comparisons of model and full-scale results.

  14. Reducing swine farm ammonia emission with a full-scale manure treatment system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new full-scale treatment system in its second-generation was implemented at a 5000-head finishing swine farm in North Carolina to improve treatment lagoon water quality and reduce ammonia emissions. The system combined high-rate solid-liquid separation with nitrogen and phosphorus removal process...

  15. Fate of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in full-scale water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zamyadi, Arash; Henderson, Rita; Stuetz, Richard; Hofmann, Ron; Ho, Lionel; Newcombe, Gayle

    2015-10-15

    The increasing frequency and intensity of taste and odour (T&O) producing cyanobacteria in water sources is a growing global issue. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are the main cyanobacterial T&O compounds and can cause complaints from consumers at levels as low as 10 ng/L. However, literature concerning the performance of full-scale treatment processes for geosmin and MIB removal is rare. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate the accumulation and breakthrough of geosmin and MIB inside full-scale water treatment plants; 2) verify the potential impact of sludge recycling practice on performance of plants; and, 3) assess the effectiveness of aged GAC for the removal of these compounds. Sampling after full-scale treatment processes and GAC pilot assays were conducted to achieve these goals. Geosmin and MIB monitoring in full-scale plants provided the opportunity to rank the performance of studied treatment processes with filtration and granular activated carbon providing the best barriers for removal of total and extracellular compounds, correspondingly. Geosmin was removed to a greater extent than MIB using GAC. Geosmin and MIB residuals in water post GAC contactors after two years of operation was 20% and 40% of initial concentrations, correspondingly. Biological activity on the GAC surface enhanced the removal of T&O compounds. These observations demonstrated that a multi-barrier treatment approach is required to ensure cyanobacteria and their T&O compounds are effectively removed from drinking water.

  16. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  17. Characterisation of recycled mixed plastic solid wastes: Coupon and full-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, Rohan Muni; Manalo, Allan C; Karunasena, Warna; Lau, Kin-Tak

    2016-02-01

    In Australia, the plastic solid waste (PSW) comprises 16% by weight of municipal solid waste but only about one-fourth are recycled. One of the best options to increase the recycling rate of mixed PSW is to convert them into products suitable for construction. However, a comprehensive understanding on the mechanical behaviour of mixed PSW under different loading conditions is important for their widespread use as a construction material. This study focuses on investigating the mechanical behaviour of recycled mixed PSW containing HDPE, LDPE and PP using coupon and full-scale specimens. From coupon test, the strength values were found to be 14.8, 19.8, 20, 5.6MPa in tension, compression, flexure and shear respectively, while the modulus of elasticity are 0.91, 1.03, 0.72GPa in tension, compression and flexure respectively. The coefficient of variance of the measured properties for coupon and fullscale specimens was less than 10% indicating that consistent material properties can be obtained for mixed PSW. More importantly, the strength properties of mixed PSW are comparable to softwood structural timber. The flexural behaviour of full-scale specimens was also predicted using fibre model analysis and finite element modelling. Comparison showed that using coupon specimen's properties, the flexural behaviour of the full-scale specimens can be predicted reliably which can eliminate the costly and time consuming arrangements for full-scale experimental tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  19. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  20. URANIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER USING A SMALL FULL-SCALE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents background and history of water quality, the basis for design and nine months of actual operating data for a small, full-scale strong-base ion exchange system that is used to remove uranium from a water supply serving a school in Jefferson County, CO. Informa...

  1. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  2. Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods. PMID:22752177

  3. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  4. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  5. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  6. Design and fabrication of the NASA HL-20 full scale research model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, K. Dean; Vess, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale engineering model of the HL-20 Personnel Launch System (PLS) was constructed for systems and human factors evaluation. Construction techniques were developed to enable the vehicle to be constructed with a minimum of time and cost. The design and construction of the vehicle are described.

  7. Microbial survey of a full-scale, biologically active filter for treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed

    White, Colin P; Debry, Ronald W; Lytle, Darren A

    2012-09-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.

  8. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  9. Optimization of a full-scale dewatering operation based on the rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ormeci, Banu

    2007-03-01

    Rheology is the science that deals with the flow and deformation of materials, and it has become an important tool in optimizing sludge dewatering. This study presents torque rheology data to illustrate two different methods for polymer optimization. The methods can be used to optimize the polymer dose and mixing intensity, as well as to select the best performing product among a number of candidate polymers. The first method is used for unconditioned sludges, and utilizes the peaks observed after the polymer injection. The second method is used for conditioned sludges and utilizes the entire torque-time rheograms. Both methods were tested at the lab- and full-scale at the Plum Island Water Reclamation Facility (Charleston, SC) using three different polymers. The methods were able to optimize the polymer dose and full-scale mixing, and reduce the polymer consumption by 50% at the treatment plant. This translates into major savings for the utility. Furthermore, the results indicate that the total shear intensity imparted to sludge during full-scale conditioning can be determined using torque rheology, and the jar-tester shear can be matched to the total shear based on the rheological characteristics of sludge. This information is essential to be able to simulate the full-scale mixing using a jar-tester and to precisely determine the optimum polymer dose. The results of this study indicate that well-defined rheological properties of sludge provide a reliable tool for the optimization of conditioning and dewatering operations at wastewater treatment plants.

  10. ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF FULL-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBERS USING AN INDEPENDENTLY MEASURED EMISSION SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the assessment of the performance of full-scale environmental chambers using an independently measured emission source. To assess the overall performance of an environmental test chamber, it is necessary to subject the chamber to a test with a reference sourc...

  11. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  12. URANIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER USING A SMALL FULL-SCALE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents background and history of water quality, the basis for design and nine months of actual operating data for a small, full-scale strong-base ion exchange system that is used to remove uranium from a water supply serving a school in Jefferson County, CO. Informa...

  13. Analysis of Unbound Aggregate Layer Deformation Behavior from Full Scale Aircraft Gear Loading with Wander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Phillip Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the behavior of unbound aggregates to offset wheel loads. Test data from full-scale aircraft gear loading conducted at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are used to investigate the effects of wander (offset loads) on the deformation behavior of…

  14. Analysis of Unbound Aggregate Layer Deformation Behavior from Full Scale Aircraft Gear Loading with Wander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Phillip Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the behavior of unbound aggregates to offset wheel loads. Test data from full-scale aircraft gear loading conducted at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are used to investigate the effects of wander (offset loads) on the deformation behavior of…

  15. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  16. Anisotropic storage medium development in a full-scale, sodium alanate-based, hydrogen storage system

    DOE PAGES

    Jorgensen, Scott W.; Johnson, Terry A.; Payzant, E. Andrew; ...

    2016-06-11

    Deuterium desorption in an automotive-scale hydrogen storage tube was studied in-situ using neutron diffraction. Gradients in the concentration of the various alanate phases were observed along the length of the tube but no significant radial anisotropy was present. In addition, neutron radiography and computed tomography showed large scale cracks and density fluctuations, confirming the presence of these structures in an undisturbed storage system. These results demonstrate that large scale storage structures are not uniform even after many absorption/desorption cycles and that movement of gaseous hydrogen cannot be properly modeled by a simple porous bed model. In addition, the evidence indicatesmore » that there is slow transformation of species at one end of the tube indicating loss of catalyst functionality. These observations explain the unusually fast movement of hydrogen in a full scale system and shows that loss of capacity is not occurring uniformly in this type of hydrogen-storage system.« less

  17. 5D Data Modelling: Full Integration of 2D/3D Space, Time and Scale Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosterom, Peter; Stoter, Jantien

    This paper proposes an approach for data modelling in five dimensions. Apart from three dimensions for geometrical representation and a fourth dimension for time, we identify scale as fifth dimensional characteristic. Considering scale as an extra dimension of geographic information, fully integrated with the other dimensions, is new. Through a formal definition of geographic data in a conceptual 5D continuum, the data can be handled by one integrated approach assuring consistency across scale and time dimensions. Because the approach is new and challenging, we choose to step-wise studying several combinations of the five dimensions, ultimately resulting in the optimal 5D model. We also propose to apply mathematical theories on multidimensional modelling to well established principles of multidimensional modelling in the geo-information domain. The result is a conceptual full partition of the 3Dspace+time+scale space (i.e. no overlaps, no gaps) realised in a 5D data model implemented in a Database Management System.

  18. Anisotropic storage medium development in a full-scale, sodium alanate-based, hydrogen storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Scott W.; Johnson, Terry A.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Bilheux, Hassina Z.

    2016-06-11

    Deuterium desorption in an automotive-scale hydrogen storage tube was studied in-situ using neutron diffraction. Gradients in the concentration of the various alanate phases were observed along the length of the tube but no significant radial anisotropy was present. In addition, neutron radiography and computed tomography showed large scale cracks and density fluctuations, confirming the presence of these structures in an undisturbed storage system. These results demonstrate that large scale storage structures are not uniform even after many absorption/desorption cycles and that movement of gaseous hydrogen cannot be properly modeled by a simple porous bed model. In addition, the evidence indicates that there is slow transformation of species at one end of the tube indicating loss of catalyst functionality. These observations explain the unusually fast movement of hydrogen in a full scale system and shows that loss of capacity is not occurring uniformly in this type of hydrogen-storage system.

  19. Anisotropic storage medium development in a full-scale, sodium alanate-based, hydrogen storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Scott W.; Johnson, Terry A.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Bilheux, Hassina Z.

    2016-06-11

    Deuterium desorption in an automotive-scale hydrogen storage tube was studied in-situ using neutron diffraction. Gradients in the concentration of the various alanate phases were observed along the length of the tube but no significant radial anisotropy was present. In addition, neutron radiography and computed tomography showed large scale cracks and density fluctuations, confirming the presence of these structures in an undisturbed storage system. These results demonstrate that large scale storage structures are not uniform even after many absorption/desorption cycles and that movement of gaseous hydrogen cannot be properly modeled by a simple porous bed model. In addition, the evidence indicates that there is slow transformation of species at one end of the tube indicating loss of catalyst functionality. These observations explain the unusually fast movement of hydrogen in a full scale system and shows that loss of capacity is not occurring uniformly in this type of hydrogen-storage system.

  20. Icing testing in the large Modane wind-tunnel on full-scale and reduced scale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charpin, F.; Fasso, G.

    1979-01-01

    Icing tests on full scale models of parts of aircraft (wings, tailplanes, radome) equipped with actual de-icing systems were carried out in the large Modane wind tunnel of ONERA. For studying icing on the Concorde, it was necessary to use a 1/6 scale half model. The equations governing the relevant parameter ratios to obtain reasonably good similitude water catching and ice accretion are recalled. Despite the inherent limitations of this particular kind of testing, i.e., the impossibility of duplicating both the Mach and Reynolds conditions for the main flow pattern, it is possible to obtain on a reduced scale model a reasonably good representation of icing cloud catching and of the shape of resulting ice accretion.

  1. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Zlatanović, Lj; van der Hoek, J P; Vreeburg, J H G

    2017-10-15

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and temperature change on drinking water quality in a full-scale DDWS. Two sets of stagnation experiments, during winter and summer months, with various stagnation intervals (up to 168 h of stagnation) were carried out. Water and biofilms were sampled at two different taps, a kitchen and a shower tap. Results from this study indicate that temperature and water stagnation affect both chemical and microbial quality in DDWSs, whereas microbial parameters in stagnant water appear to be driven by the temperature of fresh water. Biofilm formed in the shower pipe contained more total and intact cells than the kitchen pipe biofilm. Alphaproteobacteria were found to dominate in the shower biofilm (78% of all Proteobacteria), while in the kitchen tap biofilm Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were evenly distributed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  3. The HyperV Full-Scale Contoured-Gap Coaxial Plasma Railgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Elton, Raymond; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2009-11-01

    HyperV has been developing pulsed plasma injected coaxial railguns with a contoured gap profile designed to mitigate the blowby instability. Previous work using half-scale guns has been successful in launching 150 μg plasmas at 90 km/s [1]. In order to meet the original goal of 200 μg at 200 km/s the full-scale coaxial plasma gun has been constructed, and initial testing is beginning. This new plasma gun consists of two machined aluminum electrodes and a UHMW polyethylene breech insulator. The gun is breech fed by 64 ablative polyethylene capillary discharge units identical to the half-scale gun units. Maximum accelerator energy storage has also been increased 50%. Refractory coatings may be necessary to allow full current (˜800 kA) operation. The outer electrode includes 24 small diagnostic ports for optical and magnetic probe access to the plasma inside the gun to allow direct measurement of the plasma armature dynamics. Initial test data from the full-scale coax gun will be presented along with plans for future testing. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.[4pt] [1] F. D. Witherspoon, A. Case, S. Messer, R. Bomgardner, M. Phillips, S. Brockington, R. Elton, ``Contoured Gap Coaxial Plasma Gun with Injected Plasma Armature'' Rev. Sci. Instr. submitted (2009)

  4. Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity. An investigation of a 1/6-scale dynamic model has been made to develop and evaluate a technique for conducting full-scale landing-impact tests at simulated lunar gravity. Landings were made at touchdown pitch attitudes of -15 degrees, 0 degrees, and 15 degrees. All landings were made with two gear pads forward and at a roll attitude of 0 degrees. Both roll and yaw attitudes were constrained. Vertical landing speed was varied from 5 to 15 feet per second (1.5 to 4.6 m/s) and horizontal speed was varied from 0 to 10 feet per second (0 to 3.0 m/s). Most of the landings were made at a vertical and horizontal speed of 10 feet per second or 3.0 m/s (45 degree flight-path angle) while pitch attitude and surface characteristics, friction and topography, were varied. These parameters were investigated with the free-body earth-gravity and the simulated lunar-gravity test techniques. The landings were made at a model mass corresponding to a full-scale lunar weight (force due to gravity) of 1,440 pounds (6.41 kN) or an earth weight of 8,640 pounds (38.4 kN). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030977. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  5. Rotorcraft research testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.; Smith, C. A.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) for testing rotorcraft systems are described. The test facilities include the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel, and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility. The Ames 7- by 10-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel is also used in support of the rotor research programs conducted in the NFAC. Detailed descriptions of each of the facilities, with an emphasis on helicopter rotor test capability, are presented. The special purpose rotor test equipment used in conducting helicopter research is reviewed. Test rigs to operate full-scale helicopter main rotors, helicopter tail rotors, and tilting prop-rotors are available, as well as full-scale and small-scale rotor systems for use in various research programs. The test procedures used in conducting rotor experiments are discussed together with representative data obtained from previous test programs. Specific examples are given for rotor performance, loads, acoustics, system interactions, dynamic and aeroelastic stability, and advanced technology and prototype demonstration models.

  6. Acoustic Performance Of New Designs Of Traffic Noise Barriers: Full Scale Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, G. R.; Crombie, D. H.; Hothersall, D. C.

    1994-10-01

    Full scale tests of acoustical performance are reported on a range of promising traffic noise barrier shapes which had previously been identified by mathematical and scale modelling work. The designs chosen for testing were T-shaped, multiple edge barriers and double barriers. A test facility was established at the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) in order to examine effectiveness under full scale conditions. This consisted of a 20 m length of noise barrier with interchangeable barrier panels, a large flat asphalt surface and a transportable speaker system capable of sufficient output to represent typical traffic noise. Screening performance was measured up to 80 m behind the barriers over a flat grassland area and at heights above the ground of 1·5 and 4·5 m. It was concluded that the average increase in acoustic screening of 2 m high T-shaped, multiple edge and double barriers compared with a simple plane reflecting barrier of identical overall height ranged from 1·4 to 3·6dB(A) depending on detailed design. It was suggested that a full scale test of a promising design should be carried out at a suitable highway location in order to validate fully these test results.

  7. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  8. The development of a facility for full-scale testing of airfoil performance in simulated rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John T.; Moore, Cadd T., III; Campbell, Bryan A.; Melson, W. EDWARD., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility has been adapted in order to test the performance of airfoils in a simulated rain environment, at rainfall rates of 2, 10, 30, and 40 inches/hour, and thereby derive the scaling laws associated with simulated rain in wind tunnel testing. A full-scale prototype of the rain-generation system has been constructed and tested for suitable rain intensity, uniformity, effects of crosswinds on uniformity, and drop size range. The results of a wind tunnel test aimed at ascertaining the minimum length of the simulated rain field required to yield an airfoil performance change due to the rain environment are presented.

  9. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Report for Full-Scale Mulch Wall Treatment of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Impacted Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    MW-33S MW-34S MW-31S MW-32S B301-MP5S ND B301- MP6S 1.2 SB9 SB7 SB3 SB5 SB2 HP4 SB1 HP1 A’ A MW-30S MW-27S 4/13/04 FULL-SCALE MULCH WALL Site B... MP6S 1.2 SB9 SB7 SB3 SB5 SB2 HP4 SB1 HP1 A’ A MW-30S MW-27S INSET MAP N Inset Scale (ft) 500 10000 Groundwater Flow 4 in steel gas main 24 in CMP

  11. Recent evaluations of crack-opening-area in circumferentially cracked pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Miura, N.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. The leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of the through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section XI. The objectives of this study were to review, evaluate, and refine current predictive models for performing crack-opening-area analyses of circumferentially cracked pipes. The results from twenty-five full-scale pipe fracture experiments, conducted in the Degraded Piping Program, the International Piping Integrity Research Group Program, and the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program, were used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess quantitatively the accuracy of the predictive models. The evaluation also involved finite element analyses for determining the crack-opening profile often needed to perform leak-rate calculations.

  12. Multiple imputation of multiple multi-item scales when a full imputation model is infeasible.

    PubMed

    Plumpton, Catrin O; Morris, Tim; Hughes, Dyfrig A; White, Ian R

    2016-01-26

    Missing data in a large scale survey presents major challenges. We focus on performing multiple imputation by chained equations when data contain multiple incomplete multi-item scales. Recent authors have proposed imputing such data at the level of the individual item, but this can lead to infeasibly large imputation models. We use data gathered from a large multinational survey, where analysis uses separate logistic regression models in each of nine country-specific data sets. In these data, applying multiple imputation by chained equations to the individual scale items is computationally infeasible. We propose an adaptation of multiple imputation by chained equations which imputes the individual scale items but reduces the number of variables in the imputation models by replacing most scale items with scale summary scores. We evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach and compare it with a complete case analysis. We perform a simulation study to compare the proposed method with alternative approaches: we do this in a simplified setting to allow comparison with the full imputation model. For the case study, the proposed approach reduces the size of the prediction models from 134 predictors to a maximum of 72 and makes multiple imputation by chained equations computationally feasible. Distributions of imputed data are seen to be consistent with observed data. Results from the regression analysis with multiple imputation are similar to, but more precise than, results for complete case analysis; for the same regression models a 39% reduction in the standard error is observed. The simulation shows that our proposed method can perform comparably against the alternatives. By substantially reducing imputation model sizes, our adaptation makes multiple imputation feasible for large scale survey data with multiple multi-item scales. For the data considered, analysis of the multiply imputed data shows greater power and efficiency than complete case analysis. The

  13. Comparison of Spatial Correlation Parameters between Full and Model Scale Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy; Giacomoni, Clothilde

    2016-01-01

    The current vibro-acoustic analysis tools require specific spatial correlation parameters as input to define the liftoff acoustic environment experienced by the launch vehicle. Until recently these parameters have not been very well defined. A comprehensive set of spatial correlation data were obtained during a scale model acoustic test conducted in 2014. From these spatial correlation data, several parameters were calculated: the decay coefficient, the diffuse to propagating ratio, and the angle of incidence. Spatial correlation data were also collected on the EFT-1 flight of the Delta IV vehicle which launched on December 5th, 2014. A comparison of the spatial correlation parameters from full scale and model scale data will be presented.

  14. Metabolic modelling of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge.

    PubMed

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the application of metabolic models incorporating polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) towards describing the biochemical transformations of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For this purpose, it was required to modify previous metabolic models applied to lab-scale systems by incorporating the anaerobic utilisation of the TCA cycle and the aerobic maintenance processes based on sequential utilisation of polyhydroxyalkanoates, followed by glycogen and polyphosphate. The abundance of the PAO and GAO populations quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation served as the initial conditions of each biomass fraction, whereby the models were able to describe accurately the experimental data. The kinetic rates were found to change among the four different WWTPs studied or even in the same plant during different seasons, either suggesting the presence of additional PAO or GAO organisms, or varying microbial activities for the same organisms. Nevertheless, these variations in kinetic rates were largely found to be proportional to the difference in acetate uptake rate, suggesting a viable means of calibrating the metabolic model. The application of the metabolic model to full-scale sludge also revealed that different Accumulibacter clades likely possess different acetate uptake mechanisms, as a correlation was observed between the energetic requirement for acetate transport across the cell membrane with the diversity of Accumulibacter present. Using the model as a predictive tool, it was shown that lower acetate concentrations in the feed as well as longer aerobic retention times favour the dominance of the TCA metabolism over glycolysis, which could explain why the anaerobic TCA pathway seems to be more relevant in full-scale WWTPs than in lab-scale systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Technical Assessment of the National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex Fan Blades Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Dixon, Peter G.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Johns, William E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the principal activities of a technical review team formed to address National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) blade repair problems. In particular, the problem of lack of good adhesive bonding of the composite overwrap to the Hyduliginum wood blade material was studied extensively. Description of action plans and technical elements of the plans are provided. Results of experiments designed to optimize the bonding process and bonding strengths obtained on a full scale blade using a two-step cure process with adhesive primers are presented. Consensus recommendations developed by the review team in conjunction with the NASA Ames Fan Blade Repair Project Team are provided along with lessons learned on this program. Implementation of recommendations resulted in achieving good adhesive bonds between the composite materials and wooden blades, thereby providing assurance that the repaired fan blades will meet or exceed operational life requirements.

  16. UV/chlorine control of drinking water taste and odour at pilot and full-scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Bolton, James R; Andrews, Susan A; Hofmann, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can be used to destroy taste and odour-causing compounds in drinking water. This work investigated both pilot- and full-scale performance of the novel ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine AOP for the destruction of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and caffeine (as a surrogate) in two different surface waters. The efficiency of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.5 and 8.5 was comparable to that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process under parallel conditions, and was superior at pH 6.5. Caffeine was found to be a suitable surrogate for geosmin and MIB, and could be used as a more economical alternative to geosmin or MIB spiking for site-specific full-scale testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RecoPhos: full-scale fertilizer production from sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Harald; Bertau, Martin; Hübner, Wilfried; Bohndick, Fred; Bruckert, Axel

    2013-03-01

    The substitution potential of sewage sludge for German primary phosphate imports has been estimated as 40%. Yet, a marketable option for the full scale recovery has been lacking. This study focuses on a full-scale process for the manufacture of a P-fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA) adapted from the production of Triple Superphosphate. Given (i) conformity of the input with phosphate ores mined from sedimentary deposits, (ii) comparability of the product with a commercially available P-fertilizer regarding contaminant levels, P-fractionation and yield effects, and (iii) compliance of the output with the German Fertilizer Ordinance the RecoPhos P 38 fertilizer was discharged from the waste legislation regime. The fertilizer is currently being produced at a rate of 1000 tonnes per month and sold at a competitive price. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blade Displacement Measurements of the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements were acquired during a wind tunnel test of the full-scale UH-60A Airloads rotor. The test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. Multi-camera photogrammetry was used to measure the blade displacements of the four-bladed rotor. These measurements encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to unique slowed-rotor simulations as high as 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective of these measurements is to provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft computational tools. The methodology, system development, measurement techniques, and preliminary sample blade displacement measurements are presented.

  19. The practical influence of rapid mixing on coagulation in a full-scale water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Allerdings, Demitri; Förster, Gerrit; Vasyukova, Ekaterina; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of rapid mixing on the coagulation efficiency in a full-scale drinking-water treatment plant and discusses the mechanisms involved in the floc-formation process. The results refer to three periods of operation of the waterworks when no mechanical mixing was provided in the tanks for coagulant dosing due to mechanical failure of the rapid mixers. Although a certain deterioration of the subsequent flocculation process was observed, as assessed using the data for suspended solids, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand, the overall water treatment performance was not affected. This suggests an insignificant role for intense rapid mixing in sweep flocculation during full-scale water treatment and reveals the potential to reduce the required energy costs for mechanical mixers.

  20. Comparison of bacterial diversity in full scale anammox bioreactors operated under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Morillo, Jose A; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Abbas, Ben A; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial community structure of full-scale anammox bioreactor is still mainly unknown. It has never been analyzed whether different anammox bioreactor configurations might result in the development of different bacterial community structures among these systems. In this work, the bacterial community structure of six full-scale autotrophic nitrogen removal bioreactors located in The Netherlands and China operating under three different technologies and with different influent wastewater characteristics was studied by the means of pyrotag sequencing evaluation of the bacterial assemblage yielded a great diversity in all systems. The most represented phyla were the Bacteroidetes and the Proteobacteria, followed by the Planctomycetes. 14 OTUs were shared by all bioreactors, but none of them belonged to the Brocadiales order. Statistical analysis at OTU level showed that differences in the microbial communities were high, and that the main driver of the bacterial assemblage composition was different for the distinct phyla identified in the six bioreactors, depending on bioreactor technology or influent wastewater characteristics.

  1. Detection of comammox bacteria in full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactors using tag-454-pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Vahala, Riku

    2016-12-01

    The nitrogen cycle has been expanded with the recent discovery of Nitrospira strains that can conduct complete ammonium oxidation (commamox). Their importance in the nitrogen cycle within engineered ecosystems has not yet been analyzed. In this research, the community structure of the Bacteria domain of six full-scale activated sludge systems and three autotrophic nitrogen removal systems in the Netherlands and China has been investigated through tag-454-pyrosequencing. The phylogenetic analyses conducted in the present study showed that just a few of the Nitrospira sequences found in the bioreactors were comammox. Multivariate redundancy analysis of nitrifying genera showed an outcompetition of Nitrosomonas and non-comammox Nitrospira. Operational data from the bioreactors suggested that comammox could be favored at low temperature, low nitrogen substrate, and high dissolved oxygen. The non-ubiquity and low relative abundance of comammox in full-scale bioreactors suggested that this phylotype is not very relevant in the nitrogen cycle in wastewater treatment plants.

  2. Chemical and toxicological assessment of a full-scale biosolid compost.

    PubMed

    Patureau, Dominique; Delgenes, Nadine; Muller, Mathieu; Dagnino, Sonia; Lhoutellier, Claire; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-12-01

    The impact of a full-scale biosolid composting plant on the fate of a broad range of priority organic pollutants was investigated. Chemical analysis was performed at different steps of the process during two seasons. Simultaneously, the toxicological quality was assessed using estrogen α-, dioxin-, and pregnane X-receptor reporter cell lines. Mass-balance calculation highlighted the removal of easily degradable pollutants during composting. The important variations observed for each compound and for the two seasons might be explained by pollutant-fate dependency on process parameters like temperature. The final compost displayed low pregnane X activity but high estrogenic activity. The dioxin-like activity stayed constant through the process. The chemical and toxicological results highlight the importance of combining both approaches to accurately assess the compost quality. Such compilation of data on full-scale processes may be also very helpful for the environmental risk assessment of new organic waste disposal practices. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  3. Performance Enhancement of a Full-Scale Vertical Tail Model Equipped with Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.; Lacy, Douglas; Lin, John C.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Graff, Emilio; Wygnanski, Israel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes wind tunnel test results from a joint NASA/Boeing research effort to advance active flow control (AFC) technology to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. A full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail model equipped with sweeping jet actuators was tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The model was tested at a nominal airspeed of 100 knots and across rudder deflections and sideslip angles that covered the vertical tail flight envelope. A successful demonstration of AFC-enhanced vertical tail technology was achieved. A 31- actuator configuration significantly increased side force (by greater than 20%) at a maximum rudder deflection of 30deg. The successful demonstration of this application has cleared the way for a flight demonstration on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator in 2015.

  4. Comparison of different oxygen transfer testing procedures in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Krause, S; Cornel, P; Wagner, M

    2003-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment offer the advantage of a complete removal of solids from the effluent. The secondary clarifier is replaced by a membrane filtration and therefore high biomass concentrations (MLSS) in the reactor are possible. The design of the aeration system is vital for an energy efficient operation of any wastewater treatment plant. Hence the exact measurement of oxygen transfer rates (OTR) and alpha-values is important. For MBRs these values reported in literature differ considerably. The OTR can be measured using non-steady state methods or using the off-gas method. The non-steady state methods additionally require the determination of the respiration rate (oxygen uptake rate OUR), which usually is measured in lab scale units. As there are differences of OUR between lab scale and full scale measurements, off-gas tests (which do not require an additional respiration test) were performed in order to compare both methods at high MLSS concentrations. Both methods result in the same average value of OTR. Due to variations in loading and wastewater composition variations of OTR in time can be pointed out using the off-gas method. For the first time a comparison of different oxygen transfer tests in full scale membrane bioreactors is presented.

  5. Facilities and Methods Used in Full-scale Airplane Crash-fire Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Dugald O.

    1952-01-01

    The facilities and the techniques employed in the conduct of full scale airplane crash-fire studies currently being conducted at the NACA Lewis laboratory are discussed herein. This investigation is part of a comprehensive study of the airplane crash-fire problem. The crash configuration chosen, the general physical layout of the crash site, the test methods, the instrumentation, the data-recording systems, and the post-crash examination procedure are described

  6. Static Thrust and Power Characteristics of Six Full-Scale Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Erwin P; Biermann, David

    1940-01-01

    Static thrust and power measurements were made of six full-scale propellers. The propellers were mounted in front of a liquid-cooled-engine nacelle and were tested at 15 different blade angles in the range from -7 1/2 degrees to 35 degrees at 0.75r. The test rig was located outdoors and the tests were made under conditions of approximately zero wind velocity.

  7. Performance and loads data from a hover test of a full-scale XV-15 rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, F. F.; Betzina, M. D.; Signor, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    A hover test of a full-scale XV-15 rotor was conducted at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at Ames Research Center. The primary objective of the test was to obtain accurate measurements of the hover performance of the original, metal-blade XV-15 rotor system. Data were acquired for rotor tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.60 to 0.73. This report presents data on rotor performance, rotor wake downwash velocities, and rotor loads.

  8. Full-Scale Crash Test of a MD-500 Helicopter with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    A new externally deployable energy absorbing system was demonstrated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter. The deployable system is a honeycomb structure and utilizes composite materials in its construction. A set of two Deployable Energy Absorbers (DEAs) were fitted on the MD-500 helicopter for the full-scale crash demonstration. Four anthropomorphic dummy occupants were also used to assess human survivability. A demonstration test was performed at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The test involved impacting the helicopter on a concrete surface with combined forward and vertical velocity components of 40-ft/s and 26-ft/s, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of dynamic finite element simulations. Descriptions of this test as well as other component and full-scale tests leading to the helicopter test are discussed. Acceleration data from the anthropomorphic dummies showed that dynamic loads were successfully attenuated to within non-injurious levels. Moreover, the airframe itself survived the relatively severe impact and was retested to provide baseline data for comparison for cases with and without DEAs.

  9. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation. PMID:24822190

  10. Boeing Smart Rotor Full-scale Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Hagerty, Brandon; Salazar, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames. The SMART rotor system is a five-bladed MD 902 bearingless rotor with active trailing-edge flaps. The flaps are actuated using piezoelectric actuators. Rotor performance, structural loads, and acoustic data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles of attack, thrust, and airspeeds. The primary test objective was to acquire unique validation data for the high-performance computing analyses developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP). Other research objectives included quantifying the ability of the on-blade flaps to achieve vibration reduction, rotor smoothing, and performance improvements. This data set of rotor performance and structural loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies with other full-scale rotor systems and for analytical validation of computer simulation models. The purpose of this final data report is to document a comprehensive, highquality data set that includes only data points where the flap was actively controlled and each of the five flaps behaved in a similar manner.

  11. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  12. Autonomous smart sensor network for full-scale structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Jennifer A.; Mechitov, Kirill A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Agha, Gul A.

    2010-04-01

    The demands of aging infrastructure require effective methods for structural monitoring and maintenance. Wireless smart sensor networks offer the ability to enhance structural health monitoring (SHM) practices through the utilization of onboard computation to achieve distributed data management. Such an approach is scalable to the large number of sensor nodes required for high-fidelity modal analysis and damage detection. While smart sensor technology is not new, the number of full-scale SHM applications has been limited. This slow progress is due, in part, to the complex network management issues that arise when moving from a laboratory setting to a full-scale monitoring implementation. This paper presents flexible network management software that enables continuous and autonomous operation of wireless smart sensor networks for full-scale SHM applications. The software components combine sleep/wake cycling for enhanced power management with threshold detection for triggering network wide tasks, such as synchronized sensing or decentralized modal analysis, during periods of critical structural response.

  13. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 2; Full-Scale Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has sponsored research to evaluate an externally deployable composite honeycomb designed to attenuate loads in the event of a helicopter crash. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), is an expandable Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) honeycomb. The DEA has a flexible hinge that allows the honeycomb to be stowed collapsed until needed during an emergency. Evaluation of the DEA began with material characterization of the Kevlar(Registered TradeMark)-129 fabric/epoxy, and ended with a full-scale crash test of a retrofitted MD-500 helicopter. During each evaluation phase, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). The paper will focus on simulations of two full-scale impact tests involving the DEA, a mass-simulator and a full-scale crash of an instrumented MD-500 helicopter. Isotropic (MAT24) and composite (MAT58) material models, which were assigned to DEA shell elements, were compared. Based on simulations results, the MAT58 model showed better agreement with test.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  15. Flow field prediction in full-scale Carrousel oxidation ditch by using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Jiakuan

    2010-01-01

    In order to optimize the flow field in a full-scale Carrousel oxidation ditch with many sets of disc aerators operating simultaneously, an experimentally validated numerical tool, based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), was proposed. A full-scale, closed-loop bioreactor (Carrousel oxidation ditch) in Ping Dingshan Sewage Treatment Plant in Ping Dingshan City, a medium-sized city in Henan Province of China, was evaluated using CFD. Moving wall model was created to simulate many sets of disc aerators which created fluid motion in the ditch. The simulated results were acceptable compared with the experimental data and the following results were obtained: (1) a new method called moving wall model could simulate the flow field in Carrousel oxidation ditch with many sets of disc aerators operating simultaneously. The whole number of cells of grids decreased significantly, thus the calculation amount decreased, and (2) CFD modeling generally characterized the flow pattern in the full-scale tank. 3D simulation could be a good supplement for improving the hydrodynamic performance in oxidation ditch designs.

  16. Sink characteristics of a full-scale environmental chamber and their impact on material emission testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.S.; Nong, G.; Shaw, C.Y.

    1999-07-01

    In this study, a method was developed and used to measure the adsorption/desorption characteristics (i.e., the so-called sink effect) of a full-scale environmental chamber (5m x 4m x 2.75m high). Unrecovered and reversible sink parameters were measured for five volatile organic compounds (VOCs): ethylbenzene, decane, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, octanol, and dodecane. It was found that for the five compounds tested, the full-scale chamber had noticeable reversible sink effect but negligible unrecovered sink effect. The reversible sink strength increased in the order of ethylbenzene, decane, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, dodecane, and octanol. A first-order reversible sink model appeared to be adequate for describing the adsorption/desorption characteristics of the chamber. It was also found that when the return air was recirculated through heating and cooling coils and HEPA filter, the sink strength increased significantly. The reversible sink effect was more noticeable in testing wet coating materials rather than dry materials. The results of this study would be useful for developing standard test methods and procedures for evaluating the performance of full-scale environmental chambers and for using such chambers to test and investigate VOC emissions from building materials and furnishings.

  17. Aerobic sludge granulation in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m(3) d(-1) for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g(-1), diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h(-1) were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  18. Finite Element Simulation of Three Full-Scale Crash Tests for Cessna 172 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Brian H.; Warren, Jerry E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELT-SAR) project was initiated in 2013 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft were acquired to perform crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Full-scale crash tests were conducted in the summer of 2015 and each test article was subjected to severe, but survivable, impact conditions including a flare-to-stall during emergency landing, and two controlled-flight-into-terrain scenarios. Full-scale finite element analyses were performed using a commercial explicit solver, ABAQUS. The first test simulated impacting a concrete surface represented analytically by a rigid plane. Tests 2 and 3 simulated impacting a dirt surface represented analytically by an Eulerian grid of brick elements using a Mohr-Coulomb material model. The objective of this paper is to summarize the test and analysis results for the three full-scale crash tests. Simulation models of the airframe which correlate well with the tests are needed for future studies of alternate ELT mounting configurations.

  19. Elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of full thickness skin characterised at micro scales.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Michael L; Chen, Xianfeng; Huang, Han; Kendall, Mark A F

    2013-03-01

    The recent emergence of micro-devices for vaccine delivery into upper layers of the skin holds potential for increased immune responses using physical means to target abundant immune cell populations. A challenge in doing this has been a limited understanding of the skin elastic properties at the micro scale (i.e. on the order of a cell diameter; ~10 μm). Here, we quantify skin's elastic properties at a micro-scale by fabricating customised probes of scales from sub- to super-cellular (0.5 μm-20 μm radius). We then probe full thickness skin; first with force-relaxation experiments and subsequently by elastic indentations. We find that skin's viscoelastic response is scale-independent: consistently a ~40% decrease in normalised force over the first second, followed by further 10% reduction over 10 s. Using Prony series and Hertzian contact analyses, we determined the strain-rate independent elastic moduli of the skin. A high scale dependency was found: the smallest probe encountered the highest elastic modulus (~30 MPa), whereas the 20 μm radius probe was lowest (below 1 MPa). We propose that this may be a result of the load distribution in skin facilitated by the hard corneocytes in the outermost skin layers, and softer living cell layers below. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FULL SCALE REGENERABLE HEPA FILTER DESIGN USING SINTERED METAL FILTER ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gil Ramos; Kenneth Rubow; Ronald Sekellick

    2002-11-27

    A Department of Energy funded contract involved the development of porous metal as a HEPA filter, and the subsequent design of a full-scale regenerable HEPA filtration system (RHFS). This RHFS could replace the glass fiber HEPA filters currently being used on the high level waste (HLW) tank ventilation system with a system that would be moisture tolerant, durable, and cleanable in place. The origins of the contract are a 1996 investigation at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) regarding the use of porous metal as a HEPA filter material. This contract was divided into Phases I, IIA and IIB. Phase I of the contract evaluated simple filter cylinders in a simulated High Level Waste (HLW) environment and the ability to clean and regenerate the filter media after fouling. Upon the successful completion of Phase I, Phase IIA was conducted, which included lab scale prototype testing and design of a full-scale system. The work completed under Phase IIA included development of a full-scale system design, development of a filter media meeting the HEPA filtration efficiency that would also be regenerable using prescribed cleaning procedures, and the testing of a single element system prototype at Savannah River. All contract objectives were met. The filter media selected was a nickel material already under development at Mott, which met the HEPA filtration efficiency standard. The Mott nickel media met and exceeded the HEPA requirement, providing 99.99% removal against a requirement of 99.97%. Double open-ended elements of this media were provided to the Savannah River Test Center for HLW simulation testing in the single element prototype filter. These elements performed well and further demonstrated the practicality of a metallic media regenerable HEPA filter system. An evaluation of the manufacturing method on many elements demonstrated the reproducibility to meet the HEPA filtration requirement. The full-scale design of the Mott RHFS incorporated several important

  1. Use of Boundary Layer Transition Detection to Validate Full-Scale Flight Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamner, Marvine; Owens, L. R., Jr.; Wahls, R. A.; Yeh, David

    1999-01-01

    Full-scale flight performance predictions can be made using CFD or a combination of CFD and analytical skin-friction predictions. However, no matter what method is used to obtain full-scale flight performance predictions knowledge of the boundary layer state is critical. The implementation of CFD codes solving the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain these predictions is still a time consuming, expensive process. In addition, to ultimately obtain accurate performance predictions the transition location must be fixed in the CFD model. An example, using the M2.4-7A geometry, of the change in Navier-Stokes solution with changes in transition and in turbulence model will be shown. Oil flow visualization using the M2.4-7A 4.0% scale model in the 14'x22' wind tunnel shows that fixing transition at 10% x/c in the CFD model best captures the flow physics of the wing flow field. A less costly method of obtaining full-scale performance predictions is the use of non-linear Euler codes or linear CFD codes, such as panel methods, combined with analytical skin-friction predictions. Again, knowledge of the boundary layer state is critical to the accurate determination of full-scale flight performance. Boundary layer transition detection has been performed at 0.3 and 0.9 Mach numbers over an extensive Reynolds number range using the 2.2% scale Reference H model in the NTF. A temperature sensitive paint system was used to determine the boundary layer state for these conditions. Data was obtained for three configurations: the baseline, undeflected flaps configuration; the transonic cruise configuration; and, the high-lift configuration. It was determined that at low Reynolds number conditions, in the 8 to 10 million Reynolds number range, the baseline configuration has extensive regions of laminar flow, in fact significantly more than analytical skin-friction methods predict. This configuration is fully turbulent at about 30 million Reynolds number for both 0.3 and 0.9, Mach numbers

  2. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    PubMed

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heat pipe life and processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    The merit of adding water to the reflux charge in chemically and solvent cleaned aluminum/slab wick/ammonia heat pipes was evaluated. The effect of gas in the performance of three heat pipe thermal control systems was found significant in simple heat pipes, less significant in a modified simple heat pipe model with a short wickless pipe section. Use of gas data for the worst and best heat pipes of the matrix in a variable conductance heat pipe model showed a 3 C increase in the source temperature at full on condition after 20 and 246 years, respectively.

  4. Use of an approximate similarity principle for the thermal scaling of a full-scale thrust augmenting ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.; Perusek, Gail P.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1992-01-01

    Full temperature ejector model simulations are expensive, and difficult to implement experimentally. If an approximate similarity principle could be established, properly chosen performance parameters should be similar for both hot and cold flow tests if the initial Mach number and total pressures of the flow field are held constant. Existing ejector data is used to explore the utility of one particular similarity principle; the Munk and Prim similarity principle for isentropic flows. Static performance test data for a full-scale thrust augmenting ejector are analyzed for primary flow temperatures up to 1560 R. At different primary temperatures, exit pressure contours are compared for similarity. A nondimensional flow parameter is then used to eliminate primary nozzle temperature dependence and verify similarity between the hot and cold flow experiments.

  5. Use of an approximate similarity principle for the thermal scaling of a full-scale thrust augmenting ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy; Perusek, Gail P.; Ibrahim, Mounir

    1992-01-01

    Full temperature ejector model simulations are expensive, and difficult to implement experimentally. If an approximate similarity principle could be established, properly chosen performance parameters should be similar for both hot and cold flow tests if the initial Mach number and total pressures of the flow field are held constant. Existing ejector data is used to explore the utility of one particular similarity principle; the Munk and Prim similarity principle for isentropic flows. Static performance test data for a full-scale thrust augmenting ejector are analyzed for primary flow temperatures up to 1560 R. At different primary temperatures, exit pressure contours are compared for similarity. A nondimensional flow paramenter is then used to eliminate primary nozzle temperature dependence and verify similarity between the hot and cold flow experiments.

  6. Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in dedicated full scale waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in full scale waste incinerators is studied by analysing input waste streams and boiler and fly ash of a grate furnace incinerator (GFI) incinerating MSW, of a Fluidised Bed Combustor (FBC) incinerating a mix of 50% sludge, 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 25% automotive shredder residue (ASR) and of a rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) incinerating hazardous waste. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs show that PCB oils Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 late are the major dioxin-like PCB contamination source of sludge, RDF and ASR. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs are clearly different from the fingerprints of the outputs, i.e. boiler and fly ash, indicating that in full scale waste incinerators dioxin-like PCBs in the input waste are destroyed and other dioxin-like PCBs are newly formed in the post combustion zone. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprint of boiler and fly ash of all three incinerators corresponds well to the fly ash fingerprint obtained in lab scale de novo synthesis experiments, indicating that dioxin-like PCBs are mainly formed through this mechanism. The high PCB concentration in the input waste mix of the RKI does not promote the formation of dioxin-like PCBs through precursor condensation.

  7. Non-machinery dialysis that achieves blood purification therapy without using full-scale dialysis machines.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takaya; Onoda, Mistutaka; Matsuura, Tomohiko; Sugimura, Jun; Obara, Wataru; Sato, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mihoko; Chiba, Kenta; Abe, Tomiya

    2017-03-29

    An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury. The non-machinery dialysis potassium removal rate was at the same level as continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 5 L/h after 15 min and continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 3 L/h after 30 min. Non-machinery dialysis required an exclusive dialysate circuit, the frequent need to replace bags, and new dialysate exchanged once every 30 min. However, it can be seen as an effective renal replacement therapy for crush-related acute kidney injury patients, even in locations or facilities not having the full-scale dialysis machines.

  8. LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated LS-DYNA finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test and continuing through post test validation.

  9. Regional synchrony in full-scale activated sludge bioreactors due to deterministic microbial community assembly.

    PubMed

    Griffin, James S; Wells, George F

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal community structure and regionally synchronous population dynamics have been observed in natural microbial ecosystems, but have not been well documented in wastewater treatment bioreactors. Few studies of community dynamics in full-scale activated sludge systems facing similar meteorological conditions have been done to compare the importance of deterministic and neutral community assembly mechanisms. We subjected weekly activated sludge samples from six regional full-scale bioreactors at four wastewater treatment plants obtained over 1 year to Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, resulting in a library of over 17 million sequences. All samples derived from reactors treating primarily municipal wastewater. Despite variation in operational characteristics and location, communities displayed temporal synchrony at the individual operational taxonomic unit (OTU), broad phylogenetic affiliation and community-wide scale. Bioreactor communities were dominated by 134 abundant and highly regionally synchronized OTU populations that accounted for over 50% of the total reads. Non-core OTUs displayed abundance-dependent population synchrony. Alpha diversity varied by reactor, but showed a highly reproducible and synchronous seasonal fluctuation. Community similarity was dominated by seasonal changes, but individual reactors maintained minor stable differences after 1 year. Finally, the impacts of mass migration driven by direct biomass transfers between reactors was investigated, but had no significant effect on community similarity or diversity in the sink community. Our results show that population dynamics in activated sludge bioreactors are consistent with niche-driven assembly guided by seasonal temperature fluctuations.

  10. Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Ulysse J.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation of a 1/6-scale dynamic model has been made to develop and evaluate a technique for conducting full-scale landing-impact tests at simulated lunar gravity. Landings were made at touchdown pitch attitudes of -15 degrees, 0 degrees, and 15 degrees. All landings were made with two gear pads forward and at a roll attitude of 0 degrees. Both roll and yaw attitudes were constrained. Vertical landing speed was varied from 5 to 15 feet per second (1.5 to 4.6 m/s) and horizontal speed was varied from 0 to 10 feet per second (0 to 3.0 m/s). Most of the landings were made at a vertical and horizontal speed of 10 feet per second or 3.0 m/s (45 degree flight-path angle) while pitch attitude and surface characteristics, friction and topography, were varied. These parameters were investigated with the free-body earth-gravity and the simulated lunar-gravity test techniques. The landings were made at a model mass corresponding to a full-scale lunar weight (force due to gravity) of 1,440 pounds (6.41 kN) or an earth weight of 8,640 pounds (38.4 kN).

  11. Magnetic ramp scale at supercritical perpendicular collisionless shocks: Full particle electromagnetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Huang, Can; Yang, Huigen; Hu, Hongqiao; Han, Desheng; Liu, Ying

    2013-09-15

    Supercritical perpendicular collisionless shocks are known to exhibit foot, ramp, and overshoot structures. The shock ramp structure is in a smaller scale in contrast to other microstructures (foot and overshoot) within the shock front. One-dimensional full particle simulations of strictly perpendicular shocks over wide ranges of ion beta β{sub i}, Alfvén Mach number M{sub A}, and ion-to-electron mass ratio m{sub i}/m{sub e} are presented to investigate the impact of plasma parameters on the shock ramp scale. Main results are (1) the ramp scale can be as small as several electron inertial length. (2) The simulations suggest that in a regime below the critical ion beta value, the shock front undergoes a periodic self-reformation and the shock ramp scale is time-varying. At higher ion beta values, the shock front self-reformation is smeared. At still higher ion beta value, the motion of reflected ions is quite diffuse so that they can lead to a quasi-steady shock ramp. Throughout the above three conditions, the shock ramp thickness increases with β{sub i}. (3) The increase (decrease) in Mach number and the decrease (increase) in the beta value have almost equivalent impact on the state (i.e., stationary or nonstationary) of the shock ramp. Both of front and ramp thicknesses are increased with M{sub A}.

  12. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  13. Assessment at full scale of exhaust nozzle to wing size on STOL-OTW acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U.; Grosbeck, D.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of static aero/acoustic data obtained at model scale, the effect of exhaust nozzle size on flyover noise is evaluated at full scale for different STOL-OTW nozzle configurations. Three types of nozzles are evaluated: a circular/deflector nozzle mounted above the wing; a slot/deflector nozzle mounted on the wing; and a slot nozzle mounted on the wing. The nozzle exhaust plane location, measured from the wing leading edge, was varied from 10 to 46 percent of the wing chord (flaps retracted). Flap angles of 20 deg (takeoff) and 60 deg (approach) are included in the study. Initially, perceived noise levels (PNL) are calculated as a function flyover distance at 152m altitude. From these plots, static EPNL values (defined as flyover relative noise levels), are obtained as functions of nozzle size for equal aerodynamic performance (lift and thrust). The acoustic benefits attributable to nozzle size relative to a given wing chord size are assessed.

  14. Full-scale upper-surface-blown flap noise. [for short haul STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise-suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper-surface-blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord-length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 dB quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  15. Full scale visualization of the wing tip vortices generated by a typical agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.; Bridges, P. D.; Brownlee, J. A.; Livingston, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectories of the wing tip vortices of a typical agricultural aircraft were experimentally determined by flight test. A flow visualization method, similar to the vapor screen method used in wind tunnels, was used to obtain trajectory data for a range of flight speeds, airplane configurations, and wing loadings. Detailed measurements of the spanwise surface pressure distribution were made for all test points. Further, a powered 1/8 scale model of the aircraft was designed, built, and used to obtain tip vortex trajectory data under conditions similar to that of the full scale test. The effects of light wind on the vortices were demonstrated, and the interaction of the flap vortex and the tip vortex was clearly shown in photographs and plotted trajectory data.

  16. Full scale visualization of the wing tip vortices generated by a typical agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.; Bridges, P.; Brownlee, J. A.; Liningston, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectories of the wing tip vortices of a typical agricultural aircraft were experimentally determined by flight test. A flow visualization method, similar to the vapor screen method used in wind tunnels, was used to obtain trajectory data for a range of flight speeds, airplane configurations, and wing loadings. Detailed measurements of the spanwise surface pressure distribution were made for all test points. Further, a powered 1/8 scale model of the aircraft was designed, built, and used to obtain tip vortex trajectory data under conditions similar to that of the full-scale test. The effects of light wind on the vortices were demonstrated, and the interaction of the flap vortex and the tip vortex was clearly shown in photographs and plotted trajectory data.

  17. Summary of Full-Scale Blade Displacement Measurements of the UH- 60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Meyn, Larry; Burner, Alpheus W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2016-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry techniques were acquired for a full-scale UH-60A rotor, tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40-Foot by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The measurements, acquired over the full rotor azimuth, encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective was to measure the blade displacements and deformations of the four rotor blades and provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology, system development, and data analysis techniques are presented. Sample results based on the final set of camera calibrations, data reduction procedures and estimated corrections that account for registration errors due to blade elasticity are shown. Differences in blade root pitch, flap and lag between the previously reported results and the current results are small. However, even small changes in estimated root flap and pitch can lead to significant differences in the blade elasticity values.

  18. Full-scale experimental validation of decentralized damage identification using wireless smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Shinae; Sim, Sung-Han; Jo, Hongki; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2012-11-01

    Wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN) facilitate a new paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. Conventionally, SHM systems employing wired sensors and centralized data acquisition have been used to characterize the state of a structure; however, widespread implementation has been limited due to high costs and difficulties in installation. WSSN offer a unique opportunity to overcome such difficulties. Recent developments have realized low-cost, smart sensors with on-board computation and wireless communication capabilities, making deployment of a dense array of sensors on large civil structures both economical and feasible. Wireless smart sensors (WSS) have shown their tremendous potential for SHM in recent full-scale bridge monitoring examples. However, structural damage identification using on-board computation capability in a WSSN, a primary objective of SHM, has yet to reach its full potential. This paper presents full-scale validation of a damage identification strategy using a decentralized network of Imote2 nodes on a historic steel truss bridge. A total of 24 WSS nodes with 144 sensor channels are deployed on the bridge to validate the developed damage identification software. The performance of this decentralized damage identification strategy is demonstrated on the WSSN by comparing its results with those from the traditional centralized approach, as well as visual inspection.

  19. Optimization of Preprocessing and Densification of Sorghum Stover at Full-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Craig C. Conner; Christopher T. Wright

    2011-08-01

    Transportation costs can be a prohibitive step in bringing biomass to a preprocessing location or biofuel refinery. One alternative to transporting biomass in baled or loose format to a preprocessing location, is to utilize a mobile preprocessing system that can be relocated to various locations where biomass is stored, preprocess and densify the biomass, then ship it to the refinery as needed. The Idaho National Laboratory has a full scale 'Process Demonstration Unit' PDU which includes a stage 1 grinder, hammer mill, drier, pellet mill, and cooler with the associated conveyance system components. Testing at bench and pilot scale has been conducted to determine effects of moisture on preprocessing, crop varieties on preprocessing efficiency and product quality. The INLs PDU provides an opportunity to test the conclusions made at the bench and pilot scale on full industrial scale systems. Each component of the PDU is operated from a central operating station where data is collected to determine power consumption rates for each step in the process. The power for each electrical motor in the system is monitored from the control station to monitor for problems and determine optimal conditions for the system performance. The data can then be viewed to observe how changes in biomass input parameters (moisture and crop type for example), mechanical changes (screen size, biomass drying, pellet size, grinding speed, etc.,), or other variations effect the power consumption of the system. Sorgum in four foot round bales was tested in the system using a series of 6 different screen sizes including: 3/16 in., 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., 4 in., and 6 in. The effect on power consumption, product quality, and production rate were measured to determine optimal conditions.

  20. Evidence that full-mouth scaling superior to conventional treatment approaches is unclear.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Mark; Duane, Brett

    2016-03-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, CINHAL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least three months follow-up comparing full-mouth scaling and root planing within 24 hours with adjunctive use of an antiseptic such as chlorhexidine (FMD) or without the use of antiseptic (FMS), compared to conventional quadrant scaling and root planing (control). Methodological guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Two review authors selected the papers and determined eligibility based on the titles and abstracts, and any disagreements were resolved by discussion. Four review authors carried out the data extraction. The characteristics of studies excluded at the full-text stage are described in detail. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess bias in the included studies. Tooth loss and changes in pocket probing depths were the primary outcome measures while attachment level and bleeding on probing were the secondary outcomes. Twelve trials recruiting 389 participants were included. No studies assessed the primary outcome tooth loss. Ten trials compared FMS and control and there was no evidence for benefit of FMS in any of the outcome measures. Six trials were included in the meta-analysis comparing FMD and control, which did not reveal a benefit for FMD over conventional scaling and root planing. Three trials compared FMS and FMD and did not demonstrate a benefit of one over the other. The quality of evidence was assessed as 'low' due to study design limitations and the small number of trials and participants. From the 12 included trials there is no clear evidence that FMS or FMD provide additional benefit compared to conventional scaling and root planing. In practice, the decision to select one approach to non-surgical periodontal therapy over another should include

  1. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  2. Prediction of a Francis turbine prototype full load instability from investigations on the reduced scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alligné, S.; Maruzewski, P.; Dinh, T.; Wang, B.; Fedorov, A.; Iosfin, J.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The growing development of renewable energies combined with the process of privatization, lead to a change of economical energy market strategies. Instantaneous pricings of electricity as a function of demand or predictions, induces profitable peak productions which are mainly covered by hydroelectric power plants. Therefore, operators harness more hydroelectric facilities at full load operating conditions. However, the Francis Turbine features an axi-symmetric rope leaving the runner which may act under certain conditions as an internal energy source leading to instability. Undesired power and pressure fluctuations are induced which may limit the maximum available power output. BC Hydro experiences such constraints in a hydroelectric power plant consisting of four 435 MW Francis Turbine generating units, which is located in Canada's province of British Columbia. Under specific full load operating conditions, one unit experiences power and pressure fluctuations at 0.46 Hz. The aim of the paper is to present a methodology allowing prediction of this prototype's instability frequency from investigations on the reduced scale model. A new hydro acoustic vortex rope model has been developed in SIMSEN software, taking into account the energy dissipation due to the thermodynamic exchange between the gas and the surrounding liquid. A combination of measurements, CFD simulations and computation of eigenmodes of the reduced scale model installed on test rig, allows the accurate calibration of the vortex rope model parameters at the model scale. Then, transposition of parameters to the prototype according to similitude laws is applied and stability analysis of the power plant is performed. The eigenfrequency of 0.39 Hz related to the first eigenmode of the power plant is determined to be unstable. Predicted frequency of the full load power and pressure fluctuations at the unit unstable operating point is found to be in general agreement with the prototype measurements.

  3. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the

  4. Implementation of In-Situ Impedance Techniques on a Full Scale Aero-Engine System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaeta, R. J.; Mendoza, J. M.; Jones, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of acoustic liner impedance for jet engine applications remains a challenge for the designer. Although suitable models have been developed that take account of source amplitude and the local flow environment experienced by the liner, experimental validation of these models has been difficult. This is primarily due to the inability of researchers to faithfully mimic the environment in jet engine nacelles in the laboratory. An in-situ measurement technique, one that can be implemented in an actual engine, is desirable so an accurate impedance can be determined for future modeling and quality control. This paper documents the implementation of such a local acoustic impedance measurement technique that is used under controlled laboratory conditions as well as on full scale turbine engine liner test article. The objective for these series of in-situ measurements is to substantiate treatment design, provide understanding of flow effects on installed liner performance, and provide modeling input for fan noise propagation computations. A series of acoustic liner evaluation tests are performed that includes normal incidence tube, grazing incidence tube, and finally testing on a full scale engine on a static test stand. Lab tests were intended to provide insight and guidance for accurately measuring the impedance of the liner housed in the inlet of a Honeywell Tech7000 turbofan. Results have shown that one can acquire very reasonable liner impedance data for a full scale engine under realistic test conditions. Furthermore, higher fidelity results can be obtained by using a three-microphone coherence technique that can enhance signal-to-noise ratio at high engine power settings. This research has also confirmed the limitations of this particular type of in-situ measurement. This is most evident in the installation of instrumentation and its effect on what is being measured.

  5. The effect of primary sedimentation on full-scale WWTP nutrient removal performance.

    PubMed

    Puig, S; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Flameling, A G; Colprim, J; Meijer, S C F

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, the performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is measured based on influent and/or effluent and waste sludge flows and concentrations. Full-scale WWTP data typically have a high variance which often contains (large) measurement errors. A good process engineering evaluation of the WWTP performance is therefore difficult. This also makes it usually difficult to evaluate effect of process changes in a plant or compare plants to each other. In this paper we used a case study of a full-scale nutrient removing WWTP. The plant normally uses presettled wastewater, as a means to increase the nutrient removal the plant was operated for a period by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow). The effect of raw wastewater addition has been evaluated by different approaches: (i) influent characteristics, (ii) design retrofit, (iii) effluent quality, (iv) removal efficiencies, (v) activated sludge characteristics, (vi) microbial activity tests and FISH analysis and, (vii) performance assessment based on mass balance evaluation. This paper demonstrates that mass balance evaluation approach helps the WWTP engineers to distinguish and quantify between different strategies, where others could not. In the studied case, by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow) directly to the biological reactor did not improve the effluent quality and the nutrient removal efficiency of the WWTP. The increase of the influent C/N and C/P ratios was associated to particulate compounds with low COD/VSS ratio and a high non-biodegradable COD fraction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures.

  7. Recent "Ground Testing" Experiences in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter; Stich, Phil; Sverdrup, Jacobs; George, M. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The large test sections of the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) wind tunnels provide ideal controlled wind environments to test ground-based objects and vehicles. Though this facility was designed and provisioned primarily for aeronautical testing requirements, several experiments have been designed to utilize existing model mount structures to support "non-flying" systems. This presentation will discuss some of the ground-based testing capabilities of the facility and provide examples of groundbased tests conducted in the facility to date. It will also address some future work envisioned and solicit input from the SATA membership on ways to improve the service that NASA makes available to customers.

  8. Particle Density Using Deposition Filters at the Full Scale RDD Experiments.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rodney; Gilhuly, Colleen; Korpach, Ed; Ungar, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    During the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) Field Trials carried out in Suffield, Alberta, Canada, several suites of detection equipment and software models were used to measure and characterize the ground deposition. The FSRDD Field Trials were designed to disperse radioactive lanthanum of known activity to better understand such an event. This paper focuses on one means of measuring both concentration and the particle size distribution of the deposition using electrostatic filters placed around the trial site to collect deposited particles for analysis. The measurements made from ground deposition filters provided a basis to guide modeling and validate results by giving insight on how particles are distributed by a plume.

  9. The selection of materials technologies for full-scale development. [aircraft engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstamm, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Candidate material technologies offering the largest application payoff for the least development costs and the least risk should be selected for full-scale development funding. A cost/benefit methodology is developed to rate candidate material and process opportunities for future aircraft engine applications. A development cost estimate and risk analysis is compared with the economic benefit to establish a ranking of the candidate advanced technologies. Also included are examples of this methodology as applied to high-strength HIP turbine disks, advanced oxide dispersion strengthened burner liners, and ceramic first-stage high-pressure turbine vanes.

  10. Method of Harmonic Balance in Full-Scale-Model Tests of Electrical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, N. I.; Lankin, A. M.; Lankin, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Methods for determining the weber-ampere characteristics of electrical devices, one of which is based on solution of direct problem of harmonic balance and the other on solution of inverse problem of harmonic balance by the method of full-scale-model tests, are suggested. The mathematical model of the device is constructed using the describing function and simplex optimization methods. The presented results of experimental applications of the method show its efficiency. The advantage of the method is the possibility of application for nondestructive inspection of electrical devices in the processes of their production and operation.

  11. Development of a full-scale training simulator for an 800-MW power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, S. K.; Andreev, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Stages of work involving preparation of requirements specification, development, and subsequent implementation of a project for constructing a full-scale training simulator of an 800-MW power unit are considered. The training simulator is constructed using the Kosmotronika-Venets computerized automation system developed by PIK Progress (Moscow). The entire personnel training system, the arrangement of drills, and the concept of structuring the entire personnel education system at the Surgut GRES-2 district power station, a branch of E.ON Rossiya, had to be touched in drawing up the requirements specification for elaborating the training simulator. The article describes how these problems were solved.

  12. Full-scale testing and progressive damage modeling of sandwich composite aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    A comprehensive experimental and computational investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and structural response of large sandwich composite aircraft fuselage panels containing artificial damage in the form of holes and notches. Full-scale tests were conducted where panels were subjected to quasi-static combined pressure, hoop, and axial loading up to failure. The panels were constructed using plain-weave carbon/epoxy prepreg face sheets and a Nomex honeycomb core. Panel deformation and notch tip damage development were monitored during the tests using several techniques, including optical observations, strain gages, digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission (AE), and frequency response (FR). Additional pretest and posttest inspections were performed via thermography, computer-aided tap tests, ultrasound, x-radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The framework to simulate damage progression and to predict residual strength through use of the finite element (FE) method was developed. The DIC provided local and full-field strain fields corresponding to changes in the state-of-damage and identified the strain components driving damage progression. AE was monitored during loading of all panels and data analysis methodologies were developed to enable real-time determination of damage initiation, progression, and severity in large composite structures. The FR technique has been developed, evaluating its potential as a real-time nondestructive inspection technique applicable to large composite structures. Due to the large disparity in scale between the fuselage panels and the artificial damage, a global/local analysis was performed. The global FE models fully represented the specific geometries, composite lay-ups, and loading mechanisms of the full-scale tests. A progressive damage model was implemented in the local FE models, allowing the gradual failure of elements in the vicinity of the artificial damage. A set of modifications

  13. Unsteady aerodynamic load estimates on turning vanes in the national full-scale aerodynamic complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic design loads have been estimated for each of the vane sets in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). These loads include estimates of local loads over one vane section and global loads over an entire vane set. The analytical methods and computer programs used to estimate these loads are discussed. In addition, the important computer input parameters are defined and the rationale used to estimate them is discussed. Finally, numerical values are presented for both the computer input parameters and the calculated design loads for each vane set.

  14. Effects of compressibility on the performance of two full-scale helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul J

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted on the Langley helicopter test tower to determine experimentally the effects of compressibility on the performance and blade pitching moments of two full-scale helicopter rotors. Two sets of rotor blades were tested which differed only in that the blades of one set incorporated -8 degrees of linear twist, whereas the blades of the other set were untwisted. The tests covered a range of tip speeds from 350 to 770 feet per second and a range of pitch angles from 0 degrees to the limit imposed by extreme vibration.

  15. National full-scale aerodynamic complex integrated systems test data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Oscar; Maynard, Everett

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the 80 by 120 foot wind tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Facility (NFAC) is described. How the various satellite data stations are connected to the data acquisition system is shown. As an illustrative example, a strain gage signal is traced from one of the satellite data locations to its final destination in the data system where the signal is processed, observed in real time on various parallel graphic displays, and stored on magnetic disks for postrun data reduction.

  16. The selection of materials technologies for full-scale development. [aircraft engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstamm, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Candidate material technologies offering the largest application payoff for the least development costs and the least risk should be selected for full-scale development funding. A cost/benefit methodology is developed to rate candidate material and process opportunities for future aircraft engine applications. A development cost estimate and risk analysis is compared with the economic benefit to establish a ranking of the candidate advanced technologies. Also included are examples of this methodology as applied to high-strength HIP turbine disks, advanced oxide dispersion strengthened burner liners, and ceramic first-stage high-pressure turbine vanes.

  17. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  19. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  20. Finding the ideal strategy: Full-scale fatigue testing of wind turbine rotor shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, T.; Herrmann, J.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.

    2016-09-01

    For the purpose of a light weight design of rotor shafts, fatigue testing is necessary. Since full-scale fatigue tests of these large components are time consuming, costly and have not been done before, much effort has to be put into the implementation of a suitable test strategy. The paper presents the boundary conditions that have to be considered to determine the finite life regime of the component S/N-curve. A statistical simulation shows how much the derived S/N-curve is influenced by the specific test procedure.

  1. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Full-Scale UH-60 Rotor System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Patrick M. Shinoda Army/NASA Rotorcraft Division US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMCOM) pshinoda@mail.arc.nasa.gov Cahit Kitaplioglu, Stephen A...Dr. Robert McKenzie and Mike Reinath, without whom the PDV flow-field measurements would not have been possible. Finally, we are grateful to NASA’s...Haber, A., deSimone, G, Norman, T.R., Kitaplioglu, C., Shinoda , P., �Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Test of an Individual Blade Control System for a UH-60

  2. Characterization of the Boundary Layers on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Although the typical swimming speeds of bluefin tuna are 1 – 2 m/s, they can be higher during strong accelerations. The goal of the work...speeds. The question is whether laminar flow or an advanced propulsion mechanism (or both) allows them to swim at high speeds. A full-scale model...and drag reduction on the body. The typical swimming speed of bluefin tuna is 1 – 2 m/s, but it can be higher during strong accelerations. The

  3. Recent "Ground Testing" Experiences in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter; Stich, Phil; Sverdrup, Jacobs; George, M. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The large test sections of the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) wind tunnels provide ideal controlled wind environments to test ground-based objects and vehicles. Though this facility was designed and provisioned primarily for aeronautical testing requirements, several experiments have been designed to utilize existing model mount structures to support "non-flying" systems. This presentation will discuss some of the ground-based testing capabilities of the facility and provide examples of groundbased tests conducted in the facility to date. It will also address some future work envisioned and solicit input from the SATA membership on ways to improve the service that NASA makes available to customers.

  4. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  5. Full-Scale Tests of Metal Propellers at High Tip Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1932-01-01

    This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.

  6. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREW POSE IN FRONT OF FULL- SCALE MOCKUP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    American and Soviet crewmen for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project visited KSC today as part of a familiarization tour for the Soviet cosmonauts. During their tour, they inspected a full- scale mockup of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft in a docked configuration in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building. From left are Astronauts Vance Brand and Thomas P. Stafford, Cosmonauts Aleksey Leonov and Valeriy Kubasov, and Astronaut Donald K. Slayton. Launch of history's first international manned space mission is scheduled for July 15, 1975.

  7. Heat pipes for wing leading edges of hypersonic vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boman, B.L.; Citrin, K.M.; Garner, E.C.; Stone, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Wing leading edge heat pipes were conceptually designed for three types of vehicle: an entry research vehicle, aero-space plane, and advanced shuttle. A full scale, internally instrumented sodium/Hastelloy X heat pipe was successfully designed and fabricated for the advanced shuttle application. The 69.4 inch long heat pipe reduces peak leading edge temperatures from 3500 F to 1800 F. It is internally instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers to measure sodium vapor qualities. Large thermal gradients and consequently large thermal stresses, which have the potential of limiting heat pipe life, were predicted to occur during startup. A test stand and test plan were developed for subsequent testing of this heat pipe. Heat pipe manufacturing technology was advanced during this program, including the development of an innovative technique for wick installation.

  8. Full-scale high-speed ``Edgerton'' retroreflective shadowgraphy of gunshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary

    2005-11-01

    Almost 1/2 century ago, H. E. ``Doc'' Edgerton demonstrated a simple and elegant direct-shadowgraph technique for imaging large-scale events like explosions and gunshots. Only a retroreflective screen, flashlamp illumination, and an ordinary view camera were required. Retroreflective shadowgraphy has seen occasional use since then, but its unique combination of large scale, simplicity and portability has barely been tapped. It functions well in environments hostile to most optical diagnostics, such as full-scale outdoor daylight ballistics and explosives testing. Here, shadowgrams cast upon a 2.4 m square retroreflective screen are imaged by a Photron Fastcam APX-RS digital camera that is capable of megapixel image resolution at 3000 frames/sec up to 250,000 frames/sec at lower resolution. Microsecond frame exposures are used to examine the external ballistics of several firearms, including a high-powered rifle, an AK-47 submachine gun, and several pistols and revolvers. Muzzle blast phenomena and the mechanism of gunpowder residue deposition on the shooter's hands are clearly visualized. In particular, observing the firing of a pistol with and without a silencer (suppressor) suggests that some of the muzzle blast energy is converted by the silencer into supersonic jet noise.

  9. Full scale strain monitoring of a suspension bridge using high performance distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; He, Shaoyang; Li, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigated field monitoring of a 1108 m suspension bridge during an assessment load test, using integrated distributed fibre-optic sensors (DFOSs). In addition to the conventional Brillouin time domain analysis system, a high spatial resolution Brillouin system using the differential pulse-width pair (DPP) technique was adopted. Temperature compensation was achieved using a Raman distributed temperature sensing system. This is the first full scale field application of DFOSs using the Brillouin time domain analysis technique in a thousand-meter-scale suspension bridge. Measured strain distributions along the whole length of the bridge were presented. The interaction between the main cables and the steel-box-girder was highlighted. The Brillouin fibre-optic monitoring systems exhibited great facility for the purposes of long distance distributed strain monitoring, with up to 0.05 m spatial resolution, and 0.01 m/point sampling interval. The performance of the Brillouin system using DPP technique was discussed. The measured data was also employed for assessing bridge design and for the assessment of structural condition. The results show that the symmetrical design assumptions were consistent with the actual bridge, and that the strain values along the whole bridge were within the safety range. This trial field study serves as an example, demonstrating the feasibility of highly dense strain and temperature measurement for large scale civil infrastructures using integrated DFOSs.

  10. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  11. multi-scale approaches for full waveform difference inversion and tomographic model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Simons, F. J.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Tomographic Earth models are solutions to mixed-determined inverse problems, which are formulated to minimize some measure of difference between synthetics and observed data. Typically, the measurement takes the form of a cross-correlation travel-time difference, or it might be the norm of the difference between the entire waveforms, in which case every wiggle is being used to extract information from the data. Full-waveform difference tomography suffers from a slow convergence rate and a danger of converging to local minima. In this presentation, we explore several routes to improving full-waveform inversion strategies for global and regional seismic tomography. First, we will discuss a wavelet-based multi-scale approach that works progressively from low to higher scales, step-by-step involving more details of the waveform. Second, we will discuss a hybrid misfit strategy that combines cross-correlation traveltime and waveform-difference measurements. We will discuss the making of multiscale sensitivity kernels using wavelet decompositions of the seismogram. Lastly, we move to the model space to conduct a multi-scale analysis of global tomographic models using a class of 3-D spherical wavelet bases that are implemented on the ``cubed ball'', the 3-D extension of the ``cubed sphere''. Using this novel transform we study the sparsity of global seismic tomographic models via thresholded reconstruction, and characterize the relative importance and patterns of features in the Earth models via individual and cumulative reconstructions of their wavelet coefficients. Whether on the side of the data, the sensitivity kernels, or in the model space, tomographic inverse problems have much to gain from the flexibility of the wavelet decomposition in one, two and three dimensions, and this on a global, regional or exploration scale, as we show by example. Full waveform difference inversion. The first figure shows our target model with two anomalous regions. The red stars

  12. Full-scale control of Mycolata foam by FEX-120 addition.

    PubMed

    Kragelund, C; Nilsson, B; Eskilsson, K; Bøgh, A M; Nielsen, P H

    2010-01-01

    Foaming incidents in activated sludge treatment plants are a worldwide problem and occur on a regular basis in both municipal and industrial activated sludge treatment plants. Foaming is most often caused by excessive growth of filamentous bacteria, especially the gram-positive ones affiliated within the Actinobacteria, e.g. the branched Mycolata or Candidatus Microthrix parvicella. Previous studies have shown that populations of Microthrix can be controlled by addition of certain polyaluminium compounds, but until now no effective chemicals have been identified to control other important foam formers such as the Mycolata. A new chemical (FilamentEx, FEX-120) was tested in full-scale in a Swedish wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with immense foaming problems. In total, three different dosing events were carried out for more than 1 year. After only 8-17 weeks in each period, all foam had disappeared, and dosing of FEX-120 was stopped. Another 11 full-scale WWTPs in different countries were treated with FEX-120 because of severe Mycolata foaming on process tanks. In nine out of 11 plants, where the causative organisms were Gordonia or Skermania, a significant reduction of foam up to 100% was observed after treatment for approx. 10 weeks. In two WWTPs with unknown Mycolata organisms, no reduction was observed.

  13. Telemetry system for evaluation of burn protection in full-scale fuel fire manikin exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piergallini, J. R.; Stoll, A. M.

    1980-05-01

    An eighteen channel PAM/FM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated/Frequency Modulated) telemetry system was developed for measuring temperature rise on the surface of a manikin beneath protective clothing for full-scale fuel fire exposures in completely enveloping flames. Thermistors are used as temperature sensors at various locations on a manikin surface and backed by material of known thermal properties in order to correlate temperature rise with skin burn damage. The transmitted signals are recorded on analog magnetic tape and converted to a digital format for computer analysis. The clothed manikin is passed through an aviation gasoline fire for three seconds with the telemetry system recording data during this period. Temperatures are analyzed at 0, 1, 2 and 3-second intervals with voltage outputs from the thermistors being converted to resistance readings and temperature readings by equations developed from curves of thermistor characteristics. Experimental results with respect to burn prediction are in agreement with data obtained by analysis of vesicant papers calibrated radiometrically to correlate with temperature-time effects productive of burns in living tissue. To date, 12 full-scale fuel fire tests have been conducted using the telemetry system and the performance of this system has exceeded original expectations in many respects such as sensitivity, accuracy and freedom from interference by ionizing gases within the flames.

  14. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-05-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  15. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

  16. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B H

    2016-05-19

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  17. Optimization of a full-scale Unitank wastewater treatment plant for biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Xing, Can; Wu, Zhichao; Tong, Fei; Wang, Junru

    2014-01-01

    The Unitank process combines the advantages of traditional continuous-flow activated sludge processes and sequencing batch reactors, and has been extensively employed in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) of a full-scale Unitank WWTP was optimized by increasing anaerobic time from 80 to 120 min in an operation cycle of 360 min and reducing solid retention time (SRT) from 21.3 to 13.1 d. The BPR efficiency of the full-scale Unitank system increased from 63.8% (SRT of 21.3 d) to 83.2% for a SRT of 13.1 d. When the anaerobic time increased from 80 to 120 min, the net anaerobic phosphorus release amount increased from 0.25 to 1.06 mg L(-1), and sludge phosphorus content rose from 13.8 to 15.0 mgP x (gSS)(-1). During half an operation cycle, the average specific phosphorus release rate increased from 0.097mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 0-40 min to 0.825 mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 40-60 min. Reducing SRT and increasing anaerobic time account for 84.6% and 15.4% in the total increment of phosphorus removal of 1.15 mgL(-1).

  18. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions. PMID:27193869

  19. Metabolic versatility in full-scale wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2013-12-01

    This study analysed the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microbial community and metabolic performance of five full-scale EBPR systems by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation combined with off-line batch tests fed with acetate under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in all systems were stable and showed little variability between each plant, while glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were present in two of the plants. The metabolic activity of each sludge showed the frequent involvement of the anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in PAO metabolism for the anaerobic generation of reducing equivalents, in addition to the more frequently reported glycolysis pathway. Metabolic variability in the use of the two pathways was also observed, between different systems and in the same system over time. The metabolic dynamics was linked to the availability of glycogen, where a higher utilisation of the glycolysis pathway was observed in the two systems employing side-stream hydrolysis, and the TCA cycle was more active in the A(2)O systems. Full-scale plants that showed higher glycolysis activity also exhibited superior P removal performance, suggesting that promotion of the glycolysis pathway over the TCA cycle could be beneficial towards the optimisation of EBPR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Full-scale monitoring system for structural prestress loss based on distributed brillouin sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunguang, Lan; Liguang, Zhou; Zhiyu, Huo

    2017-08-01

    Prestress loss is critical to impact the safety of prestressed structures. Unfortunately, up to date, there are no qualified techniques to handle this issue due to the fact that it is too hard for sensors to survive the harsh construction environments and the time-dependent service life of the large-span prestressed structures. This paper proposes a novel technique to monitor prestress loss in prestressed beams using Brillouin optical fiber sensors. A novel smart steel strand based on the sensing technique of full-scale Brillouin optical fiber sensors was introduced. Two kinds of prestressed structure were used to verify the concept of monitoring prestress loss using smart steel strands. The prestress loss data have been taken by Brillouin optical fiber sensors. And the monitoring results agree well with those from the conventional sensors. The monitoring data can reveal both the full-scale distribution and the time history of prestress loss during the construction stage and also in-service phrase.

  1. An assessment of the checkpoint bioassay concept for full scale wastewater UV reactor validation.

    PubMed

    Maka, P P; Lawryshyn, Y A

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to help policy makers and manufacturers understand the impact of parameter uncertainties on UV reactor performance, a numerical bioassay model was developed by integrating a UV reactor model based on computational fluid dynamics with a Monte Carlo model developed to account for parameter uncertainty. For the model implemented, it was determined that reactor performance uncertainty was less than 6%. The integrated model was used to evaluate several checkpoint bioassay criteria including one currently used by the California Department of Public Health. The model showed that these criteria failed to take into account the fact that in an ideal case, a full scale reactor will pass a single checkpoint test 50% of the time. In reality, differences in equipment measurement errors between the system validation and checkpoint bioassay, and limitations of the power law form of the dose monitoring equation in accurately representing system validation data will result in poorer than expected performance. It was suggested that such checkpoint criteria be modified by crediting the inherent over-sizing of full scale reactors.

  2. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds

    PubMed Central

    Hong, A. J.; Li, L.; He, R.; Gong, J. J.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J. -M.; Ren, Z. F.

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half-Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley’s deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens’ equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Ti-doped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. The present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials. PMID:26947395

  3. Simulating the Impact Response of Three Full-Scale Crash Tests of Cessna 172 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2017-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, a series of three full-scale crash tests were performed at the Landing and Impact Research Facility located at NASA Langley Research Center of Cessna 172 aircraft. The first test (Test 1) represented a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface. The second test (Test 2) represented a controlled-flight- into-terrain (CFIT) with a nose down pitch attitude of the aircraft, which impacted onto soft soil. The third test (Test 3) also represented a CFIT with a nose up pitch attitude of the aircraft, which resulted in a tail strike condition. Test 3 was also conducted onto soft soil. These crash tests were performed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Emergency Locator Transmitters and to generate impact test data for model calibration. Finite element models were generated and impact analyses were conducted to simulate the three impact conditions using the commercial nonlinear, transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA®. The objective of this paper is to summarize test-analysis results for the three full-scale crash tests.

  4. Comparison of WAIS-III short forms for measuring index and full-scale scores.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Wilkins, Leanne K

    2010-09-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest short form (SF8) were evaluated. All three SFs proved adequate for estimating verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and full-scale intelligence within considerably less time relative to an SF11 that provides full measurement of WAIS index scores. The SF7-A provided the best combination overall in terms of psychometric performance and estimated time savings. However, SF8 best represents all four factors and allows measurement of processing speed. The SF7-C was most hampered by inclusion of the Block Design subtest in the current assessment, but may prove advantageous in future extensions to the WAIS-IV.

  5. Considerations on the design and financial feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal applications.

    PubMed

    Brepols, Ch; Schäfer, H; Engelhardt, N

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practical experience in design and operation of three full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment that were commissioned since 1999, an overview on the different design concepts that were applied to the three MBR plants is given. The investment costs and the energy consumption of the MBRs and conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants (with and without tertiary treatment) in the Erft river region are compared. It is found that the specific investment costs of the MBR plants are lower than those of comparable CAS with tertiary treatment. A comparison of the specific energy demand of MBRs and conventional WWTPs is given. The structure of the MBRs actual operational costs is analysed. It can be seen that energy consumption is only responsible for one quarter to one third of all operational expenses. Based on a rough design and empirical cost data, a cost comparison of a full-scale MBR and a CAS is carried out. In this example the CAS employs a sand filtration and a disinfection in order to achieve comparable effluent quality. The influence of membrane lifetime on life cycle cost is assessed.

  6. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, A. J.; Li, L.; He, R.; ...

    2016-03-07

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half- Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k codemore » and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley’s deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens’ equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Tidoped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. Lastly, the present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.« less

  7. Full-scale tests of wind effects on a long span roof structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiyang; Zheng, Qingxing; Wu, Jiurong; Xu, An

    2015-06-01

    Full-scale measurements are regarded as the most reliable method to evaluate wind effects on large buildings and structures. Some selected results are presented in this paper from the full-scale measurement of wind effects on a long-span steel roof structure during the passage of Typhoon Fanapi. Some field data, including wind speed and direction, acceleration responses, etc., were continuously and simultaneously recorded during the passage of the typhoon. Comprehensive analysis of the measured data is conducted to evaluate the typhoon-generated wind characteristics and its effects on a long-span steel roof. The first four natural frequencies and their vibration mode shapes of the Guangzhou International Sports Arena (GISA) roof are evaluated by the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method and comparisons with those from finite element (FE) analysis are made. Meanwhile, damping ratios of the roof are also identified by the SSI method and compared with those identified by the random decrement method; the amplitude-dependent damping behaviors are also discussed. The fullscale measurement results are further compared with the corresponding wind tunnel test results to evaluate its reliability. The results obtained from this study are valuable for academic and professional engineers involved in the design of large-span roof structures.

  8. Mixing characterisation of full-scale membrane bioreactors: CFD modelling with experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Brannock, M; Wang, Y; Leslie, G

    2010-05-01

    Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) have been successfully used in aerobic biological wastewater treatment to solve the perennial problem of effective solids-liquid separation. The optimisation of MBRs requires knowledge of the membrane fouling, biokinetics and mixing. However, research has mainly concentrated on the fouling and biokinetics (Ng and Kim, 2007). Current methods of design for a desired flow regime within MBRs are largely based on assumptions (e.g. complete mixing of tanks) and empirical techniques (e.g. specific mixing energy). However, it is difficult to predict how sludge rheology and vessel design in full-scale installations affects hydrodynamics, hence overall performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a method for prediction of how vessel features and mixing energy usage affect the hydrodynamics. In this study, a CFD model was developed which accounts for aeration, sludge rheology and geometry (i.e. bioreactor and membrane module). This MBR CFD model was then applied to two full-scale MBRs and was successfully validated against experimental results. The effect of sludge settling and rheology was found to have a minimal impact on the bulk mixing (i.e. the residence time distribution).

  9. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, A. J.; Li, L.; He, R.; Gong, J. J.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J. -M.; Ren, Z. F.

    2016-03-07

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half- Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley’s deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens’ equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Tidoped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. Lastly, the present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.

  10. Novel cost effective full scale mussel shell bioreactors for metal removal and acid neutralization.

    PubMed

    DiLoreto, Z A; Weber, P A; Olds, W; Pope, J; Trumm, D; Chaganti, S R; Heath, D D; Weisener, C G

    2016-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted waters are a worldwide concern for the mining industry and countries dealing with this issue; both active and passive technologies are employed for the treatment of such waters. Mussel shell bioreactors (MSB) represent a passive technology that utilizes waste from the shellfish industry as a novel substrate. The aim of this study is to provide insight into the biogeochemical dynamics of a novel full scale MSB for AMD treatment. A combination of water quality data, targeted geochemical extractions, and metagenomic analyses were used to evaluate MSB performance. The MSB raised the effluent pH from 3.4 to 8.3 while removing up to ∼99% of the dissolved Al, and Fe and >90% Ni, Tl, and Zn. A geochemical gradient was observed progressing from oxidized to reduced conditions with depth. The redox conditions helped define the microbial consortium that consists of a specialized niche of organisms that influence elemental cycling (i.e. complex Fe and S cycling). MSB technology represents an economic and effective means of full scale, passive AMD treatment that is an attractive alternative for developing economies due to its low cost and ease of implementation.

  11. Tests of NACA 0009, 0012, and 0018 Airfoils in the Full-Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J; Bullivant, W Kenneth

    1939-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0009, 0012, and 0018 airfoils, with the ultimate purpose of providing data to be used as a basis for comparison with other wind-tunnel data, mainly in the study of scale and turbulence effects. Three symmetrical 6 by 36-foot rectangular airfoils were used. The Reynolds number range for minimum drag was form 1,800,000 to 7,000,000 and for maximum lift, from 1,700,000 to 4,500,000. The effect of rounded tips was determined for each of the airfoils. Tests were also made of the NACA 0012 airfoil equipped with a 0.20c full-span split flap hinged at 0.80c. Tuft surveys were included to show the progressive breakdown of flow near maximum lift. Momentum surveys were made in conjunction with force measurements at zero lift as an aid in converting force-test data to section coefficients.

  12. Application of full-scale fire tests to characterize and improve the aircraft postcrash fire environment.

    PubMed

    Sarkos, C P

    1996-12-31

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has conducted numerous full-scale fire tests for the purpose of characterizing the postcrash cabin fire environment and developing improved fire test criteria for cabin materials. The tests consistently demonstrated the importance of cabin flashover on occupant survivability. Flashover is basically a sudden, very rapid spread of fire, generating large quantities of heat, smoke, and toxic gases that quickly fill the cabin. Before flashover, the cabin environment is largely survivable; after flashover, occupant survival becomes highly unlikely. Thermal incapacitation is more important near the fire origin and at higher elevations, whereas toxic gas incapacitation is predominant away from the fire origin and at lower elevations. The FAA has developed and adopted improved fire test methods for seat cushions (fire blocking layers) and interior panels (low heat release). In both cases, the fire test methods are consistent with full-scale test results and serve to improve occupant survivability by delaying the onset of flashover, thereby providing substantially greater available time for occupant evacuation.

  13. Blade Displacement Measurement Technique Applied to a Full-Scale Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.; Romander, Ethan A.; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2012-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry were acquired during the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The objectives were to measure the blade displacement and deformation of the four rotor blades as they rotated through the entire rotor azimuth. These measurements are expected to provide a unique dataset to aid in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. They are used to resolve the blade shape and position, including pitch, flap, lag and elastic deformation. Photogrammetric data encompass advance ratios from 0.15 to slowed rotor simulations of 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology and system development, descriptions of image processing, uncertainty considerations, preliminary results covering static and moderate advance ratio test conditions and future considerations are presented. Comparisons of experimental and computational results for a moderate advance ratio forward flight condition show good trend agreements, but also indicate significant mean discrepancies in lag and elastic twist. Blade displacement pitch measurements agree well with both the wind tunnel commanded and measured values.

  14. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds.

    PubMed

    Hong, A J; Li, L; He, R; Gong, J J; Yan, Z B; Wang, K F; Liu, J-M; Ren, Z F

    2016-03-07

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half-Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley's deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens' equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Ti-doped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. The present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.

  15. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, A. J.; Li, L.; He, R.; Gong, J. J.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J.-M.; Ren, Z. F.

    2016-03-01

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half-Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley’s deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens’ equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Ti-doped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. The present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.

  16. Full-scale testing of an Ogee tip rotor. [in the Langley whirl tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Campbell, R. L.; Shidler, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    Full scale tests were utilized to investigate the effect of the ogee tip on helicopter rotor acoustics, performance, and loads. Two facilities were used: the Langley whirl tower and a UH-1H helicopter. The text matrix for hover on the whirl tower involved thrust values from 0 to 44 480 N (10,000 lb) at several tip Mach numbers for both standard and Ogee rotors. The full scale testing on the UH-1H encompassed the major portion of the flight envelope for that aircraft. Both near field acoustic measurements and far field flyover data were obtained for both the ogee and standard rotors. Data analysis of the whirl tower test shows that the ogee tip does significantly diffuse the tip vortex while providing some improvement in hover performance at low and moderate thrust coefficients. Flight testing of both rotors indicates that the strong impulsive noise signature of the standard rotor can be reduced with the ogee rotor. Analysis of the spectra indicates a reduction in energy in the 250 Hz and 1000 Hz range for the ogee rotor. Forward flight performance was significantly improved with the ogee configuration for a large number of flight conditions. Further, rotor control loads were reduced through use of this advanced tip rotor.

  17. Modelling a full scale membrane bioreactor using Activated Sludge Model No.1: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Delrue, F; Choubert, J M; Stricker, A E; Spérandio, M; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Racault, Y

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale membrane bioreactor (1,600 m(3) d(-1)) was monitored for modelling purposes during the summer of 2006. A complete calibration of the ASM1 model is presented, in which the key points were the wastewater characterisation, the oxygen transfer and the biomass kinetics. Total BOD tests were not able to correctly estimate the biodegradable fraction of the wastewater. Therefore the wastewater fractionation was identified by adjusting the simulated sludge production rate to the measured value. MLVSS and MLSS were accurately predicted during both calibration and validation periods (20 and 30 days). Because the membranes were immerged in the aeration tank, the coarse bubble and fine bubble diffusion systems coexisted in the same tank. This allowed five different aeration combinations, depending whether the 2 systems were operating separately or simultaneously, and at low speed or high speed. The aeration control maintained low DO concentrations, allowing simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. This made it difficult to calibrate the oxygen transfer. The nitrogen removal kinetics were determined using maximum nitrification rate tests and an 8-hour intensive sampling campaign. Despite the challenges encountered, a calibrated set of parameters was identified for ASM1 that gave very satisfactory results for the calibration period. Matching simulated and measured data became more difficult during the validation period, mainly because the dominant aeration configuration had changed. However, the merit of this study is to be the first effort to simulate a full-scale MBR plant.

  18. Pressure Decay Testing Methodology for Quantifying Leak Rates of Full-Scale Docking System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Penney, Nicholas; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. This system, called the Low Impact Docking System, is a mechanism designed to connect the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the International Space Station, the lunar lander (Altair), and other future Constellation Project vehicles. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this docking system. This seal will be relatively large with an outside diameter in the range of 54 to 58 in. (137 to 147 cm). As part of this effort, a new test apparatus has been designed, fabricated, and installed to measure leak rates of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Using this test apparatus, a pressure decay testing and data processing methodology has been developed to quantify full-scale seal leak rates. Tests performed on untreated 54 in. diameter seals at room temperature in a fully compressed state resulted in leak rates lower than the requirement of less than 0.0025 lbm, air per day (0.0011 kg/day).

  19. Experimental Photogrammetric Techniques Used on Five Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Between 2013 and 2015, full-scale crash tests were conducted on five aircraft at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two tests were conducted on CH-46E airframes as part of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) project, and three tests were conduced on Cessna 172 aircraft as part of the Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project. Each test served to evaluate a variety of crashworthy systems including: seats, occupants, restraints, composite energy absorbing structures, and Emergency Locator Transmitters. As part of each test, the aircraft were outfitted with a variety of internal and external cameras that were focused on unique aspects of the crash event. A subset of three camera was solely used in the acquisition of photogrammetric test data. Examples of this data range from simple two-dimensional marker tracking for the determination of aircraft impact conditions to entire full-scale airframe deformation to markerless tracking of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs, a.k.a. crash test dummies) during the crash event. This report describes and discusses the techniques used and implications resulting from the photogrammetric data acquired from each of the five tests.

  20. N-nitrosamine rejection by reverse osmosis membranes: a full-scale study.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Khan, Stuart J; McDonald, James A; Roux, Annalie; Poussade, Yvan; Drewes, Jörg E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-10-15

    This study aims to provide longitudinal and spatial insights to the rejection of N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes during sampling campaigns at three full-scale water recycling plants. Samples were collected at all individual filtration stages as well as at a cool and a warm weather period to elucidate the impact of recovery and feed temperature on the rejection of N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in all RO feed samples varying between 7 and 32 ng/L. Concentrations of most other N-nitrosamines in the feed solutions were determined to be lower than their detection limits (3-5 ng/L) but higher concentrations were detected in the feed after each filtration stage. As a notable exception, in one plant, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was observed at high concentrations in RO feed (177-475 ng/L) and permeate (34-76 ng/L). Overall rejection of NDMA among the three RO systems varied widely from 4 to 47%. Data presented here suggest that the feed temperature can influence rejection of NDMA. A considerable variation in NDMA rejection across the three RO stages (14-78%) was also observed. Overall NMOR rejections were consistently high ranging from 81 to 84%. On the other hand, overall rejection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) varied from negligible to 53%, which was considerably lower than values reported in previous laboratory-scale studies. A comparison between results reported here and the literature indicates that there can be some discrepancy in N-nitrosamine rejection data between laboratory- and full-scale studies probably due to differences in water recoveries and operating conditions (e.g. temperature, membrane fouling, and hydraulic conditions).

  1. A comparison of methods for converting DCE values onto the full health-dead QALY scale.

    PubMed

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Van Hout, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Preference elicitation techniques such as time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) receive criticism for their complexity and difficulties of use. Ordinal techniques such as discrete choice experiment (DCE) are arguably easier to understand but generate values that are not anchored onto the full health-dead 1-0 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) scale required for use in economic evaluation. This article compares existing methods for converting modeled DCE latent values onto the full health-dead QALY scale: 1) anchoring DCE values using dead as valued in the DCE and 2) anchoring DCE values using TTO value for worst state to 2 new methods: 3) mapping DCE values onto TTO and 4) combining DCE and TTO data in a hybrid model. Models are compared using their ability to predict mean TTO health state values. We use postal DCE data (n = 263) and TTO data (n = 307) collected by interview in a general population valuation study of an asthma condition-specific measure (AQL-5D). New methods 3 and 4 using mapping and hybrid models are better able to predict mean TTO health state values (mean absolute difference [MAD], 0.052-0.084) than the anchor-based methods (MAD, 0.075-0.093) and were better able to predict mean TTO health state values even when using in their estimation a subsample of the available TTO data. These new mapping and hybrid methods have a potentially useful role for producing values on the QALY scale from data elicited using ordinal techniques such as DCE for use in economic evaluation that makes best use of the desirable properties of each elicitation technique and elicited data. Further research is encouraged. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    PubMed Central

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  3. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    PubMed

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale and One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Papadakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25 percent scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data. In general, the calculated flow and collection efficiencies compared well with experiment, and the ice shapes appeared representative of the rime and mixed icing conditions for which they were calculated.

  5. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  6. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  7. Pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Thomas E.; Pardini, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated.

  8. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during

  9. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Varley, Robert; Halkyard, John; Johnson, Peter; Shi, Shan; Marinho, Thiago

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  10. A composite design for transition from a preliminary to a full-scale study.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; Younes, Naji

    2007-11-30

    In drug development, a sequence of studies are conducted to evaluate effectiveness (or efficacy) and safety, such as a Phase II study to assess pharmacological activity or safety that is then followed by a definitive Phase III study to assess clinical effectiveness. Rather than conducting separate successive studies, we describe a design in which the patients enrolled in a preliminary (e.g. Phase II) study are continued into a subsequent full-scale (e.g. Phase III) study. This design also applies to a study that uses an internal pilot with a preliminary assessment of efficacy or safety. The combined preliminary to full-scale design potentially reduces the total numbers of patients required and the total duration of the program. The design allows a futility or safety stopping boundary for the preliminary study result that is specified in terms of a lower critical Z-value (Z(L)) and the pursuant type II error probability incurred under a specified alternative hypothesis of a beneficial effect or no toxicity at that stage. This boundary also leads to a deflation of the type I error probability for the final test at the completion of the full-scale study, such that a critical value for the final test (Z(F)) can be determined that provides the desired level of the type I error probability exactly. Thus, it is possible to determine sample sizes at the two stages, and critical values Z(L) and Z(F) that provide specified type I and II error probabilities for the combined study. We describe the design using large-sample normally distributed Z-tests at the two phases, including a test for means, or proportions or survival times, or combinations thereof, such as a test for means at Phase II followed by a test for proportions at Phase III. We compare the properties of this design versus the conduct of two successive studies, and explore the factors that influence the operating characteristics of the design. We also discuss the practical considerations in the implementation of

  11. The Full Scale Seal Experiment - A Seal Industrial Prototype for Cigeo - 13106

    SciTech Connect

    Lebon, P.; Bosgiraud, J.M.; Foin, R.; Armand, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Full Scale Seal (FSS) Experiment is one of various experiments implemented by Andra, within the frame of the Cigeo (the French Deep Geological Repository) Project development, to demonstrate the technical construction feasibility and performance of seals to be constructed, at time of Repository components (shafts, ramps, drifts, disposal vaults) progressive closure. FSS is built inside a drift model fabricated on surface for the purpose. Prior to the scale 1:1 seal construction test, various design tasks are scheduled. They include the engineering work on the drift model to make it fit with the experimental needs, on the various work sequences anticipated for the swelling clay core emplacement and the concrete containment plugs construction, on the specialized handling tools (and installation equipment) manufactured and delivered for the purpose, and of course on the various swelling clay materials and low pH (below 11) concrete formulations developed for the application. The engineering of the 'seal-as-built' commissioning means (tools and methodology) must also be dealt with. The FSS construction experiment is a technological demonstrator, thus it is not focused on the phenomenological survey (and by consequence, on the performance and behaviour forecast). As such, no hydration (forced or natural) is planned. However, the FSS implementation (in particular via the construction and commissioning activities carried out) is a key milestone in view of comforting phenomenological extrapolation in time and scale. The FSS experiment also allows for qualifying the commissioning methods of a real sealing system in the Repository, as built, at time of industrial operations. (authors)

  12. Multi-scale full waveform inversion using teleseismic and regional data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.; Villasenor, A.; Saygin, E.; Taymaz, T.

    2011-12-01

    We present the first results of a long-term project that aims at the construction of a comprehensive seismic model of the European upper mantle, that describes 3D structural variations with a lateral resolution ranging from ≈1000 km in poorly covered regions to ≈10 km in areas where dense regional data sets are available. Our method is based on a full waveform inversion that combines spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation with adjoint techniques. This approach ensures the high accuracy of synthetic seismograms, it avoids crustal corrections, and it allows for the simultaneous inversion for crustal and mantle structure. As data we use complete three-component recordings from permanent stations, complemented by data from very dense regional arrays such as IberArray and the Turkish broadband network. To model regional data at short periods, we partition the computational domain into a set of nested sub-domains. While the grid spacing is largest in the continent-wide domain, it can be reduced substantially within smaller sub-domains, comprising, for instance, the Iberian Peninsula or Turkey. The sub-domains are linked via one single structural model with a resolution-adaptive parameterisation. To upscale small-scale structure from finely-parameterised parts of the model onto the coarse grid of the continent-wide domain, we use non-periodic homogenisation. This variant of "divide and conquer" leads to a multi-scale model that exhibits great detail in the most densely covered regions. Preliminary results already reveal the properties of smaller-scale features such as the Hellenic slab and the Pannonian basin. One of the most prominent structures found in the model is the Iceland plume, with unexpectedly low S velocities (-8 % at 200 km depth) that suggest the presence of partial melt or fluids.

  13. Microbial community in a full-scale drinking water biosand filter.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuo; Chen, Chao; Wang, Qingfeng; Yang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

    2013-04-01

    To remove turbidity and minimize microbiological risks, rapid sand filtration is one of main drinking water treatment processes in the world. However, after a long-term operation, sand particles will be colonized by microorganisms which can remove biodegradable organic matters and nitrogen compounds. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis was applied to characterize the microbial community in a full-scale biosand filter used for drinking water treatment. The results indicate that phylum Nitrospirae and class Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups in the biosand sample collected from the upper filter layer. The dominance of Sphingomonas species might pose a microbiological risk. This work could provide some new insights into microbial community in drinking water biofilter.

  14. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  15. Wind Tunnel Visualization of the Flow Over a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Crowder, James P.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This investigation used both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, leading edge extensions (LEXs), and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20deg to 45deg and over a sideslip range from -10deg to 10deg. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings. Additionally, the vortical flow is clearly visible over the leading-edge extensions, canopy, and wings.

  16. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Surpkis, D. E.; Price, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests to evaluate the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials by comparing their burning characteristics with those of older aircraft materials are described. Three tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1, using pre-1968 materials, was run to correlate the procedures and to compare the results with previous tests by other organizations. Test 2 included newer, improved fire-resistant materials. Test 3 was essentially a duplicate of test 2, but a smokeless fuel was used. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the pre-1968 materials ignited easily, allowed the fire to spread, produced large amounts of smoke and toxic combustion products, and resulted in a flash fire and major fire damage. The newer fire-resistant materials did not allow the fire to spread. Furthermore, they produced less, lower concentrations of toxic combustion products, and lower temperatures. The newer materials did not produce a flash fire.

  17. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  18. Electrical Testing of the Full-Scale model of the NSTX HHFW Antenna Array

    SciTech Connect

    Fadnek, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sparks, D.O.; Swain, D.W.; Wilgen, J.B.

    1999-04-12

    The 30 MHz high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) antenna array for NSTX consists of 12 current straps, evenly spaced in the toroidal direction. Each pair of straps is connected as a half-wave resonant loop and will be driven by one transmitter, allowing rapid phase shift between transmitters. A decoupling network using shunt stub tuners has been designed to compensate for the mutual inductive coupling between adjacent current straps, effectively isolating the six transmitters from one another. One half of the array, consisting of six full-scale current strap modules, three shunt stub decouplers, and powered by three phase-adjustable rf amplifiers had been built for electrical testing at ORNL. Low power testing includes electrical characterization of the straps, operation and performance of the decoupler system, and mapping of the rf fields in three dimensions.

  19. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion material, full scale. Data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Burn characteristics of presently used and proposed seat cushion materials and types of constructions were determined. Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of 16 tests. Two different fire sources were used: Jet A-fuel for eight tests, and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and type and content of gas within the cabin. When compared to existing seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance. Flammability comparison tests were conducted upon one fire blocking configuration and one polyimide configuration.

  20. Testing of aircraft passenger seat cushion materials. Full scale, test description and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Gaume, J. G.; Duskin, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different seat cushion configurations were subjected to full-scale burn tests. Each cushion configuration was tested twice for a total of sixteen tests. Two different fire sources were used. They consisted of one liter of Jet A fuel for eight tests and a radiant energy source with propane flame for eight tests. Both fire sources were ignited by a propane flame. During each test, data were recorded for smoke density, cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, animal response to combustion products, rate of weight loss of test specimens, cabin temperature, and for the type and content of gas within the cabin atmosphere. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advanced materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  1. Full-Scale Crash Tests and Analyses of Three High-Wing Single

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.; Jackson, Karen E.; Mason, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project was initiated in 2014 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of ELT systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft have been acquired to conduct crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Testing is scheduled for the summer of 2015 and will simulate three crash conditions; a flare to stall while emergency landing, and two controlled flight into terrain scenarios. Instrumentation and video coverage, both onboard and external, will also provide valuable data of airframe response. Full-scale finite element analyses will be performed using two separate commercial explicit solvers. Calibration and validation of the models will be based on the airframe response under these varying crash conditions.

  2. Tests of full scale SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) R and D dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; McInturff, A.; Orr, J.R.

    1988-08-22

    Four full-scale SSC R and D dipole magnets, incorporating successive mechanical design improvements, have been quench tested. Three of these magnets are heavily instrumented with sensors to measure the mechanical behavior of the magnets and verify the performance of the mechanical improvements and with multiple voltage taps to locate the origin of quenches. The last two magnets of this series reach the SSC design operating field of 6.6 T in two or fewer quenches. Load cells and motion sensors show that in these two magnets the azimuthal clamping stress is higher at zero current and drops more slowly with excitation than in previous long magnets and that the axial motion of the coil upon excitation has been greatly reduced. Quenches are found to originate preferentially in several locations, suggesting other design improvements. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Density and Cavitating Flow Results from a Full-Scale Optical Multiphase Cryogenic Flowmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin

    2007-01-01

    Liquid propulsion systems are hampered by poor flow measurements. The measurement of flow directly impacts safe motor operations, performance parameters as well as providing feedback from ground testing and developmental work. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in an effort to improve propulsion sensor technology, has developed an all optical flow meter that directly measures the density of the fluid. The full-scale sensor was tested in a transient, multiphase liquid nitrogen fluid environment. Comparison with traditional density models shows excellent agreement with fluid density with an error of approximately 0.8%. Further evaluation shows the sensor is able to detect cavitation or bubbles in the flow stream and separate out their resulting effects in fluid density.

  4. Reuse of microalgae grown in full-scale wastewater treatment ponds: Thermochemical pretreatment and biogas production.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Felix, Leonardo; Rocha, Hemyle; Pereira, Jackson de Oliveira; de Aquino, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed thermochemical pretreatment of microalgae harvested from a full-scale wastewater treatment pond prior to its anaerobic digestion using acid and alkaline chemical doses combined with thermal pretreatment at 80°C. Results indicated that alkaline and thermal pretreatment contributed mostly to glycoprotein and pectin solubilisation; whilst acid pretreatment solubilised mostly hemicellulose, with lower effectiveness for proteins. Regarding the anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that final methane yield was enhanced after almost all pretreatment conditions when compared to non-pretreated microalgae, with the highest increase for thermochemical pretreatment at the lowest dose (0.5%), i.e. 82% and 86% increase for alkaline and acid, respectively. At higher doses, salt toxicity was revealed by K(+) concentrations over 5000mg/L. All BMP data from pretreated biomass was successfully described by the modified Gompertz model and optimal condition (thermochemical 0.5% HCl) showed an increase in final methane yield and the process kinetics.

  5. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  6. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  7. A computational study of heterogeneous char reactions in a full-scale furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, A.P.; Kent, J.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    Driven by the need for more efficient means of power generation, computational simulation of furnace operation has assumed an increasingly important role. Computational tools make it possible to predict trends in furnace performance characteristics, such carbon burnout, with reasonable accuracy. Char burnout in a furnace occurs primarily by reaction with molecular oxygen in the surrounding gas. Consequently, most models of carbon burnout used in furnace codes only consider the char-O[sub 2] reaction. However, char reactions with other gas phase species, such as carbon dioxide and water become important where oxygen concentrations are low. Using a numerical model of a full-scale tangentially fired furnace, this work quantifies the relative importance of these reactions.

  8. Full-scale wind tunnel investigation of a helicopter individual blade control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Leyland, Jane A.; Blaas, Achim

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the preparations and plans to test an individual rotor blade pitch control system in the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. The test will be performed on a full-scale BO-105 rotor system using a control system made by Henschel Flugzeug-Werke, GmbH, Germany. The Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators have been designed to replace the pitchlinks of the rotor system. The paper presents a brief historical perspective on the development of the individual blade control system and then describes the present IBC actuators and the wind tunnel test hardware. A discussion of the intended test matrix, expected potential benefits of IBC, and simulation results are included.

  9. Lightweight Grid Shell Pavilion - Design, Manufacture and Erection of Full Scale Grid Shell Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of author's research is to design and construct grid shell structures, which are subsequently realized as experimental structures in full scale. These structures should make the place suitable for various events and also a friendly, pleasant, relaxing and free time space. By thinking about how such structure should look like and what materials and structure types are suitable, there were many kinds of lightweight structures considered. The most logical solution is to create a grid shell structure combining with a single layer membrane that would fulfill all aspects of elegant remarkable lightweight structure using some original details and workflow advancements. These grid shell projects should demonstrate another possibility to build and think about unconventional structures and provoke a deeper interest in these unique structures. The goal of this project was to create a feasible design of a grid shell structure and to build up the structures while being capable to understand the core of such an interesting phenomenon.

  10. Instrumentation and data acquisition for full-scale aircraft crash testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center has been conducting full-scale aircraft crash tests since the 1970s. Using a pendulum method, aircraft are suspended by cables from a 240-ft high gantry and swung into the impact surface at various attitudes and velocities. Instrumentation for these tests include on-board high-speed cameras, strain gages, load cells, displacement transducers, and accelerometers. Transducers in the aircraft are hard-wired through a long umbilical cable to the data acquisition room. Up to 96 channels of data can be collected at a typical rate of 4000 samples per second. Data acquisition using an FM multiplexed analog system and a high-speed personal computer based digital system is described.

  11. Putting in operation a full-scale ultracold-neutron source model with superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Keshishev, K. O.; Boldarev, S. T.; Vasil'ev, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A project of the source of ultracold neutrons for the WWR-M reactor based on superfluid helium for ultracold-neutron production has been developed. The full-scale source model, including all required cryogenic and vacuum equipment, the cryostat, and the ultracold-neutron source model has been created. The superfluid helium temperature T = 1.08 K without a heat load and T = 1.371 K with a heat load on the simulator of P = 60 W has been achieved in experiments at a technological complex of the ultracold-neutron source. The result proves the feasibility of implementing the ultracold-neutron source at the WWR-M reactor and the possibility of applying superfluid helium in nuclear engineering.

  12. Inflight source noise of an advanced full-scale single-rotation propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1991-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full scale SR-7L advanced turboprop which was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream II aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long distance propagation models to predict en route noise. Inflight data were taken for 7 test cases. The sideline directivities measured by the Learjet showed expected maximum levels near 105 degrees from the propeller upstream axis. However, azimuthal directivities based on the maximum observed sideline tone levels showed highest levels below the aircraft. An investigation of the effect of propeller tip speed showed that the tone level of reduction associated with reductions in propeller tip speed is more significant in the horizontal plane than below the aircraft.

  13. Numerical field model simulation of full scale fire tests in a closed spherical/cylindrical vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raycraft, Janet K.

    1987-12-01

    Most of the casualties incurred during a fire are due to the smoke generated. An understanding of the way smoke and fire spread during a fire would provide a valuable tool to save lives and minimize damage. The Naval Research Laboratory maintains a full scale test facility called Fire-1. The computer model developed in this thesis is based on the actual geometry of Fire-1 and uses field modeling. It is a three dimensional, finite difference model using primitive variables. The model includes local and global pressure corrections, surface radiation, turbulence, strong buoyancy, and conjugate boundary conditions. Given heat input data, the computer code produces pressure, temperature, density, and velocity fields. Experimental fire tests conducted in Fire-1 are used to validate the computer code. Reasonable agreement in the results has been found. Because of the model's ability to account for pressure, temperature and smoke buildup, its envisioned use is to predict fires aboard ships and submarines.

  14. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-21

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it - this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  15. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it--this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  16. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  17. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Martino, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  18. Closed-cycle textile dyeing: full-scale hyperfiltration demonstration (design)

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Hyperfiltration (HF) is a membrane separation technique that has been used successfully in desalination of natural water. Because energy, process chemicals and water are discharged from industrial processes in large quantities, the application of various types of membranes to recover through recycle has been studied in a series of government sponsored research projects. The results of the research led to the current project of joining a full scale dynamic membrane HF system with an operating dye range into an integrated production unit. The dye range is a multi-purpose unit having a variety of effluents from preparation and dyeing of textile fabric. This report describes the design and construction of the hyperfiltration equipment; presents and evaluates data from one year of operation; gives costs for equipment, installation and operation, and credits for savings due to recycle; and describes the primary objectives of an 18 month project continuation.

  19. Blade Displacement Predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledron, Robert T.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    An unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids is loosely coupled to a rotorcraft comprehensive code and used to simulate two different test conditions from a wind-tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60A rotor. Performance data and sectional airloads from the simulation are compared with corresponding tunnel data to assess the level of fidelity of the aerodynamic aspects of the simulation. The focus then turns to a comparison of the blade displacements, both rigid (blade root) and elastic. Comparisons of computed root motions are made with data from three independent measurement systems. Finally, comparisons are made between computed elastic bending and elastic twist, and the corresponding measurements obtained from a photogrammetry system. Overall the correlation between computed and measured displacements was good, especially for the root pitch and lag motions and the elastic bending deformation. The correlation of root lead-lag motion and elastic twist deformation was less favorable.

  20. Experimental study on full-scale steel beam-to-column moment connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jiaru; Yu, Haiqun; Yan, Feng; Dong, Hai; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Yueming

    2005-12-01

    Ten full-scale steel beam-to-column moment connections used in moment-resisting frames (MRFs) were tested to study the failure process, failure mode, strength and plastic rotation capacity. The specimens include one traditional welded flange-bolted web connection, one traditional fully welded connection, four beam flange strengthened connections, three beam flange weakened connections, and one through-diaphragm connection. The test results show that the connections with flange cover plates or with partly cut beam flanges satisfy the beam plastic rotation demand for ductile MRFs. From the measured stress profiles along the beam flange and beam web depth, the mechanics of brittle fracture at the end of the beam is discussed. Design recommendations for steel beam-to-column moment connections are proposed.

  1. Aeroacoustic calculations of a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debertshäuser, H.; Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The Actuator Line/ Navier-stokes technique is used to compute the incompressible flow around a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine under different complex flow conditions such as atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. The flow field is used as an input to aeroacoustic calculations based on; a semi empirical noise model; and a Navier-Stokes based computational aeroacoustic code (CAA). The Navier-Stokes based approach is solving acoustic perturbation equations and is capable of taking propagation and ground effects into account, but is limited to low frequency noise due to feasible mesh resolution, and due to the simplification in the actuator line method using body forces to represent the blade. Noise levels are compared to field measurements of a Nordtank 500kW wind turbine at different wind speeds and inflow profiles.

  2. Full-scale solutions to particle-laden flows: Multidirect forcing and immersed boundary method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Wang, Zeli; Fan, Jianren; Cen, Kefa

    2007-12-01

    Towards getting the full-scale solutions to particle-laden flows, a multidirect forcing technique and immersed boundary method are proposed in the present work. The immersed solid boundary is represented by Lagrangian points and the no-slip condition is efficiently satisfied by exerting multidirect forcing. The hydrodynamic interactions between the stationary or moving solid boundary and the Newtonian fluid are able to be accurately described. This method is simple but efficient which is validated by simulating the flows around a stationary circular disc at different Reynolds numbers and the free sedimentation of a particle. The predicted results agree well with previous experimental and numerical data. When applying this method to study particle sedimentation near a vertical wall, the rotation shifting phenomenon is observed besides the anomalous rolling and the lateral migration.

  3. A road pavement full-scale test track containing stabilized bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Toraldo, E; Saponaro, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a road pavement full-scale test track built by using stabilized bottom ash (SBA) from an Italian municipal solid waste incinerator as the aggregate in granular foundation, cement-bound mixes and asphalt concretes. The investigation focused on both the performance and the environmental compatibility of such mixes, especially with regard to the effects of mixing, laying and compaction. From the road construction point of view, the performance related to the effects of mixing, laying and compaction on constructability was assessed, as well as the volumetric and the mechanical properties. Environmental aspects were investigated by leaching tests. The results suggested that SBA meets the environmental Italian law for the reuse of non-hazardous waste and could be used as road material with the procedures, plants and equipment currently used for road construction.

  4. Analysis of wear debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests using the Ferrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Ferrograph was used to determine the types of quantities of wear particles generated during full-scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from AISI 52100 steel were used. A MIL-L-23699 tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubrication system containing a 49-micron absolute filter. Test conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the Ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 h) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis (SOAP). Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  5. Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  6. Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  7. Full-Scale Investigation of Several Jet-Engine Noise-Reduction Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Callaghan, Edmund E

    1958-01-01

    A number of noise-suppression nozzles were tested on full-scale engines. In general, these nozzles achieved noise reduction by the mixing interference of adjacent jets, that is, by using multiple-slot-nozzles. Several of the nozzles achieved reductions in sound power of approximately 5 decibels (nearly 70 percent) with small thrust losses (approx. 1 percent). The maximum sound-pressure level was reduced by as much as 18 decibels in particular frequency bands. Some of the nozzles showed considerable spatial asymmetry; that is, the sound field was not rotationally symmetrical. A method of calculating the limiting frequency effected by such nozzles is presented. Furthermore data are shown that appear to indicate that further reductions in sound power will not be easily achieved from nozzles using mixing interference as a means of noise suppression

  8. Acoustical characteristics of the NASA Langley full scale wind tunnel test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.; Kasper, P. K.; Pappa, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The full-scale wind tunnel at NASA-Langley Research Center was designed for low-speed aerodynamic testing of aircraft. Sound absorbing treatment has been added to the ceiling and walls of the tunnel test section to create a more anechoic condition for taking acoustical measurements during aerodynamic tests. The results of an experimental investigation of the present acoustical characteristics of the tunnel test section are presented. The experimental program included measurements of ambient nosie levels existing during various tunnel operating conditions, investigation of the sound field produced by an omnidirectional source, and determination of sound field decay rates for impulsive noise excitation. A comparison of the current results with previous measurements shows that the added sound treatment has improved the acoustical condition of the tunnel test section. An analysis of the data indicate that sound reflections from the tunnel ground-board platform could create difficulties in the interpretation of actual test results.

  9. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  10. Analysis of wear debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests using the Ferrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Ferrograph was used to determine the types of quantities of wear particles generated during full-scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from AISI 52100 steel were used. A MIL-L-23699 tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubrication system containing a 49-micron absolute filter. Test conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the Ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 h) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis (SOAP). Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  11. Full-Scale Tests of a New Type NACA Nose-Slot Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Brevoort, M J; Stickle, George W; Gough, M N

    1937-01-01

    An extended experimental study has been made in regard to the various refinements in the design of engine cowlings as related to the propeller-nacelle unit as a whole, under conditions corresponding to take-off, climb, and normal flight. The tests were all conducted at full scale in the 20-foot wind tunnel. This report presents the results of a novel type of engine cowling, characterized by the fact that the exit opening discharging the cooling air is not, as usual, located behind the engine but at the foremost extremity or nose of the cowling. The efficiency is found to be high, owing to the fact that higher velocities may be used in the exit opening.

  12. Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition.

  13. Analysis of wear-debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests using the ferrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    The ferrograph was used to determine the types and quantities of wear particles generated during full-scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from AISI 52100 steel were used. A MIL-L-23699 tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubrication system containing a 49 mm absolute filter. Test conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm, and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 hr) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis. Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  14. Water balance comparison between a dry and a wet landfill — a full-scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, S. T. S.; Wang, Q. J.; Styles, J. R.; McMahon, T. A.

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a water balance study conducted in a full-scale experimental municipal solid waste landfill in Melbourne, Australia. The investigation identified the significance of various hydrological components of a 'dry' landfill (represented by half of the experimental cell as a control section) and a 'wet' landfill (represented by other half of the cell allowing leachate recirculation and working as a bioreactor). The information obtained is important and useful in terms of leachate management for both dry and wet cell operations, especially for landfills located in a similar climate region. The study also determined the in situ field capacity of the waste and compared it to published data. The implication of using this field capacity value in water balance study is discussed.

  15. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements. PMID:24854060

  16. Membrane bioreactors for winery wastewater treatment: case-studies at full scale.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, G; Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is nowadays a suitable alternative for winery wastewater treatment, thanks to low footprint, complete suspended solids removal, high efficiency in COD abatement and quick start-up. In this paper, data from two full-scale MBRs equipped with flat-sheet membranes (plant A and plant B) are presented and discussed. COD characterisation by respirometry pointed out the high biodegradability degree of both wastewater, with a strong prevalence of the readily biodegradable fraction. An extended version of Activated Sludge Model No. 3 was used to fit the experimental OUR profiles and to assess the maximum growth rate of heterotrophic biomass on sludge samples collected at both sites; the stoichiometric yield coefficients were also calculated. Sludge filterability and dewaterability were investigated with batch tests; laboratory results confirmed the field observations. Finally, some considerations are listed, aimed at defining possible key-issues for optimal process design and operation.

  17. Instrumentation and data acquisition for full-scale aircraft crash testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center has been conducting full-scale aircraft crash tests since the 1970s. Using a pendulum method, aircraft are suspended by cables from a 240-ft high gantry and swung into the impact surface at various attitudes and velocities. Instrumentation for these tests include on-board high-speed cameras, strain gages, load cells, displacement transducers, and accelerometers. Transducers in the aircraft are hard-wired through a long umbilical cable to the data acquisition room. Up to 96 channels of data can be collected at a typical rate of 4000 samples per second. Data acquisition using an FM multiplexed analog system and a high-speed personal computer based digital system is described.

  18. Modeling and Design of a Full-Scale Rotor Blade with Embedded Piezocomposite Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalovs, A.; Barkanov, E.; Ruchevskis, S.; Wesolowski, M.

    2017-05-01

    An optimization methodology for the design of a full-scale rotor blade with an active twist in order to enhance its ability to reduce vibrations and noise is presented. It is based on a 3D finite-element model, the planning of experiments, and the response surface technique to obtain high piezoelectric actuation forces and displacements with a minimum actuator weight and energy applied. To investigate an active twist of the helicopter rotor blade, a structural static analysis using a 3D finite-element model was carried out. Optimum results were obtained at two possible applications of macrofiber composite actuators. The torsion angle found from the finite-element simulation of helicopter rotor blades was successfully validated by its experimental values, which confirmed the modeling accuracy.

  19. Structural dynamics research in a full-scale transport aircraft crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely piloted air-to-ground crash test of a full-scale transport aircraft was conducted for the first time for two purposes: (1) to demonstrate performance of an antimisting fuel additive in suppressing fire in a crash environment, and (2) to obtain structural dynamics data under crash conditions for comparison with analytical predictions. The test, called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), was sponsored by FAA and NASA with cooperation of industry, the Department of Defense, and the British and French governments. The test aircraft was a Boeing 720 jet transport. The aircraft impacted a dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural aspects of the CID. The fuselage section tests and the CID itself are described. Structural response data from these tests are presented and discussed. Nonlinear analytical modeling efforts are described, and comparisons between analytical results and experimental results are presented.

  20. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  1. Full Scale Span Load Distribution on a Tapered Wing with Split Flaps of Various Spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, John F; Silverstein, Abe

    1937-01-01

    Pressure-distribution tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a 2:1 tapered U.S.A. 45 airfoil equipped with 20 percent chord split trailing-edge flaps of various spans. A special installation was employed in the tests utilizing a half-span airfoil mounted vertically above a reflection plane. The airfoil has a constant chord center section and rounded tips and is tapered in thickness from 18 percent c at the root to 9 percent c at the tip. The aerodynamic characteristics, given by the usual dimension less coefficients, are presented graphically as functions of flap span and angle of attack as well as by semispan load diagrams. The results indicate, in general, that only a relatively small increase in the normal-force coefficient is to be expected by extending the flap span of an airfoil-flap combination, similar to the one tested, beyond 70 percent of the wing span.

  2. Structural dynamics research in a full-scale transport aircraft crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely piloted air-to-ground crash test of a full-scale transport aircraft was conducted for the first time for two purposes: (1) to demonstrate performance of an antimisting fuel additive in suppressing fire in a crash environment, and (2) to obtain structural dynamics data under crash conditions for comparison with analytical predictions. The test, called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), was sponsored by FAA and NASA with cooperation of industry, the Department of Defense, and the British and French governments. The test aircraft was a Boeing 720 jet transport. The aircraft impacted a dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural aspects of the CID. The fuselage section tests and the CID itself are described. Structural response data from these tests are presented and discussed. Nonlinear analytical modeling efforts are described, and comparisons between analytical results and experimental results are presented.

  3. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-03-31

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.

  4. The first full-scale soil washing project in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.J.; Groenendijk, E.

    1996-12-31

    In mid-1992, Geraghty & Miller, Inc. and Heidemij Realisatie of The Netherlands incorporated the joint venture of Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) to implement soil washing projects in the United States. The venture was based upon Heidemij`s successful commercial soil washing operations in The Netherlands over the past decade. The first project contracted under this arrangement was the King of Prussia (KOP) Technical Corporation Superfund site, located in Camden County, New Jersey. This paper presents the details of activities at this site and operation of the full-scale soil washing facility. At the KOP site approximately 20,000 tons (20,320 metric) of soil contaminated with copper, chromium and nickel were remediated. The KOP plant is rates at 25 (25.4 metric) tons per hour (tph) and is configured in a way that allows flexible treatment capabilities for sites with metals, polynuclear aromatics, pesticides, and radioactive contamination. 2 figs.

  5. Full scale soil washing at the King of Prussia (N.J.) Technical Corporation Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    In mid-1992, Geraghty and Miller, Inc. and Heidemij Realisatie of The Netherlands incorporated the joint venture of Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) to implement soil washing projects in the US. The venture is based upon Heidemij`s successful commercial soil washing operations in The Netherlands over the past decade. The first project contracted under this arrangement was the King of Prussia (KOP) Technical Corporation Superfund site, located in Camden County, New Jersey. This paper presents the details of activities at this site and operation of the full-scale, soil washing facility. At the KOP site, approximately 20,000 tons of soil contaminated with copper, chromium and nickel were remediated. The KOP plant is rated at 25 tons per hour (tph) and is configured in a way that allows flexible treatment capabilities for sites with metals, polynuclear aromatics, pesticides, and radioactive contamination.

  6. Ferrographic analysis of wear debris from full-scale bearing fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Ferrograph was used to determine the types and quantities of wear particles generated during full scale bearing fatigue tests. Deep-groove ball bearings made from steel were used. A tetraester lubricant was used in a recirculating lubricant system containing a 49 micrometers absolute filter. Test conditions include a maximum Hertz stress of 2.4 GPa, a shaft speed of 15,000 rpm, and a lubricant supply temperature of 74 C (165 F). Four fatigue failures were detected by accelerometers in this test set. In general, the Ferrograph was more sensitive (up to 23 hr) in detecting spall initiation than either accelerometers or the normal spectrographic oil analysis. Four particle types were observed: normal rubbing weather particles, spheres, nonferrous particles, and severe wear (spall) fragments.

  7. Annular Seals of High Energy Centrifugal Pumps: Presentation of Full Scale Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florjancic, S.; Stuerchler, R.; Mccloskey, T.

    1991-01-01

    Prediction of rotordynamic behavior for high energy concentration centrifugal pumps is a challenging task which still imposes considerable difficulties. While the mechanical modeling of the rotor is solved most satisfactorily by finite element techniques, accurate boundary conditions for arbitrary operating conditions are known for journal bearings only. Little information is available on the reactive forces of annular seals, such as neck ring and interstage seals and balance pistons, and on the impeller interaction forces. The present focus is to establish reliable boundary conditions at annular seals. For this purpose, a full scale test machine was set up and smooth and serrated seal configurations measured. Dimensionless coefficients are presented and compared with a state of the art theory.

  8. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  9. Integration of advanced process control and full-scale dynamic simulation

    PubMed

    Ye; Valluri; Barker; Yu

    2000-01-01

    In the process control industry, multivariable model predictive controller and dynamic simulation for operator training are usually available in separate packages. It is very difficult for the operators and plant engineers to find good tools for them to get trained in multivariable advanced process control. This paper presents a system, which integrates the advanced process control and full-scale dynamic simulation. The advanced process control uses multivariable model predictive control techniques. The model used in the predictive control algorithms is generated from the dynamic simulated process. The advanced process controller can control the simulated plant directly, or through a DCS system to control the simulated plant. The combined system provides an excellent environment for training operators in process operation with multivariable advanced process control. The same environment is also very useful for engineers in designing and tuning the advanced process controllers, and in testing communication between the advanced process controller and the DCS systems, or the other type of process control systems.

  10. Gaseous nitrogen and carbon emissions from a full-scale deammonification plant.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, Norbert; Takacs, Imre; Murthy, Sudhir; Fuerhacker, Maria; Wett, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this work was to give a quantitative description of the gaseous nitrogen and carbon emissions of a full-scale deammonification plant (DEMON system). Deammonification accounted for the net carbon sequestration of 0.16 g CO2/g NO2-N. Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) were minor trace gases (<0.1% nitrogen output). However, in comparison, the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission (1.3% nitrogen output) was significant. The global warming potential of the N2O emissions from the DEMON were similar to those found in conventional simultaneous nitrification/denitrification systems; however, CO2 emissions in the investigated system were significantly lower, thereby lessening the overall environmental effect. This was the first time such an analysis has been performed on a DEMON system.

  11. Full-scale experimentations on alternative materials in roads: analysis of study practices.

    PubMed

    François, D; Jullien, A; Kerzreho, J P; Chateau, L

    2009-03-01

    In France beginning in the 1990s, the topic of road construction using various alternative materials has given rise to several studies aimed at clarifying the technical and environmental feasibility of such an option. Although crucial to understanding and forecasting their behaviour in the field, an analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) of roads built with alternative materials has not yet been carried out. The aim of the CAREX project (2003-2005) has been to fill this gap at the national scale. Based on a stress-response approach applied to both the alternative material and the road structure and including the description of external factors, a dedicated standardised framework for field data classification and analysis was adopted. To carry out this analysis, a set of 17 documented field experiments was identified through a specific national survey. It appears that a great heterogeneity exists in data processing procedures among studies. The description of material is acceptable while it is generally poor regarding external factors and structure responses. Structure monitoring is usually brief and mechanical loads too weak, which limits the significance of field testing. For future full-scale experiments, strengthening the realism within the testing conditions would be appropriate.

  12. Performance evaluation of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Adair, Charles W; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    Intensive monitoring was carried out to evaluate the performance of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system at a commercial swine farm with 8640 heads of swine. Detailed mass balances over each unit of the system showed that the system, which includes a 7600m(3) anaerobic digester, a 65-kW microturbine, and a 4200m(3) aeration basin, was able to remove up to 92% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 99% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD), 77% of the total nitrogen (TN), and 82% of the total phosphorous (TP) discharged into the system as fresh pig waste. The overall biogas yield based on the COD input was 64% of the maximum theoretical, a value that indicates that even greater environmental benefits could be obtained with process optimization. Overall, the characterization of the materials fluxes in the system provides a greater understanding of the fate of organics and nutrients in large scale animal waste management systems.

  13. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  14. Achieving Full Dynamic Similarity with Small-Scale Wind Turbine Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark; Kiefer, Janik; Westergaard, Carsten; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-11-01

    Power and thrust data as a function of Reynolds number and Tip Speed Ratio are presented at conditions matching those of a full scale turbine. Such data has traditionally been very difficult to acquire due to the large length-scales of wind turbines, and the limited size of conventional wind tunnels. Ongoing work at Princeton University employs a novel, high-pressure wind tunnel (up to 220 atmospheres of static pressure) which uses air as the working fluid. This facility allows adjustment of the Reynolds number (via the fluid density) independent of the Tip Speed Ratio, up to a Reynolds number (based on chord and velocity at the tip) of over 3 million. Achieving dynamic similarity using this approach implies very high power and thrust loading, which results in mechanical loads greater than 200 times those experienced by a similarly sized model in a conventional wind tunnel. In order to accurately report the power coefficients, a series of tests were carried out on a specially designed model turbine drive-train using an external testing bench to replicate tunnel loading. An accurate map of the drive-train performance at various operating conditions was determined. Finally, subsequent corrections to the power coefficient are discussed in detail. Supported by: National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1435254 (program director Gregory Rorrer).

  15. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results.

  16. Full-scale validation of wireless hybrid sensor on an in-service highway bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Shinae; Dahal, Sushil; Li, Jingcheng

    2013-04-01

    With the rapid development of electrical circuits, Micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and network technology, wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN) have shown significant potential for replacing existing wired SHM systems due to their cost effectiveness and versatility. A few structural systems have been monitored using WSSN measuring acceleration, temperature, wind speed, humidity; however, a multi-scale sensing device which has the capability to measure the displacement has not been yet developed. In the previous paper, a new high-accuracy displacement sensing system was developed combining a high resolution analog displacement sensor and MEMS-based wireless microprocessor platform. Also, the wireless sensor was calibrated in the laboratory to get the high precision displacement data from analog sensor, and its performance was validated to measure simulated thermal expansion of a laboratory bridge structure. This paper expands the validation of the developed system on full-scale experiments to measure both static and dynamic displacement of expansion joints, temperature, and vibration of an in-service highway bridge. A brief visual investigation of bridges, comparison between theoretical and measured thermal expansion are also provided. The developed system showed the capability to measure the displacement with accuracy of 0.00027 in.

  17. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, N.; Thesken, J. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Palko, J.; Eldridge, J.; Sutter, J.; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar(TradeMark) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar(TradeMark) filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However, due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to the experimental investigation reported in [1] and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel's residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV

  18. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Greene, N.; Palko, Joseph L.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Sutter, James; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to a previously reported experimental investigation and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel s residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV

  19. Bacterial community shift during the startup of a full-scale oxidation ditch treating sewage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yajun; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Fuzheng; Xiao, Lin; Cheng, Shupei; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2016-10-06

    Oxidation ditch (OD) is one of the most widely used processes for treating municipal wastewater. However, the microbial communities in the OD systems have not been well characterized and little information about the shift of bacterial community during the startup process of the OD systems is available. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community changes during the startup period (over 100 days) of a full-scale OD. The results showed that the bacterial community dramatically changed during the startup period. Similar to the activated sludge samples in other studies, Proteobacteria (accounting for 26.3%~48.4%) was the most dominant bacterial phylum in the OD system but its relative abundance declined nearly 40% during the startup process. It was also found that Planctomycetes proliferated greatly (from 4.79% to 13.5%) and finally replaced Bacteroidetes as the second abundant phylum in the OD system. Specifically, some bacteria affiliated with Flavobacterium genus of exhibited remarkable decreasing trends, while bacterial species belonging to OD1 candidate division and Saprospiraceae family were found to increase during the startup process. Despite of the bacterial community shift, the organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus in the effluent were always in low concentrations, suggesting the functional redundancy of the bacterial community. Moreover, by comparing with the bacterial community in other municipal wastewater treatment bioreactors, some potentially novel bacterial species were found to be present in the OD system. Collectively, this study improved our understandings of bacterial community structure and the microbial ecology during the startup of full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactor.

  20. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

  1. Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

  2. Bacteriophage removal in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) - Implications for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Sarah; Ebdon, James; Buck, Austen; Tupper, Martyn; Taylor, Huw

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential removal efficacy of viruses in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater reuse system, using a range of indigenous and 'spiked' bacteriophages (phages) of known size and morphology. Samples were taken each week for three months from nine locations at each treatment stage of the water recycling plant (WRP) and tested for a range of microbiological parameters (n = 135). Mean levels of faecal coliforms were reduced to 0.3 CFU/100 ml in the MBR product and were undetected in samples taken after the chlorination stage. A relatively large reduction (5.3 log) in somatic coliphages was also observed following MBR treatment. However, F-specific and human-specific (GB124) phages were less abundant at all stages, and demonstrated log reductions post-MBR of 3.5 and 3.8, respectively. In 'spiking' experiments, suspended 'spiked' phages (MS2 and B-14) displayed post-MBR log reductions of 2.25 and 2.30, respectively. The removal of these suspended phages, which are smaller than the membrane pore size (0.04 μm), also highlights the possible role of the membrane biofilm as an effective additional barrier to virus transmission. The findings from this study of a full-scale MBR system demonstrate that the enumeration of several phage groups may offer a practical and conservative way of assessing the ability of MBR to remove enteric viruses of human health significance. They also suggest that phage removal in MBR systems may be highly variable and may be closely related on the one hand to both the size and morphology of the viruses and, on the other, to whether or not they are attached to solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  4. Field measured and modeled performance of full scale cylindrical stratified chilled water storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musser, Amy

    1998-10-01

    Field-measured performance of full scale cylindrical naturally stratified chilled water storage tanks with radial and octagonal inlet diffusers is analyzed. A detailed computational fluid dynamics model of flow near the lower inlet diffuser is also constructed, and is used to obtain simplified expressions to predict performance from design parameters. The performance of four full scale ranks operating under controlled flow rate conditions is field monitored and analysis techniques appropriate for use with field data are developed. The tests indicate that inlet mixing increases with inlet flow rate, but that the tanks tested perform well at design flow rate, with 4% or less of the overall tank capacity lost to mixing. Results also suggest that upper radial diffusers may allow more mixing than lower radial diffusers. Data are also collected from three installations under normal operating conditions, and operating strategies are identified and described. Under typical operation, flow rates tend to be much lower than design, and system return temperatures are often lower than predicted by the designer. Detailed simulations of the flow neat lower radial inlet diffusers are performed using a commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package. Dimensionless parameters relevant to the development of stratification are identified and a parametric study is constructed in which each parameter assumes two values, representing high and low typical operating conditions. The computational simulations determine that the Richardson number and two geometric parameters affect stratification, and a linear regression model is developed to describe these effects. This result allows further assessment of current guidelines for the design of lower radial inlet diffusers, and provides a simplified method that tank designers and operators can use to estimate inlet performance based on design parameters.

  5. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  6. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of 'Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity.

  7. On the ASR and ASR thermal residues characterization of full scale treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Fino, D

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain 85% recycling, several procedures on Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) could be implemented, such as advanced metal and polymer recovery, mechanical recycling, pyrolysis, the direct use of ASR in the cement industry, and/or the direct use of ASR as a secondary raw material. However, many of these recovery options appear to be limited, due to the possible low acceptability of ASR based products on the market. The recovery of bottom ash and slag after an ASR thermal treatment is an option that is not usually considered in most countries (e.g. Italy) due to the excessive amount of contaminants, especially metals. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the characteristics of ASR and its full-scale incineration residues. Experiments have been carried out, in two different experimental campaigns, in a full-scale tyre incineration plant specifically modified to treat ASR waste. Detailed analysis of ASR samples and combustion residues were carried out and compared with literature data. On the basis of the analytical results, the slag and bottom ash from the combustion process have been classified as non-hazardous wastes, according to the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC), and therefore after further tests could be used in future in the construction industry. It has also been concluded that ASR bottom ash (EWC - European Waste Catalogue - code 19 01 12) could be landfilled in SNRHW (stabilized non-reactive hazardous waste) cells or used as raw material for road construction, with or without further treatment for the removal of heavy metals. In the case of fly ash from boiler or Air Pollution Control (APC) residues, it has been found that the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded regulatory leaching test limits therefore their removal, or a stabilization process, would be essential prior to landfilling the use of these residues as construction material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Module-scale analysis of pressure retarded osmosis: performance limitations and implications for full-scale operation.

    PubMed

    Straub, Anthony P; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-10-21

    We investigate the performance of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) at the module scale, accounting for the detrimental effects of reverse salt flux, internal concentration polarization, and external concentration polarization. Our analysis offers insights on optimization of three critical operation and design parameters--applied hydraulic pressure, initial feed flow rate fraction, and membrane area--to maximize the specific energy and power density extractable in the system. For co- and counter-current flow modules, we determine that appropriate selection of the membrane area is critical to obtain a high specific energy. Furthermore, we find that the optimal operating conditions in a realistic module can be reasonably approximated using established optima for an ideal system (i.e., an applied hydraulic pressure equal to approximately half the osmotic pressure difference and an initial feed flow rate fraction that provides equal amounts of feed and draw solutions). For a system in counter-current operation with a river water (0.015 M NaCl) and seawater (0.6 M NaCl) solution pairing, the maximum specific energy obtainable using performance properties of commercially available membranes was determined to be 0.147 kWh per m(3) of total mixed solution, which is 57% of the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Operating to obtain a high specific energy, however, results in very low power densities (less than 2 W/m(2)), indicating that the trade-off between power density and specific energy is an inherent challenge to full-scale PRO systems. Finally, we quantify additional losses and energetic costs in the PRO system, which further reduce the net specific energy and indicate serious challenges in extracting net energy in PRO with river water and seawater solution pairings.

  9. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  10. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  11. Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2006-06-30

    The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early

  12. Confirmatory factor analyses of the full and short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    PubMed

    Loo, R; Thorpe, K

    2000-10-01

    Over the years, researchers have developed various short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. P. Crowne & D. Marlowe, 1960). The authors used confirmatory factor analyses (J. L. Arbuckle, 1997) as well as item and scale analyses to evaluate the adequacy of the full version and various short versions. Overall, the results from 232 Canadian undergraduates showed (a) that all the short versions in the present study are a significant improvement in fit over the 33-item full scale and (b) that W. M. Reynolds's (1982) Forms A and B are the best fitting short versions. No gender differences were found for the full scale or any of the short versions. The results show that the full scale could be improved psychometrically and that the psychometrically sound short versions should be available because they require less administration time than the full scale.

  13. SuperSpec: development towards a full-scale filter bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chapman, S.; Che, G.; Glenn, J.; Hollister, M.; Kovács, A.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mauskopf, P.; McGeehan, R.; McKenney, C. M.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Ross, C.; Shiu, C.; Tucker, C. E.; Williamson, R.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2016-07-01

    SuperSpec is a new spectrometer-on-a-chip technology for submm/mm-wave spectroscopy. SuperSpec stands out from other direct-detection submm spectrometer technologies in that the detectors are coupled to a series of resonant filters along a single microwave feedline instead of using dispersive optics. SuperSpec makes use of kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) to detect radiation in this filter bank. The small profile of this design makes SuperSpec a natural choice to produce a multi-object spectrometer for tomographic mapping or galaxy redshift surveys. We have recently fabricated a device that is a 50 channel subset of a full 280 channel filter bank, which would cover the 190 - 310 GHz range at R = 275. Analysis of the data from this device informs us of the potential design modifications to enable a high-yield background-limited SuperSpec spectrometer. The results indicate that this subset filter bank can scale up to a full filter bank with only a few collisions in readout space and less than 20% variation in responsivity for the detectors. Additionally, the characterization of this and other prototype devices suggests that the noise performance is limited by generation-recombination noise. Finally, we find that the detectors are sufficiently sensitive for ground-based spectroscopy at R = 100, appropriate for tomographic mapping experiments. Further modifications are required to reach the background limit for R = 400, ideal for spectroscopy of individual galaxies.

  14. Using the full scale 3D solid anthropometric model in radiation oncology positioning and verification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuh-Ping; Wu, Ching-Jung

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the full size solid 3D Anthropometric Model using in the positioning and verification process for radiation treatment planning of the skull of cancer patients in radiotherapy. In order to obtain a full scale 3D, solid Anthropometric Model, data is first collected through computed tomography and optical scanning. Through surface reconstruction, a model is made of the patients skull, after which rapid prototyping and rapid tooling is applied to acquire a 1:1 solid model, thus, it can replace the patient for the tumor positioning and verification in radiotherapy. The 3D Anthropometric Model are not only provide a clear picture of the external appearance, but also allow insight into the internal structure of organic bodies, which is of great advantage in radiotherapy. During radiotherapy planning, 3D Anthropometric Model can be used to simulate all kinds of situations on the simulator and the linear accelerator, without the patient needing to be present, so that the medical physicist or dosimetrist will be able to design a precise treatment plan that is tailored to the patient. The 3D Anthropometric Model production system can effectively help us solve problems related to r adiotherapy positioning and verification, helping both radiotherapists and cancer patients. We expect that the application of 3D Anthropometric Model can reduce the time that needs to be spent on pretreatment procedures and enhance the quality of health care for cancer patients.

  15. Full scale treatment of ASR wastes in a modified rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Raboni, M; Fino, D

    2014-11-01

    A plant, designed for the thermo-valorisation of tyres, was specifically modified in order to treat Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR). Results from two full-scale combustion experiments, carried out on large ASR feeding lots (thousands of tons) indicate the proposed technology as a potential route to help the fulfilling of impending 95% reuse and recovery target set by the End of life Vehicle (ELV) Directive (January 2015). The paper describes the main operational troubleshot occurred during the first experiment (emissions at the stack out of regulatory limits and problems of clogging on the conveyer belt) and the consequent upgrading solutions (pre-treatment, introduction of waste double low-flow screw feeder and a cyclone prior to the main fan, modification of rotatory kiln inlet) adopted to allow, during the second long-term experiment, a continuous basis operation of the plant in full compliance with the discharge limit to the atmosphere. Characterization of both ASR and combustion residues allowed to quantify a 18% of combustion residues as not dangerous waste while only the 2% as hazardous one. A pre-treatment for the reduction of fines in the ASR was recommended in order to achieve the required energy recovery efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Full-Field Imaging of Acoustic Motion at Nanosecond Time and Micron Length Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Cottle, David Lynn; Larson III, John D.

    2002-10-01

    A full-field view laser ultrasonic imaging method has been developed that measures acoustic motion at a surface without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates by employing dynamic holography using photorefractive interferometric detection. By extending the approach to ultra high frequencies, an acoustic microscope has been developed capable of operation on the nanosecond time and micron length scales. Both acoustic amplitude and phase are recorded allowing full calibration and determination of phases to within a single arbitrary constant. Results are presented of measurements at frequencies at 800-900 MHz illustrating a multitude of normal mode behavior in electrically driven thin film acoustic resonators. Coupled with microwave electrical impedance measurements, this imaging mode provides an exceptionally fast method for evaluation of electric to acoustic coupling and performance of these devices. Images of 256x240 pixels are recorded at 18Hz rates synchronized to obtain both in-phase and quadrature detection of the acoustic motion. Simple averaging provides sensitivity to the subnanometer level calibrated over the image using interferometry. Identification of specific acoustic modes and their relationship to electrical impedance characteristics show the advantages and overall high speed of the technique.

  17. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  18. [Full-scale simulation in German medical schools and anesthesia residency programs : Status quo].

    PubMed

    Baschnegger, H; Meyer, O; Zech, A; Urban, B; Rall, M; Breuer, G; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    Simulation has been increasingly used in medicine. In 2003 German university departments of anesthesiology were provided with a full-scale patient simulator, designated for use with medical students. Meanwhile simulation courses are also offered to physicians and nurses. Currently, the national model curriculum for residency programs in anesthesiology is being revised, possibly to include mandatory simulation training. To assess the status quo of full-scale simulation training for medical school, residency and continuing medical education in German anesthesiology. All 38 German university chairs for anesthesiology as well as five arbitrarily chosen non-university facilities were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their centers' infrastructure and courses held between 2010 and 2012. The overall return rate was 86 %. In university simulation centers seven non-student staff members, mainly physicians, were involved, adding up to a full-time equivalent of 1.2. All hours of work were paid by 61 % of the centers. The median center size was 100 m(2) (range 20-500 m(2)), equipped with three patient simulators (1-32). Simulators of high or very high fidelity are available at 80 % of the centers. Scripted scenarios were used by 91 %, video debriefing by 69 %. Of the participating university centers, 97 % offered courses for medical students, 81 % for the department's employees, 43 % for other departments of their hospital, and 61 % for external participants. In 2012 the median center reached 46 % of eligible students (0-100), 39 % of the department's physicians (8-96) and 16 % of its nurses (0-56) once. For physicians and nurses from these departments that equals one simulation-based training every 2.6 and 6 years, respectively. 31 % made simulation training mandatory for their residents, 29 % for their nurses and 24 % for their attending physicians. The overall rates of staff ever exposed to simulation were 45 % of

  19. Review of feedstock pretreatment strategies for improved anaerobic digestion: From lab-scale research to full-scale application.

    PubMed

    Carrere, Hélène; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Affes, Rim; Passos, Fabiana; Battimelli, Audrey; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    When properly designed, pretreatments may enhance the methane potential and/or anaerobic digestion rate, improving digester performance. This paper aims at providing some guidelines on the most appropriate pretreatments for the main feedstocks of biogas plants. Waste activated sludge was firstly investigated and implemented at full-scale, its thermal pretreatment with steam explosion being most recommended as it increases the methane potential and digestion rate, ensures sludge sanitation and the heat needed is produced on-site. Regarding fatty residues, saponification is preferred for enhancing their solubilisation and bioavailability. In the case of animal by-products, this pretreatment can be optimised to ensure sterilisation, solubilisation and to reduce inhibition linked to long chain fatty acids. With regards to lignocellulosic biomass, the first goal should be delignification, followed by hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis, alkali or biological (fungi) pretreatments being most promising. As far as microalgae are concerned, thermal pretreatment seems the most promising technique so far. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fine-scale bacterial community dynamics and the taxa-time relationship within a full-scale activated sludge bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wells, George F; Park, Hee-Deung; Eggleston, Brad; Francis, Christopher A; Criddle, Craig S

    2011-11-01

    In activated sludge bioreactors, aerobic heterotrophic communities efficiently remove organics, nutrients, toxic substances, and pathogens from wastewater, but the dynamics of these communities are as yet poorly understood. A macroecology metric used to quantify community shifts is the taxa-time relationship, a temporal analog of the species-area curve. To determine whether this metric can be applied to full-scale bioreactors, activated sludge samples were collected weekly over a one-year period at a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bacterial community dynamics were evaluated by monitoring 16S rRNA genes using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP), corroborated by clone libraries. Observed taxa richness increased with time according to a power law model, as predicted by macroecological theory, with a power law exponent of w = 0.209. The results reveal strong long-term temporal dynamics during a period of stable performance (BOD removal and nitrification). Community dynamics followed a gradual succession away from initial conditions rather than periodicity around a mean "equilibrium", with greater within-month then among-month community similarities. Changes in community structure were significantly associated via multivariate statistical analyses with dissolved oxygen, temperature, influent silver, biomass (MLSS), flow rate, and influent nitrite, cadmium and chromium concentrations. Overall, our results suggest patterns of bacterial community dynamics likely regulated in part by operational parameters and provide evidence that the taxa-time relationship may be a fundamental ecological pattern in macro- and microbial systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.