Science.gov

Sample records for full spectrum fitting

  1. Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele

    2017-04-01

    I start by providing an updated summary of the penalized pixel-fitting (PPXF) method that is used to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of galaxies, via full spectrum fitting. I then focus on the problem of extracting the kinematics when the velocity dispersion σ is smaller than the velocity sampling ΔV that is generally, by design, close to the instrumental dispersion σinst. The standard approach consists of convolving templates with a discretized kernel, while fitting for its parameters. This is obviously very inaccurate when σ ≲ ΔV/2, due to undersampling. Oversampling can prevent this, but it has drawbacks. Here I present a more accurate and efficient alternative. It avoids the evaluation of the undersampled kernel and instead directly computes its well-sampled analytic Fourier transform, for use with the convolution theorem. A simple analytic transform exists when the kernel is described by the popular Gauss-Hermite parametrization (which includes the Gaussian as special case) for the line-of-sight velocity distribution. I describe how this idea was implemented in a significant upgrade to the publicly available PPXF software. The key advantage of the new approach is that it provides accurate velocities regardless of σ. This is important e.g. for spectroscopic surveys targeting galaxies with σ ≪ σinst, for galaxy redshift determinations or for measuring line-of-sight velocities of individual stars. The proposed method could also be used to fix Gaussian convolution algorithms used in today's popular software packages.

  2. Early-type Galaxy Archeology: Ages, Abundance Ratios, and Effective Temperatures from Full-spectrum Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Graves, Genevieve J.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2014-01-01

    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s-1 to 300 km s-1. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å-1, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å -8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T eff, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ~0.25 at high σ Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ and (6) the variation in Δ T eff with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0.05 dex or less. Our derived [Mg/Fe] and [O

  3. Effects of Full Spectrum Lighting in Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-09

    The subjects rated their health as being better under full-spectrum light, but this was not accompanied by higher ratings of mood or quality of sleep ...full-spectrum light and rated their health as being better under this light, but this was not accompanied by higher ratings of mood or quality of sleep ...the elderly in the northern United States (Neer, 1985) and must be due to insufficient exposure to sunlight (Holick, 1985). Light also indirectly

  4. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  5. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Sascha

    2014-08-01

    In environmental radiation monitoring, the time-variable natural gamma radiation background complicates the nuclide identification and analysis of a gamma spectrum. A full spectrum analysis based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method for the description of the time-variable background and adjustment calculations is a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared with a peak-based analysis, if applied to a time series of gamma spectra. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental radiation monitoring.

  6. Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation.

    PubMed

    Macario, Julien; Yao, Peng; Shi, Shouyuan; Zablocki, Alicia; Harrity, Charles; Martin, Richard D; Schuetz, Christopher A; Prather, Dennis W

    2012-10-08

    In recent years, the development of new lithium niobate electro-optic modulator designs and material processing techniques have contributed to support the increasing need for faster optical networks by considerably extending the operational bandwidth of modulators. In an effort to provide higher bandwidths for future generations of networks, we have developed a lithium niobate electro-optic phase modulator based on a coplanar waveguide ridged structure that operates up to 300 GHz. By thinning the lithium niobate substrate down to less than 39 µm, we are able to eliminate substrate modes and observe optical sidebands over the full millimeter-wave spectrum.

  7. Full Duplex, Spread Spectrum Radio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to support the development of a full duplex, spread spectrum voice communications system. The assembly and testing of a prototype system consisting of a Harris PRISM spread spectrum radio, a TMS320C54x signal processing development board and a Zilog Z80180 microprocessor was underway at the start of this project. The efforts under this project were the development of multiple access schemes, analysis of full duplex voice feedback delays, and the development and analysis of forward error correction (FEC) algorithms. The multiple access analysis involved the selection between code division multiple access (CDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA). Full duplex voice feedback analysis involved the analysis of packet size and delays associated with full loop voice feedback for confirmation of radio system performance. FEC analysis included studies of the performance under the expected burst error scenario with the relatively short packet lengths, and analysis of implementation in the TMS320C54x digital signal processor. When the capabilities and the limitations of the components used were considered, the multiple access scheme chosen was a combination TDMA/FDMA scheme that will provide up to eight users on each of three separate frequencies. Packets to and from each user will consist of 16 samples at a rate of 8,000 samples per second for a total of 2 ms of voice information. The resulting voice feedback delay will therefore be 4 - 6 ms. The most practical FEC algorithm for implementation was a convolutional code with a Viterbi decoder. Interleaving of the bits of each packet will be required to offset the effects of burst errors.

  8. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  9. Advantages of full spectrum flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Claire K; Mourant, Judith R

    2013-03-01

    A charge coupled device-based flow-cytometer for the measurement of full spectra was implemented and characterized. The spectral resolution was better than 1.5 nm and the coefficient of variation for fluorescence from flow check beads was 5% or better. Both cell and bead data were analyzed by fitting to measured component spectra. Separation of flow check and align flow beads, which have similar spectra, was nearly identical whether using a spectral analysis or a scatter analysis. After mixing, cells stained with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide were measured at different timepoints. The contribution of these 12 nm separated emission spectra could be separately quantified and the kinetic process of the samples becoming homogeneous due to fluorophor dissociation and rebinding was observed. Principle component analysis was used to reduce noise and alternating least squares (ALS) was used to analyze one set of noise-reduced cell data without knowledge of the component spectra. The component spectra obtained via ALS are very similar to the measured component spectra. The contributions of ethidium bromide and propidium iodide to the individual spectra are also similar to those obtained via the spectral fitting procedure.

  10. Full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Daniel; Williams, W. D.

    1992-04-01

    A full-spectrum (encompassing radiation on both sides of the Wien displacement peak) multiwavelength pyrometer was developed. It measures the surface temperature of arbitrary nongray ceramics by curve fitting a spectrum in this spectral region to a Planck function of temperature T. This function of T is modified by the surface spectral emissivity. The emissivity function was derived experimentally from additional spectra that were obtained by using an auxiliary radiation source and from application of Kirchhoff's law. This emissivity was verified by results that were obtained independently by using electromagnetic and solid-state theories. In the presence of interfering reflected radiation this general pyrometry improves the accuracy of the measured temperature by measuring an additional spectrum that characterizes the interfering radiation source.

  11. Full Spectrum Education for Full Spectrum Operations: Educating the Army’s Junior Captains for Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Spectrum Operations SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJ STUART M. JAMES, USA...be flexible and mentally agile is already upon the Army. The Army has placed combat arms officers in charge of town meetings, economic development...in the chain of command who holds Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) authority over soldiers (e.g. the ability to charge and convict a soldier for

  12. Feasibility of full-spectrum endoscopy: Korea’s first full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopic trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong-Yeop; Cho, Youn Hee; Kim, Mi A; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Lee, Chun Tek; Lee, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) colonoscopy system as the first report on the utility thereof in a Korean population. METHODS: We explored the efficacy of the FUSE colonoscopy in a retrospective, single-center feasibility study performed between February 1 and July 20, 2015. A total of 262 subjects (age range: 22-80) underwent the FUSE colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening, polyp surveillance, or diagnostic evaluation. The cecal intubation success rate, the polyp detection rate (PDR), the adenoma detection rate (ADR), and the diverticulum detection rate (DDR), were calculated. Also, the success rates of therapeutic interventions were evaluated with biopsy confirmation. RESULTS: All patients completed the study and the success rates of cecal and terminal ileal intubation were 100% with the FUSE colonoscope; we found 313 polyps in 142 patients and 173 adenomas in 95. The overall PDR, ADR and DDR were 54.2%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively, and were higher in males, and increased with age. The endoscopists and nurses involved considered that the full-spectrum colonoscope improved navigation and orientation within the colon. No colonoscopy was aborted because of colonoscope malfunction. CONCLUSION: The FUSE colonoscopy yielded a higher PDR, ADR, DDR than did traditional colonoscopy, without therapeutic failure or complications, showing feasible, effective, and safe in this first Korean trial. PMID:26937150

  13. Assessing Full Spectrum BCT Engineer Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    volcano mine systems, six Mongoose MICLIC trailers, six HMEEs, six DEUCEs, one Bobcat skid steer tractor, four rapidly emplaced bridge systems (REBS), six...provide obstacle reduction capability. The full width plows and Mongoose MICLIC explosive 50 line clearing charges on the ABVs and the mine...rollers, plows, and Mongoose MICLIC systems for lane reduction. The Mobility Support Platoon of the SBCT engineer company has one hundred feet of Medium

  14. Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria for Rotorcraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    conducted at Yuma Proving Ground using a crane and drop tower with guide beam (Figure 6-8). Another example [90] of this type of guide beam system...guide beam was then lifted using a crane to achieve the desired inclination angle. The inclination angle and travel distance is selected such that when...The LandIR gantry is a steel A-frame structure that is 240-ft. high, 400-ft. long, and 265-ft. wide at the base. Full-scale crash tests are

  15. Particle precipitation: How the spectrum fit impacts atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, J. M.; Nieder, H.; Yakovchouk, O. S.; Sinnhuber, M.

    2016-11-01

    Particle precipitation causes atmospheric ionization. Modeled ionization rates are widely used in atmospheric chemistry/climate simulations of the upper atmosphere. As ionization rates are based on particle measurements some assumptions concerning the energy spectrum are required. While detectors measure particles binned into certain energy ranges only, the calculation of a ionization profile needs a fit for the whole energy spectrum. Therefore the following assumptions are needed: (a) fit function (e.g. power-law or Maxwellian), (b) energy range, (c) amount of segments in the spectral fit, (d) fixed or variable positions of intersections between these segments. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of different assumptions on ionization rates as well as their consequences for atmospheric chemistry modeling. As the assumptions about the particle spectrum are independent from the ionization model itself the results of this paper are not restricted to a single ionization model, even though the Atmospheric Ionization Module OSnabrück (AIMOS, Wissing and Kallenrode, 2009) is used here. We include protons only as this allows us to trace changes in the chemistry model directly back to the different assumptions without the need to interpret superposed ionization profiles. However, since every particle species requires a particle spectrum fit with the mentioned assumptions the results are generally applicable to all precipitating particles. The reader may argue that the selection of assumptions of the particle fit is of minor interest, but we would like to emphasize on this topic as it is a major, if not the main, source of discrepancies between different ionization models (and reality). Depending on the assumptions single ionization profiles may vary by a factor of 5, long-term calculations may show systematic over- or underestimation in specific altitudes and even for ideal setups the definition of the energy-range involves an intrinsic 25% uncertainty for the

  16. A neutrino model fit to the CMB power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, T.; Johnson, R. W. F.; Schewtschenko, J. A.; Whitbourn, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The standard cosmological model, Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM), provides an excellent fit to cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. However, the model has well-known problems. For example, the cosmological constant, Λ, is fine-tuned to 1 part in 10100 and the CDM particle is not yet detected in the laboratory. Shanks previously investigated a model which assumed neither exotic particles nor a cosmological constant but instead postulated a low Hubble constant (H0) to allow a baryon density compatible with inflation and zero spatial curvature. However, recent Planck results make it more difficult to reconcile such a model with CMB power spectra. Here, we relax the previous assumptions to assess the effects of assuming three active neutrinos of mass ≈5 eV. If we assume a low H0 ≈ 45 km s-1 Mpc-1 then, compared to the previous purely baryonic model, we find a significantly improved fit to the first three peaks of the Planck power spectrum. Nevertheless, the goodness of fit is still significantly worse than for ΛCDM and would require appeal to unknown systematic effects for the fit ever to be considered acceptable. A further serious problem is that the amplitude of fluctuations is low (σ8 ≈ 0.2), making it difficult to form galaxies by the present day. This might then require seeds, perhaps from a primordial magnetic field, to be invoked for galaxy formation. These and other problems demonstrate the difficulties faced by models other than ΛCDM in fitting ever more precise cosmological data.

  17. 2D-ELDOR using full S(c-) fitting and absorption lineshapes.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full S(c-) method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the S(c-) signal. The full S(c-) fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the S(c-) spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full S(c-) method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  18. 2D-ELDOR using full Sc- fitting and absorption lineshapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H.

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full Sc- method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the Sc- signal. The full Sc- fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the Sc- spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full Sc- method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  19. Effects of full-spectrum lighting in submarines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Luria, S.M.

    1987-04-09

    Crewmen on a nuclear submarine were monitored during two patrols, one during which the submarine was lighted with standard fluorescent lights and a second during which it was equipped with full-spectrum lights whose spectral distribution is much more similar to sunlight and emit a greater amount of high-energy ultraviolet light. The levels of 25-OH vitamin D in their blood was measured at the start and during the sixth week of each patrol. In addition, the men kept daily logs during the patrols noting such things as their health and mood. There was no evidence that the full-spectrum lights prevent the typical decline of vitamin D levels in the blood during a patrol. However, the initial levels of vitamin D in the blood were quite different, and it is difficult to interpret the results. The men preferred the full-spectrum light and rated their health as being better under this light, but this was not accompanied by higher ratings of mood or quality of sleep.

  20. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.

    2016-05-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence

  1. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  2. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics. PMID:27633055

  3. Full-spectrum analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, P H; Limburg, J; de Meijer, R J

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new system to measure natural gamma-radiation in situ will be presented. This system combines a high-efficiency BGO scintillation detector with full-spectrum data analysis (FSA). This technique uses the (nearly) full spectral shape and the so-called 'standard spectra' to calculate the activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 238U present in a geological matrix (sediment, rock, etc.). We describe the FSA and the determination of the standard spectra. Standard spectra are constructed for various geometries and a comparison in intensity and shape will be made. The performance of such a system has been compared to a more traditional system, consisting of a NaI detector in combination with the 'windows' analysis. For count rates typically encountered in field experiments, the same accuracy is obtained 10-20 times faster using the new system. This allows for shorter integration times and hence shorter measurements or a better spatial resolution. The applicability of such a system will be illustrated via an example of an airborne experiment in which the new system produced results comparable to those of much larger traditional systems. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the current status of the system and an outlook for future research.

  4. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Pearl L.H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  5. Embracing a Full Spectrum Definition of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In this viewpoint the author makes a case for developing a clear and concise definition of art therapy that can easily be adopted by art therapists working across a spectrum of theoretical frameworks. The reader is asked to widen the lens through which art therapy is defined by considering its influence on society, the mind, health, and behavior.…

  6. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  7. Quantum Dot Sensitized Nanotubes for Full Solar Spectrum Photovoltaic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Sohana

    The demand for energy with limited non-renewable sources of energy has called researchers to find clean renewable energy sources. Solar light is considered good choice of the alternate energy. Our effort in this work was to investigate efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems by designing a hybrid photoelectrode with good absorption as well as charge transport properties. A coupled semiconductor material, one-dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (1D TiO2-NTs), filled with low band semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), PbS QDs, for better charge carrier transport was prepared and investigated. The vertically standing self assembled nanotubular array was attained by anodizing the Ti metal in two different solutions: (1) Ethylene Glycol with 0.5 wt% NH4F and 3 vol percent water and (2) 0.5M H3PO4 with 0.5 wt% NH4F. The anodized samples were annealed and then filled with the nanoparticles of other low band gap semiconductor materials. The CdS nanoparticles were used for the better understanding of the sensitizing process. The material was then switched to the PbS. As in the hypothesis, if PbS quantum dots are uniformly distributed in the 1D TiO2 Multiple Charge Carrier Generation can be created since PbS has a small band gap. A chemical bath deposition process in the presence of ultrasonic waves was adopted for the deposition of the QDs. Saturated lead sulfide solution was used as the lead source and the 0.2 M Na2S solution for the sulfur source. The process resulted in the successful uniform deposition of the PbS QDs onto the 1D TiO2 NTs. The deposited compound obeyed the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 as desired. Photocurrent densities of 4.5 mA/cm2 was obtained, which is higher than the TiO2 alone in a polysulfide solution. PbS-TiO2 can be a suitable candidate for harvesting a broad solar spectrum as the UV-vis study proved that they absorb the light in the UV range.

  8. Combined Fit of Spectrum and Composition Data as Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2016-12-21

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above $5 \\cdot 10^{18}$ eV, i.e.~the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called "ankle" feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism. The fit results suggest sources characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies, hard spectra and heavy chemical composition. We also show that uncertainties about physical quantities relevant to UHECR propagation and shower development have a non-negligible impact on the fit results.

  9. Do We Need Norms of Fitness for Children with Autistic Spectrum Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Maurice; Dickinson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly sedentary habits of children, and rising obesity levels, are prompting concern for children's future health. Children with autistic spectrum condition (ASC) show a clear trend in this regard. Within school, an understanding of how an individual's fitness compares to age norms is important in order to design appropriate exercise…

  10. Heat transfer and pressure drop studies in a circular tube fitted with straight full twist

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Siva Rama; Pathipaka, Govardhan; Sivashanmugam, P.

    2009-03-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer characteristics of circular tube fitted with straight full twist insert has been presented. The heat transfer coefficient increases with Reynolds number and decreasing spacer distance with maximum being 2 in. spacer distance for both the type of twist inserts. Also, there is no appreciable increase in heat transfer enhancement in straight full twist insert with 2 in. spacer distance. Experiments were carried out in turbulent flow using straight full twist insert with 4 in. spacer and similar trend of increasing Nusselt number with Reynolds number was observed. Performance evaluation analysis was made and the maximum performance ratio was obtained for each twist insert corresponding to the Reynolds number of 2550. (author)

  11. Spectrum interrogation of fiber acoustic sensor based on self-fitting and differential method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Lu, Ping; Ni, Wenjun; Liao, Hao; Wang, Shun; Liu, Deming; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2017-02-20

    In this article, we propose an interrogation method of fiber acoustic sensor to recover the time-domain signal from the sensor spectrum. The optical spectrum of the sensor will show a ripple waveform when responding to acoustic signal due to the scanning process in a certain wavelength range. The reason behind this phenomenon is the dynamic variation of the sensor spectrum while the intensity of different wavelength is acquired at different time in a scanning period. The frequency components can be extracted from the ripple spectrum assisted by the wavelength scanning speed. The signal is able to be recovered by differential between the ripple spectrum and its self-fitted curve. The differential process can eliminate the interference caused by environmental perturbations such as temperature or refractive index (RI), etc. The proposed method is appropriate for fiber acoustic sensors based on gratings or interferometers. A long period grating (LPG) is adopted as an acoustic sensor head to prove the feasibility of the interrogation method in experiment. The ability to compensate the environmental fluctuations is also demonstrated.

  12. Accuracy of atmospheric parameters of FGK dwarfs determined by spectrum fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Tsymbal, V.; Titarenko, A.; Sitnova, T.; Alexeeva, S.; Fossati, L.; Mashonkina, L.

    2016-02-01

    We performed extensive tests of the accuracy of atmospheric parameter determination for FGK stars based on the spectrum fitting procedure Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME). Our stellar sample consists of 13 objects, including the Sun, in the temperature range 5000-6600 K and metallicity range -1.4-+0.4. The analysed stars have the advantage of having parameters derived by interferometry. For each star, we use spectra obtained with different spectrographs and different signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For the fitting, we adopted three different sets of constraints and test how the derived parameters depend upon the spectral regions (masks) used in SME. We developed and implemented in SME a new method for estimating uncertainties in the resulting parameters based on fitting residuals, partial derivatives, and data uncertainties. For stars in the 5700-6600 K range, the best agreement with the effective temperatures derived by interferometry is achieved when spectrum fitting includes the H α and H β lines, while for cooler stars the choice of the mask does not affect the results. The derived atmospheric parameters do not strongly depend on spectral resolution and S/N of the observations, while the uncertainties in temperature and surface gravity increase with increasing effective temperature, with minima at 50 K in Teff and 0.1 dex in log g, for spectra with S/N=150-200. A non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) analysis of the Ti I/Ti II and Fe I/Fe II ionization equilibria and abundances determined from the atomic C I (NLTE) and molecular CH species supports the parameters we derived with SME by fitting the observed spectra including the hydrogen lines.

  13. Full wave effects on the lower hybrid wave spectrum and driven current profile in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, S.; Ko, J.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J.; Ma, Y.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Wallace, G.; Wolfe, S. M.; C-Mod Group, Alcator; Scott, S.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-08-15

    A numerical modeling of current profile modification by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) using a fullwave/Fokker-Planck simulation code is presented. A MHD stable LHCD discharge on Alcator C-Mod was analyzed, and the current profile from full wave simulations was found to show better agreement with the experiment than a ray-tracing code. Comparison of full wave and ray-tracing simulation shows that, although ray-tracing can reproduce the stochastic wave spectrum broadening, the full wave calculation predicts even wider spectrum broadening, and the wave spectrum fills all of the kinematically allowed domain. This is the first demonstration of LHCD current profile modeling using a full wave simulation code in a multi-pass absorption regime, showing the clear impact of full wave effects on the LHCD driven current profile.

  14. P-MaNGA: full spectral fitting and stellar population maps from prototype observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Coccato, Lodovico; Tojeiro, Rita; Cappellari, Michele; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Blanton, Mike; Bundy, Kevin; Cales, Sabrina; Cherinka, Brian; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Li, Cheng; Maiolino, Roberto; Masters, Karen; Tremonti, Christy; Wake, David; Wang, Enci; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Zhang, Kai; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-05-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-yr SDSS-IV (Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV) survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600 to 10 300 Å for a representative sample of over 10 000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we derive spatially resolved stellar population properties and radial gradients by performing full spectral fitting of observed galaxy spectra from P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. These data include spectra for 18 galaxies, covering a large range of morphological type. We derive age, metallicity, dust, and stellar mass maps, and their radial gradients, using high spectral-resolution stellar population models, and assess the impact of varying the stellar library input to the models. We introduce a method to determine dust extinction which is able to give smooth stellar mass maps even in cases of high and spatially non-uniform dust attenuation. With the spectral fitting, we produce detailed maps of stellar population properties which allow us to identify galactic features among this diverse sample such as spiral structure, smooth radial profiles with little azimuthal structure in spheroidal galaxies, and spatially distinct galaxy sub-components. In agreement with the literature, we find the gradients for galaxies identified as early type to be on average flat in age, and negative (-0.15 dex/Re) in metallicity, whereas the gradients for late-type galaxies are on average negative in age (-0.39 dex/Re) and flat in metallicity. We demonstrate how different levels of data quality change the precision with which radial gradients can be measured. We show how this analysis, extended to the large numbers of MaNGA galaxies, will have the potential to shed light on galaxy structure and evolution.

  15. Hybrid nanocone forests with high absorption in full-solar spectrum for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yudong; Mao, Haiyang; Xiong, Jijun; Ming, Anjie; Wang, Weibing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, hybrid nanocone forests (HNFs) with high absorption in full-solar-spectrum are fabricated based on a plasma repolymerization technique. The HNFs combine light trapping effect of the nanocone forests with surface plasmon resonance effect of the metallic nanoparticles, thus can achieve an optimized absorption larger than 80% in the full-solar spectrum (i.e. 200-2500nm). Besides, with the hybrid nanostructures, the absorption decrease around the Si bandgap width can be narrowed greatly, while the normalized utilization efficiency of solar radiation can be increased. Therefore, usage of the HNFs as a texture structure in solar cells to obtain higher conversion efficiencies is foreseeable.

  16. Supporting Teachers' Journeys towards Full Inclusion of Students on the Autism Spectrum in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that some teachers still have a long way to go in regards to the full acceptance of students on the autism spectrum as learners with potential (Goodall, 2013). The gap between theoretical knowledge and actual understanding of individual potential of students with autism is difficult for many teachers. A lack of understanding can…

  17. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Heera, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm–4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc’s model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  18. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion.

  19. Enhance Color Rendering Index via Full Spectrum Employing the Important Key of Cyan Phosphor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mu-Huai; Ni, Chenchen; Zhang, Xuejie; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Mahlik, Sebastian; Lazarowska, Agata; Grinberg, Marek; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-11-16

    A new concept called "full-spectrum lighting" has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Traditional devices are usually combined with ultraviolet-light-emitting diode (LED), red, green, and blue phosphors. However, a cyan cavity exists in the 480-520 nm region. Hence, cyan phosphors are needed to compensate for the cavity. (Sr,Ba)5(PO4)3Cl:Eu(2+) phosphors feature an extremely unique and tunable photoluminescence spectrum. Nevertheless, the tuning mechanisms of these phosphors remain unclear. In this study, we elucidate the mechanism of the cation size-controlled activator uneven-occupation and reoxidation in (Sr,Ba)5(PO4)3Cl:Eu(2+) phosphors. This mechanism could help tune the optical properties of related apatite families and structures with multiple cation sites and strongly uneven occupation of activators and cations. Finally, the package of the LED device is constructed to show that both color rendering index Ra and R9 are higher than 95. Thus, the device could be a potential candidate for full-spectrum lighting.

  20. Analysis of the 237Np-233Pa photon spectrum using the full response function method.

    PubMed

    Shchukin, G; Iakovlev, K; Morel, J

    2004-01-01

    A study has been made of X- and gamma-ray emission from 237Np in equilibrium with 233Pa using the full response function method. This analysis process is characterised by photon spectrometry in which the entire spectrum is modelled in a pseudo-empirical way by means of elementary functions describing the total absorption and escape peaks, the Compton diffusion internal and external to the detector and the peaks resulting from detection of internal conversion electrons. This method has been applied to determine the L X-, K X- and gamma-rays emission probabilities in 237Np and 233Pa decay studies.

  1. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations.

    PubMed

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V; Elena, Santiago F

    2014-04-09

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  2. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  3. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  4. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  5. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  6. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  7. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  8. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  9. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  10. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  11. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  12. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  13. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and sizes. (b) Full facepieces shall provide for the optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses... provide an airtight seal. (d) Facepieces shall be designed to prevent eyepiece, spectacle, and...

  14. Isoparametric fitting: A method for approximating full-field experimental data distributed on any shaped 3D domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    With the present paper, the author proposes a fitting method for approximating experimental data retrieved from any full-field technique. Unlike most of the fitting procedures, the method works on data distributed on a surface of any shape, and the mathematical model is able to take into account of both the 3D shape of the surface and of the experimental quantity to be fitted. The paper reports all the mathematical steps necessary for applying the method, which was tested on two sets of experimental data obtained by an out-of-plane speckle interferometer working in two different conditions of noise. Experimental results showed the capability of the method to work in presence of high level of noise.

  15. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  16. A new method for COD analysis with full-spectrum based on Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei-wei; Li, Dan; Cai, Zong-qi; Hao, Fu-guo

    2016-09-01

    A new on-line monitoring system was developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water based on full-spectrum analysis. In this system, Artificial Neural Net (ANN) work was used to obtain the transmission equation between absorbance and COD value by measuring absorption spectra of water with known COD value, and then the established equation could inverse the COD values of the unknown water samples. For the COD determination of simulated complicated water samples, the instrumental reliability was well validated by a comparison made between the ANN method and the PLS method. The monitoring system of the ANN method provided advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high precision, no consumption of reagent. And it was demonstrated an ideal alternative to real-time and on-line monitoring of COD in water.

  17. Prediction of the bottomonium D-wave spectrum from full lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Daldrop, J O; Davies, C T H; Dowdall, R J

    2012-03-09

    We calculate the full spectrum of D-wave states in the Υ system in lattice QCD for the first time, by using an improved version of nonrelativistic QCD on coarse and fine "second-generation" gluon field configurations from the MILC Collaboration that include the effect of up, down, strange, and charm quarks in the sea. By taking the 2S-1S splitting to set the lattice spacing, we determine the (3)D2-1S splitting to 2.3% and find agreement with experiment. Our prediction of the fine structure relative to the (3)D2 gives the (3)D3 at 10.181(5) GeV and the (3)D1 at 10.147(6) GeV. We also discuss the overlap of (3)D1 operators with (3)S1 states.

  18. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Meeyoung; Lee, Kyeong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Min-Kie; Han, Ju-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Odyssey, one of the NASA¡¯s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  19. {upsilon} spectrum and m{sub b} from full lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Gulez, E.; Shigemitsu, J.; Allison, I.; Davies, C.T.H.; Lepage, G.P.; Wingate, M.

    2005-11-01

    We show results for the {upsilon} spectrum calculated in lattice QCD including for the first time vacuum polarization effects for light u and d quarks as well as s quarks. We use gluon field configurations generated by the MILC collaboration. The calculations compare the results for a variety of u and d quark masses, as well as making a comparison to quenched results (in which quark vacuum polarization is ignored) and results with only u and d quarks. The b quarks in the {upsilon} are treated in lattice Nonrelativistic QCD through NLO in an expansion in the velocity of the b quark. We concentrate on accurate results for orbital and radial splittings where we see clear agreement with experiment once u, d and s quark vacuum polarization effects are included. This now allows a consistent determination of the parameters of QCD. We demonstrate this consistency through the agreement of the {upsilon} and B spectrum using the same lattice bare b quark mass. A one-loop matching to continuum QCD gives a value for the b quark mass in full lattice QCD for the first time. We obtain m{sub b}{sup MS}(m{sub b}{sup MS})=4.4(3) GeV. We are able to give physical results for the heavy quark potential parameters, r{sub 0}=0.469(7) fm and r{sub 1}=0.321(5) fm. Results for the fine structure in the spectrum and the {upsilon} leptonic width are also presented. We predict the {upsilon}-{eta}{sub b} splitting to be 61(14) MeV, the {upsilon}{sup '}-{eta}{sub b}{sup '} splitting as 30(19) MeV and the splitting between the h{sub b} and the spin-average of the {chi}{sub b} states to be less than 6 MeV. Improvements to these calculations that will be made in the near future are discussed.

  20. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. Aim To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. Method A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. Results The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. Conclusions The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure. PMID:26938863

  1. Spectral reflectance characteristics of different snow and snow-covered land surface objects and mixed spectrum fitting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.-H.; Zhou, Z.-M.; Wang, P.-J.; Yao, F.-M.; Yang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The field spectroradiometer was used to measure spectra of different snow and snow-covered land surface objects in Beijing area. The result showed that for a pure snow spectrum, the snow reflectance peaks appeared from visible to 800 nm band locations; there was an obvious absorption valley of snow spectrum near 1030 nm wavelength. Compared with fresh snow, the reflection peaks of the old snow and melting snow showed different degrees of decline in the ranges of 300~1300, 1700~1800 and 2200~2300 nm, the lowest was from the compacted snow and frozen ice. For the vegetation and snow mixed spectral characteristics, it was indicated that the spectral reflectance increased for the snow-covered land types(including pine leaf with snow and pine leaf on snow background), due to the influence of snow background in the range of 350~1300 nm. However, the spectrum reflectance of mixed pixel remained a vegetation spectral characteristic. In the end, based on the spectrum analysis of snow, vegetation, and mixed snow/vegetation pixels, the mixed spectral fitting equations were established, and the results showed that there was good correlation between spectral curves by simulation fitting and observed ones(correlation coefficient R2=0.9509).

  2. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  3. Preliminary Experience Using Full-Spectrum Endoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sayo; Imai, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Masao; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. High-quality colonoscopy is needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) has recently shown potential in improving adenoma detection during colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Methods. From April 2015 to February 2016, 130 patients underwent FUSE colonoscopy for screening at a tertiary cancer center. Cecal intubation rate (CIR), procedure time, polyp/adenoma detection rate (PDR/ADR), and mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC) were compared in matched-control patients (n = 260) who underwent standard colonoscopy (SC). Accordingly, endoscopists subjectively evaluated the utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Results. The CIR of FUSE colonoscopy was 94.6%. Cecal intubation time (8.8 min versus 5.1 min, P < 0.001) and total procedure time (21.6 min versus 17.3 min, P < 0.001) in the FUSE group were significantly longer than those in the SC group. PDR (68.3 versus 71.2%, P = 0.567), ADR (63.4% versus 58.5%, P = 0.355), and APC (1.4 versus 1.4, P = 0.917) were not significantly different between the two groups. The wide view of FUSE colonoscopy was superior to that of SC based on the questionnaires. Conclusions. FUSE colonoscopy did not demonstrate superiority to SC in a clinical setting. PMID:27994617

  4. Full Spectrum Visible LED Light Activated Antibacterial System Realized by Optimized Cu2O Crystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaotong; Xue, Chaowen; Fang, Fang; Song, Xiangwei; Yu, Fen; Liu, Miaoxing; Wei, Zhipeng; Fang, Xuan; Zhao, Dongxu; Xin, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-04-06

    Assisted by three-dimensional printing technology, we proposed and demonstrated a full spectrum visible light activated antibacterial system by using a combination of 500 nm sized Cu2O crystals and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Further improved antibacterial ratios were achieved, for the first time, with pure Cu2O for both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria among all of the six different color LED lamps. For practical antibacterial applications, we revealed that the nonwoven fabric could act as excellent carrier for Cu2O crystals and provide impressive antibacterial performance. Furthermore, integrated with our self-developed app, the poly(ethylene terephthalate) film loaded with Cu2O crystals also showed significant antibacterial property, thus making it possible to be applied in field of touch screen. The present research not only provided a healthier alternative to traditional ultraviolet-based sterilization but also opened an auto-response manner to decrease the rate of microbial contamination on billions of touch screen devices.

  5. Langevin simulation of the full QCD hadron mass spectrum on a lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Oyanagi, Y.; Ukawa, A.

    1987-08-01

    Langevin simulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a lattice is carried out fully taking into account the effect of the quark vacuum polarization. It is shown that the Langevin method works well for full QCD and that simulation on a large lattice is practically feasible. A careful study is made of systematic errors arising from a finite Langevin time-step size. The magnitude of the error is found to be significant for light quarks, but the well-controlled extrapolation allows a separation of the values at the vanishing time-step size. As another important ingredient for the feasibility of Langevin simulation the advantage of the matrix inversion algorithm of the preconditioned conjugate residual method is described, as compared with various other algorithms. The results of a hadron-mass-spectrum calculation on a 9/sup 3/ x 18 lattice at ..beta.. = 5.5 with the Wilson quark action having two flavors are presented. It is shown that the contribution of vacuum quark loops significantly modifies the hadron masses in lattice units, but that the dominant part can be absorbed into a shift of the gauge coupling constant at least for the ground-state hadrons. Some suggestion is also presented for the physical effect of vacuum quark loops for excited hadrons.

  6. Full Spectrum of LPS Activation in Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Volunteers by Whole Transcriptomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; Zhao, Jing; Donahoe, Michael P.; Barge, Suchitra; Horne, William T.; Kolls, Jay K.; McVerry, Bryan J.; Birukova, Anastasiya; Tighe, Robert M.; Foster, W. Michael; Hollingsworth, John; Ray, Anuradha; Mallampalli, Rama; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding macrophage activation, little is known regarding how human alveolar macrophages in health calibrate its transcriptional response to canonical TLR4 activation. In this study, we examined the full spectrum of LPS activation and determined whether the transcriptomic profile of human alveolar macrophages is distinguished by a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dominant type I interferon signature. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were obtained from healthy volunteers, stimulated in the presence or absence of ultrapure LPS in vitro, and whole transcriptomic profiling was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). LPS induced a robust type I interferon transcriptional response and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7 as the top upstream regulator of 89 known gene targets. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)-18, a negative regulator of interferon α/β responses, was among the top up-regulated genes in addition to IL10 and USP41, a novel gene with no known biological function but with high sequence homology to USP18. We determined whether IRF-7 and USP-18 can influence downstream macrophage effector cytokine production such as IL-10. We show that IRF-7 siRNA knockdown enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and USP-18 overexpression attenuated LPS-induced production of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of USP18, USP41, IL10, and IRF7. An independent cohort confirmed LPS induction of USP41 and IL10 genes. These results suggest that IRF-7 and predicted downstream target USP18, both elements of a type I interferon gene signature identified by RNA-Seq, may serve to fine-tune early cytokine response by calibrating IL-10 production in human alveolar macrophages. PMID:27434537

  7. Application of the full spectrum inversion algorithm to simulated airborne GPS radio occultation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Loknath; Xie, Feiqin; Haase, Jennifer S.

    2016-10-01

    With a GPS receiver on board an airplane, the airborne radio occultation (ARO) technique provides dense lower-tropospheric soundings over target regions. Large variations in water vapor in the troposphere cause strong signal multipath, which could lead to systematic errors in RO retrievals with the geometric optics (GO) method. The spaceborne GPS RO community has successfully developed the full-spectrum inversion (FSI) technique to solve the multipath problem. This paper is the first to adapt the FSI technique to retrieve atmospheric properties (bending and refractivity) from ARO signals, where it is necessary to compensate for the receiver traveling on a non-circular trajectory inside the atmosphere, and its use is demonstrated using an end-to-end simulation system. The forward-simulated GPS L1 (1575.42 MHz) signal amplitude and phase are used to test the modified FSI algorithm. The ARO FSI method is capable of reconstructing the fine vertical structure of the moist lower troposphere in the presence of severe multipath, which otherwise leads to large retrieval errors in the GO retrieval. The sensitivity of the modified FSI-retrieved bending angle and refractivity to errors in signal amplitude and errors in the measured refractivity at the receiver is presented. Accurate bending angle retrievals can be obtained from the surface up to ˜ 250 m below the receiver at typical flight altitudes above the tropopause, above which the retrieved bending angle becomes highly sensitive to the phase measurement noise. Abrupt changes in the signal amplitude that are a challenge for receiver tracking and geometric optics bending angle retrieval techniques do not produce any systematic bias in the FSI retrievals when the SNR is high. For very low SNR, the FSI performs as expected from theoretical considerations. The 1 % in situ refractivity measurement errors at the receiver height can introduce a maximum refractivity retrieval error of 0.5 % (1 K) near the receiver, but

  8. Experience the Full Spectrum of Social Studies. World Cultures: Science, Reading, Mathematics, Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy J.

    This collection of 20 classroom activities, games, and problem sets has been revised over several years to fit the changing needs of students. They are designed to introduce students to world cultures through activity participation in the areas of science, reading, mathematics and art. The various cultures explored include: ancient Egypt, ancient…

  9. ICPES analyses using full image spectra and astronomical data fitting algorithms to provide diagnostic and result information

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Goode, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    ICP emission analyses are prone to errors due to changes in power level, nebulization rate, plasma temperature, and sample matrix. As a result, accurate analyses of complex samples often require frequent bracketing with matrix matched standards. Information needed to track and correct the matrix errors is contained in the emission spectrum. But most commercial software packages use only the analyte line emission to determine concentrations. Changes in plasma temperature and the nebulization rate are reflected by changes in the hydrogen line widths, the oxygen emission, and neutral ion line ratios. Argon and off-line emissions provide a measure to correct the power level and the background scattering occurring in the polychromator. The authors` studies indicated that changes in the intensity of the Ar 404.4 nm line readily flag most matrix and plasma condition modifications. Carbon lines can be used to monitor the impact of organics on the analyses and calcium and argon lines can be used to correct for spectral drift and alignment. Spectra of contaminated groundwater and simulated defense waste glasses were obtained using a Thermo Jarrell Ash ICP that has an echelle CID detector system covering the 190-850 nm range. The echelle images were translated to the FITS data format, which astronomers recommend for data storage. Data reduction packages such as those in the ESO-MIDAS/ECHELLE and DAOPHOT programs were tried with limited success. The radial point spread function was evaluated as a possible improved peak intensity measurement instead of the common pixel averaging approach used in the commercial ICP software. Several algorithms were evaluated to align and automatically scale the background and reference spectra. A new data reduction approach that utilizes standard reference images, successive subtractions, and residual analyses has been evaluated to correct for matrix effects.

  10. The use of full spectrum digital photography for evidence collection and preservation in cases involving forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Franklin D; Golden, Gregory S

    2010-09-10

    Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and, perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that occur when light strikes skin.

  11. Application of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the Brillouin spectrum fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuankai; Yang, Yuanhong; Li, Anqi

    2008-10-01

    Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing system based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering frequency shift measurement may measure temperature in the optical fiber, due to the dependence of spontaneous Brillouin scattering frequency shift on temperature. In this paper, nonlinear theoretical models of the Brillouin spectrum in the BOTDR temperature sensing system are analyzed. The model parameters are optimized with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. By numerical calculation, it is indicated that pseudo-Voigt function can approach approximated the Voigt profile well and quickly.

  12. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    PubMed

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  13. Transport of Intensity phase imaging by intensity spectrum fitting of exponentially spaced defocus planes.

    PubMed

    Jingshan, Zhong; Claus, Rene A; Dauwels, Justin; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2014-05-05

    We propose an alternative method for solving the Transport of Intensity equation (TIE) from a stack of through-focus intensity images taken by a microscope or lensless imager. Our method enables quantitative phase and amplitude imaging with improved accuracy and reduced data capture, while also being computationally efficient and robust to noise. We use prior knowledge of how intensity varies with propagation in the spatial frequency domain in order to constrain a fitting algorithm [Gaussian process (GP) regression] for estimating the axial intensity derivative. Solving the problem in the frequency domain inspires an efficient measurement scheme which captures images at exponentially spaced focal steps, significantly reducing the number of images required. Low-frequency artifacts that plague traditional TIE methods can be suppressed without an excessive number of captured images. We validate our technique experimentally by recovering the phase of human cheek cells in a brightfield microscope.

  14. Full spectrum of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models

    SciTech Connect

    Dossa, Anselme F. E-mail: ansdossa@gmail.com; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H. E-mail: gavossevou@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the rigorous analytical determination of the spectrum of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models. To reach this goal, we exploit the hidden symmetries in these models by means of the unitary and similarity transformations in addition to the Bargmann-Fock space description. In each case, the purely quantum mechanical problem of the Rabi model studied is reduced to solutions for differential equations. This eventually gives a third-order differential equation for each of these models, which is reduced to a second-order differential equation by additional transformations. The analytical expressions of the wave functions describing the energy levels are obtained in terms of the confluent hypergeometric functions.

  15. Autism Spectrum Phenotype in Males and Females with Fragile X Full Mutation and Premutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang M.; Huggins, Richard; Taylor, Annette K.; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2007-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of autism was assessed in individuals with full mutation and premutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Generic (ADOS-G) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). The participants, aged 5-80 years, comprised 33 males and 31 females with full mutation, 7 males and 43 females with…

  16. Vision Research Literature May Not Represent the Full Intellectual Range of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alyse C.; Chouinard, Philippe A.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2017-01-01

    Sensory, in particular visual processing is recognized as often perturbed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, in terms of the literature pertaining to visual processing, individuals in the normal intelligence range (IQ = 90–110) and above, are more frequently represented in study samples than individuals who score below normal in the borderline intellectual disability (ID) (IQ = 71–85) to ID (IQ < 70) ranges. This raises concerns as to whether or not current research is generalizable to a disorder that is often co-morbid with ID. Thus, the aim of this review is to better understand to what extent the current ASD visual processing literature is representative of the entire ASD population as either diagnosed or recognized under DSM-5. Our recalculation of ASD prevalence figures, using the criteria of DSM-5, indicates approximately 40% of the ASD population are likely to be ID although searching of the visual processing literature in ASD up to July 2016 showed that only 20% of papers included the ASD with-ID population. In the published literature, the mean IQ sampled was found to be 104, with about 80% of studies sampling from the 96–115 of the IQ range, highlighting the marked under-representation of the ID and borderline ID sections of the ASD population. We conclude that current understanding of visual processing and perception in ASD is not based on the mean IQ profile of the DSM-5 defined ASD population that now appears to lie within the borderline ID to ID range. Give the importance of the role of vision for the social and cognitive processing in ASD, we recommend accurately representing ASD via greater inclusion of individuals with IQ below 80, in future ASD research. PMID:28261072

  17. Comparative quantification of dietary supplemented neural creatine concentrations with (1)H-MRS peak fitting and basis spectrum methods.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Russell, Bruce R; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical procedure that can be used to non-invasively measure the concentration of a range of neural metabolites. Creatine is an important neurometabolite with dietary supplementation offering therapeutic potential for neurological disorders with dysfunctional energetic processes. Neural creatine concentrations can be probed using proton MRS and quantified using a range of software packages based on different analytical methods. This experiment examines the differences in quantification performance of two commonly used analysis packages following a creatine supplementation strategy with potential therapeutic application. Human participants followed a seven day dietary supplementation regime in a placebo-controlled, cross-over design interspersed with a five week wash-out period. Spectroscopy data were acquired the day immediately following supplementation and analyzed with two commonly-used software packages which employ vastly different quantification methods. Results demonstrate that neural creatine concentration was augmented following creatine supplementation when analyzed using the peak fitting method of quantification (105.9%±10.1). In contrast, no change in neural creatine levels were detected with supplementation when analysis was conducted using the basis spectrum method of quantification (102.6%±8.6). Results suggest that software packages that employ the peak fitting procedure for spectral quantification are possibly more sensitive to subtle changes in neural creatine concentrations. The relative simplicity of the spectroscopy sequence and the data analysis procedure suggest that peak fitting procedures may be the most effective means of metabolite quantification when detection of subtle alterations in neural metabolites is necessary. The straightforward technique can be used on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system.

  18. Maximizing the Psychological Battlespace: Effectively Planning and Integrating Operational-Level Psychological Operations (PSYOP) into Full-Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maximizing the Psychological Battlespace: Effectively 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Planning and Integrating Operational-Level Psychological 5b. GRANT NUMBER Operations (PSYOP) into Full-Spectrum Operations 5c. PROGRAM...is a non-trivial process, especially in the asymmetric threat environments experienced during GWOT. PSYOP is an alchemy that combines elements of

  19. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons as full-spectrum light harvesting photocatalyst for environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanbit; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Kim, Yujin; Ma, Rory; Choi, Jiha; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    The inferior utilization efficiency of light is the main obstacle to the practical application of traditional photocatalysts such as TiO2 and ZnO. In this regard, the development of novel photocatalysts with the capability of harvesting full spectrum light (from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR)) energy is a promising solution for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. Here, we report the discovery of a single material that can harvest UV, visible (VIS), and NIR radiations to decompose heavy metal contaminants in aqueous solution. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons were synthesized through a facile solution approach and employed in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-VIS-NIR pulsed laser irradiation, which was generated from the fundamental, second and third harmonics of Nd:YAG laser, respectively. The nanostructures showed efficient Cr(VI) reduction under UV, VIS and NIR laser irradiation and the measured reduction efficiency (%) was 71.22%, 69.52%, and 40.79%, respectively after 120 min. A possible explanation for the photocatalytic activity in Cr(VI) reduction was proposed. This is the first study of its kind where pulsed laser and ZIF-67 rhombic dodecahedrons capable of harvesting full spectrum light energy have been employed for the removal of Cr(VI) from water. The extraordinary capacity of harvesting full-spectrum light and long-term stability make ZIF-67 a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  20. Spectrum of a lattice exciton in a transverse magnetic field: Emergence of full translational symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berciu, Mona

    2014-06-01

    We show that even in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, the eigenstates of an exciton remain invariant to the full lattice translation group. This is expected if the exciton is viewed as a neutral quasiparticle, but not if one views it as a bound electron-hole pair. Single electron and hole wave functions are invariant only to the magnetic translation group, and their momenta are restricted to the magnetic Brillouin zone; the associated folding is the origin of their Hofstadter butterfly spectra. We find that such folding is not necessary for exciton eigenstates, which are characterized by momenta in the full Brillouin zone and thus have higher symmetry than the Hamiltonian. The magnetic field can have a significant effect on the shape of the exciton dispersion, however. While similar effects have been noted in continuous models, we find qualitatively different behavior for Frenkel excitons, whose origin we clarify. We also derive an analytical solution for the Hofstadter butterfly on a square lattice and analyze its dispersion in the full Brillouin zone.

  1. In situ γ-ray spectrometry in the marine environment using full spectrum analysis for natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Androulakaki, E G; Kokkoris, M; Tsabaris, C; Eleftheriou, G; Patiris, D L; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2016-08-01

    The Full Spectrum Analysis approach was applied to obtain activity concentration estimations for in situ measurements in the marine environment. The 'standard spectra' were reproduced using the MCNP-CP code. In order to extract the activity concentrations, χ(2) minimization calculations were performed by implementing the MINUIT code. The method was applied to estimate the activity concentrations for measurements in the marine environment in three different test cases. The estimated activity concentrations were in good agreement with the experimentally derived ones within uncertainties.

  2. Effect of color on pilot performance and transfer functions using a full-spectrum, calligraphic, color display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The use of blue and red color in out-of-window cockpit displays, in full-spectrum calligraphic computer-generated display systems, is studied with attention given to pilot stereographic depth perception and response to visual cues. Displays for vertical approach, with dynamic and frozen-range landing approach and perspective arrays, are analyzed. Pilot transfer function and the transfer function associated with the contrasted approach and perspective arrays are discussed. Out-of-window blue lights are perceived by pilots as indicating greater distance depth, red lights as indicating proximity. The computer-generated chromatic display was adapted to flight simulators for the tests.

  3. Full spectrum optical safeguard

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Mark R.

    2008-12-02

    An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

  4. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  5. Proximal Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy to Predict Soil Properties Using Windows and Full-Spectrum Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B.; van Henten, Eldert J.

    2013-01-01

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0–15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0–15 cm soil depths than in the 15–30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method. PMID:24287541

  6. Information-bearing acoustic change outperforms duration in predicting intelligibility of full-spectrum and noise-vocoded sentences.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian E

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between information-bearing acoustic changes in the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The availability of information-bearing acoustic changes reliably predicts intelligibility of full-spectrum [Stilp and Kluender (2010). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(27), 12387-12392] and noise-vocoded sentences amid noise interruption [Stilp et al. (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(2), EL136-EL141]. However, other research reports that proportion of signal duration preserved also predicts intelligibility of noise-interrupted speech. These factors have only ever been investigated independently, obscuring whether one better explains speech perception. The present experiments manipulated both factors to answer this question. A broad range of sentence durations (160-480 ms) containing high or low information-bearing acoustic changes were replaced by speech-shaped noise in noise-vocoded (Experiment 1) and full-spectrum sentences (Experiment 2). Sentence intelligibility worsened with increasing noise replacement, but in both experiments, information-bearing acoustic change was a statistically superior predictor of performance. Perception relied more heavily on information-bearing acoustic changes in poorer listening conditions (in spectrally degraded sentences and amid increasing noise replacement). Highly linear relationships between measures of information and performance suggest that exploiting information-bearing acoustic change is a shared principle underlying perception of acoustically rich and degraded speech. Results demonstrate the explanatory power of information-theoretic approaches for speech perception.

  7. A full-spectrum analysis of high-speed train interior noise under multi-physical-field coupling excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show

  8. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shapes and sizes. (b) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses... of corrective spectacles or lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer....

  9. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer. (c) Mouthpieces shall be equipped.... (d) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses which shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shapes and sizes. (b) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses... of corrective spectacles or lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer....

  11. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer. (c) Mouthpieces shall be equipped.... (d) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses which shall...

  12. Aperiodic TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal: full-visible-spectrum solar light harvesting in photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-09-23

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Saad, Ahmed S.; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-01

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models.

  14. Evaluation of the marginal fit of full ceramic crowns by the microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) technique

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Necla; Ozturk, Atiye Nilgun; Malkoc, Meral Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the marginal gap (MG) and absolute marginal discrepancy (MD) of full ceramic crowns with two finish line designs, shoulder and chamfer, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) before and after cementation. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were divided into two groups based on the finish line design: Group I: 90° shoulder and Group II: 135° chamfer. The specimens were further grouped based on the type of full ceramic crown they received: Group A: Feldspathic Cerec inLab ceramic system, Group B: Cerec inLab aluminum oxide ceramic system and Group C: Lithium disilicate press ceramic system. Before cementation, five crowns from each group were scanned using micro-CT in two sections, sagittal and coronal, to determine the MG and MD values for four regions of the crown (sagittal buccal, sagittal lingual, coronal mesial and coronal distal). After cementation and thermal cycling, the scanning was repeated. Measurements were obtained from 10 points for each region, 80 points totally, to evaluate the MG and MD values. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Results were statistically analyzed using one- and two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P = 0.05). Results: Full ceramic systems showed clinically acceptable marginal adaptation values. The Feldspathic Cerec inLab ceramic system generally presented the lowest variance, except in the MG values of the coronal mesial region. The MG and MD values of all ceramics increased significantly after cementation, except in the shoulder preparation design (sagittal buccal region) for MG and in the chamfer preparation design (sagittal lingual region) for MD values. Conclusions: Full-ceramic crowns showed clinically acceptable marginal adaptation values. The Feldspathic Cerec inLab ceramic system (Vitablocs Mark II) generally presented the lowest variance when compared with the other ceramics, except for the MG values on the mesial surface of the coronal section

  15. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-09-01

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamical calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical tilde{B}{}^1A^' }leftarrow tilde{X}{}^1A^' } UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045-20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201-4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438-10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.

  16. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-09-28

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamical calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical B{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′}←X{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′} UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045–20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201–4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438–10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.

  17. MODELING THE NONLINEAR CLUSTERING IN MODIFIED GRAVITY MODELS. I. A FITTING FORMULA FOR THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM OF f(R) GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Based on a suite of N-body simulations of the Hu-Sawicki model of f(R) gravity with different sets of model and cosmological parameters, we develop a new fitting formula with a numeric code, MGHalofit, to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. We compare the MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z ≤ 1) to the f(R) simulations and find that the relative error of the MGHalofit fitting formula of P(k) is no larger than 6% at k ≤ 1 h Mpc{sup –1} and 12% at k in (1, 10] h Mpc{sup –1}, respectively. Based on a sensitivity study of an ongoing and a future spectroscopic survey, we estimate the detectability of a signal of modified gravity described by the Hu-Sawicki model using the power spectrum up to quasi-nonlinear scales.

  18. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. Furthermore, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Our results demonstrate that all-optical control of light can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals. PMID:27682836

  19. A full-spectrum k-distribution look-up table for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous gaseous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaojun; Ge, Wenjun; Modest, Michael F.; He, Boshu

    2016-01-01

    A full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) look-up table has been constructed for gas mixtures within a certain range of thermodynamic states for three species, i.e., CO2, H2O and CO. The k-distribution of a mixture is assembled directly from the summation of the linear absorption coefficients of three species. The systematic approach to generate the table, including the generation of the pressure-based absorption coefficient and the generation of the k-distribution, is discussed. To efficiently obtain accurate k-values for arbitrary thermodynamic states from tabulated values, a 6-D linear interpolation method is employed. A large number of radiative heat transfer calculations have been carried out to test the accuracy of the FSK look-up table. Results show that, using the FSK look-up table can provide excellent accuracy compared to the exact results. Without the time-consuming process of assembling k-distribution from individual species plus mixing, using the FSK look-up table can save considerable computational cost. To evaluate the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the FSK look-up table, radiative heat transfer via a scaled Sandia D Flame is calculated to compare the CPU execution time using the FSK method based on the narrow-band database, correlations, and the look-up table. Results show that the FSK look-up table can provide a computationally cheap alternative without much sacrifice in accuracy.

  20. Aperiodic TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal: Full-Visible-Spectrum Solar Light Harvesting in Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25245854

  1. Effects of correlated noise on the full-spectrum combining and complex-symbol combining arraying techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazirani, P.

    1995-01-01

    The process of combining telemetry signals received at multiple antennas, commonly referred to as arraying, can be used to improve communication link performance in the Deep Space Network (DSN). By coherently adding telemetry from multiple receiving sites, arraying produces an enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over that achievable with any single antenna in the array. A number of different techniques for arraying have been proposed and their performances analyzed in past literature. These analyses have compared different arraying schemes under the assumption that the signals contain additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and that the noise observed at distinct antennas is independent. In situations where an unwanted background body is visible to multiple antennas in the array, however, the assumption of independent noises is no longer applicable. A planet with significant radiation emissions in the frequency band of interest can be one such source of correlated noise. For example, during much of Galileo's tour of Jupiter, the planet will contribute significantly to the total system noise at various ground stations. This article analyzes the effects of correlated noise on two arraying schemes currently being considered for DSN applications: full-spectrum combining (FSC) and complex-symbol combining (CSC). A framework is presented for characterizing the correlated noise based on physical parameters, and the impact of the noise correlation on the array performance is assessed for each scheme.

  2. Full life-cycle assessment of gene flow consistent with fitness differences in transgenic and wild-type Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Pennington, Kelly M; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Morton, Michael S; Cooper, Anne M; Miller, Loren M

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic fish in development for aquaculture could escape from farms and interbreed with wild relatives in the nearby environment. Predicting whether escapes would result in transgene introgression is a major challenge in assessing environmental risks of transgenic fish. Previous studies have simulated gene flow from transgenic fish using mathematical modeling of fitness traits to predict the relative selective value of transgenic genotypes. Here, we present the first study of gene flow over the full life cycle in openly-breeding populations of transgenic animals, along with measurement of fitness traits. We conducted two invasion experiments in which we released two lines of growth-enhanced transgenic fish (T67 and T400), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), into populations of wild-type (W) medaka in structured mesocosms. After several generations, the frequency of transgenic fish varied across replicates in the first invasion experiment (6 months), but the frequency of transgenic fish decreased in the second experiment (19 months). We also measured selected fitness traits in transgenic and wild-type medaka because these traits could be used to predict the relative selective value of a genotype. We found that: T400 males were more fertile than W males; offspring of W females lived longer than those with transgenic mothers; and W and T67 females reached sexual maturity sooner than T400 females. In contrast with other research that reported larger transgenic males had a mating advantage, we found that W males obtained more matings with females than T males; genetic background effects may account for our differing results as we compared W and T fish derived from different strains. The decreasing frequency of transgenic fish in the second invasion experiment suggests that transgenic fish had a selective disadvantage in the experimental environment. Our finding of transgenic advantage of some fitness traits and wild-type advantage in others is consistent with our

  3. Social Skills Success for Students with Autism/Asperger's: Helping Adolescents on the Spectrum to Fit In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Two nationally known experts in friendship formation and anxiety management address the social challenges faced by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The book helps educators instruct youth on conversing with others, displaying appropriate body language, managing anxiety, initiating and participating in get-togethers, and more. The…

  4. High-Level, First-Principles, Full-Dimensional Quantum Calculation of the Ro-vibrational Spectrum of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Carter, Stuart; Bowman, Joel M; Dawes, Richard; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2014-07-03

    The ro-vibrational spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) has been determined quantum mechanically based on nine-dimensional potential energy and dipole surfaces for its ground electronic state. The potential energy surface is fitted to more than 50 000 high-level ab initio points with a root-mean-square error of 25 cm(-1), using a recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial neural network method. The calculated rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, and spectral intensities of CH2OO are in excellent agreement with experiment. The potential energy surface provides a valuable platform for studying highly excited vibrational and unimolecular reaction dynamics of this important molecule.

  5. Report to the President: Realizing the Full Potential of Government-Held Spectrum to Spur Economic Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Information Administration Robert J. Baxley Senior Research Engineer Georgia Tech Research Institute Coleman Bazelon Economist The Brattle Group...Policy Verizon Robert W. Brodersen Co­Scientific Director Berkeley Wireless Research Center Mary Brown Director of Government Affairs Cisco Systems Leonard...President, Regulatory Affairs CTIA – The Wireless Association S.M. Hasan RF Engineer GE Global Research Robert Horvitz Open Spectrum Alliance Frank Jager

  6. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-10-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report emphasizes the design of the thermophotovoltaic receiver and the whole system simulation model.

  7. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2002-09-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

  8. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-01-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

  9. FOURFIT-A Computer Code for Determining Equivalent Nuclear Yield and Peak Overpressure by a Fourier Spectrum Fit Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-25

    NBPTS equal to 2048. Each array must be at least large enough to accomodate this value. i3 7% 4 z 32 "- : -" ,-. - -.- ;-.°. :. .’ -,i...F5.2.5X..WI -,*F5.2) WR:TE(48. 113) IOPT.IFILT ICOUNT *0 NBPTS 2048 IF(IOPT.EO.3) GO TO 7 CALL EBREAD IF(IOPT.EO.2) GO TO 666 CALL FIT 7 ICOUINT - I CALL...UPON THE POSITIVE PHASE DURATION. DTB - DP/ NBPTS GO TO 15 5 ISTL(i) - IOHWITH FOURF ISTL(2) - iGHIT SPEICHE ISTL(3) - 1OHR-BRODE ISTL(4) - 10H ISTL(5

  10. Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

    2006-03-30

    This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

  11. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Cross-Cutting R & D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; David L. Beshears

    2006-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations: Niche applications for HSL technology, Luminaire design characteristics for linear and point lighting fixtures, and Daylight affects on productivity.

  12. Laboratory Observations of the Full Spectrum of Fault Slip Modes: Implications for the Mechanics of Slow Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, J.; Saffer, D. M.; Scuderi, M.; Marone, C.

    2015-12-01

    Faults fail in a spectrum of slip behavior as demonstrated by slow slip events, slow and low-frequency earthquakes, episodic tremor and slip, and non-volcanic tremor. The underlying causes of this spectrum of behavior and the processes that control the failure mode of a particular fault are poorly understood, and constitute one of the most pressing conundrums of the field. Field observations provide documentation of slow-slip events at many different locations, but provide little insight into their mechanism. We present a systematic experimental study of slow slip and provide a mechanical explanation for the spectrum of fault slip modes from slow, aseismic slip to fast earthquake-like stick-slip. Utilizing a double-direct shear configuration in a bi-axial apparatus, we conducted constant loading velocity shearing tests. The effective system stiffness was altered by changing the effective normal stress and via the material used for the loading blocks. In experiments that exhibited stable sliding, we conducted velocity step tests to estimate the rate-and-state parameters of the material. From the rate-and-state parameters, we calculate the predicted critical stiffness value (kc) at which frictional failure should transition from stable to unstable sliding. We find that slow slip occurs near the stability threshold, which is in turn controlled by the interplay of fault frictional properties, effective normal stress, and elastic stiffness of the surrounding rock. Moreover, both the peak slip velocity and the duration of slip vary systematically with distance from the stability threshold, expressed as a ratio of the system stiffness to the critical stiffness (k/kc). Our results suggest a general mechanism for slow earthquakes and the spectrum of fault slip behaviors. Such a mechanism is consistent with the broad range of geologic environments in which these phenomena are observed, from subduction zones to the low-angle normal faults at the base of fast moving ice

  13. Extension of the measurement, assignment, and fit of the rotational spectrum of the two-top molecule methyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle; Shipman, Steven T.; Mae, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Kazue; Hatanaka, Shota; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2014-05-01

    New and previous spectroscopic data were recorded for the two-top molecule methyl acetate using five spectrometers in four different labs: a room temperature chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometer in the frequency range from 8.7 to 26.5 GHz, two molecular beam FTMW spectrometers (2-40 GHz), a free jet absorption Stark-modulated spectrometer (60-78 GHz), and a room temperature millimeter-wave spectrometer (44-68 GHz). Approximately 800 new lines with J up to 40 and K up to 16 were assigned. In total, 1603 lines were fitted with 34 parameters using an internal rotation Hamiltonian in the Rho Axis Method (RAM) and the program BELGI-Cs-2tops to standard deviations close to the experimental uncertainties. More precise determinations of the top-top interaction and the J, K dependent parameters were carried out.

  14. Investigation of the full spectrum phonon lifetime in thin silicon films from the bulk spectral phonon mean-free-path distribution by using kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jae Sik

    2017-03-01

    Phonon dynamics in nanostructures is critically important to thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices because it determines the transport and other crucial properties. However, accurately evaluating the phonon lifetimes is extremely difficult. This study reports on the development of a new semi-empirical method to estimate the full-spectrum phonon lifetimes in thin silicon films at room temperature based on the experimental data on the phonon mean-free-path spectrum in bulk silicon and a phenomenological consideration of phonon transport in thin films. The bulk of this work describes the theory and the validation; then, we discuss the trend of the phonon lifetimes in thin silicon films when their thicknesses decrease.

  15. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2004-08-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  16. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2005-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system: (1) Performance specifications were developed for the tracking subsystem and collector optics, (2) Thermal management experiments for the fiber optic bundle entrance region, and (3) Bioreactor testing, cost-modeling, and redesign. Much of the planned work has been slowed due to significant procurement delays of the primary mirror. However, taken as a whole, they do confirm progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. Due to this procurement delay, a no-cost extension of the project completion date has been requested and approved.

  17. Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-02-14

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.

  18. Realizing full visible spectrum metamaterial half-wave plates with patterned metal nanoarray/insulator/metal film structure.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanmeng; Ren, Wenzhen; Cai, Hongbing; Ding, Huaiyi; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-04-07

    Abrupt phase shift introduced by plasmonic resonances has been frequently used to design subwavelength wave plates for optical integration. Here, with the sandwich structure consisting of a top periodic patterned silver nanopatch, an in-between insulator layer and a bottom thick Au film, we realize a broadband half-wave plate which is capable to cover entire visible light spectrum ranging from 400 to 780 nm. Moreover, when the top layer is replaced with a periodic array of composite super unit cell comprised of two nanopatches with different sizes, the operation bandwidth can be further improved to exceed an octave (400-830 nm). In particular, we demonstrate that the designed half-wave plate can be used efficiently to rotate the polarization state of an ultra-fast light pulse with reserved pulse width. Our result offers a new strategy to design and construct broadband high efficiency phase-response based optical components using patterned metal nanoarray/insulator/metal structure.

  19. Identification of novel virulence genes and metabolic pathways required for full fitness of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive (Olea europaea) knots.

    PubMed

    Matas, Isabel M; Lambertsen, Lotte; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Ramos, Cayo

    2012-12-01

    Comparative genomics and functional analysis of Pseudomonas syringae and related pathogens have mainly focused on diseases of herbaceous plants; however, there is a general lack of knowledge about the virulence and pathogenicity determinants required for infection of woody plants. Here, we applied signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) to Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi during colonization of olive (Olea europaea) knots, with the goal of identifying the range of genes linked to growth and symptom production in its plant host. A total of 58 different genes were identified, and most mutations resulted in hypovirulence in woody olive plants. Sequence analysis of STM mutations allowed us to identify metabolic pathways required for full fitness of P. savastanoi in olive and revealed novel mechanisms involved in the virulence of this pathogen, some of which are essential for full colonization of olive knots by the pathogen and for the lysis of host cells. This first application of STM to a P. syringae-like pathogen provides confirmation of functional capabilities long believed to play a role in the survival and virulence of this group of pathogens but not adequately tested before, and unravels novel factors not correlated previously with the virulence of other plant or animal bacterial pathogens.

  20. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based chemometric methods for the simultaneous determination of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate in laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawakkol, Shereen M.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Hemdan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Three chemometric methods namely, concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS) and partial least squares (PLS) were applied for the simultaneous quantitative determination of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate in their binary mixtures. All techniques were applied with and without variable selection using genetic algorithm (GA) resulting in six models (CRACLS, GA-CRACLS, SRACLS, GA-SRACLS, PLS, GA-PLS). These models were applied for the simultaneous determination of the drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form via handling their UV spectral data. It was found that GA based models are simpler and more robust than those built with the full spectral data. The proposed models were found to be simple, fast and require no preliminary separation steps; so they can be used for the routine analysis of this binary mixture in quality control laboratories.

  1. Measurement of the w boson mass at the Collider Detector at Fermilab from a fit to the transverse momentum spectrum of the muon

    SciTech Connect

    Vollrath, Ian Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a measurement of the W boson mass from a fit to the transverse momentum spectrum of the muon in W decay. In past measurements this technique was used as a cross-check, however, now presents the best method in terms of systematic uncertainty. We discuss all sources of systematic uncertainty with emphasis on those to which the muon pT measurement is particularly sensitive, specifically, those associated with modeling the production and decay of W bosons. The data were collected with the CDF II detector between March 2002 and September 2003 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of (191 ± 11) pb-1. We measure the W mass to be (80.316 ± 0.066stat. ± 0.051syst.) GeV/c2 = (80.316 ± 0.083) GeV/c2.

  2. Half or full core hole in density functional theory X-ray absorption spectrum calculations of water?

    PubMed

    Cavalleri, Matteo; Odelius, Michael; Nordlund, Dennis; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2005-08-07

    We analyze the performance of two different core-hole potentials in the theoretical modeling of XAS of ice, liquid and gas phase water; the use of a full core-hole (FCH) in the calculations, as suggested by Hetenyi et al. [B. Hetenyi, F. De Angelis, P. Giamozzi and R. Car, J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 120(18), 8632], gives poor agreement with experiment in terms of intensity distribution as well as transition energies, while the half core hole (HCH) potential, in the case of water, provides a better compromise between initial and final state effects, leading to good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Full-Spectrum Polarized Lighting in a Mail Processing/Office Space

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2001-06-14

    An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of full-spectrum polarized lighting in a work space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual mail processing/office work area provided the capability of evaluating the technologies effectiveness in the real world.

  4. Full particle orbit tracing with the RIO code in the presence of broad-spectrum MHD activity in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Tsidulko, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In order to better understand the behaviour of both neutral beam injected and spontaneously generated fast ions in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch, we have developed the full orbit-following code random ion orbits (RIO). The low magnetic field and relatively large level of MHD activity present in MST require a full orbit code as the guiding centre assumptions are violated even for ions with modest energy. Furthermore, quasi-periodic bursts of MHD activity (sawteeth) generate large transient electric fields and significant modifications to the equilibrium magnetic fields. Understanding the full effect of these sawteeth on the spatial and velocity distribution of the fast ions is of great interest. To this end, RIO now has the ability to take the full 3D, time evolving, magnetic and electric fields produced by the visco-resistive MHD code DEBS as input. In static cases, where broad-spectrum magnetic perturbations from DEBS are input, but fixed in time, beam injected ions are found to be generally well confined with the core fast ion density profile largely unaffected by the magnetic modes while the fast ion density in the mid-radius is substantially reduced. In the dynamic case, the large amplitude magnetic fluctuations that occur at the sawtooth crash produce substantial fast ion loss. Those fast ions that are not lost are accelerated by a large, transient, parallel electric field in the co-current direction. This causes the average energy of the beam ions to increase by ˜20%, consistent with recent experimental measurements.

  5. Titanium Dioxide/Upconversion Nanoparticles/Cadmium Sulfide Nanofibers Enable Enhanced Full-Spectrum Absorption for Superior Solar Light Driven Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Wan-Ni; Cong, Huai-Ping; Qian, Hai-Sheng

    2016-06-22

    In this work, we demonstrate an electrospinning technique to fabricate TiO2 /upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)/CdS nanofibers on large scale. In addition, the as-prepared TiO2 nanofibers are incorporated with a high population of UCNPs and CdS nanospheres; this results in Förster resonance energy-transfer configurations of the UCNPs, TiO2 , and CdS nanospheres that are in close proximity. Hence, strong fluorescent emissions for the Tm(3+) ions including the (1) G4 →(3) H6 transition are efficiently transferred to TiO2 and the CdS nanoparticles through an energy-transfer process. The as-prepared TiO2 /UCNPs/CdS nanofibers exhibit full-spectrum solar-energy absorption and enable the efficient degradation of organic dyes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the UCNPs and TiO2 (or CdS). The UCNPs/TiO2 /CdS nanofibers may also have enhanced energy-transfer efficiency for wide applications in solar cells, bioimaging, photodynamics, and chemotherapy.

  6. A 13µW 87dB dynamic range implantable ΔΣ modulator for full-spectrum neural recording.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Islam, Md Kafiul; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Experiment analysis on in-vivo data sequences suggests a wide system dynamic range (DR) is required to simultaneously record local field potentials (LFPs), extra-cellular spikes, and artifacts/interferences. In this paper, we present a 13 µW 87 dB DR ΔΣ modulator for full-spectrum neural recording. To achieve a wide DR and low power consumption, a fully-differential topology is used with multi-bit (MB) quantization scheme and switched-opamp (SO) technique. By adopting a novel fully-clocked scheme, a power-efficient current-mirror SO is developed with 50% power saving, which doubles the figure-of-merit (FOM) over its counterpart. A new static power-less multi-bit quantizer with 96% power and 69% area reduction is also introduced. Besides, instead of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor, three high-density MOS capacitor (MOSCAP) structures are employed to reduce circuit area. Measurement results show a peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 85 dB with 10 kHz bandwidth at 1.0 V supply, corresponding to an FOM of 45 fJ/conv.-step. which is implemented in a 0.18 µm CMOS.

  7. Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Symptom Flares: Characterization of the Full Spectrum of Flares at Two Sites of the Mapp Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A.; Goodman, Melody S.; Pakpahan, Ratna; Vetter, Joel; Ness, Timothy J.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Lai, H. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the full spectrum of symptom exacerbations defined by interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients as flares, and to investigate their associated health-care utilization and bother at two sites of the Trans-Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (Trans-MAPP) Epidemiology and Phenotyping study. Patients and methods Participants completed a flare survey that asked them: 1) whether they had ever had flares (“symptoms that are much worse than usual”) that lasted <1 hr, >1 hr and <1 day, and >1 day; and 2) for each duration of flare, to report their: a) average length and frequency; b) typical levels of urologic and pelvic pain symptoms; and c) levels of health-care utilization and bother. We compared participants' responses to their non-flare Trans-MAPP values and across flares using generalized linear mixed models. Results Seventy six of 85 participants (89.4%) completed the flare survey, 72 of whom reported having flares (94.7%). Flares varied widely in terms of their duration (seconds to months), frequency (several times per day to once per year or less), and intensity and type of symptoms (e.g., pelvic pain versus urologic symptoms). Flares of all duration were associated with greater pelvic pain, urologic symptoms, disruption to participants' activities, and bother, with increasing severity of each of these factors as the duration of flares increased. Days-long flares were also associated with greater health-care utilization. In addition to duration, symptoms (pelvic pain, in particular) were also significant determinants of flare-related bother. Conclusions Our findings suggest that flares are common and associated with greater symptoms, health-care utilization, disruption, and bother. Our findings also inform the characteristics of flares most bothersome to patients (i.e., increased pelvic pain and duration), and thus of greatest importance to

  8. Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides rb1 and rg1 to be proposed as standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Woung; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Da-Hye; Her, Youl; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2011-11-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for Rb1 and 0.485% for Rg1, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

  9. Power spectrum analysis with least-squares fitting: amplitude bias and its elimination, with application to optical tweezers and atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    Optical tweezers and atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers are often calibrated by fitting their experimental power spectra of Brownian motion. We demonstrate here that if this is done with typical weighted least-squares methods, the result is a bias of relative size between -2/n and +1/n on the value of the fitted diffusion coefficient. Here, n is the number of power spectra averaged over, so typical calibrations contain 10%-20% bias. Both the sign and the size of the bias depend on the weighting scheme applied. Hence, so do length-scale calibrations based on the diffusion coefficient. The fitted value for the characteristic frequency is not affected by this bias. For the AFM then, force measurements are not affected provided an independent length-scale calibration is available. For optical tweezers there is no such luck, since the spring constant is found as the ratio of the characteristic frequency and the diffusion coefficient. We give analytical results for the weight-dependent bias for the wide class of systems whose dynamics is described by a linear (integro)differential equation with additive noise, white or colored. Examples are optical tweezers with hydrodynamic self-interaction and aliasing, calibration of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models in finance, models for cell migration in biology, etc. Because the bias takes the form of a simple multiplicative factor on the fitted amplitude (e.g. the diffusion coefficient), it is straightforward to remove and the user will need minimal modifications to his or her favorite least-squares fitting programs. Results are demonstrated and illustrated using synthetic data, so we can compare fits with known true values. We also fit some commonly occurring power spectra once-and-for-all in the sense that we give their parameter values and associated error bars as explicit functions of experimental power-spectral values.

  10. Oxygen vacancy induced Bi2WO6 for the realization of photocatalytic CO2 reduction over the full solar spectrum: from the UV to the NIR region.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin Ying; Choo, Yen Yee; Chai, Siang-Piao; Soh, Ai Kah; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2016-12-06

    Photocatalytic CO2 reduction over the UV-Vis-NIR broad spectrum was realized for the first time. The presence of surface oxygen vacancy defects on Bi2WO6 resulted in significant photocatalytic enhancement over the pristine counterpart under UV and visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic responsiveness of Bi2WO6-OV was successfully extended to the NIR region.

  11. Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Plasmids Does Not Reduce Fitness but Enhances Virulence in Some Strains of Pandemic E. coli Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Schaufler, Katharina; Semmler, Torsten; Pickard, Derek J.; de Toro, María; de la Cruz, Fernando; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa; Guenther, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages occur frequently worldwide, not only in a human health context but in animals and the environment, also in settings with low antimicrobial pressures. This study investigated the fitness costs of ESBL-plasmids and their influence on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence, such as those involved in the planktonic and sessile behaviors of ST131 and ST648 E. coli. ESBL-plasmid-carrying wild-type E. coli strains, their corresponding ESBL-plasmid-“cured” variants (PCV), and complementary ESBL-carrying transformants were comparatively analyzed using growth curves, Omnilog® phenotype microarray (PM) assays, macrocolony and biofilm formation, swimming motility, and RNA sequence analysis. Growth curves and PM results pointed toward similar growth and metabolic behaviors among the strains. Phenotypic differences in some strains were detected, including enhanced curli fimbriae and/or cellulose production as well as a reduced swimming capacity of some ESBL-carrying strains, as compared to their respective PCVs. RNA sequencing mostly confirmed the phenotypic results, suggesting that the chromosomally encoded csgD pathway is a key factor involved. These results contradict the hypothesis that ESBL-plasmid-carriage leads to a fitness loss in ESBL-carrying strains. Instead, the results indicate an influence of some ESBL-plasmids on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence in some E. coli strains. In conclusion, apart from antibiotic resistance selective advantages, ESBL-plasmid-carriage may also lead to enhanced virulence or adaption to specific habitats in some strains of pandemic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages. PMID:27014251

  12. Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Plasmids Does Not Reduce Fitness but Enhances Virulence in Some Strains of Pandemic E. coli Lineages.

    PubMed

    Schaufler, Katharina; Semmler, Torsten; Pickard, Derek J; de Toro, María; de la Cruz, Fernando; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa; Guenther, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages occur frequently worldwide, not only in a human health context but in animals and the environment, also in settings with low antimicrobial pressures. This study investigated the fitness costs of ESBL-plasmids and their influence on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence, such as those involved in the planktonic and sessile behaviors of ST131 and ST648 E. coli. ESBL-plasmid-carrying wild-type E. coli strains, their corresponding ESBL-plasmid-"cured" variants (PCV), and complementary ESBL-carrying transformants were comparatively analyzed using growth curves, Omnilog® phenotype microarray (PM) assays, macrocolony and biofilm formation, swimming motility, and RNA sequence analysis. Growth curves and PM results pointed toward similar growth and metabolic behaviors among the strains. Phenotypic differences in some strains were detected, including enhanced curli fimbriae and/or cellulose production as well as a reduced swimming capacity of some ESBL-carrying strains, as compared to their respective PCVs. RNA sequencing mostly confirmed the phenotypic results, suggesting that the chromosomally encoded csgD pathway is a key factor involved. These results contradict the hypothesis that ESBL-plasmid-carriage leads to a fitness loss in ESBL-carrying strains. Instead, the results indicate an influence of some ESBL-plasmids on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence in some E. coli strains. In conclusion, apart from antibiotic resistance selective advantages, ESBL-plasmid-carriage may also lead to enhanced virulence or adaption to specific habitats in some strains of pandemic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages.

  13. Assessment of electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) parameters of YAG:Ce3 +, TAG:Ce3 + and LuAG:Ce3 + garnet phosphors by spectrum fitting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Govind B.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    The electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) in 4f ↔ 5d optical transitions of Ce3 + ions in YAG, TAG and LuAG garnet phosphors have been analysed in this work. The main EVI parameters that have been estimated and reported here are Huang-Rhys factor, effective phonon energy, Stokes shift, red shift and Zero-phonon line position. The EVI parameters were estimated from the room temperature photoluminescence results that were recently reported. The spectrum fitting method was employed to determine the EVI parameters. An emission band was modelled with the aid of the calculated EVI parameters. The agreement between the modelled emission bands with the experimentally obtained ones validated the estimated values of EVI parameters.

  14. The sex ratio of full and half siblings of people diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder: a Danish Nationwide Register Study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2014-10-01

    In the extreme male brain theory of autism sex steroid hormones are hypothesized to influence brain development and to mediate sex differences in developmental psychopathology. Within this scope we examined the sex ratio (proportion of males) in siblings of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We did a nationwide, register based cohort study of the sex ratio in 17,380 siblings of the 10,297 patients diagnosed with ASD at age 17 years and younger and registered in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 1994 and 2012. Among the 17,380 siblings 8,828 were males and 8,552 females. This yields a sex ratio of 0.508, which is not different from the Danish live birth sex ratio of 0.513 during the relevant years (P = 0.18). Overall, our findings provide no support for the hypothesis that there are relatively more males among the siblings of people with ASD. Accordingly, our results do not give support to the extreme male brain theory of autism.

  15. The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve

    2016-03-01

    A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum.

  16. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-07-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15-30 labels simultaneously.

  17. Gauging the Fullness of our Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    cognitive dissonance amongst Army senior leaders and within the Army officer corps. The strategic environment facilitates the nation’s ability to...and the civil- military relationship can create dissonant ideas for individuals and the institution. This monograph concludes with recommendations for...officer education to address these three concerns. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Civil-Military Relations, Cognitive Dissonance , Command and General Staff

  18. Using the full IASI spectrum for the physical retrieval of temperature, H2O, HDO, O3, minor and trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, C.; Blasi, M. G.; Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Venafra, S.

    2017-02-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer) is flying on the European MetOp series of weather satellites. Besides acquiring temperature and humidity data, IASI also observes the infrared emission of the main minor and trace atmospheric components with high precision. The retrieval of these gases would be highly beneficial to the efforts of scientists monitoring Earths climate. IASI retrieval capability and algorithms have been mostly driven by Numerical Weather Prediction centers, whose limited resources for data transmission and computing is hampering the full exploitation of IASI information content. The quest for real or nearly real time processing has affected the precision of the estimation of minor and trace gases, which are normally retrieved on a very coarse spatial grid. The paper presents the very first retrieval of the complete suite of IASI target parameters by exploiting all its 8461 channels. The analysis has been exemplified for sea surface and the target parameters will include sea surface temperature, temperature profile, water vapour and HDO profiles, ozone profile, total column amount of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, HNO3, NH3, OCS and CF4. Concerning CO2, CH4 and N2O, it will be shown that their colum amount can be obtained for each single IASI IFOV (Instantaneous Field of View) with a precision better than 1-2%, which opens the possibility to analyze, e.g., the formation of regional patterns of greenhouse gases. To assess the quality of the retrieval, a case study has been set up which considers two years of IASI soundings over the Hawaii, Manua Loa validation station.

  19. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants.A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases.A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171-11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365-27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors for stage II NEC progressing to

  20. Full Spectrum Operations: A Running Start

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    exposing them to ultra-violet light). In systems using ultra- violet (UV) light, this step occurs last in the process as the previous two steps... Wastewater and Wastewater Effluent Processing .” Global Water Group, Inc, Dallas, Texas. Online database. http://www.globalwater.com/index.html...the nature of the BCT or create a new organization. To generate a running start, I will focus on two problems faced during the critical transition

  1. Preliminary Rotary Wing Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    6.2.1 Injury Risk Due to Occupant Loads Cervical forces and moments are to be used to evaluate injury to the head/neck, torso acceleration is used to...injury) for dynamic neck tension (lifting forces) at the occipital condyles (C0-C1, upper neck) and cervical vertebrae (C7-T1, lower neck) are defined...Neck Compression and Shear Force Limits The maximum acceptable cervical compression and shear force limits are defined in the following table

  2. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  3. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water-dimer III: Mixed Jacobi-valence parametrization and benchmark results for the zero point energy, vibrationally excited states, and infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-06-01

    Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H5O2+ cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D2d symmetry, instead of the G16 symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.

  4. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water-dimer III: Mixed Jacobi-valence parametrization and benchmark results for the zero point energy, vibrationally excited states, and infrared spectrum.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-06-21

    Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H(5)O(2)(+) cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D(2d) symmetry, instead of the G(16) symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.

  5. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  6. Darwinian fitness.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Ziehe, Martin

    2007-11-01

    The term Darwinian fitness refers to the capacity of a variant type to invade and displace the resident population in competition for available resources. Classical models of this dynamical process claim that competitive outcome is a deterministic event which is regulated by the population growth rate, called the Malthusian parameter. Recent analytic studies of the dynamics of competition in terms of diffusion processes show that growth rate predicts invasion success only in populations of infinite size. In populations of finite size, competitive outcome is a stochastic process--contingent on resource constraints--which is determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state condition after a random perturbation in the individual birth and death rates. This return rate, a measure of robustness or population stability, is analytically characterized by the demographic parameter, evolutionary entropy, a measure of the uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn. This article appeals to computational and numerical methods to contrast the predictive power of the Malthusian and the entropic principles. The computational analysis rejects the Malthusian model and is consistent with of the entropic principle. These studies thus provide support for the general claim that entropy is the appropriate measure of Darwinian fitness and constitutes an evolutionary parameter with broad predictive and explanatory powers.

  7. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: Method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R.

    2014-01-01

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ˜30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C6H5OH({tilde X}{}1 A^' ) + hv → C6H5OH(tilde A{}1 A^', {tilde B}{}^1{A^' ' }) → C6H5O({tilde X}{}^2B_1, {tilde A}{}^2B_2) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,31A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  8. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R

    2014-01-14

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ∼30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C6H5OH(X̃(1)A(')) + hv → C6H5OH(Ã(1)A('), B̃(1)A('')) → C6H5O(X̃(2)B1, Ã(2)B2) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,3(1)A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  9. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: Method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.

    2014-01-14

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ∼30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH(X{sup ~1}A{sup ′}) + hv → C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH(A{sup ~1}A{sup ′}, B{sup ~1}A{sup ′′}) → C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}, A{sup ~2}B{sub 2}) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,3{sup 1}A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  10. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Ready to start a fitness program? Measure your fitness level with a few simple tests. ... 14, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20046433 . Mayo Clinic ...

  11. Coloring the FITS Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

  12. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  13. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  14. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  15. The Goodness of Simultaneous Fits in ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Matthias; Falkner, Sebastian; Grossberger, Christoph; Ballhausen, Ralf; Dauser, Thomas; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E.; Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Torrejón, José Miguel; Fürst, Felix; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Kretschmar, Peter; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-02-01

    In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008-57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  16. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  17. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  18. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conference News Contact Us Donate The Zellweger Spectrum Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and Infantile Refsum’s ... of severity of disease. What causes the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? As we mentioned, disorders of the ...

  19. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  20. A Battery Test to Evaluate Life-Time Physical Fitness With Same Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshizuka, Tetsuo

    A combination of physical fitness tests designed to be administered to a wide spectrum of the population, male and female, children and adults, is described. Three tests are included in this battery--motor fitness, physical fitness, and sports fitness. The philosophy behind this test structure is that motor fitness tests only measure and indicate…

  1. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  2. Atmospheric Properties Of T Dwarfs Inferred From Model Fits At Low Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorla Godfrey, Paige A.; Rice, Emily L.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Douglas, Stephanie E.

    2016-09-01

    Brown dwarf spectral types (M, L, T, Y) correlate with spectral morphology, and generally appear to correspond with decreasing mass and effective temperature (Teff). Model fits to observed spectra suggest, however, that spectral subclasses do not share this monotonic temperature correlation, indicating that secondary parameters (gravity, metallicity, dust) significantly influence spectral morphology. We seekto disentangle the fundamental parameters that underlie the spectral type sequence of the coolest fully populated spectral class of brown dwarfs using atmosphere models. We investigate the relationship between spectral type and best fit model parameters for a sample of over 150 T dwarfs with low resolution (R 75-100) near-infrared ( 0.8-2.5 micron) SpeX Prism spectra. We use synthetic spectra from four model grids (Saumon & Marley 2008, Morley+ 2012, Saumon+ 2012, BT Settl 2013) and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis to determine robust best fit parameters and their uncertainties. We compare the consistency of each model grid by performing our analysis on the full spectrum and also on individual wavelength bands (Y,J,H,K). We find more consistent results between the J band and full spectrum fits and that our best fit spectral type-Teff results agree with the polynomial relationships of Stephens+2009 and Filippazzo+ 2015 using bolometric luminosities. Our analysis consists of the most extensive low resolution T dwarf model comparison to date, and lays the foundation for interpretation of cool brown dwarf and exoplanet spectra.

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. Outdoor fitness routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  5. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  6. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  7. Laboratory millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of CCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Helminger, P.; Charo, A.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The laboratory millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of the interstellar radical CCH has been observed and measured in the 174-350 GHz region. The fitted spectral constants are in excellent agreement with those determined from radioastronomical measurement.

  8. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  9. Full Tolerant Archiving System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

    2013-10-01

    The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

  10. Quantum algorithm for data fitting.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Braun, Daniel; Lloyd, Seth

    2012-08-03

    We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)]. In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data are pure quantum states, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum-state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

  11. Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

  12. Improving NEC Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    requirements and in managing personnel by tracking sailors who have acquired these skills. NEC Fit is one of two primary metrics that Navy leadership...with a rating. They are used in defining manpower requirements and in personnel management to track sailors who have acquired these skills. NEC Fit...of the new NEC requirements in the Total Force Manpower Management System (TFMMS) for Fit levels to reach their steady state. The primary reason for

  13. Crash Testing of Helicopter Airframe Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Charles W.; Townsend, William; Boitnott, Richard

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Rotary Wing Structures Technology Demonstration (RWSTD) program, a surrogate RAH-66 seat attachment fitting was dynamically tested to assess its response to transient, crash impact loads. The dynamic response of this composite material fitting was compared to the performance of an identical fitting subjected to quasi-static loads of similar magnitude. Static and dynamic tests were conducted of both smaller bench level and larger full-scale test articles. At the bench level, the seat fitting was supported in a steel fixture, and in the full-scale tests, the fitting was integrated into a surrogate RAH-66 forward fuselage. Based upon the lessons learned, an improved method to design, analyze, and test similar composite material fittings is proposed.

  14. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2016-03-01

    I present the automated line fitting algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT, ALFA provides a powerful way to rapidly extract physical information from observations, an increasingly vital function in the era of highly multiplexed spectroscopy. The two codes can deliver a reliable and comprehensive analysis of very large data sets in a few hours with little or no user interaction.

  15. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  16. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  17. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  18. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  19. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  20. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  1. Outfitting Campus Fitness Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Explains how universities and colleges, both private and public, are including fitness centers as ways of increasing their student enrollment levels. Comments are provided on school experiences in fitness-center design, equipment purchasing, and maintenance and operating-costs issues. (GR)

  2. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  3. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Gary Peter

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed…

  4. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  5. Full Spectrum Training and Development: Soldier Skills and Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank the Soldiers at Fort Knox who provided valuable feedback in developing the Instructor’s Peer -to- Peer Learning Guide for the...social interaction on learning . Teachers or knowledgeable peers guide the student with questions and structured activities. This social interaction...the cadre sharpen their instructional practices 1 2 3 4 5 d. The guide can help improve the student learning process 1 2 3 4 5 e. The guide can

  6. Full Spectrum Operations: Is This the Science of Victory?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    security risk to the United States. (Maximum 200 Words) This error exists partly because of the method through which the Army develops operating...concepts. Today, the U. S. Army conducts capabilities-based operating concept development , instead of the threat-based method it used in the past...Second Reader John C. DeJarnette , COL, EN ___________________________________ Director, Wayne W. Grigsby, Jr., COL, IN

  7. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  8. A Full Spectrum Case for the Heavy Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    achieve the holy grail of perfect situational awareness, precluding the ‗legacy‘ need for heavy armor protection, proved to be more hope than science...point was to generate protected mobile firepower and create positional advantage via maneuver at the lowest possible cost in blood . Armies did not

  9. Arrowhead Ripper: Adaptive Leadership in Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of the city. Local mills processed flour from a combination of Iraqi wheat and imported grain, and agents delivered it to the citizens. However...U.S. imported wheat milled into flour and baked that very morning in a local mill that had been previously inoperable for over a year. Even while we...food basket” consisting of rice, flour , tea, sugar, soap, and beans delivered to the people by the food agents who were government employees. Except

  10. C2 of Space: The Key to Full Spectrum Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    created the Air Force Research Laboratory in 1997, AFRL/IF was tasked to provide Information Dominance technologies to the warfighter. These critical...principles allowing the future Battle Manager’s control of the battlespace. The first five ITTPs come under AFRL’s Information Dominance thrust area...Real-time Sensor-to-Shooter, falls under the Precision Strike thrust area. This paper provides a brief background regarding Information Dominance and

  11. Understanding the Full Spectrum of Organ Injury Following Intrapartum Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    LaRosa, Domenic A.; Ellery, Stacey J.; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a significant global health problem, responsible for ~1.2 million neonatal deaths each year worldwide. Those who survive often suffer from a range of health issues including brain damage—manifesting as cerebral palsy (CP)—respiratory insufficiency, cardiovascular collapse, and renal dysfunction, to name a few. Although the majority of research is directed toward reducing the brain injury that results from intrapartum birth asphyxia, the multi-organ injury observed in surviving neonates is of equal importance. Despite the advent of hypothermia therapy for the treatment of hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), treatment options following asphyxia at birth remain limited, particularly in low-resource settings where the incidence of birth asphyxia is highest. Furthermore, although cooling of the neonate results in improved neurological outcomes for a small proportion of treated infants, it does not provide any benefit to the other organ systems affected by asphyxia at birth. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the multi-organ effects of intrapartum asphyxia, with particular reference to the findings from our laboratory using the precocial spiny mouse to model birth asphyxia. Furthermore, we reviewed the current treatments available for neonates who have undergone intrapartum asphyxia, and highlight the emergence of maternal dietary creatine supplementation as a preventative therapy, which has been shown to provide multi-organ protection from birth asphyxia-induced injury in our preclinical studies. This cheap and effective nutritional supplement may be the key to reducing birth asphyxia-induced death and disability, particularly in low-resource settings where current treatments are unavailable. PMID:28261573

  12. Spectrum Analysis of Low and Full Birthweight Newborn Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    Based on findings that report differences between cries of normal and clinically abnormal infants, this study examined the relationship between birthweight and behavioral and acoustic features of neonatal cry because of the long-standing association between birthweight, perinatal trauma, and subsequent development. Subjects were 88 neonates…

  13. Building Cultural Capability for Full-Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Research Fellows Jason Brunner, Lisa Gulick, Jeff Herman , Chris Vowels, and Margo Woller provided note-taking and other administrative support for workshop...a review of the relevant research literature (see Abbe, Gulick, & Herman , 2007, and Brown, Christensen, & Abbe, in preparation). However, because no...Menon, 2001). Some variables shown to activate culturally-based cognition and affect in previous research include the language (Perunovic, Heller

  14. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  15. Finding Time for Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise strategy to improve health and fitness? Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism. 2014;39:409. Gibala MJ, ... interval training in health and disease. Journal of Physiology. 2012;590:1077. Aug. 06, 2016 Original article: ...

  16. Exponentially fitted symplectic integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, T. E.; Vigo-Aguiar, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for constructing efficient symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian problems is introduced. This procedure is based on the combination of the exponential fitting technique and symplecticness conditions. Based on this procedure, a simple modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic exponentially fitted method is developed. We give explicitly the symplecticness conditions for the modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström method. We also give the exponential fitting and trigonometric fitting conditions. Numerical results indicate that the present method is much more efficient than the “classical” symplectic Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic method introduced by M.P. Calvo and J.M. Sanz-Serna [J. Sci. Comput. (USA) 14, 1237 (1993)]. We note that the present procedure is appropriate for all near-unimodal systems.

  17. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  18. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 -- Exercise for Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- Nutrition 2011 -- Winter Health 2010 -- Healthy Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

  19. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Shoes should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch as ... damage, people with diabetes may not feel a shoe rubbing against the skin of their foot. Blisters ...

  20. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  1. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  2. Measuring epistasis in fitness landscapes: The correlation of fitness effects of mutations.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Luca; Schmiegelt, Benjamin; Weinreich, Daniel; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Tajima, Fumio; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-05-07

    Genotypic fitness landscapes are constructed by assessing the fitness of all possible combinations of a given number of mutations. In the last years, several experimental fitness landscapes have been completely resolved. As fitness landscapes are high-dimensional, simple measures of their structure are used as statistics in empirical applications. Epistasis is one of the most relevant features of fitness landscapes. Here we propose a new natural measure of the amount of epistasis based on the correlation of fitness effects of mutations. This measure has a natural interpretation, captures well the interaction between mutations and can be obtained analytically for most landscape models. We discuss how this measure is related to previous measures of epistasis (number of peaks, roughness/slope, fraction of sign epistasis, Fourier-Walsh spectrum) and how it can be easily extended to landscapes with missing data or with fitness ranks only. Furthermore, the dependence of the correlation of fitness effects on mutational distance contains interesting information about the patterns of epistasis. This dependence can be used to uncover the amount and nature of epistatic interactions in a landscape or to discriminate between different landscape models.

  3. Enhanced compressive wideband frequency spectrum sensing for dynamic spectrum access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yipeng; Wan, Qun

    2012-12-01

    Wideband spectrum sensing detects the unused spectrum holes for dynamic spectrum access (DSA). Too high sampling rate is the main challenge. Compressive sensing (CS) can reconstruct sparse signal with much fewer randomized samples than Nyquist sampling with high probability. Since survey shows that the monitored signal is sparse in frequency domain, CS can deal with the sampling burden. Random samples can be obtained by the analog-to-information converter. Signal recovery can be formulated as the combination of an L0 norm minimization and a linear measurement fitting constraint. In DSA, the static spectrum allocation of primary radios means the bounds between different types of primary radios are known in advance. To incorporate this a priori information, we divide the whole spectrum into sections according to the spectrum allocation policy. In the new optimization model, the minimization of the L2 norm of each section is used to encourage the cluster distribution locally, while the L0 norm of the L2 norms is minimized to give sparse distribution globally. Because the L2/L0 optimization is not convex, an iteratively re-weighted L2/L1 optimization is proposed to approximate it. Simulations demonstrate the proposed method outperforms others in accuracy, denoising ability, etc.

  4. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  5. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral-line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It converges rapidly and is very flexible in that it can be used with any fitting function. We present examples of cubic-spline and Gaussian fits and give special attention to measurements of blue-red asymmetries of coronal emission lines.

  6. Terahertz Spectrum of Trioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, H.; Belov, S. P.; Winnewisser, G.

    1996-02-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of trioxane, (H2CO)3 the trimer of formaldehyde, has been recorded with high resolution in the frequency range between 326 and 947 GHz for the main isotopomer, the 13 C, and the 18O isotopic species in the vibrational ground state. These new high J and K data reveal that the molecule is fairly rigid. For the constants determinable from the recorded high J and K spectra (J = 90 and K = 75) the rotational constant B = 5273.257 180(33) MHz, the two quartic centrifugal distortion constants DJ, and DJK, and the three sextic constants HJ, HJK, and HKJ are needed in the fit to reproduce the measured spectra within experimental accuracy. In addition, for the 13C isotopomer the sextic constants HJK and HKJ are determined as well as the off-diagonal parameters d1 and d2.

  7. Microwave Spectrum of Hexafluoroisopropanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.

    2012-06-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is an important organic solvent and probably the only solvent which can dissolve polythene. IR studies, on this molecule confirm the existence of antiperiplanar (ap) and synclinical (sc) conformers. We have observed pure rotational spectrum of this molecule and the fitted rotational constants (A= 2105.1208(11) MHz, B= 1053.9942(3) MHz, C= 932.3398(3) MHz) confirm the presence of ap conformer. There are many other observed lines which most probably corresponds to sc structure and due to the large amplitude motion of H-atom, some of these transitions show tunneling splitting. Work is in progress for the deuterated (OD) and C-13 isotopologues of the monomer. HFIP is expected to exhibit interesting hydrogen bonding properties and we are planning to investigate them by studying its complex with water. The results will be presented in this talk. H. Schaal, T. Höber, and M. A. Suhm, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 265 (2000).

  8. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  9. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  10. Different fits satisfy different needs: linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Greguras, Gary J; Diefendorff, James M

    2009-03-01

    Integrating and expanding upon the person-environment fit (PE fit) and the self-determination theory literatures, the authors hypothesized and tested a model in which the satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence partially mediated the relations between different types of perceived PE fit (i.e., person-organization fit, person-group fit, and job demands-abilities fit) with employee affective organizational commitment and overall job performance. Data from 163 full-time working employees and their supervisors were collected across 3 time periods. Results indicate that different types of PE fit predicted different types of psychological need satisfaction and that psychological need satisfaction predicted affective commitment and performance. Further, person-organization fit and demands-abilities fit also evidenced direct effects on employee affective commitment. These results begin to explicate the processes through which different types of PE fit relate to employee attitudes and behaviors.

  11. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  12. Finding What Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  13. Mentoring that Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are…

  14. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  15. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  16. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  17. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  18. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  19. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  20. Directory of Fitness Certifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Janet B.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

  1. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  2. Manitoba Schools Fitness 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This manual outlines physical fitness tests that may be used in the schools. The tests are based on criterion standards which indicate the levels of achievement at which health risk factors may be reduced. Test theory, protocols, and criterion charts are presented for: (1) muscle strength and endurance, (2) body composition, (3) flexibility, and…

  3. PROSPECT: the Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Donald; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    PROSPECT is a phased experiment consisting of segmented Li-loaded liquid scintillator antineutrino detectors designed to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. The experiment will be located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab. The first phase is a movable 3 tonne detector located 7-9 m from the compact, highly enriched uranium core. Over the past three years, PROSPECT has deployed multiple prototype detectors at HFIR to understand the local background environment and demonstrate active and passive background rejection. A two-segment prototype has been developed that demonstrates critical subsystems of the full detector. Measuring the neutrino spectrum from 235U will give insight to the recent spectral discrepancies and provide an important benchmark for future reactor experiments. As a high statistics experiment, PROSPECT will probe the sterile neutrino best-fit region within one year of operation at HFIR.

  4. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  5. Return to fitness.

    PubMed

    Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.

  6. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  7. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  8. Social Fitness and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families. PMID:28083312

  9. Ninth Spectrum of Bromine: Br IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y. N.; van Kleef, Th A. M.

    1981-03-01

    The spectrum of bromine was photographed on a 6.60 m and a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph in the region 300-90 Å. The source used was a triggered spark. The ninth spectrum of bromine was analysed on the basis of 3d9-3d84p transitions between 125-104 Å. Parametric level fitting calculations support the analysis. 44 lines are classified in this spectrum. Some Br VIII lines appearing in this region have been accurately measured.

  10. Calibrating White Dwarf Asteroseismic Fitting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Romero, A. D.; Bischoff-Kim, A.

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of looking for intrinsic variability in stars is the unique opportunity to study their internal structure. Once we have extracted independent modes from the data, it appears to be a simple matter of comparing the period spectrum with those from theoretical model grids to learn the inner structure of that star. However, asteroseismology is much more complicated than this simple description. We must account not only for observational uncertainties in period determination, but most importantly for the limitations of the model grids, coming from the uncertainties in the constitutive physics, and of the fitting techniques. In this work, we will discuss results of numerical experiments where we used different independently calculated model grids (white dwarf cooling models WDEC and fully evolutionary LPCODE-PUL) and fitting techniques to fit synthetic stars. The advantage of using synthetic stars is that we know the details of their interior structure so we can assess how well our models and fitting techniques are able to the recover the interior structure, as well as the stellar parameters.

  11. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  12. Fits combining hyperon semileptonic decays and magnetic moments and CVC

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, A.; Kielanowski, P.

    1982-10-01

    We have performed a test of CVC by determining the baryon charges and magnetic moments from the hyperon semileptonic data. Then CVC was applied in order to make a joint fit of all baryon semileptonic decay data and baryon magnetic moments for the spectrum generating group (SG) model as well as for the conventional (cabibbo and magnetic moments in nuclear magnetons) model. The SG model gives a very good fit with chi/sup 2//n/sub D/ = 25/20 approximately equals 21% C.L. whereas the conventional model gives a fit with chi/sup 2//n/sub D/ = 244/20.

  13. Mössbauer spectral curve fitting combining fundamentally different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo

    2016-10-01

    We propose the use of fundamentally distinctive techniques to solve the problem of curve fitting a Mössbauer spectrum. The techniques we investigated are: evolutionary algorithm, basin hopping, and hill climbing. These techniques were applied in isolation and combined to fit different shapes of Mössbauer spectra. The results indicate that complex Mössbauer spectra can be automatically curve fitted using minimum user input, and combination of these techniques achieved the best performance (lowest statistical error). The software and sample of Mössbauer spectra have been made available through a link at the reference.

  14. Introducing the Ginga FITS Viewer and Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, E.; Inagaki, T.; Kackley, R.

    2013-10-01

    We introduce Ginga, a new open-source FITS viewer and toolkit based on Python astronomical packages such as pyfits, numpy, scipy, matplotlib, and pywcs. For developers, we present a set of Python classes for viewing FITS files under the modern Gtk and Qt widget sets and a more full-featured viewer that has a plugin architecture. We further describe how plugins can be written to extend the viewer with many different capabilities. The software may be of interest to software developers who are looking for a solution for integrating FITS visualization into their Python programs and end users interested in a new and different FITS viewer that is not based on Tcl/Tk widget technology. The software has been released under a BSD license.

  15. Simultaneous Fitting of Absorption Spectra and Their Second Derivatives for an Improved Analysis of Protein Infrared Spectra.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Li, Chenge; Eremina, Nadejda; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Barth, Andreas

    2015-07-10

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool in protein science due to its sensitivity to changes in secondary structure or conformation. In order to take advantage of the full power of infrared spectroscopy in structural studies of proteins, complex band contours, such as the amide I band, have to be decomposed into their main component bands, a process referred to as curve fitting. In this paper, we report on an improved curve fitting approach in which absorption spectra and second derivative spectra are fitted simultaneously. Our approach, which we name co-fitting, leads to a more reliable modelling of the experimental data because it uses more spectral information than the standard approach of fitting only the absorption spectrum. It also avoids that the fitting routine becomes trapped in local minima. We have tested the proposed approach using infrared absorption spectra of three mixed α/β proteins with different degrees of spectral overlap in the amide I region: ribonuclease A, pyruvate kinase, and aconitase.

  16. Summer Alterations in Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastad, Douglas N.; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated changes in children's physical fitness during summer vacation. Children's cardiorespiratory fitness decreased, as did their body weight, especially for boys. Fall curriculum offerings should be designed to accommodate detrained students. (PP)

  17. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  18. Walking Shoes: Features and Fit

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Walking shoes have some features other shoes don't. Here's what to look for and ... 04, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/walking/art-20043897 . Mayo Clinic ...

  19. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  20. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher's Geometric Model?

    PubMed

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher's model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher's model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes-including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients-it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes.

  1. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion.

  2. NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

    2014-01-01

    The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit.

  3. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  4. Unveiling acoustic physics of the CMB using nonparametric estimation of the temperature angular power spectrum for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2015-02-01

    Estimation of the angular power spectrum is one of the important steps in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis. Here, we present a nonparametric estimate of the temperature angular power spectrum for the Planck 2013 CMB data. The method implemented in this work is model-independent, and allows the data, rather than the model, to dictate the fit. Since one of the main targets of our analysis is to test the consistency of the ΛCDM model with Planck 2013 data, we use the nuisance parameters associated with the best-fit ΛCDM angular power spectrum to remove foreground contributions from the data at multipoles ℓ ≥50. We thus obtain a combined angular power spectrum data set together with the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted over frequency channels. Our subsequent nonparametric analysis resolves six peaks (and five dips) up to ℓ ∼1850 in the temperature angular power spectrum. We present uncertainties in the peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% confidence level. We further show how these reflect the harmonicity of acoustic peaks, and can be used for acoustic scale estimation. Based on this nonparametric formalism, we found the best-fit ΛCDM model to be at 36% confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set—this is considerably larger than the confidence distance (9%) derived earlier from a similar analysis of the WMAP 7-year data. Another interesting result of our analysis is that at low multipoles, the Planck data do not suggest any upturn, contrary to the expectation based on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution in the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology.

  5. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  6. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  7. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  8. A spectrum of an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L Jeremy; Deming, Drake; Horning, Karen; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph

    2007-02-22

    Of the over 200 known extrasolar planets, 14 exhibit transits in front of their parent stars as seen from Earth. Spectroscopic observations of the transiting planets can probe the physical conditions of their atmospheres. One such technique can be used to derive the planetary spectrum by subtracting the stellar spectrum measured during eclipse (planet hidden behind star) from the combined-light spectrum measured outside eclipse (star + planet). Although several attempts have been made from Earth-based observatories, no spectrum has yet been measured for any of the established extrasolar planets. Here we report a measurement of the infrared spectrum (7.5-13.2 microm) of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Our observations reveal a hot thermal continuum for the planetary spectrum, with an approximately constant ratio to the stellar flux over this wavelength range. Superposed on this continuum is a broad emission peak centred near 9.65 microm that we attribute to emission by silicate clouds. We also find a narrow, unidentified emission feature at 7.78 microm. Models of these 'hot Jupiter' planets predict a flux peak near 10 microm, where thermal emission from the deep atmosphere emerges relatively unimpeded by water absorption, but models dominated by water fit the observed spectrum poorly.

  9. Full Multigrid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

  10. "Care-Full Teaching".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuskey, Patricia Varan; Tango, Robert

    The "Care-Full" teaching process described in this report is an assessment-oriented procedure which monitors the student's specific rate of growth toward defined learning objectives. First, the report briefly delineates eight steps in the process, indicating that teachers and counselors: (1) become aware of the need for assessment; (2) transform…

  11. Time-domain fitting of battery electrochemical impedance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, S. M. M.; Birkl, C. R.; Howey, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective technique for diagnosing the behaviour of electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells, usually by fitting data to an equivalent circuit model (ECM). The common approach in the laboratory is to measure the impedance spectrum of a cell in the frequency domain using a single sine sweep signal, then fit the ECM parameters in the frequency domain. This paper focuses instead on estimation of the ECM parameters directly from time-domain data. This may be advantageous for parameter estimation in practical applications such as automotive systems including battery-powered vehicles, where the data may be heavily corrupted by noise. The proposed methodology is based on the simplified refined instrumental variable for continuous-time fractional systems method ('srivcf'), provided by the Crone toolbox [1,2], combined with gradient-based optimisation to estimate the order of the fractional term in the ECM. The approach was tested first on synthetic data and then on real data measured from a 26650 lithium-ion iron phosphate cell with low-cost equipment. The resulting Nyquist plots from the time-domain fitted models match the impedance spectrum closely (much more accurately than when a Randles model is assumed), and the fitted parameters as separately determined through a laboratory potentiostat with frequency domain fitting match to within 13%.

  12. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  13. Fitting Surge Functions to Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of fitting a surge function to a set of data such as that for a drug response curve is considered. A variety of different techniques are applied, including using some fundamental ideas from calculus, the use of a CAS package, and the use of Excel's regression features for fitting a multivariate linear function to a set of transformed…

  14. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  15. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  16. Staff Development: Fine and Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The Merrimack Education Center in Chelmsford (Massachusetts) responded to needs for stress management training and morale boosting in its 22-district service area with a midwinter "Fitness for Educators" conference. Participants learned techniques for maintaining physical fitness, managing hyperactivity, developing holistic health…

  17. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  18. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  19. FitSKIRT: Oligochromatic Fitting of Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geyter, G.; Baes, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present the updated version of FitSKIRT, a method to fit radiative transfer models to UV/optical/NIR images of dusty galaxies. Among various improvements made to the code, the most substantial one is the ability to simultaneously fit to several images. This oligochromatic fitting technique (“oligo” stems from Ancient Greek meaning “a few”) can use several reference images, ranging from the UV to NIR, to constrain the parameters of the model more appropriately. Since the alterations made to the code are quite substantial, we revisit the test case used to test the previous version. This new test case is created to check to which degree the improved FitSKIRT is capable of retrieving the initial parameters. Both the images and parameter values are compared to provide insights and valorize the updated fitting procedure. The result is a highly automated fitting routine capable of providing more accurate constraints on both the distribution and properties of stars and dust in dusty galaxies.

  20. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.

  1. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Differences of atlases of solar spectrum (Doerr+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Vitas, N.; Fabbian, D.

    2016-04-01

    A parametrically degraded version of the Hamburg spectrum was fitted to the Liege spectrum. The parameters of the model (wavelength shift, broadening, intensity scaling, intensity offset) represent the different characteristics of the respective instruments, observational strategies, and data processing. The fits were carried out for all identified solar lines in the line list provided by Pierce and Breckinridge (1973, The Kitt-Peak Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths, Vol. Contribution No. 559 (Kitt Peak National Observatory); hereafter PB73) for an interval of ±15pm around the line cores. From an initial testrun we found that the offset parameter (stray-light) is compatible with zero. The final fits were carried out with only three free parameters. The results from that run are provided in the file 'fitres.dat'. A second file (liegepar.dat) contains derived parameters (spectral resolving power, position of the continuum) for the Liege spectrum that can be used in studies that compare Liege data to other data (e.g. synthetic spectra). For instance, synthetic spectra have to be degraded to match the spectral resolving power of the Liege spectrum for a valid comparison. Our analysis showed that a Gaussian convolution kernel with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of lambda/R (lambda: wavelength; R: spectral resolving power) is a very good approximation to the actual instrumental profile of the Liege atlas. Likewise, the continuum of the Liege atlas at a particular wavelength can be matched to the continuum of the Hamburg atlas by division with the parameter 'C' from liegepar.dat. The correction parameters in liegepar.dat should be interpolated to the desired wavelength range before being applied in any data analysis. We want to stress that the parameters provided here result from the fitting-procedure as described in the paper, with no further consistency checks or corrections applied. Some fits are affected by nearby telluric blends. We recommend to apply an

  3. Semiclassical Quantization of the Bogoliubov Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.

    2007-07-13

    We analyze the Bogoliubov spectrum of the three-site Bose-Hubbard model with a finite number of Bose particles by using a semiclassical approach. The Bogoliubov spectrum is shown to be associated with the low-energy regular component of the classical Hubbard model. We identify the full set of the integrals of motion of this regular component and, quantizing them, obtain the energy levels of the quantum system. The critical values of the energy, above which the regular Bogoliubov spectrum evolves into a chaotic spectrum, is indicated as well.

  4. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of processing up to 6 tons per hour of dioxin contaminated soil was conducted at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, MS. publish information

  5. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  6. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  7. Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

  8. Fitting the optical constants of gold, silver, chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the visible bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique; Grosges, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The fitting of metal optical properties is a topic that has applications in advanced simulations of spectroscopy, plasmonics, and optical engineering. In particular, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) requires an analytical model of dispersion that verifies specific conditions to produce a full spectrum in a single run. Combination of Drude and Lorentz models, and Drude and critical points models, are known to be efficient, but the number of parameters to be adjusted for fitting data can prevent accurate results from simulated annealing or Nelder-Mead. The complex number relative permittivities of Au, Ag, Al, Cr, and Ti from either Palik or Johnson and Christy experimental data in the visible domain of wavelengths are successfully fitted by using the result of the particle swarm optimization method with FDTD constraint, as a starting point for the Nelder-Mead method. The results are well positioned compared to those that can be found in the literature. The results can be used directly for numerical simulations in the visible domain. The method can be applied to other materials, such as dielectrics, and to other domain of wavelengths.

  9. MissFITS: Basic Maintenance and Packaging Tasks on FITS Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmo, Chiara; Bertin, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    MissFITS is a program that performs basic maintenance and packaging tasks on FITS files using an optimized FITS library. MissFITS can: add, edit, and remove FITS header keywords;split and join Multi-Extension-FITS (MEF) files;unpile and pile FITS data-cubes; and, create, check, and update FITS checksums, using R. Seaman's protocol.

  10. Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    fitting its potential wearers, a group of people from a broad spectrum of the population, and will detail some of the methods that can be employed to ensure and validate a good fit.

  11. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

  12. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  13. Frequency spectrum analysis for spectrum stabilization in airborne gamma-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Ge, Liangquan; Zhang, Qingxian; Gu, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal multi-crystal spectral drifts often can be observed when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer. Currently, these spectral drifts of each crystal are generally eliminated through manual adjustment, which is time-consuming and labor-ineffective. To realize this quick automatic spectrum stabilization of multi-crystal, a frequency spectrum analysis method for natural gamma-ray background spectrum is put forward in this paper to replace traditional spectrum stabilization method used characteristic peak. Based on the polynomial fitting of high harmonics in frequency spectrum and gamma-ray spectral drift, it calculates overall spectral drift of natural gamma-ray spectrum and adjusts the gain of spectrometer by this spectral drift value, thus completing quick spectrum stabilization in the power on stage of spectrometer. This method requires no manual intervention and can obtain the overall spectral drift value automatically under no time-domain pre-processing to the natural gamma-ray spectra. The spectral drift value calculated by this method has an absolute error less than five channels (1024 resolution) and a relative error smaller than 0.80%, which can satisfy the quick automatic spectrum stabilization requirement when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer instead of manual operation.

  14. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model.

  15. FUSE observations of a full orbit of Scorpius X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Boroson, Bram; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Raymond, John E-mail: svrtilek@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-09-20

    We obtained UV spectra of X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 in the 900-1200 Å range with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer over the full 0.79 day binary orbit. The strongest emission lines are the doublet of O VI at 1032,1038 Å and the C III complex at 1175 Å. The spectrum is affected by a multitude of narrow interstellar absorption lines, both atomic and molecular. Examination of line variability and Doppler tomograms suggests emission from both the neighborhood of the donor star and the accretion disk. Models of turbulence and Doppler broadened Keplerian disk lines Doppler shifted with the orbit of the neutron star added to narrow Gaussian emission lines with undetermined Doppler shift fit the data with consistent values of disk radius, inclination, and radial line brightness profile. The Doppler shift of the narrow component with the orbit suggests an association with the donor star. We test our line models with previously analyzed near UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and archival spectra obtained with the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

  16. FUSE Observations of a Full Orbit of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroson, Bram; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Raymond, John

    2014-09-01

    We obtained UV spectra of X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 in the 900-1200 Å range with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer over the full 0.79 day binary orbit. The strongest emission lines are the doublet of O VI at 1032,1038 Å and the C III complex at 1175 Å. The spectrum is affected by a multitude of narrow interstellar absorption lines, both atomic and molecular. Examination of line variability and Doppler tomograms suggests emission from both the neighborhood of the donor star and the accretion disk. Models of turbulence and Doppler broadened Keplerian disk lines Doppler shifted with the orbit of the neutron star added to narrow Gaussian emission lines with undetermined Doppler shift fit the data with consistent values of disk radius, inclination, and radial line brightness profile. The Doppler shift of the narrow component with the orbit suggests an association with the donor star. We test our line models with previously analyzed near UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and archival spectra obtained with the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

  17. Atmospheric Properties of T Dwarfs Inferred from Model Fits at Low Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Paige A.; Rice, Emily L.; Filippazzo, Joe; Douglas, Stephanie; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that cool over time because they are not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion at their cores. While spectral types (M, L, T, Y) generally correlate with decreasing temperature, spectral subclasses (T0, T1, T2, etc.) do not, suggesting that secondary parameters (gravity, metallicity, dust) play a role in the spectral type-temperature relationship. We investigate this relationship for T dwarfs, which make up the coolest fully-populated spectral class of substellar objects. Our sample consists of 154 T dwarfs with low resolution (R~75-100) near-infrared (~0.8-2.5 micron) spectra from the SpeX Prism Library and the literature. We compare each observed spectrum to synthetic spectra from four model grids using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine robust best-fit parameters and uncertainties. We evaluate the best fit parameters from each model grid per object to constrain how spectral type relates to decreasing temperature and increasing surface gravity and to compare the consistency of each model grid. To test for discrepant results when fitting to relatively narrow wavelength ranges, this analysis is performed on the full spectrum of the Y, J, H, and K bands and on each band separately. New detections of cooler objects extending into the Y dwarf and exoplanet regimes motivate our model comparisons and search for trends with spectral type and other observational properties across the decreasing temperatures in order to better understand the atmospheres of substellar objects, including cool gas giant exoplanets.

  18. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  19. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  20. Subclonal components of consensus fitness in an RNA virus clone.

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, E A; Novella, I S; Ledesma, S; Clarke, D K; Moya, A; Elena, S F; Domingo, E; Holland, J J

    1994-01-01

    Most RNA virus populations exhibit extremely high mutation frequencies which generate complex, genetically heterogeneous populations referred to as quasi-species. Previous work has shown that when a large spectrum of the quasi-species is transferred, natural selection operates, leading to elimination of noncompetitive (inferior) genomes and rapid gains in fitness. However, whenever the population is repeatedly reduced to a single virion, variable declines in fitness occur as predicted by the Muller's ratchet hypothesis. Here, we quantitated the fitness of 98 subclones isolated from an RNA virus clonal population. We found a normal distribution around a lower fitness, with the average subclone being less fit than the parental clonal population. This finding demonstrates the phenotypic diversity in RNA virus populations and shows that, as expected, a large fraction of mutations generated during virus replication is deleterious. This clarifies the operation of Muller's ratchet and illustrates why a large number of virions must be transferred for rapid fitness gains to occur. We also found that repeated genetic bottleneck passages can cause irregular stochastic declines in fitness, emphasizing again the phenotypic heterogeneity present in RNA virus populations. Finally, we found that following only 60 h of selection (15 passages in which virus yields were harvested after 4 h), RNA virus populations can undergo a 250% average increase in fitness, even on a host cell type to which they were already well adapted. This is a remarkable ability; in population biology, even a much lower fitness gain (e.g., 1 to 2%) can represent a highly significant reproductive advantage. We discuss the biological implications of these findings for the natural transmission and pathogenesis of RNA viruses. PMID:8207804

  1. Flexible fitting for fluid lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Tube fitting, consisting of movable tubular section containing two spring pressure Teflon actuated low friction seals, two standard connectors, and two hexagonal retaining nuts, provides flexible joint that allows axial and rotational motion.

  2. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  3. Physical Fitness in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-17

    situations, deal with the day to day duty demands, and maintain a trim physical appearance. But if it has been years since you exercised , do not run right...how much exercise is required to achieve and maintain a fit unit and secondly, how is this fitness requirement modified by age and sex . The Training...as the activity in which you are involved becomes easier, increase the amount. You can do 7 this by varying the intensity (how hard you exercise as

  4. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  5. Incremental full configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The incremental expansion provides a polynomial scaling method for computing electronic correlation energies. This article details a new algorithm and implementation for the incremental expansion of full configuration interaction (FCI), called iFCI. By dividing the problem into n-body interaction terms, accurate correlation energies can be recovered at low n in a highly parallel computation. Additionally, relatively low-cost approximations are possible in iFCI by solving for each incremental energy to within a specified threshold. Herein, systematic tests show that FCI-quality energies can be asymptotically reached for cases where dynamic correlation is dominant as well as where static correlation is vital. To further reduce computational costs and allow iFCI to reach larger systems, a select-CI approach (heat-bath CI) requiring two parameters is incorporated. Finally, iFCI provides the first estimate of FCI energies for hexatriene with a polarized double zeta basis set, which has 32 electrons correlated in 118 orbitals, corresponding to a FCI dimension of over 1038.

  6. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  7. Millimeter Wave Spectrum of Nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, V.

    2016-06-01

    A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane CH_3NO_2 is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 236 GHz have been carried out using spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). The transitions belonging to the m ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. The dataset consisting of 5838 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 50 was fit using a model consisting of 93 parameters and weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.89 has been achieved. In the talk the details of this new study will be discussed. V. Ilyushin, Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczólkowski, H. Mäder, J. T. Hougen J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259 (2010) 26-38.

  8. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, Phillip

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested, and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.

  9. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  10. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  11. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    THIS PAPER PROPOSES PARTIAL ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers.

  12. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  13. Fragile X spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45–54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130–250 females and 1 in 250–810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term “Fragile X Spectrum Disorder” (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  14. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... June 22, 2015 top About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For the Media Contact Us Language ...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: I Zw 1 unusual emission line spectrum (Veron-Cetty+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron-Cetty, M.-P.; Joly, M.; Veron, P.

    2004-02-01

    Fig. 8 represents the synthetic FeII spectrum, derived from I Zw 1, corrected for internal extinction with a Galactic extinction law (Savage & Mathis 1979) and E(B-V)=0.20. template_iwz1.fits is this 1D spectrum, fits format. (1 data file).

  16. Ligand fitting with CCP4

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are often used to infer biology and inform structure-based drug discovery. Hence, it is important to build accurate, reliable models of ligands that give confidence in the interpretation of the respective protein–ligand complex. This paper discusses key stages in the ligand-fitting process, including ligand binding-site identification, ligand description and conformer generation, ligand fitting, refinement and subsequent validation. The CCP4 suite contains a number of software tools that facilitate this task: AceDRG for the creation of ligand descriptions and conformers, Lidia and JLigand for two-dimensional and three-dimensional ligand editing and visual analysis, Coot for density interpretation, ligand fitting, analysis and validation, and REFMAC5 for macromolecular refinement. In addition to recent advancements in automatic carbohydrate building in Coot (LO/Carb) and ligand-validation tools (FLEV), the release of the CCP4i2 GUI provides an integrated solution that streamlines the ligand-fitting workflow, seamlessly passing results from one program to the next. The ligand-fitting process is illustrated using instructive practical examples, including problematic cases such as post-translational modifications, highlighting the need for careful analysis and rigorous validation. PMID:28177312

  17. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 23.625 Section 23.625... Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the... actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of...

  18. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  19. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  20. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  2. The CMBR spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, A.

    1997-05-01

    Here we give an introduction to the observed spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and discuss what can be learned about it. Particular attention will be given to how Compton scattering can distort the spectrum of the CMBR. An incomplete bibliography of relevant papers is also provided.

  3. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  4. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  5. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  6. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  7. "Plug and play" full-dimensional ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces and anharmonic vibrational analysis for CH4-H2O.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chen; Conte, Riccardo; Houston, Paul L; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-03-28

    The potential energy surface of the methane-water dimer is represented as the sum of a new intrinsic two-body potential energy surface and pre-existing intramolecular potentials for the monomers. Different fits of the CH4-H2O intrinsic two-body energy are reported. All these fits are based on 30 467 ab initio interaction energies computed at CCSD(T)-F12b/haTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ for C and O, cc-pVTZ for H) level of theory. The benchmark fit is a full-dimensional, permutationally-invariant analytical representation with root-mean-square (rms) fitting error of 3.5 cm(-1). Two other computationally more efficient two-body potentials are also reported, albeit with larger rms fitting errors. Of these a compact permutationally invariant fit is shown to be the best one in combining precision and speed of evaluation. An intrinsic two-body dipole moment surface is also obtained, based on MP2/haTZ expectation values, with an rms fitting error of 0.002 au. As with the potential, this dipole moment surface is combined with existing monomer ones to obtain the full surface. The vibrational ground state of the dimer and dissociation energy, D0, are determined by diffusion Monte Carlo calculations, and MULTIMODE calculations are performed for the IR spectrum of the intramolecular modes. The relative accuracy of the different intrinsic two-body potentials is analyzed by comparing the energetics and the harmonic frequencies of the global minimum well, and the maximum impact parameter employed in a sample methane-water scattering calculation.

  8. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  9. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  10. Coaches as Fitness Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Zillifro, Traci D.; Nichols, Ronald; Hull, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of physical activity, low fitness levels, and elevated obesity rates as high as 32% of today's youth are well documented. Many strategies and grants have been developed at the national, regional, and local levels to help counteract these current trends. Strategies have been developed and implemented for schools, households (parents), and…

  11. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  12. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

  13. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness routine at least twice a week. Find sports or activities that you enjoy, then vary the routine to keep you on your toes. If you're not enjoying your workouts, try something different. Join a volleyball or softball league. Take a ballroom dancing class. Check out a health club or martial ...

  14. National Adult Physical Fitness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…

  15. Color Coding Childrens' Fitness Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Barbara H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A program of the Salt Lake City School District and the University of Utah, Operation C.H.A.M.P. (Children's Health and Movement Program), was designed to motivate elementary school children to do their best in physical education and fitness testing. The program is described. (MT)

  16. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  17. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  18. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    beliefs that inspire Airmen, both collectively and individually, to maintain optimum fitness for the institution and themselves.5 To best prepare for...performance report, plan the mission, or take an hour during the day to go workout ? This is a false dilemma because there are numerous other

  19. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model. PMID:27072929

  20. Definition of the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), version 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pence, W. D.; Chiappetti, L.; Page, C. G.; Shaw, R. A.; Stobie, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) has been used by astronomers for over 30 years as a data interchange and archiving format; FITS files are now handled by a wide range of astronomical software packages. Since the FITS format definition document (the “standard”) was last printed in this journal in 2001, several new features have been developed and standardized, notably support for 64-bit integers in images and tables, variable-length arrays in tables, and new world coordinate system conventions which provide a mapping from an element in a data array to a physical coordinate on the sky or within a spectrum. The FITS Working Group of the International Astronomical Union has therefore produced this new version 3.0 of the FITS standard, which is provided here in its entirety. In addition to describing the new features in FITS, numerous editorial changes were made to the previous version to clarify and reorganize many of the sections. Also included are some appendices which are not formally part of the standard. The FITS standard is likely to undergo further evolution, in which case the latest version may be found on the FITS Support Office Web site at fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/">http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/, which also provides many links to FITS-related resources.

  1. On the interpretation of the geomagnetic energy spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benton, E.R.; Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two recent high-degree magnetic energy spectra, based mostly on MAGSAT data, are compared and found to agree very well out to order and degree n = 15, but the spectrum remains somewhat uncertain for higher degrees. The hypothesis that a primary break in the slope of the spectrum, plotted semi-logarithmically, is due to a transition from dominance by core sources to dominance by crustal magnetization is tested. Simple arrays of dipoles and current loops are found whose combined fields fit the spectrum. Two distinctly different ranges of source depth are found to be adequate. Because one range is shallow and the other deep, the hypothesis is supported. ?? 1987.

  2. Stability of College Students' Fit with Their Academic Major and the Relationship between Academic Fit and Occupational Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghandour, Louma

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the fit between students' interests and their academic choices at different stages of their college careers. Using image theory (Beach, 1990) as an integrated theory of person-vocation fit, this investigation focuses on the stability of academic fit during college and the relationship between fit with academic choice and fit…

  3. PROSPECT - A Precision Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Prospect Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    PROSPECT, the PRecision Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment, is a multi-phased short baseline reactor antineutrino experiment that aims to precisely measure the U-235 antineutrino spectrum and prob for oscillation effects involving a possible Δm2 1 eV2 scale sterile neutrino. In PROSPECT Phase-I, an optically segmented Li-6 loaded liquid scintillator detector will be deployed at at the baseline of 7-12m from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROSPECT will measure the spectrum of U-235 to aid in resolving the unexplained inconsistency between predictive spectral models and recent experimental measurements using LEU cores, while the oscillation measurement will probe the best fit region suggested by global fitting studies within 1-year data taking. This talk will introduce the design of PROSPECT Phase-I, the discovery potential of the experiment, and the progress the collaboration has made toward realizing PROSPECT Phase-I. Department of Energy

  4. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher’s Geometric Model?

    PubMed Central

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher’s model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher’s model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes—including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients—it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes. PMID:27052568

  5. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  6. Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential data on ASD, search for factors that put children at risk for ASD and possible causes, ... United States to help identify factors that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism ...

  9. Precise determination of the unperturbed 8B neutrino spectrum.

    PubMed

    Roger, T; Büscher, J; Bastin, B; Kirsebom, O S; Raabe, R; Alcorta, M; Äystö, J; Borge, M J G; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Cocolios, T E; Cruz, J; Dendooven, P; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Gasques, L R; Giri, G S; Huyse, M; Hyldegaard, S; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W L; Lantz, M; Perea, A; Riisager, K; Saastamoinen, A; Santra, B; Shidling, P D; Sohani, M; Sørensen, A J; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; van der Hoek, D J; Van Duppen, P; Versolato, O O; Wilschut, H W

    2012-04-20

    A measurement of the final state distribution of the (8)B β decay, obtained by implanting a (8)B beam in a double-sided silicon strip detector, is reported here. The present spectrum is consistent with a recent independent precise measurement performed by our collaboration at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä [O. S. Kirsebom et al., Phys. Rev. C 83, 065802 (2011)]. It shows discrepancies with previously measured spectra, leading to differences in the derived neutrino spectrum. Thanks to a low detection threshold, the neutrino spectrum is for the first time directly extracted from the measured final state distribution, thus avoiding the uncertainties related to the extrapolation of R-matrix fits. Combined with the IGISOL data, this leads to an improvement of the overall errors and the extension of the neutrino spectrum at high energy. The new unperturbed neutrino spectrum represents a benchmark for future measurements of the solar neutrino flux as a function of energy.

  10. Broadband distortion modeling in Lyman-α forest BAO fitting

    DOE PAGES

    Blomqvist, Michael; Kirkby, David; Bautista, Julian E.; ...

    2015-11-23

    Recently, the Lyman-α absorption observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars has been used as a tracer of large-scale structure by means of the three-dimensional Lyman-α forest auto-correlation function at redshift z≃ 2.3, but the need to fit the quasar continuum in every absorption spectrum introduces a broadband distortion that is difficult to correct and causes a systematic error for measuring any broadband properties. Here, we describe a k-space model for this broadband distortion based on a multiplicative correction to the power spectrum of the transmitted flux fraction that suppresses power on scales corresponding to the typical length of amore » Lyman-α forest spectrum. In implementing the distortion model in fits for the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak position in the Lyman-α forest auto-correlation, we find that the fitting method recovers the input values of the linear bias parameter bF and the redshift-space distortion parameter βF for mock data sets with a systematic error of less than 0.5%. Applied to the auto-correlation measured for BOSS Data Release 11, our method improves on the previous treatment of broadband distortions in BAO fitting by providing a better fit to the data using fewer parameters and reducing the statistical errors on βF and the combination bF(1+βF) by more than a factor of seven. The measured values at redshift z=2.3 are βF=1.39+0.11 +0.24 +0.38-0.10 -0.19 -0.28 and bF(1+βF)=-0.374+0.007 +0.013 +0.020-0.007 -0.014 -0.022 (1σ, 2σ and 3σ statistical errors). Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main results are publicly available.« less

  11. Broadband distortion modeling in Lyman-α forest BAO fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Blomqvist, Michael; Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel E-mail: dkirkby@uci.edu; and others

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the Lyman-α absorption observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars has been used as a tracer of large-scale structure by means of the three-dimensional Lyman-α forest auto-correlation function at redshift z≅ 2.3, but the need to fit the quasar continuum in every absorption spectrum introduces a broadband distortion that is difficult to correct and causes a systematic error for measuring any broadband properties. We describe a k-space model for this broadband distortion based on a multiplicative correction to the power spectrum of the transmitted flux fraction that suppresses power on scales corresponding to the typical length of a Lyman-α forest spectrum. Implementing the distortion model in fits for the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak position in the Lyman-α forest auto-correlation, we find that the fitting method recovers the input values of the linear bias parameter b{sub F} and the redshift-space distortion parameter β{sub F} for mock data sets with a systematic error of less than 0.5%. Applied to the auto-correlation measured for BOSS Data Release 11, our method improves on the previous treatment of broadband distortions in BAO fitting by providing a better fit to the data using fewer parameters and reducing the statistical errors on β{sub F} and the combination b{sub F}(1+β{sub F}) by more than a factor of seven. The measured values at redshift z=2.3 are β{sub F}=1.39{sup +0.11 +0.24 +0.38}{sub −0.10 −0.19 −0.28} and b{sub F}(1+β{sub F})=−0.374{sup +0.007 +0.013 +0.020}{sub −0.007 −0.014 −0.022} (1σ, 2σ and 3σ statistical errors). Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main results are publicly available.

  12. Broadband distortion modeling in Lyman-α forest BAO fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Blomqvist, Michael; Kirkby, David; Bautista, Julian E.; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Busca, Nicolás G.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Slosar, Anže; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Margala, Daniel; Schneider, Donald P.; Vazquez, Jose A.

    2015-11-23

    Recently, the Lyman-α absorption observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars has been used as a tracer of large-scale structure by means of the three-dimensional Lyman-α forest auto-correlation function at redshift z≃ 2.3, but the need to fit the quasar continuum in every absorption spectrum introduces a broadband distortion that is difficult to correct and causes a systematic error for measuring any broadband properties. Here, we describe a k-space model for this broadband distortion based on a multiplicative correction to the power spectrum of the transmitted flux fraction that suppresses power on scales corresponding to the typical length of a Lyman-α forest spectrum. In implementing the distortion model in fits for the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak position in the Lyman-α forest auto-correlation, we find that the fitting method recovers the input values of the linear bias parameter bF and the redshift-space distortion parameter βF for mock data sets with a systematic error of less than 0.5%. Applied to the auto-correlation measured for BOSS Data Release 11, our method improves on the previous treatment of broadband distortions in BAO fitting by providing a better fit to the data using fewer parameters and reducing the statistical errors on βF and the combination bF(1+βF) by more than a factor of seven. The measured values at redshift z=2.3 are βF=1.39+0.11 +0.24 +0.38-0.10 -0.19 -0.28 and bF(1+βF)=-0.374+0.007 +0.013 +0.020-0.007 -0.014 -0.022 (1σ, 2σ and 3σ statistical errors). Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main results are publicly available.

  13. Measurements and implications of the SDSS DR7 galaxy angular power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Brett P.

    We calculate the angular power spectrum of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) by using a quadratic estimation method with KLcompression. The primary data sample includes over 18 million galaxies covering more than 5,700 square degrees after masking areas with bright objects, reddening greater than 0.2 magnitudes, and seeing of more than 1.5 arcseconds. We also construct a volume-limited sample of 3.2 million galaxies in the same area, consisting of galaxies with absolute r-band magnitudes Mr < --21.2 and photometric redshifts z < 0.4. We test for systematic effects by calculating the angular power spectrum on simulated data and by SDSS stripe, and we find that these measurements are minimally affected by seeing and reddening. We calculate the angular power spectrum for ℓ ≤ 200 multipoles by using 40 bands for the full area data, ℓ ≤ 1000 multipoles using 50 bands for individual stripes, and ℓ ≤ 1600 multipoles using 64 bands for a selected area near the North Galactic Pole at high resolution. We also calculate the angular power spectra for the main galaxy sample separated into 3 magnitude bins, as well as the volume-limited sample separated into 2 redshift shells and early- and late-type galaxies to examine the evolution of the angular power spectrum. We determine the theoretical linear angular power spectrum by projecting the 3D power spectrum to two dimensions for a basic comparison to our observational results for the SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample and subsamples separated by magnitude. For our high resolution and volume-limited samples, we generate nonlinear angular power spectra using CAMB nonlinear 3D matter power spectra for our projections. By minimizing the chi2 fit between these data and the theoretical angular power spectra, we measure a fit of Om = +0.18-0.11 with a linear bias of b = 0.94 +/- 0.04 for the entire SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample, Om = 0.267 +/- 0.038, Ob = 0.045 +/- 0.012, and b = 1

  14. Shot model parameters for Cygnus X-1 through phase portrait fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lochner, James C.; Swank, J. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Shot models for systems having about 1/f power density spectrum are developed by utilizing a distribution of shot durations. Parameters of the distribution are determined by fitting the power spectrum either with analytic forms for the spectrum of a shot model with a given shot profile, or with the spectrum derived from numerical realizations of trial shot models. The shot fraction is specified by fitting the phase portrait, which is a plot of intensity at a given time versus intensity at a delayed time and in principle is sensitive to different shot profiles. These techniques have been extensively applied to the X-ray variability of Cygnus X-1, using HEAO 1 A-2 and an Exosat ME observation. The power spectra suggest models having characteristic shot durations lasting from milliseconds to a few seconds, while the phase portrait fits give shot fractions of about 50 percent. Best fits to the portraits are obtained if the amplitude of the shot is a power-law function of the duration of the shot. These fits prefer shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay. Results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the accretion disk.

  15. Bimodal fitting or bilateral implantation?

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Massie, Robyn; Van Wanrooy, Emma; Rushbrooke, Emma; Psarros, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises findings from studies that evaluated the benefits of bimodal fitting (combining a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears) or bilateral cochlear implantation, relative to unilateral implantation, for children (Ching et al., 2007). On average, the size of binaural speech intelligibility advantages due to redundancy and head shadow was similar for the two bilateral conditions. An added advantage of bimodal fitting was that the low-frequency cues provided by acoustic hearing complemented the high-frequency cues conveyed by electric hearing in perception of voice and music. Some children with bilateral cochlear implants were able to use spatial separation between speech and noise to improve speech perception in noise. This is possibly a combined effect of the directional microphones in their implant systems and their ability to use spatial cues. The evidence to date supports the provision of hearing in two ears as the standard of care.

  16. Funtools: FITS Users Need Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Eric; Murray, Stephen S.; Roll, John

    2011-12-01

    Funtools is a "minimal buy-in" FITS library and utility package developed at the the High Energy Astrophysics Division of SAO. The Funtools library provides simplified access to a wide array of file types: standard astronomical FITS images and binary tables, raw arrays and binary event lists, and even tables of ASCII column data. A sophisticated region filtering library (compatible with ds9) filters images and tables using boolean operations between geometric shapes, support world coordinates, etc. Funtools also supports advanced capabilities such as optimized data searching using index files. Because Funtools consists of a library and a set of user programs, it is most appropriately built from source. Funtools has been ported to Solaris, Linux, LinuxPPC, SGI, Alpha OSF1, Mac OSX (darwin) and Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. Once the source code tar file is retrieved, Funtools can be built and installed easily using standard commands.

  17. Pleasure and Pain: Experiences of Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2008-01-01

    The obesity crisis is a hegemonic discourse that has established common-sense understandings that young people are less active and fit than previous generations. Unquestioning acceptance of links between fitness and obesity in turn leads to unproblematic fitness testing of young people. Argument is made that fitness tests motivate and encourage…

  18. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  19. Musculoskeletal Fitness and Risk of Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Craig, Cora L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantified the relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and all-cause mortality in Canada, using measures of musculoskeletal fitness (situps, pushups, grip strength, and sit- and-reach trunk flexibility) from adult male and female participants in the Canadian Fitness Survey. Results indicated that some components of musculoskeletal fitness,…

  20. 14 CFR 29.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 29.625 Section 29.625... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.625 Fitting factors. For each... are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must...

  1. 14 CFR 27.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 27.625 Section 27.625... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.625 Fitting factors. For each... are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must...

  2. 14 CFR 25.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 25.625 Section 25.625... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.625 Fitting factors. For each... conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must...

  3. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factors. 23.625 Section 23.625... Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the following apply: (a) For each fitting whose strength is not proven by limit and ultimate load tests in...

  4. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  5. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  6. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  7. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  8. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  9. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  10. How Healthy Are Corporate Fitness Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness of corporate fitness programs in improving employee fitness and reducing health care costs, noting the lack of related research. Corporations consider physical fitness an important component of fiscal fitness, but what is needed is a health promotion philosophy focusing on the total population's health. (SM)

  11. A new Riemann fit for circular tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frühwirth, R.; Strandlie, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present in this contribution a new Riemann track fit which operates on centered and scaled measurements. With these transformations, the fit becomes invariant under translations and similarity transforms of the measurements. We show in a simulation study in a generic, cylindrical detector that the modified Riemann fit is more precise than the standard Riemann fit, in particular if the hit resolution is large.

  12. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  13. 46 CFR 52.01-105 - Piping, valves and fittings (modifies PG-58 and PG-59).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping, valves and fittings (modifies PG-58 and PG-59... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-105 Piping, valves and fittings (modifies PG-58 and PG...-10 of this subchapter; (4) Have butt welding flanges and fittings when full radiography is...

  14. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

  15. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  16. Spatial Contrast Sensitivity in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Hwan Cui; Milne, Elizabeth; Dobkins, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing (TD) controls underwent a rigorous psychophysical assessment that measured contrast sensitivity to seven spatial frequencies (0.5-20 cycles/degree). A contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was then fitted for each participant, from which four measures were obtained: visual…

  17. The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect power spectrum in light of Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, I. G.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Schaye, J.; Holder, G. P.

    2014-06-01

    The amplitude of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (tSZ) power spectrum is extremely sensitive to the abundance of the most massive dark matter haloes (galaxy clusters) and therefore to fundamental cosmological parameters that control their growth, such as σ8 and Ωm. Here we explore the sensitivity of the tSZ power spectrum to important non-gravitational (`subgrid') physics by employing the cosmo-OWLS suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, run in both the Planck and 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) best-fitting cosmologies. On intermediate and small angular scales (ℓ ≳ 1000, or θ≲10 arcmin), accessible with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), the predicted tSZ power spectrum is highly model dependent, with gas ejection due to active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback having a particularly large effect. However, at large scales, observable with the Planck telescope, the effects of subgrid physics are minor. Comparing the simulated tSZ power spectra with observations, we find a significant amplitude offset on all measured angular scales (including large scales), if the Planck best-fitting cosmology is assumed by the simulations. This is shown to be a generic result for all current models of the tSZ power spectrum. By contrast, if the WMAP7 cosmology is adopted, there is full consistency with the Planck tSZ power spectrum measurements on large scales and agreement at the 2σ level with the SPT and ACT measurements at intermediate scales for our fiducial AGN model, which Le Brun et al. have shown reproduces the `resolved' properties of the Local Group and cluster population remarkably well. These findings strongly suggest that there are significantly fewer massive galaxy clusters than expected for the Planck best-fitting cosmology, which is consistent with recent measurements of the tSZ number counts. Our findings therefore pose a significant challenge to the cosmological

  18. Collision Broadening Of Line Spectrum In Sonoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chaohui; An Yu

    2008-06-24

    The direct measurement of temperature inside a sonoluminescing bubble as it is at its flashing phase is almost impossible due to the smallness of the bubble and the short duration of the flashing. One may estimate the temperature through fitting the continuum spectrum of sonoluminescence by the black body radiation formula, or fitting the shape of atomic or molecular line spectrum (the different temperature, density and pressure result in the different shape of the line spectrum due to the effect of collision broadening). However, the temperature changes in a huge range at short duration as the bubble flashes, therefore, the observed spectra are some kind of average one, so are those fitted results. To evaluate the instantaneous temperature more accurately, we simulate the processes of the bubble motion and the thermodynamics inside the bubble, in which atomic or molecular line spectra with the collision broadening effect and the continuum spectra contributed from the processes of electron-atom bremsstrahlung, electron-ion bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation and radiative attachment of electrons to atoms and molecules are taken into account in calculating the light emission. If both the calculated continuum spectra and the shape of line spectra can well represent the experimental data, we may deduce that the calculation of the temperature, density and pressure is reliable and we indirectly evaluate those quantities inside the bubble. In the present calculation, the line spectra of OH radical at about 310 nm mixing the electron transition with the vibration and rotational bands are considered. The calculation qualitatively consists with the observation, and we expect that with the more precise bubble dynamics model instead of the uniform model employed in the present calculation we may improve the quantitative result.

  19. Definition of the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pence, W. D.; Chiapetti, L.; Page, C. G.; Shaw, R. A.; Stobie, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) has been used by astronomers for over 30 years as a data interchange and archiving format; FITS files are now handled by a wide range of astronomical software packages. Since the FITS format definition document (the "standard") was last printed in this journal in 2001, several new features have been developed and standardized, notably support for 64-bit integers in images and tables, variable-length arrays in tables, and new world coordinate system conventions which provide a mapping from an element in a data array to a physical coordinate on the sky or within a spectrum. The FITS Working Group of the International Astronomical Union has therefore produced this new Version 3.0 of the FITS standard, which is provided here in its entirety. In addition to describing the new features in FITS, numerous editorial changes were made to the previous version to clarify and reorganize many of the sections. Also included are some appendices which are not formally part of the standard. The FITS standard is likely to undergo further evolution, in which case the latest version may be found on the FITS Support Office Web site at http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/, which also provides many links to FITS-related resources.

  20. dPotFit: A computer program to fit diatomic molecule spectral data to potential energy functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes program dPotFit, which performs least-squares fits of diatomic molecule spectroscopic data consisting of any combination of microwave, infrared or electronic vibrational bands, fluorescence series, and tunneling predissociation level widths, involving one or more electronic states and one or more isotopologs, and for appropriate systems, second virial coefficient data, to determine analytic potential energy functions defining the observed levels and other properties of each state. Four families of analytical potential functions are available for fitting in the current version of dPotFit: the Expanded Morse Oscillator (EMO) function, the Morse/Long-Range (MLR) function, the Double-Exponential/Long-Range (DELR) function, and the 'Generalized Potential Energy Function' (GPEF) of Šurkus, which incorporates a variety of polynomial functional forms. In addition, dPotFit allows sets of experimental data to be tested against predictions generated from three other families of analytic functions, namely, the 'Hannover Polynomial' (or "X-expansion") function, and the 'Tang-Toennies' and Scoles-Aziz 'HFD', exponential-plus-van der Waals functions, and from interpolation-smoothed pointwise potential energies, such as those obtained from ab initio or RKR calculations. dPotFit also allows the fits to determine atomic-mass-dependent Born-Oppenheimer breakdown functions, and singlet-state Λ-doubling, or 2Σ splitting radial strength functions for one or more electronic states. dPotFit always reports both the 95% confidence limit uncertainty and the "sensitivity" of each fitted parameter; the latter indicates the number of significant digits that must be retained when rounding fitted parameters, in order to ensure that predictions remain in full agreement with experiment. It will also, if requested, apply a "sequential rounding and refitting" procedure to yield a final parameter set defined by a minimum number of significant digits, while ensuring no

  1. Overview of the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study

    PubMed Central

    Csányi, Tamás; Finn, Kevin J.; Welk, Gregory J.; Zhu, Weimo; Karsai, István; Ihász, Ferenc; Vass, Zoltán; Molnár, László

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 Public Act on Education in Hungary made daily physical education (PE) a mandatory part of the school day starting in the 2012–2013 school year. This directive was linked to a significant reorganization of the Hungarian education system including a new National Core Curriculum that regulates the objectives and contents of PE. The Hungarian School Sport Federation (HSSF) recognized the opportunity and created the Strategic Actions for Health-Enhancing Physical Education or Testnevelés az Egészségfejlesztésben Stratégiai Intézkedések (TESI) project. Physical fitness assessments have been a traditional part of the Hungarian PE program; however, the TESI plan called for the use of a new health-related battery and assessment system to usher in a new era of fitness education in the country. The HSSF enlisted the Cooper Institute to assist in building an infrastructure for full deployment of a national student fitness assessment program based on the FITNESSGRAM® in Hungarian schools. The result is a new software-supported test battery, namely the Hungarian National Student Fitness Test (NETFIT), which uses health-related, criterion-referenced youth fitness standards. The NETFIT system now serves as a compulsory fitness assessment for all Hungarian schools. This article details the development process for the test battery and summarizes the aims and methods of the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. PMID:26054954

  2. Overview of the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study.

    PubMed

    Csányi, Tamás; Finn, Kevin J; Welk, Gregory J; Zhu, Weimo; Karsai, István; Ihász, Ferenc; Vass, Zoltán; Molnár, László

    2015-06-26

    The 2012 Public Act on Education in Hungary made daily physical education (PE) a mandatory part of the school day starting in the 2012-2013 school year. This directive was linked to a significant reorganization of the Hungarian education system including a new National Core Curriculum that regulates the objectives and contents of PE. The Hungarian School Sport Federation (HSSF) recognized the opportunity and created the Strategic Actions for Health-Enhancing Physical Education or Testnevelés az Egészségfejlesztésben Stratégiai Intézkedések (TESI) project. Physical fitness assessments have been a traditional part of the Hungarian PE program; however, the TESI plan called for the use of a new health-related battery and assessment system to usher in a new era of fitness education in the country. The HSSF enlisted the Cooper Institute to assist in building an infrastructure for full deployment of a national student fitness assessment program based on the FITNESSGRAM® in Hungarian schools. The result is a new software-supported test battery, namely the Hungarian National Student Fitness Test (NETFIT), which uses health-related, criterion-referenced youth fitness standards. The NETFIT system now serves as a compulsory fitness assessment for all Hungarian schools. This article details the development process for the test battery and summarizes the aims and methods of the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study.

  3. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    PubMed

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration.

  4. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  5. Fundamental Parameters Line Profile Fitting in Laboratory Diffractometers

    PubMed Central

    Cheary, R. W.; Coelho, A. A.; Cline, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental parameters approach to line profile fitting uses physically based models to generate the line profile shapes. Fundamental parameters profile fitting (FPPF) has been used to synthesize and fit data from both parallel beam and divergent beam diffractometers. The refined parameters are determined by the diffractometer configuration. In a divergent beam diffractometer these include the angular aperture of the divergence slit, the width and axial length of the receiving slit, the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits, the length and projected width of the x-ray source, the absorption coefficient and axial length of the sample. In a parallel beam system the principal parameters are the angular aperture of the equatorial analyser/Soller slits and the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits. The presence of a monochromator in the beam path is normally accommodated by modifying the wavelength spectrum and/or by changing one or more of the axial divergence parameters. Flat analyzer crystals have been incorporated into FPPF as a Lorentzian shaped angular acceptance function. One of the intrinsic benefits of the fundamental parameters approach is its adaptability any laboratory diffractometer. Good fits can normally be obtained over the whole 20 range without refinement using the known properties of the diffractometer, such as the slit sizes and diffractometer radius, and emission profile. PMID:27366594

  6. Multispectrum Fitting of FTS and Crds Spectra Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2012-06-01

    Various types of spectra contain different sorts of spectral line information. An FTS spectrum provides broad coverage of an identical sample at all parts of the spectrum, but a cavity ring down spectrometer provides higher resolution, more information about line shapes and greater dynamic range in spectral line intensity. In order to use all of the information available, one should put all the spectra available into a single solution. The multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique has proven successful in doing this with transmission spectra from various spectrometers. However, fitting data from cavity ring down spectrometers that produce cross sections is a problem when combined with transmission spectrometers. The solution is to choose a path length for the CRDS data to produce transmissions and use the uncertainty of each cross section as a means of weighting the transmission in the multispectrum solution. This has been incorporated into our fitting technique. Sample oxygen A band fits of CRDS data from NIST combined with FTS data from a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer in the Infrared, Bruker IFS125-HR, at JPL, equipped with two multipass White cells (absorption path length extendible to 32.5 m and 148 m, respectively) will be shown. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. A. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Support for the work at William and Mary was provided by JPL and the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contracts with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support for the work at NIST was provided by at the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program.

  7. A causal dispositional account of fitness.

    PubMed

    Triviño, Vanessa; Nuño de la Rosa, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The notion of fitness is usually equated to reproductive success. However, this actualist approach presents some difficulties, mainly the explanatory circularity problem, which have lead philosophers of biology to offer alternative definitions in which fitness and reproductive success are distinguished. In this paper, we argue  that none of these alternatives is satisfactory and, inspired by Mumford and Anjum's dispositional theory of causation, we offer a definition of fitness as a causal dispositional property. We argue that, under this framework, the distinctiveness that biologists usually attribute to fitness-namely, the fact that fitness is something different from both the physical traits of an organism and the number of offspring it leaves-can be explained, and the main problems associated with the concept of fitness can be solved. Firstly, we introduce Mumford and Anjum's dispositional theory of causation and present our definition of fitness as a causal disposition. We explain in detail each of the elements involved in our definition, namely: the relationship between fitness and the functional dispositions that compose it, the emergent character of fitness, and the context-sensitivity of fitness. Finally, we explain how fitness and realized fitness, as well as expected and realized fitness are distinguished in our approach to fitness as a causal disposition.

  8. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  9. An unusual meteor spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. F.; Hemenway, C. L.; Millman, P. M.; Swider, A.

    1973-01-01

    An extraordinary spectrum of a meteor at a velocity of about 18.5 + or - 1.0 km/s was observed with an image orthicon camera. The radiant of the meteor was at an altitude of about 49 deg. It was first seen showing a yellow red continuous spectrum alone at a height of 137 + or - 8 km which is ascribed to the first positive group of nitrogen bands. After the meteor had descended to 116 + or - 6 km above sea level it brightened rapidly from its previous threshold brightness into a uniform continuum, the D-line of neutral sodium appeared, and at height 105 + or - 5 km all the other lines of the spectrum also appeared. The continuum remained dominant to the end. Water of hydration and entrained carbon flakes of characteristic dimension about 0.2 micron or less are proposed as constituents of the meteoroid to explain these phenomena.

  10. The infrared spectrum of KH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haese, Nathan N.; Liu, Di-Jia; Altman, Robert S.

    1984-11-01

    Reported here is the first observation of the infrared spectrum of KH. Fundamental bands and first hotbands of the 39KH and 41KH isotopic forms were measured at high resolution using a diode laser based spectrometer. An ac glow discharge through potassium vapor and hydrogen gas was used to produce KH. A combined isotopic Dunham coefficient analysis was used to fit all the spectra, with the Dunham coefficients for 39KH coming out as Y10=985.6714(30) cm-1, Y20=-14.9013(10) cm-1, Y01=3.416 40(10) cm-1, Y11=-0.085 313(26) cm-1, Y21=5.41(60)×10-4 cm-1, Y02=-1.6354(36)×10-4 cm-1, Y12=1.13(10)×10-6 cm-1, Y03=7.6(8)×10-9 cm-1, (quoted at 2σ error limits). A bond length of 2.241 152(16) Å and a Dunham corrected value for ωe of 986.0505(30) cm-1 are obtained. The pressure broadening of KH by H2 and the chemistry of KH formation in the glow discharge plasma are also discussed.

  11. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  12. Spectrum of wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawking, S.W. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EW ); Page, D.N. Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB )

    1990-10-15

    Wormholes have been studied mainly in the semiclassical approximation as solutions of the classical Euclidean field equations. However, such solutions are rather special, and exist only for certain kinds of matter. On the other hand, one can represent wormholes in a more general manner as solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Minisuperspace models with massless minimal or conformal scalar fields have a discrete spectrum of these solutions. The Giddings-Strominger instanton solution corresponds to a sum of an infinite number of these solutions. Minisuperspace models with a massive scalar field also appear to have a discrete spectrum of such solutions, whose asymptotic form is given.

  13. Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

    2004-01-01

    Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

  14. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  15. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  16. The iFit: an integrated physical fitness testing system to evaluate the degree of physical fitness of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kevin C; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Han, Chang-Mu; Lee, Ming-Ren

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated physical fitness testing system (iFit) that evaluates the physical fitness of older adults. The intent of the test is to help them manage and promote their health and mitigate the effects of aging. National protocols of physical fitness were implemented to support the assessment. The proposed system encompasses four modules of physical fitness assessment for both users and medical professionals. The test information will be recorded and managed through a wireless sensor network that will enable a better understanding of users' fitness states. Furthermore, the iFit has been validated by a test session attended by elderly participants. The results show that there is a significant correlation between iFit use in the test of flexibility, grip strength, and balance, compared to conventional methods.

  17. Social personality trait and fitness.

    PubMed

    Cote, J; Dreiss, A; Clobert, J

    2008-12-22

    Several recent studies have explored various aspects of animal personality and their ecological consequences. However, the processes responsible for the maintenance of personality variability within a population are still largely unknown. We have recently demonstrated that social personality traits exist in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and that the variation in sociability provides an explanation for variable dispersal responses within a given species. However, we need to know the fitness consequences of variation in sociability across environmental contexts in order to better understand the maintenance of such variation. In order to achieve this, we investigated the relationship between sociability and survival, body growth and fecundity, in one-year-old individuals in semi-natural populations with varying density. 'Asocial' and 'social' lizards displayed different fitness outcomes in populations of different densities. Asocial lizards survived better in low-density populations, while social females reproduced better. Spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions might thus be the process underlying the maintenance of these personality traits within a population. Finally, we also discuss the position of sociability in a more general individual behavioural pattern including boldness, exploration and aggressiveness.

  18. Solar oscillation parameters: simultaneous velocity-intensity spectral & cross-spectral fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, Caroline; Hill, Frank

    2003-02-01

    We use the Severino et al. (2001) model for simultaneously fitting four spectra: V (velocity) and I (intensity) power, I-V phase difference and I-V coherence to observational data. We show that this model allows us to reproduce well the observed spectra for l = 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 at low and intermediate frequencies. At high frequencies, the contamination of the spectrum by leaks may prevent fitting the data with the model. A study of the fit parameters as a function of frequency shows the well-known behavior of the mode amplitude and width, but additional modes are needed for a physical interpretation of all fit parameters. Comparing the oscillation parameters from the multi-spectral fitting and from using only the V spectra shows that the oscillation frequency differs by at most 0.1 μHz.

  19. Assessing the fit of parametric cure models.

    PubMed

    Wileyto, E Paul; Li, Yimei; Chen, Jinbo; Heitjan, Daniel F

    2013-04-01

    Survival data can contain an unknown fraction of subjects who are "cured" in the sense of not being at risk of failure. We describe such data with cure-mixture models, which separately model cure status and the hazard of failure among non-cured subjects. No diagnostic currently exists for evaluating the fit of such models; the popular Schoenfeld residual (Schoenfeld, 1982. Partial residuals for the proportional hazards regression-model. Biometrika 69, 239-241) is not applicable to data with cures. In this article, we propose a pseudo-residual, modeled on Schoenfeld's, to assess the fit of the survival regression in the non-cured fraction. Unlike Schoenfeld's approach, which tests the validity of the proportional hazards (PH) assumption, our method uses the full hazard and is thus also applicable to non-PH models. We derive the asymptotic distribution of the residuals and evaluate their performance by simulation in a range of parametric models. We apply our approach to data from a smoking cessation drug trial.

  20. Spread Spectrum Frequency Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    theoretically predicted behavior of the new system. Thp experimental program must include field tests in real propagation and interference environments...technological developments and without adequate overall knowledge of propagation characteristics or of other important uses that might require... propagation characteristics at the different frequency levels. The history of major spectrum allocations is then a 7 record of decisions primarily

  1. Stellar Spectrum Synthesizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landegren, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a device which employs two diffraction gratings and three or four simple lenses to produce arbitrary absorption or emission spectra that may be doppler shifted and spectroscopically examined by students some distance away. It may be regarded as a sort of artificial star whose spectrum may be analyzed as an undergraduate laboratory…

  2. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  3. Six Steps for Planning a Fitness Circuit for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    When teaching individuals with autism it is important to pay particular attention to fitness and movement as these individuals are less likely than typical children to achieve the recommended level physical activity. Common characteristics of autism spectrum disorder can include deficits in communication and social behavior, which may limit…

  4. [Baseline correction method for Raman spectroscopy based on B-spline fitting].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Xian-guang; Xu, Ying-jie; Wu, Jing-lin; Liang, Jun; Zuo, Yong

    2014-08-01

    Baseline drift is a widespread phenomenon in modern spectroscopy instrumentation, which would bring a very negative impact to the feature extraction of spectrum signal, and the baseline correction method is an important means to solve the problem, which is also the important part of Raman signal preprocessing. The general principle of baseline drift elimination is using the fitting method to the fit the baseline. The traditional fitting method is polynomial fitting, but this method is prone to over-fitting and under-fitting, and the fitting order is difficult to be determined. In this paper, the traditional method is improved; the B-spline fitting method is used to approach the baseline of Raman signal through constant iteration The advantages of B-spline, namely low-order and smoothness, can help the method overcome the shortcomings of polynomial method. In the experiments, the Raman signal of malachite green and rhodamine B were detected, and then the proposed method and traditional method were applied to perform baseline correction Experimental results showed that the proposed method can eliminate the Raman signal baseline drift effectively without over- and under-fitting, and the same order can be used in both positions where large or small baseline drift occurred. Therefore, the proposed method provided more accurate and reliable information for the further analysis of spectral data.

  5. A Novel Way to Promote Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Tom

    1989-01-01

    Basic steps in organizing and implementing Fun and Fitness Day are outlined. This event, jointly planned by local schools and Triton College, provided 1800 elementary students with health-related fitness testing and a day of fun and competition. (IAH)

  6. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  7. Routine Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162856.html Routine Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too Cardiorespiratory test would help gauge patients' heart ... checked regularly, but an exercise expert says cardiorespiratory fitness should also be part of a routine medical ...

  8. Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

  9. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... joint design is made in accordance with approved practices and is based on comprehensive test data....

  10. President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Print Share President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition (PCFSN) Fitness Homepage Intro Tile PCFSN engages, educates, ... lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and good nutrition. Since 1956, the Council has created and promoted ...

  11. Tile-Compressed FITS Kernel for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a ubiquitously supported standard of the astronomical community. Similarly, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is a widely used astronomical data reduction package. IRAF supplies compatibility with FITS format data through numerous tools and interfaces. The most integrated of these is IRAF's FITS image kernel that provides access to FITS from any IRAF task that uses the basic IMIO interface. The original FITS kernel is a complex interface of purpose-built procedures that presents growing maintenance issues and lacks recent FITS innovations. A new FITS kernel is being developed at NOAO that is layered on the CFITSIO library from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The simplified interface will minimize maintenance headaches as well as add important new features such as support for the FITS tile-compressed (fpack) format.

  12. Soft X-ray spectral fits of Geminga with model neutron star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. D.; Pavlov, G. G.; Meszaros, P.

    1994-01-01

    The spectrum of the soft X-ray pulsar Geminga consists of two components, a softer one which can be interpreted as thermal-like radiation from the surface of the neutron star, and a harder one interpreted as radiation from a polar cap heated by relativistic particles. We have fitted the soft spectrum using a detailed magnetized hydrogen atmosphere model. The fitting parameters are the hydrogen column density, the effective temperature T(sub eff), the gravitational redshift z, and the distance to radius ratio, for different values of the magnetic field B. The best fits for this model are obtained when B less than or approximately 1 x 10(exp 12) G and z lies on the upper boundary of the explored range (z = 0.45). The values of T(sub eff) approximately = (2-3) x 10(exp 5) K are a factor of 2-3 times lower than the value of T(sub eff) obtained for blackbody fits with the same z. The lower T(sub eff) increases the compatibility with some proposed schemes for fast neutrino cooling of neutron stars (NSs) by the direct Urca process or by exotic matter, but conventional cooling cannot be excluded. The hydrogen atmosphere fits also imply a smaller distance to Geminga than that inferred from a blackbody fit. An accurate evaluation of the distance would require a better knowledge of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) response to the low-energy region of the incident spectrum. Our modeling of the soft component with a cooler magnetized atmosphere also implies that the hard-component fit requires a characteristic temperature which is higher (by a factor of approximately 2-3) and a surface area which is smaller (by a factor of 10(exp 3), compared to previous blackbody fits.

  13. THE SUN’S PHOTOSPHERIC CONVECTION SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, David H.; Teil, Thibaud; Kitiashvili, Irina; Norton, Aimee A. E-mail: thibaud.teil@gmail.com E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu

    2015-10-01

    Spectra of the cellular photospheric flows are determined from full-disk Doppler velocity observations acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. Three different analysis methods are used to separately determine spectral coefficients representing the poloidal flows, the toroidal flows, and the radial flows. The amplitudes of these spectral coefficients are constrained by simulated data analyzed with the same procedures as the HMI data. We find that the total velocity spectrum rises smoothly to a peak at a wavenumber of about 120 (wavelength of about 35 Mm), which is typical of supergranules. The spectrum levels off out to wavenumbers of about 400, and then rises again to a peak at a wavenumber of about 3500 (wavelength of about 1200 km), which is typical of granules. The velocity spectrum is dominated by the poloidal flow component (horizontal flows with divergence but no curl) at wavenumbers above 30. The toroidal flow component (horizontal flows with curl but no divergence) dominates at wavenumbers less than 30. The radial flow velocity is only about 3% of the total flow velocity at the lowest wavenumbers, but increases in strength to become about 50% at wavenumbers near 4000. The spectrum compares well with the spectrum of giant cell flows at the lowest wavenumbers and with the spectrum of granulation from a 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulation at the highest wavenumbers.

  14. Least-Squares Curve-Fitting Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1990-01-01

    Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, easily and efficiently computes polynomial providing least-squares best fit to uniformly spaced data. Enables user to specify tolerable least-squares error in fit or degree of polynomial. AKLSQF returns polynomial and actual least-squares-fit error incurred in operation. Data supplied to routine either by direct keyboard entry or via file. Written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler.

  15. Continuum Fitting HST QSO Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method which we are using to fit and describe QSO spectra relies upon the fact that QSO continuum are generally very smooth and simple except for emission and absorption lines. To see this we need high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of QSOs at low redshift which have relatively few absorption lines in the Lyman-a forest. We need a large number of such spectra to use as the basis set for the PCA analysis which will find the set of principal component spectra which describe the QSO family as a whole. We have found that too few HST spectra have the required S/N and hence we need to supplement them with ground based spectra of QSOs at higher redshift. We have many such spectra and we have been working to make them suitable for this analysis. We have concentrated on this topic since 12/15/01.

  16. Renewable Energy in Fitness Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.

    2009-09-30

    All military installations have goals for implementing renewable energy projects, but not all have abundant solar energy or have massive feedstock for a large biomass plant. They must build up their renewable portfolio one project at it a time where they make the most sense – most of the time through small projects on specific buildings. During the last few years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided project support to Army Installation Management Command Southeast Region (IMCOM-Southeast) installations. One of the building types visited, the physical fitness center (PFC), almost always yield project ideas. The building lends itself to a number of different technologies, and the high traffic nature is the perfect place to craft an educational message for users and demonstrate an installation’s commitment to sustainable energy development.

  17. Oestradiol assays: fitness for purpose?

    PubMed

    Middle, Jonathan G; Kane, John W

    2009-11-01

    In this review we discuss the analytical inadequacies of oestradiol assays in relation to the clinical requirements for performing them, and make recommendations for their improvement. The measurement of oestradiol can be requested in a number of clinical scenarios (precocious puberty, infertility, assisted conception, hormone replacement therapy). The very wide dynamic range of oestradiol concentrations is a huge challenge for routine assays, which they are unlikely to meet on theoretical as well as practical grounds. The EQA performance of oestradiol assays in terms of trueness, comparability, recovery and analytical sensitivity leaves much to be desired and indicates that calibration is compromised by poor analytical specificity. To make oestradiol assays fit for purpose requires concerted action by all stakeholders to define analytical quality specifications for the various clinical scenarios involved, and then to encourage concerted action by the diagnostic industry to use the steroid reference measurement system to improve specificity, trueness and traceability.

  18. Submillimeter wave spectrum of acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Endres, Christian P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Drouin, Brian J.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new global study of the submillimeter wave spectrum of the lowest three torsional states of acetic acid (CH3COOH). New measurements involving torsion-rotation transitions with J up to 79 and Ka up to 44 have been carried out between 230 and 845 GHz using the submillimeter wave spectrometers in University of Cologne and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new data were combined with previously published measurements and fitted using the rho-axis-method torsion-rotation Hamiltonian. The final fit used 93 parameters to give an overall weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.85 for a dataset consisting of 7543, 6087, and 5171 transitions belonging, respectively, to the ground, first, and second excited torsional states and 1888 Δvt ≠ 0 transitions. This investigation presents more than a twofold expansion both in the J quantum number and frequency range coverage of the acetic acid spectrum. Numerous inter-torsional interactions have been observed. Furthermore, this is the highest J value ever treated with the rho-axis-method and provides a good test case for the theoretical model in use.

  19. Searching the clinical fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Eppstein, Margaret J; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Buzas, Jeffrey S; Kauffman, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Widespread unexplained variations in clinical practices and patient outcomes suggest major opportunities for improving the quality and safety of medical care. However, there is little consensus regarding how to best identify and disseminate healthcare improvements and a dearth of theory to guide the debate. Many consider multicenter randomized controlled trials to be the gold standard of evidence-based medicine, although results are often inconclusive or may not be generally applicable due to differences in the contexts within which care is provided. Increasingly, others advocate the use "quality improvement collaboratives", in which multi-institutional teams share information to identify potentially better practices that are subsequently evaluated in the local contexts of specific institutions, but there is concern that such collaborative learning approaches lack the statistical rigor of randomized trials. Using an agent-based model, we show how and why a collaborative learning approach almost invariably leads to greater improvements in expected patient outcomes than more traditional approaches in searching simulated clinical fitness landscapes. This is due to a combination of greater statistical power and more context-dependent evaluation of treatments, especially in complex terrains where some combinations of practices may interact in affecting outcomes. The results of our simulations are consistent with observed limitations of randomized controlled trials and provide important insights into probable reasons for effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives in the complex socio-technical environments of healthcare institutions. Our approach illustrates how modeling the evolution of medical practice as search on a clinical fitness landscape can aid in identifying and understanding strategies for improving the quality and safety of medical care.

  20. Reflection on fitness to practise.

    PubMed

    Brindley, J

    2016-10-21

    Aim The focus of this review was to identify the role of reflection in continuing dental education. By understanding the expectations that our statutory regulative authority has of their registrants there is an opportunity to help to shape the continued professional development activities undertaken by current registrants in the future.Objective Conduct a review of General Dental Council (GDC) Fitness to Practise cases which were given conditions (restrictions) between February 2012 and November 2015, identifying relevant emergent outcomes in relation the Fitness to Practise (FTP) process.Design A Framework Approach (FA) was used to interrogate the qualitative data generated from GDC cases, the data were reviewed by a secondary person to ensure inter-rater reliability. Ethical approval was not sought for this research project as the GDC cases are published and available for open access via the internet. However, this does not negate the need for consideration of those GDC registrants who have been reviewed by the FTP process, indeed information regarding their identities was removed during data collection, as individual identification as part of this research project may have impacted on these individuals (bearing in mind the principle of non-maleficence; do no harm) and disclosure of personal information would not have contributed to the findings of this review. Although FTP cases are in the public domain, the information is still sensitive to those registrants, therefore it was not possible to review those cases which were not available for public view. To ensure that individual identification of registrants did not occur for the available to view cases (n = 56), each case file was individually downloaded from the GDC website and immediately given an individual numerical identifier before the frame work analysis. For the purpose of this research only the data from the FTP cases which resulted in 'conditions' were subject to review, as these were cases where it

  1. What happens to full-f gyrokinetic transport and turbulence in a toroidal wedge simulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.

    2017-01-01

    In order to save the computing time or to fit the simulation size into a limited computing hardware in a gyrokinetic turbulence simulation of a tokamak plasma, a toroidal wedge simulation may be utilized in which only a partial toroidal section is modeled with a periodic boundary condition in the toroidal direction. The most severe restriction in the wedge simulation is expected to be in the longest wavelength turbulence, i.e., ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The global full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to compare the transport and turbulence properties from a toroidal wedge simulation against the full torus simulation in an ITG unstable plasma in a model toroidal geometry. It is found that (1) the convergence study in the wedge number needs to be conducted all the way down to the full torus in order to avoid a false convergence, (2) a reasonably accurate simulation can be performed if the correct wedge number N can be identified, (3) the validity of a wedge simulation may be checked by performing a wave-number spectral analysis of the turbulence amplitude |δΦ| and assuring that the variation of δΦ between the discrete kθ values is less than 25% compared to the peak |δΦ| , and (4) a frequency spectrum may not be used for the validity check of a wedge simulation.

  2. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  3. Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison

    In the early days of physical education, the value of physical fitness was associated with preparation for defense in wartime and preventive medicine. Physical fitness waned in importance in the period between the two World Wars, to become concommitant to other objectives of physical education. A resurgence in emphasis on fitness was triggered and…

  4. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  5. 14 CFR 29.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... members. (b) No fitting factor need be used— (1) For joints made under approved practices and based on comprehensive test data (such as continuous joints in metal plating, welded joints, and scarf joints in wood... integral fitting, the part must be treated as a fitting up to the point at which the section...

  6. 14 CFR 27.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... members. (b) No fitting factor need be used— (1) For joints made under approved practices and based on comprehensive test data (such as continuous joints in metal plating, welded joints, and scarf joints in wood... integral fitting, the part must be treated as a fitting up to the point at which the section...

  7. 14 CFR 25.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... members. (b) No fitting factor need be used— (1) For joints made under approved practices and based on comprehensive test data (such as continuous joints in metal plating, welded joints, and scarf joints in wood... integral fitting, the part must be treated as a fitting up to the point at which the section...

  8. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bearing on the joined members. (b) No fitting factor need be used for joint designs based on comprehensive test data (such as continuous joints in metal plating, welded joints, and scarf joints in wood). (c) For each integral fitting, the part must be treated as a fitting up to the point at which the...

  9. 9 CFR 91.30 - Defective fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defective fittings. 91.30 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.30 Defective fittings. If previously used fittings aboard an ocean vessel are employed, any portion thereof found by the inspector to...

  10. 33 CFR 159.87 - Removal fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal fittings. 159.87 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.87 Removal fittings. If sewage removal fittings or adapters are provided with the device, they must be of either 11/2″ or 4″ nominal...

  11. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached lifting fittings so that the tank remains horizontal and stable while being moved....

  12. 14 CFR 25.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factors. 25.625 Section 25.625... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.625 Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the following apply: (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factors. 29.625 Section 29.625... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.625 Fitting factors. For each fitting (part or terminal used to join one structural member to another) the following apply: (a) For...

  14. 14 CFR 27.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factors. 27.625 Section 27.625... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.625 Fitting factors. For each fitting (part or terminal used to join one structural member to another) the following apply: (a) For...

  15. Line Fitting Using Only High School Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staib, John

    1982-01-01

    An approach to using the method of least squares, a scheme for computing the best-fitting line directly from a set of points, is detailed. The material first looks at fitting a numerical value to a set of numbers. This provides tools for solving the line-fitting problem. (MP)

  16. Fitness: A Family Affair. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways parents can help children create a lifestyle that supports physical fitness, focusing on motivation for children and parents. Defines the components of fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Presents information on developing adult and child fitness programs, including a workout…

  17. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997)...

  18. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997)...

  19. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997)...

  20. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997)...

  1. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  2. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Physical fitness. 752.7033 Section 752.7033 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND... fitness. For use in all USAID contracts involving performance overseas. Physical Fitness (JUL 1997)...

  3. Cubic spline functions for curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    FORTRAN cubic spline routine mathematically fits curve through given ordered set of points so that fitted curve nearly approximates curve generated by passing infinite thin spline through set of points. Generalized formulation includes trigonometric, hyperbolic, and damped cubic spline fits of third order.

  4. AAHPER Youth Fitness Test Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The Revised AAHPER Youth Fitness Test is a battery of six test items designed to give a measure of physical fitness for boys and girls in grades 5-12. The tests were selected to evaluate specific aspects of physical status which, taken together, give an overall picture of fitness. Tests can be given in the gymnasium or outdoors. They are as…

  5. The Army's High Priority Physical Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Fred R.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the importance of physical fitness in the United States Army. The development of expanded fitness assessment and programs is related to health and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Improved physical training programs, improved nutrition, and fundamental research are necessary for maintaining a highly fit and healthy…

  6. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at...

  7. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at...

  8. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at...

  9. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at...

  10. Teacher's Helper: Physical Fitness for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, Towson.

    The booklet, intended for physical and special educators, and occupational, physical, and recreation therapists, deals with physical fitness for handicapped students. Background information on the importance and attainment of fitness is followed by general principles of physical fitness development (such as overload, progression, specificity, and…

  11. Online Databases. ASCII Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Defines the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) full text, and reviews its past, present, and future uses in libraries. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, and uses of searchable and nonsearchable full-text databases. Also comments on full-text CD-ROM products and on technological advancements made by library vendors. (JMV)

  12. Verifying operator fitness - an imperative not an option

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, whatever credence those who operate nuclear power plants around the world could then muster, suffered a jarring reversal. Through an incredible series of personal errors, the operators at what was later to be termed one of the best operated plants in the USSR systematically stripped away the physical and procedural safeguards inherent to their installation and precipitated the worst reactor accident the world has yet seen. This challenge to the adequacy of nuclear operators comes at a time when many companies throughout the world - not only those that involve nuclear power - are grappling with the problem of how to assure the fitness for duty of those in their employ, specifically those users of substances that have an impact on the ability to function safely and productively in the workplace. In actuality, operator fitness for duty is far more than the lack of impairment from substance abuse, which many today consider it. Full fitness for duty implies mental and moral fitness, as well, and physical fitness in a more general sense. If we are to earn the confidence of the public, credible ways to verify total fitness on an operator-by-operator basis must be considered.

  13. Semi-Chaotic Behaviors Observed in the Asteroseismic Fitting of GD 358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff-Kim, A.; Provencal, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of 34 years worth of data on GD 358 allowed us to assemble a spectrum of 15 ℓ=1 modes, 13 of which constitute a consecutive sequence. This is the longest consecutive sequence of modes we fit formally so far for a pulsating white dwarf, with high resolution grids. There were some hints before that some periods may be highly sensitive to some parameters in certain areas of parameter space. With the long consecutive sequence of same ell modes in GD 358's pulsation spectrum, we can study the effect such behaviors can have on asteroseismic fitting. We show some examples of large changes in the calculated period spectra due to small changes in a given parameter. We also discuss some tests one can do to assess how strong the constraints on the fitness parameters are and comment on the complex relationship between the set of observed periods and the constraints.

  14. Correcting for telluric absorption: Methods, case studies, and release of the TelFit code

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based astronomical spectra are contaminated by the Earth's atmosphere to varying degrees in all spectral regions. We present a Python code that can accurately fit a model to the telluric absorption spectrum present in astronomical data, with residuals of ∼3%-5% of the continuum for moderately strong lines. We demonstrate the quality of the correction by fitting the telluric spectrum in a nearly featureless A0V star, HIP 20264, as well as to a series of dwarf M star spectra near the 819 nm sodium doublet. We directly compare the results to an empirical telluric correction of HIP 20264 and find that our model-fitting procedure is at least as good and sometimes more accurate. The telluric correction code, which we make freely available to the astronomical community, can be used as a replacement for telluric standard star observations for many purposes.

  15. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanikova, E.; Peterka, M.; Bohm, P.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Sos, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2016-11-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  16. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak.

    PubMed

    Stefanikova, E; Peterka, M; Bohm, P; Bilkova, P; Aftanas, M; Sos, M; Urban, J; Hron, M; Panek, R

    2016-11-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  17. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  18. Proteomics Is Analytical Chemistry: Fitness-for-Purpose in the Application of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Analyses.

    PubMed

    Coorssen, Jens R; Yergey, Alfred L

    2015-12-03

    Molecular mechanisms underlying health and disease function at least in part based on the flexibility and fine-tuning afforded by protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. The ability to effectively and consistently resolve these protein species or proteoforms, as well as assess quantitative changes is therefore central to proteomic analyses. Here we discuss the pros and cons of currently available and developing analytical techniques from the perspective of the full spectrum of available tools and their current applications, emphasizing the concept of fitness-for-purpose in experimental design based on consideration of sample size and complexity; this necessarily also addresses analytical reproducibility and its variance. Data quality is considered the primary criterion, and we thus emphasize that the standards of Analytical Chemistry must apply throughout any proteomic analysis.

  19. Proteomics Is Analytical Chemistry: Fitness-for-Purpose in the Application of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coorssen, Jens R.; Yergey, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying health and disease function at least in part based on the flexibility and fine-tuning afforded by protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. The ability to effectively and consistently resolve these protein species or proteoforms, as well as assess quantitative changes is therefore central to proteomic analyses. Here we discuss the pros and cons of currently available and developing analytical techniques from the perspective of the full spectrum of available tools and their current applications, emphasizing the concept of fitness-for-purpose in experimental design based on consideration of sample size and complexity; this necessarily also addresses analytical reproducibility and its variance. Data quality is considered the primary criterion, and we thus emphasize that the standards of Analytical Chemistry must apply throughout any proteomic analysis. PMID:28248279

  20. HfS, Hyperfine Structure Fitting Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estalella, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Hyperfine Structure Fitting (HfS) is a tool to fit the hyperfine structure of spectral lines with multiple velocity components. The HfS_nh3 procedures included in HfS simultaneously fit the hyperfine structure of the NH3 (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) transitions, and perform a standard analysis to derive {T}{ex}, NH3 column density, {T}{rot}, and {T}{{k}}. HfS uses a Monte Carlo approach for fitting the line parameters. Special attention is paid to the derivation of the parameter uncertainties. HfS includes procedures that make use of parallel computing for fitting spectra from a data cube.

  1. Wavelets for full reconfigurable ECG acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, D. P.; García, A.; Castillo, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the use of wavelet cores for a full reconfigurable electrocardiogram signal (ECG) acquisition system. The system is compound by two reconfigurable devices, a FPGA and a FPAA. The FPAA is in charge of the ECG signal acquisition, since this device is a versatile and reconfigurable analog front-end for biosignals. The FPGA is in charge of FPAA configuration, digital signal processing and information extraction such as heart beat rate and others. Wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for ECG signal processing since it perfectly fits ECG signal shape. The use of these cores has been integrated in the LabVIEW FPGA module development tool that makes possible to employ VHDL cores within the usual LabVIEW graphical programming environment, thus freeing the designer from tedious and time consuming design of communication interfaces. This enables rapid test and graphical representation of results.

  2. Fitness implications of seasonal climate variation in Columbian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Dobson, F Stephen; Lane, Jeffrey E; Low, Matthew; Murie, Jan O

    2016-08-01

    The influence of climate change on the fitness of wild populations is often studied in the context of the spring onset of the reproductive season. This focus is relevant for climate influences on reproductive success, but neglects other fitness-relevant periods (e.g., autumn preparation for overwintering). We examined variation in climate variables (temperature, rainfall, snowfall, and snowpack) across the full annual cycle of Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus) for 21 years. We investigated seasonal climate variables that were associated with fitness variables, climate variables that exhibited directional changes across the study period, and finally observed declines in fitness (-0.03 units/year; total decline = 37%) that were associated with directional changes in climate variables. Annual fitness of adult female ground squirrels was positively associated with spring temperature (r = 0.69) and early summer rainfall (r = 0.56) and negatively associated with spring snow conditions (r = -0.44 to -0.66). Across the 21 years, spring snowmelt has become significantly delayed (r = 0.48) and summer rainfall became significantly reduced (r = -0.53). Using a standardized partial regression model, we found that directional changes in the timing of spring snowmelt and early summer rainfall (i.e., progressively drier summers) had moderate influences on annual fitness, with the latter statistically significant (ρ = -0.314 and 0.437, respectively). The summer period corresponds to prehibernation fattening of young and adult ground squirrels. Had we focused on a single point in time (viz. the onset of the breeding season), we would have underestimated the influences of climate change on our population. Rather, we obtained a comprehensive understanding of the influences of climate change on individual fitness by investigating the full lifecycle.

  3. A geomagnetic field spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the earth's internal magnetic field of degree and order 23 is derived from selected Magsat data, and its power spectrum, computed with terms developed by Mauersberger (1956) and Lowes (1974), is found to exhibit a change of a slope at n = 14 which is interpreted as an indication that the core field dominates at values lower than 13 while the crust field dominates above a value of 15. The representations of the two portions of the spectrum obtained can be used to establish order-of-magnitude inaccuracies due to both crustal fields and the inability to observe core field wavelengths beyond n = 13, at which point they are obscured by the crustal field, in core field models.

  4. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    PubMed

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  5. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  6. Multitaper Spectrum Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, I. K.; Stark, P. B.

    Multitapering is a statistical technique developed to improve on the notorious periodogram estimate of the power spectrum (Thomson, 1982; Percival, Walden 1993). We show how to obtain orthogonal tapers for time series observed with gaps, and how to use statistical resampling techniques (Efron, Tibshirani 1993) to calculate realistic uncertainty estimates for multitaper estimates. We introduce multisegment multitapering. Multitapering can also be extended to the 2D case. We indicate how to construct tapers that minimize the spatial leakage in estimates of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the velocity images. Spatial multitapering followed by the temporal tapering of the estimated spherical harmonic time series is expected to result in improved spectrum and subsequent solar oscillation mode parameter estimates.

  7. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  8. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  9. Properties of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Margaret; Adams, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the residual-based fit statistics commonly used in Rasch measurement. In particular, the paper analytically examines some of the theoretical properties of the residual-based fit statistics with a view to establishing the inferences that can be made using these fit statistics. More specifically, the relationships between the distributional properties of the fit statistics and sample size are discussed; some research that erroneously concludes that residual-based fit statistics are unstable is reviewed; and finally, it is analytically illustrated that, for dichotomous items, residual-based fit statistics provide a measure of the relative slope of empirical item characteristic curves. With a clear understanding of the theoretical properties of the fit statistics, the use and limitations of these statistics can be placed in the right light.

  10. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  11. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Andrew R; Kurath, Gael

    2012-10-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  12. Increased Replicative Fitness Can Lead to Decreased Drug Sensitivity of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Julie; Beach, Nathan M.; Moreno, Elena; Gallego, Isabel; Piñeiro, David; Martínez-Salas, Encarnación; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Passage of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human hepatoma cells resulted in populations that displayed partial resistance to alpha interferon (IFN-α), telaprevir, daclatasvir, cyclosporine, and ribavirin, despite no prior exposure to these drugs. Mutant spectrum analyses and kinetics of virus production in the absence and presence of drugs indicate that resistance is not due to the presence of drug resistance mutations in the mutant spectrum of the initial or passaged populations but to increased replicative fitness acquired during passage. Fitness increases did not alter host factors that lead to shutoff of general host cell protein synthesis and preferential translation of HCV RNA. The results imply that viral replicative fitness is a mechanism of multidrug resistance in HCV. IMPORTANCE Viral drug resistance is usually attributed to the presence of amino acid substitutions in the protein targeted by the drug. In the present study with HCV, we show that high viral replicative fitness can confer a general drug resistance phenotype to the virus. The results exclude the possibility that genomes with drug resistance mutations are responsible for the observed phenotype. The fact that replicative fitness can be a determinant of multidrug resistance may explain why the virus is less sensitive to drug treatments in prolonged chronic HCV infections that favor increases in replicative fitness. PMID:25122776

  13. [Using Fourier transform to analyse differential optical absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Lin; Wang, Li-Shi; Huang, Xin-Jian

    2008-05-01

    According to the theory of differential optical absorption spectral technique, the differential optical absorption spectral monitoring equipment was designed. Aiming at two kinds of main pollutants, SO2 and NO2, in the atmosphere, this technique was used to monitor them. The present article puts forward the signal analysis method of Fourier transformation to process the above-mentioned two kinds of absorption spectra. The two approaches contain the removeal of noise and the fitting of the slow variety. On the frequency chart after the spectrum was transformed, the low frequency corresponded to the slow variety part and the high frequency corresponded to the noise part of the original spectrum, so through intercepting a certain frequency segment and using inverse Fourier transformation the slow variety part of the low frequency and the noise part of the high frequency of the absorption spectrum could be subtracted. After farther processing we can get a higher resolution differential absorption spectrum of the gas. According to the strength of the spectrum, we can calculate the concentration of the gas. After analysis and comparison with the conventional method, it is considered a new processing method of differential optical absorption spectral technique, and the method can fit the slow variety much better.

  14. Hierarchy, leadership, and construal fit.

    PubMed

    Berson, Yair; Halevy, Nir

    2014-09-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis, derived from construal-level theory, that hierarchical distance between leaders and followers moderates the effectiveness of leader behaviors such that abstract behaviors produce more positive outcomes when enacted across large hierarchical distances, whereas concrete behaviors produce more positive outcomes when enacted across small hierarchical distances. In Study 1 (N = 2,206 employees of a telecommunication organization), job satisfaction was higher when direct supervisors provided employees with concrete feedback and hierarchically distant leaders shared with them their abstract vision rather than vice versa. Study 2 orthogonally crossed hierarchical distances with communication type, operationalized as articulating abstract values versus sharing a detailed story exemplifying the same values; construal misfit mediated the interactive effects of hierarchical distance and communication type on organizational commitment and social bonding. Study 3 similarly manipulated hierarchical distances and communication type, operationalized as concrete versus abstract calls for action in the context of a severe professional crisis. Group commitment and participation in collective action were higher when a hierarchically proximate leader communicated a concrete call for action and a hierarchically distant leader communicated an abstract call for action rather than vice versa. These findings highlight construal fit's positive consequences for individuals and organizations.

  15. The best-fit universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-10-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model -- one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of {Omega}, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated'' model, the current data point to a best-fit model'' with the following parameters: {Omega}{sub B} {approx equal} 0.03, {Omega}{sub CDM} {approx equal} 0.17, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} {approx equal} 0.8, and H{sub 0} {approx equal} 70 km sec{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}, which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such. 42 refs.

  16. GOSSIP, a New VO Compliant Tool for SED Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzetti, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Fumana, M.; Paioro, L.

    2008-08-01

    We present GOSSIP (Galaxy Observed-Simulated SED Interactive Program), a new tool developed to perform SED fitting in a simple, user friendly and efficient way. GOSSIP automatically builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a χ^2 minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions. User defined models can be used, but GOSSIP is also able to load models produced by the most commonly used synthesis population codes. GOSSIP can be used interactively with other visualization tools using the PLASTIC protocol for communications. Moreover, since it has been developed with large data sets applications in mind, it will be extended to operate within the Virtual Observatory framework. GOSSIP is distributed to the astronomical community from the PANDORA group web site (http://cosmos.iasf-milano.inaf.it/pandora/gossip.html).

  17. Supersymmetry with prejudice: Fitting the wrong model to LHC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, Matthew J.

    2012-09-01

    We critically examine interpretations of hypothetical supersymmetric LHC signals, fitting to alternative wrong models of supersymmetry breaking. The signals we consider are some of the most constraining on the sparticle spectrum: invariant mass distributions with edges and endpoints from the golden decay chain q˜→qχ20(→l˜±l∓q)→χ10l+l-q. We assume a constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) point to be the ‘correct’ one, but fit the signals instead with minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models (mGMSB) with a neutralino quasistable lightest supersymmetric particle, minimal anomaly mediation and large volume string compactification models. Minimal anomaly mediation and large volume scenario can be unambiguously discriminated against the CMSSM for the assumed signal and 1fb-1 of LHC data at s=14TeV. However, mGMSB would not be discriminated on the basis of the kinematic endpoints alone. The best-fit point spectra of mGMSB and CMSSM look remarkably similar, making experimental discrimination at the LHC based on the edges or Higgs properties difficult. However, using rate information for the golden chain should provide the additional separation required.

  18. Full Moon and Empty Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauroesch, T. J.; Edinger, J. R., Jr.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that weather is influenced by the occurrence of the full moon has been explored with respect to cloud coverage. Statistical analysis of 44 years of data has shown no apparent correlation between a clear sky and the occurrence of the full moon.

  19. The sociobiology of sex: inclusive fitness consequences of inter-sexual interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Gardner, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of social interactions between sexual partners has long captivated biologists, and its evolution has been interpreted largely in terms of ‘direct fitness’ pay-offs to partners and their descendants. Inter-sexual interactions also have ‘indirect effects’ by affecting the fitness of relatives, with important consequences for inclusive fitness. However, inclusive fitness arguments have received limited consideration in this context, and definitions of ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ fitness effects in this field are often inconsistent with those of inclusive fitness theory. Here, we use a sociobiology approach based on inclusive fitness theory to distinguish between direct and indirect fitness effects. We first consider direct effects: we review how competition leads to sexual conflict, and discuss the conditions under which repression of competition fosters sexual mutualism. We then clarify indirect effects, and show that greenbeard effects, kin recognition and population viscosity can all lead to episodes of indirect selection on sexual interactions creating potential for sexual altruism and spite. We argue that the integration of direct and indirect fitness effects within a sociobiology approach enables us to consider a more diverse spectrum of evolutionary outcomes of sexual interactions, and may help resolving current debates over sexual selection and sexual conflict. PMID:22777019

  20. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  1. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    synchronizing, and deconflicting JEMSMO actions (p. IV-7) Doctrine Update for JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations...communications system directorate of a joint staff (J-6), to support joint planning, coordination, and control of the spectrum for assigned forces. Executive...in the respective Service or joint publications. Interference Resolution To ensure critical frequencies and spectrum-dependent systems are

  2. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  3. Identifying Topological Order from the Entanglement Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldane, F. D. M.

    2011-03-01

    The Schmidt decomposition reveals bipartite entanglement of a quantum state. Calculation of the entanglement entropy reduces it to a single number, which can be studied as a function of the size and shape of the entangled regions. However, this reduction discards additional information contained in the full spectrum of the entanglement, which can be presented as a set of (dimensionless) ``pseudo-energy'' levels spectrum, labeled by quantum numbers such as momentum parallel to the (d - 1) -dimensional boundary along which the bipartite decomposition of a d -dimensional system is made. The nature of the entanglement is revealed by this spectrum, much as the elementary excitations and collective modes characterizes condensed-matter states. (The von Neumann entropy is equivalent to the the thermodynamic entropy of the system of pseudo-energy levels at a particular fictitious ``temperature'' kB T = 1 .) The previously-unrecognized importance of the spectrum (as opposed to just its entropy) became immediately apparent when the entanglement spectrum of a 2D fractional Quantum Hall state along a 1D cut was first plotted. The gapless spectrum of the conformal field theory related to the topological order of the FQHE can be recognized, and is the only spectrum in model states like the Laughlin or Moore-Read wavefunctions related to cft. For realistic states, corrections due to collective-mode fluctuations give rise to high-pseudo-energy modes that are separated from the gapless (topological) modes by a finite gap. Previously, it had been believed that the extensive O(L) (``area law'') part of the entanglement entropy of this spectrum was non-universal, and topological order could only be recognized from the O(1) subleading behavior as the length L of the cut was scaled. However, while the ``pseudo-energy'' distribution appears to be non-universal, the distribution of the spectrum as a function of (true) momentum does not have this drawback, showing that the topological

  4. A new curriculum for fitness education.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J L

    1983-01-01

    Regular exercise is important in a preventive approach to health care because it exerts a beneficial effect on many risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. However, many Americans lack the skills required to devise and carry out a safe and effective exercise program appropriate for a life-time of fitness. This inability is partly due to the lack of fitness education during their school years. School programs in physical education tend to neglect training in the health-related aspects of fitness. Therefore, a new curriculum for fitness education is proposed that would provide seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students with (a) a basic knowledge of their physiological response to exercise, (b) the means to develop their own safe and effective physical fitness program, and (c) the motivation to incorporate regular exercise into their lifestyle. This special 4-week segment of primarily academic study is designed to be inserted into the physical education curriculum. Daily lessons cover health-related fitness, cardiovascular fitness, body fitness, and care of the back. A final written examination covering major areas of information is given to emphasize this academic approach to exercise. Competition in athletic ability is deemphasized, and motivational awards are given based on health-related achievements. The public's present lack of knowledge about physical fitness, coupled with the numerous anatomical and physiological benefits derived from regular, vigorous exercise, mandate an intensified curriculum of fitness education for school children. PMID:6414039

  5. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  6. Interference Fit Life Factors for Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hoop stresses in reducing cylindrical roller bearing fatigue life was determined for various classes of inner ring interference fit. Calculations were performed for up to seven interference fit classes for each of ten bearing sizes. Each fit was taken at tightest, average and loosest values within the fit class for RBEC-5 tolerance, thus requiring 486 separate analyses. The hoop stresses were superimposed on the Hertzian principal stresses created by the applied radial load to calculate roller bearing fatigue life. The method was developed through a series of equations to calculate the life reduction for cylindrical roller bearings based on interference fit. All calculated lives are for zero initial bearing internal clearance. Any reduction in bearing clearance due to interference fit was compensated by increasing the initial (unmounted) clearance. Results are presented as tables and charts of life factors for bearings with light, moderate and heavy loads and interference fits ranging from extremely light to extremely heavy and for bearing accuracy class RBEC 5 (ISO class 5). Interference fits on the inner bearing ring of a cylindrical roller bearing can significantly reduce bearing fatigue life. In general, life factors are smaller (lower life) for bearings running under light load where the unfactored life is highest. The various bearing series within a particular bore size had almost identical interference fit life factors for a particular fit. The tightest fit at the high end of the RBEC-5 tolerance band defined in ANSI/ABMA shaft fit tables produces a life factor of approximately 0.40 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 1200 MPa (175 ksi) and a life factor of 0.60 for an inner-race maximum Hertz stress of 2200 MPa (320 ksi). Interference fits also impact the maximum Hertz stress-life relation.

  7. Fitting gravitational lenses: truth or delusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. Wyn; Witt, Hans J.

    2003-11-01

    The observables in a strong gravitational lens are usually just the image positions and sometimes the flux ratios. We develop a new and simple algorithm which allows a set of models to be fitted exactly to the observations. Taking our cue from the strong body of evidence that early-type galaxies are close to isothermal, we assume that the lens is scale-free with a flat rotation curve. External shear can be easily included. Our algorithm allows full flexibility regarding the angular structure of the lensing potential. Importantly, all the free parameters enter linearly into the model and so the lens and flux ratio equations can always be solved by straightforward matrix inversion. The models are only restricted by the fact that the surface mass density must be positive. We use this new algorithm to examine some of the claims made for anomalous flux ratios. It has been argued that such anomalies betray the presence of substantial amounts of substructure in the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate by explicit construction that some of the lens systems for which substructure has been claimed can be well fitted by smooth lens models. This is especially the case when the systematic errors in the flux ratios (caused by microlensing or differential extinction) are taken into account. However, there is certainly one system (B1422+231) for which the existing smooth models are definitely inadequate and for which substructure may be implicated. Within a few tens of kpc of the lensing galaxy centre, dynamical friction and tidal disruption are known to be very efficient at dissolving any substructure. Very little substructure is projected within the Einstein radius. The numbers of strong lenses for which substructure is currently being claimed may be so large that this contradicts rather than supports cold dark matter theories.

  8. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE 600 < l < 8000 COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM AT 148 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J. W.; Appel, J. W.; Das, S.; Dunkley, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Duenner, R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. B.

    2010-10-20

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.'4 angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky, in a 4.{sup 0}2 wide strip centered on declination 53{sup 0} south. The CMB at arcminute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 < l < 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 < l < 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l {approx} 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A{sub SZ} < 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of {sigma}{sub 8}, this implies {sigma}{sup SZ}{sub 8} < 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a six-parameter {Lambda}CDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.

  9. What happens to full-f gyrokinetic transport and turbulence in a toroidal wedge simulation?

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; ...

    2017-01-24

    Here, in order to save the computing time or to fit the simulation size into a limited computing hardware in a gyrokinetic turbulence simulation of a tokamak plasma, a toroidal wedge simulation may be utilized in which only a partial toroidal section is modeled with a periodic boundary condition in the toroidal direction. The most severe restriction in the wedge simulation is expected to be in the longest wavelength turbulence, i.e., ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The global full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to compare the transport and turbulence properties from a toroidal wedge simulation against the fullmore » torus simulation in an ITG unstable plasma in a model toroidal geometry. It is found that (1) the convergence study in the wedge number needs to be conducted all the way down to the full torus in order to avoid a false convergence, (2) a reasonably accurate simulation can be performed if the correct wedge number N can be identified, (3) the validity of a wedge simulation may be checked by performing a wave-number spectral analysis of the turbulence amplitude |δΦ| and assuring that the variation of δΦ between the discrete kθ values is less than 25% compared to the peak |δΦ|, and (4) a frequency spectrum may not be used for the validity check of a wedge simulation.« less

  10. Spectrum of Fascicular Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Sung, Raphael; Scheinman, Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Fascicular arrhythmias encompass a wide spectrum of ventricular arrhythmias that depend on the specialized conduction system of the right and left ventricles. These arrhythmias include premature ventricular complexes, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. These arrhythmias may be organized by mechanism, including intrafascicular reentry, interfascicular reentry, and focal. Mapping and ablation of the fascicular system can result in high cure rates of debilitating and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. When approaching these arrhythmias, careful consideration of the structure of the His Purkinje system as well as their electrophysiologic properties may help guide even the most complex of arrhythmias.

  11. Fitting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Optical Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a comprehensive methodology for the fitting of single-walled carbon nanotube absorption spectra is presented. Different approaches to background subtraction, choice of line profile, and calculation of full width at half-maximum are discussed both in the context of previous literature and the contemporary understanding of carbon nanotube photophysics. The fitting is improved by the inclusion of exciton–phonon sidebands, and new techniques to improve the individualization of overlapped nanotube spectra by exploiting correlations between the first- and second-order optical transitions and the exciton–phonon sidebands are presented. Consideration of metallic nanotubes allows an analysis of the metallic/semiconducting content, and a process of constraining the fit of highly congested spectra of carbon nanotube solid films according to the spectral weights of each (n, m) species in solution is also presented, allowing for more reliable resolution of overlapping peaks into single (n, m) species contributions. PMID:28393134

  12. Fitting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Optical Spectra.

    PubMed

    Pfohl, Moritz; Tune, Daniel D; Graf, Arko; Zaumseil, Jana; Krupke, Ralph; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2017-03-31

    In this work, a comprehensive methodology for the fitting of single-walled carbon nanotube absorption spectra is presented. Different approaches to background subtraction, choice of line profile, and calculation of full width at half-maximum are discussed both in the context of previous literature and the contemporary understanding of carbon nanotube photophysics. The fitting is improved by the inclusion of exciton-phonon sidebands, and new techniques to improve the individualization of overlapped nanotube spectra by exploiting correlations between the first- and second-order optical transitions and the exciton-phonon sidebands are presented. Consideration of metallic nanotubes allows an analysis of the metallic/semiconducting content, and a process of constraining the fit of highly congested spectra of carbon nanotube solid films according to the spectral weights of each (n, m) species in solution is also presented, allowing for more reliable resolution of overlapping peaks into single (n, m) species contributions.

  13. The making of a modern female body: beauty, health and fitness in interwar Britain.

    PubMed

    Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In interwar Britain female athleticism, keep-fit classes and physical culture were celebrated as emblems of modernity, and women who cultivated their bodies in the pursuit of beauty, health and fitness represented civic virtue. This article argues that a modern, actively managed female body was part of women's liberation during this period. A modern female body required sex reform and birth control. Fitness culture was circumscribed by traditional notions of femininity. Women's competitive sport remained controversial and slimming in pursuit of fashion was widely condemned. Women from across the social spectrum embraced sport and joined fitness organizations. The rise of a modern female body contributed towards greater equality between the sexes. However, the gender order did not change fundamentally and the ideal woman of the interwar years was represented as a modern, emancipated race mother.

  14. Marine Corps Semper Fit Program Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-08

    Fitness Test and Weight Control requirements, per references (k) and (1). This will be accomplished through group exercise or individual instruction...for either test preparation, physical fitness training and/or as part of a remedial training program. 2005. USER FEES AND CHARGES. In accordance...paragraph 2010. 2. A Fitness Assessment is a test measuring: a. Cardiorespiratory capacity (VO? max) . The ability to perform large muscle

  15. Floating shock fitting via Lagrangian adaptive meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanrosendale, John

    1995-01-01

    In recent work we have formulated a new approach to compressible flow simulation, combining the advantages of shock-fitting and shock-capturing. Using a cell-centered on Roe scheme discretization on unstructured meshes, we warp the mesh while marching to steady state, so that mesh edges align with shocks and other discontinuities. This new algorithm, the Shock-fitting Lagrangian Adaptive Method (SLAM), is, in effect, a reliable shock-capturing algorithm which yields shock-fitted accuracy at convergence.

  16. Reverse Chemical Genetics: Comprehensive Fitness Profiling Reveals the Spectrum of Drug Target Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sunita; Bergeron, Julien R.; Mellor, Joseph C.; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and prevalence of drug resistance demands streamlined strategies to identify drug resistant variants in a fast, systematic and cost-effective way. Methods commonly used to understand and predict drug resistance rely on limited clinical studies from patients who are refractory to drugs or on laborious evolution experiments with poor coverage of the gene variants. Here, we report an integrative functional variomics methodology combining deep sequencing and a Bayesian statistical model to provide a comprehensive list of drug resistance alleles from complex variant populations. Dihydrofolate reductase, the target of methotrexate chemotherapy drug, was used as a model to identify functional mutant alleles correlated with methotrexate resistance. This systematic approach identified previously reported resistance mutations, as well as novel point mutations that were validated in vivo. Use of this systematic strategy as a routine diagnostics tool widens the scope of successful drug research and development. PMID:27588687

  17. Overview: Where does radiation therapy fit in the spectrum of liver cancer local-regional therapies?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Laura A

    2011-10-01

    Experience with radiation therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastases has increased rapidly in the past decade. This is principally because of advances in imaging and radiation techniques that can conform high doses to focal cancers and to a better understanding of how to avoid radiation-induced liver toxicity. Guidelines on how to use radiation therapy safely are becoming more clearly established, and reports of tumor control at 2 to 5 years show the potential for cure after radiation therapy for early-stage HCC and liver metastases. For both HCC and liver metastases, the best outcomes after radiation therapy are found in patients with fewer than 3 lesions that are <6 cm in size, with intact liver function and no extrahepatic metastases. There is a strong rationale for using radiation therapy in patients unsuitable for or with expected poor outcomes after standard local-regional therapies. These patients tend to have advanced tumors (large, multifocal, or invading vessels) and/or impaired liver function, reducing the chance of cure and increasing the chance of toxicity. In these patients, the benefits of radiation therapy over systemic therapy or best supportive therapy should be established in randomized trials.

  18. An Improved Optical Spectrum and New Model Fits of the Likely Brown Dwarf GD 165B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.; Allard, F.; Bida, T.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E.; Chabrier, G.; Baraffe, I.

    1999-01-01

    Long thought by some researchers to be an oddity, GD 165B has instead proven to be the first example of a class of very cool objects (the L dwarfs) which, due to dust formation in their photosphere, lack the dominant bands of TiO seen in warmer M dwarfs.

  19. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  20. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

  1. Effect of leak location on measured respirator fit.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, C D; Park, D L

    1997-06-01

    A significant difference in leak detection as a function of leak location was observed during a study assessing how well current models of quantitative fit-test systems detect leakage. Known sources of leakage (matched hypodermic needles) were introduced at three fixed locations into factory-probed half-mask and full-face respirators mounted on a headform-breathing machine system. The leak locations were the bridge of the nose, the cheek, and the chin. Baseline leakage into each respirator was determined by conducting a fit-test with all fixed leak sources capped. Fit tests were repeated with each individual source uncapped. Study objectives included determining (1) how well each system measured the leakage, and (2) whether leak location had any effect on leak measurement. An ambient aerosol fit-test system (Portacount Plus) and a controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit-test system (FitTester 3000) were used. The ambient aerosol system detected an overall average of 37.2% of the known leakage, with a coefficient of variation of 44.7%. An analysis of variance showed significant differences in aerosol system measurements of leakage as a function of leak location and mask type (p < 0.001). A different pattern of aerosol leak detection as a function of leak location was observed between half-mask and full-face respirators, which appears to be related to differences in in-mask airflow dynamics. The CNP system detected an overall average of 97.9% of the known leakage through the same hypodermic needles, with a coefficient of variation of 4.3%. CNP system results were not affected by leak location (p > 0.43) or mask type (p > 0.32).

  2. Fit Evaluation of Female Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    AAM1oRL-TR7-06 %lC JLL~ J FIT EVALUATION OF FEMALE BODY ARMOR (U) AD-A 188 721 - GREGORY E ZEHNER ARMSTRONG AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CAY...Security Classification) Fit Evaluation of Female Body Armor (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Zehner, Gregory F.*; Ervin, Cay; Robinette, Kathleen M.*; and...Continue on reverse If necessary and Identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Female body armor Fit/protection Vests Fit testing 19. ABSTRACT

  3. A New Compression Method for FITS Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pence, William; Seaman, Rob; White, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    As the size and number of FITS binary tables generated by astronomical observatories increases, so does the need for a more efficient compression method to reduce the amount disk space and network bandwidth required to archive and down1oad the data tables. We have developed a new compression method for FITS binary tables that is modeled after the FITS tiled-image compression compression convention that has been in use for the past decade. Tests of this new method on a sample of FITS binary tables from a variety of current missions show that on average this new compression technique saves about 50% more disk space than when simply compressing the whole FITS file with gzip. Other advantages of this method are (1) the compressed FITS table is itself a valid FITS table, (2) the FITS headers remain uncompressed, thus allowing rapid read and write access to the keyword values, and (3) in the common case where the FITS file contains multiple tables, each table is compressed separately and may be accessed without having to uncompress the whole file.

  4. Welded Permanent Fittings for Titanium Hydraulic Tubing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FITTINGS, *HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT, RIVETED JOINTS, TITANIUM ALLOYS, PIPES , JET TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, COLD WORKING, PRESSURE, RUPTURE, ARC WELDING , INERT...GAS WELDING , RADIOGRAPHY, STRESS RELIEVING, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT.

  5. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SKILLED WORK AFTER EXERCISE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EXERCISE (PHYSIOLOGY), *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), (* PHYSICAL FITNESS, EXERCISE (PHYSIOLOGY)), MEASUREMENT, MOTOR REACTIONS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), GREAT BRITAIN

  6. Youth Fitness Testing: Validation, Planning, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, B. Don; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The article outlines the physiological and measurement bases for the development of physical fitness tests, raising questions concerning physiological, psychological, and evaluation issues. (Author/CB)

  7. Thermoforming of Textile Composite Pipe Fittings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Jun-Ichi; Manabe, Ken-Ichi

    Thermoforming of braided thermoplastic composite tubes was carried out in order to clarify the mechanism of the thermoforming process for pipe fittings such as T-shape fittings, cross fittings and two-branch fittings. The composite tube was made of a cowoven braid that consists of a carbon braid and polyamide resin, and 4-ply tubes with initial fiber orientations of 18° and 26° are used in the experiment. The branch is formed with not only the fisherman's net effect but also with moving yarns along the longitudinal direction in every forming process. The results show that the deformation behavior of the braid is very complex. Therefore, fiber orientation through forming is also greatly changed. Wall thickness at the branch decreases with increasing branch height. From these results, it is found that a fitting with complex shape can be produced by thermoforming. T-shape fittings, cross fittings and two-branch fittings are achieved by this process. It is confirmed that moving yarns along the longitudinal direction plays an important role in branch forming of pipe fittings.

  8. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  9. A Measure of the goodness of fit in unbinned likelihood fits; end of Bayesianism?

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran Raja

    2004-03-12

    Maximum likelihood fits to data can be done using binned data (histograms) and unbinned data. With binned data, one gets not only the fitted parameters but also a measure of the goodness of fit. With unbinned data, currently, the fitted parameters are obtained but no measure of goodness of fit is available. This remains, to date, an unsolved problem in statistics. Using Bayes' theorem and likelihood ratios, they provide a method by which both the fitted quantities and a measure of the goodness of fit are obtained for unbinned likelihood fits, as well as errors in the fitted quantities. The quantity, conventionally interpreted as a Bayesian prior, is seen in this scheme to be a number not a distribution, that is determined from data.

  10. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Steam pile driver for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22

  11. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Pile driving for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  12. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    General view of concrete column base for Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Work on the foundation began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  13. Climate Change, Instability and a Full Spectrum Approach to Conflict Prevention in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    climate change, will be offered. Achieving increased capacity for Nigeria in order to overcome the destabilizing affects of global climate change...commander to follow. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Climate Change, Global Warming , Security Cooperation, Stability, Instability, Stabilization, Security...report asserts that ― warming of the climate system is unequivocal‖ and that the main cause of this is ―very likely due to the observed increase in

  14. Exploring the Full Spectrum: the Power of Combining Art and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camnasio, Sara; Fonda, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Science is publicly perceived as a challenging discipline open only to a small elite of extremely intelligent individuals. Its historic deficiency of women and racial minorities has helped to keep it on a outwardly unreachable pedestal far higher than the public's reach. One way we can pull science out its stiff academic walls is to incorporate it into an artistic performance. I have produced a multi-disciplinary performance event, called "The View From Nowhere", which combined dance, physics and philosophy, all in one evening. The event is part of a long-term series which will attempt to translate scientific concepts into a diverse range of works by international choreographers. Because of the success of this series, both in the public feedback as well as in the amount of educational baggage acquired by the participants, I analyzed the structure of my own event and compared it to other existing ones to generate a model for multidisciplinary collaborations between the arts and the sciences. I will present a general structure for building collaborations between artists and scientists, more specifically in the context of visual, sound and performance art. From outlining the psychological aspects of human learning and their relationship with science communication, to discussing the potential of art as educational medium, I will discuss how science-inspired performances along with a pedagogy of the topic by a scientist allows a wider pool of people to have access to topics which are normally difficult to grasp in a traditional academic context. I will also be presenting the outline of a current APS-funded, long-term project which aims to build artistic collaborations between researchers in fluid dynamics from NYU, Georgia Tech, and University of Maryland and international artists which will result in an exhibit on the topic of quantum fluids at the New York City art venue Pioneer Works.

  15. Air Force Fixed-Wing Rescue: A Multifaceted Approach for Full-Spectrum Personnel Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    to the author, e-mail, 29 June 2011. The cost per flying hour is in fiscal year 2011 constant dollars. 11. Ibid.; and Lt Col Brian Pitcher ...personnel could provide maintenance support for one or several small aircraft. This assumes fully trained and licensed air- frame and power- plant mechanics

  16. Full Spectrum Tools for Collecting, Analyzing, and Using Cultural Data in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    self-sustaining system of relationships among social roles ( Malinowski , Radcliffe-Brown), a culturally consistent mode of thought (Nisbett) or set of...Introduction and critical Survey: Dover. Malinowski , B. (1984). Magic, Science, and Religion and Other Essays. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Malle

  17. Full Spectrum Operations: An Analysis of Course Content at the Command and General Staff College

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Leavenworth, KS: 18 December 2007, 1-2 to 1-3. 27In his article, “Future Warfare: The Rise Of Hybrid Wars,” James Mattis describes General Charles ...Krulak’s description of the three-block war as “You are fighting like the dickens on one block, you’re handing our humanitarian supplies in the next

  18. No Compromise: Establishing Balance in the US Army’s Approach to Full-Spectrum Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-04

    issue, many of the proponents for counterinsurgency doctrine, who have fought so·hard to effect strategic change in Iraq and Afghanistan, believe that...changes in the development of their leaders. 8 · In order to establish the sort ofleadership culture that the 2011 National Military / Strategy...compounded the detrimental effeCts of major combat 9perations on the local population with a perva~ive ignorance of the social, political and cultural

  19. The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria).

    PubMed

    Grüneis, Heidelinde; Penker, Marianne; Höferl, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our scientific view on climate change adaptation (CCA) is unsatisfying in many ways: It is often dominated by a modernistic perspective of planned pro-active adaptation, with a selective focus on measures directly responding to climate change impacts and thus it is far from real-life conditions of those who are actually affected by climate change. Farmers have to simultaneously adapt to multiple changes. Therefore, also empirical climate change adaptation research needs a more integrative perspective on real-life climate change adaptations. This also has to consider "hidden" adaptations, which are not explicitly and directly motivated by CCA but actually contribute to the sector's adaptability to climate change. The aim of the present study is to develop and test an analytic framework that contributes to a broader understanding of CCA and to bridge the gap between scientific expertise and practical action. The framework distinguishes three types of CCA according to their climate related motivations: explicit adaptations, multi-purpose adaptations, and hidden adaptations. Although agriculture is among the sectors that are most affected by climate change, results from the case study of Tyrolean mountain agriculture show that climate change is ranked behind other more pressing "real-life-challenges" such as changing agricultural policies or market conditions. We identified numerous hidden adaptations which make a valuable contribution when dealing with climate change impacts. We conclude that these hidden adaptations have not only to be considered to get an integrative und more realistic view on CCA; they also provide a great opportunity for linking adaptation strategies to farmers' realities.

  20. NASA Wavelength: A Full Spectrum of NASA Resources for Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital library--NASAWavelength.org--that enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.