Science.gov

Sample records for full spectrum fitting

  1. VRF ("Visual RobFit") — nuclear spectral analysis with non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasche, George; Coldwell, Robert; Metzger, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new application (known as "VRF", or "Visual RobFit") for analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra has been developed using non-linear fitting techniques to fit full-spectrum nuclide shapes. In contrast to conventional methods based on the results of an initial peak-search, the VRF analysis method forms, at each of many automated iterations, a spectrum-wide shape for each nuclide and, also at each iteration, it adjusts the activities of each nuclide, as well as user-enabled parameters of energy calibration, attenuation by up to three intervening or self-absorbing materials, peak width as a function of energy, full-energy peak efficiency, and coincidence summing until no better fit to the data can be obtained. This approach, which employs a new and significantly advanced underlying fitting engine especially adapted to nuclear spectra, allows identification of minor peaks that are masked by larger, overlapping peaks that would not otherwise be possible. The application and method are briefly described and two examples are presented.

  2. Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele

    2017-04-01

    I start by providing an updated summary of the penalized pixel-fitting (PPXF) method that is used to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of galaxies, via full spectrum fitting. I then focus on the problem of extracting the kinematics when the velocity dispersion σ is smaller than the velocity sampling ΔV that is generally, by design, close to the instrumental dispersion σinst. The standard approach consists of convolving templates with a discretized kernel, while fitting for its parameters. This is obviously very inaccurate when σ ≲ ΔV/2, due to undersampling. Oversampling can prevent this, but it has drawbacks. Here I present a more accurate and efficient alternative. It avoids the evaluation of the undersampled kernel and instead directly computes its well-sampled analytic Fourier transform, for use with the convolution theorem. A simple analytic transform exists when the kernel is described by the popular Gauss-Hermite parametrization (which includes the Gaussian as special case) for the line-of-sight velocity distribution. I describe how this idea was implemented in a significant upgrade to the publicly available PPXF software. The key advantage of the new approach is that it provides accurate velocities regardless of σ. This is important e.g. for spectroscopic surveys targeting galaxies with σ ≪ σinst, for galaxy redshift determinations or for measuring line-of-sight velocities of individual stars. The proposed method could also be used to fix Gaussian convolution algorithms used in today's popular software packages.

  3. Full-profile fitting of emission spectrum to determine transition intensity parameters of Yb3 +:GdTaO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingli; Sun, Guihua; Ning, Kaijie; Shi, Chaoshu; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Dunlu; Yin, Shaotang

    2016-11-01

    The Judd-Ofelt theoretic transition intensity parameters of luminescence of rare-earth ions in solids are important for the quantitative analysis of luminescence. It is very difficult to determine them with emission or absorption spectra for a long time. A “full profile fitting” method to obtain in solids with its emission spectrum is proposed, in which the contribution of a radiative transition to the emission spectrum is expressed as the product of transition probability, line profile function, instrument measurement constant and transition center frequency or wavelength, and the whole experimental emission spectrum is the sum of all transitions. In this way, the emission spectrum is expressed as a function with the independent variables intensity parameters , full width at half maximum (FWHM) of profile functions, instrument measurement constant, wavelength, and the Huang-Rhys factor S if the lattice vibronic peaks in the emission spectrum should be considered. The ratios of the experimental to the calculated energy lifetimes are incorporated into the fitting function to remove the arbitrariness during fitting and other parameters. Employing this method obviates measurement of the absolute emission spectrum intensity. It also eliminates dependence upon the number of emission transition peaks. Every experiment point in emission spectra, which usually have at least hundreds of data points, is the function with variables and other parameters, so it is usually viable to determine and other parameters using a large number of experimental values. We applied this method to determine twenty-five of Yb3+ in GdTaO4. The calculated and experiment energy lifetimes, experimental and calculated emission spectrum are very consistent, indicating that it is viable to obtain the transition intensity parameters of rare-earth ions in solids by a full profile fitting to the ions’ emission spectrum. The calculated emission cross sections of Yb3+:GdTaO4 also indicate that the F

  4. Early-type Galaxy Archeology: Ages, Abundance Ratios, and Effective Temperatures from Full-spectrum Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Graves, Genevieve J.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2014-01-01

    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s-1 to 300 km s-1. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å-1, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å -8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T eff, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ~0.25 at high σ Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ and (6) the variation in Δ T eff with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0.05 dex or less. Our derived [Mg/Fe] and [O

  5. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  6. Effects of Full Spectrum Lighting in Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-09

    The subjects rated their health as being better under full-spectrum light, but this was not accompanied by higher ratings of mood or quality of sleep ...full-spectrum light and rated their health as being better under this light, but this was not accompanied by higher ratings of mood or quality of sleep ...the elderly in the northern United States (Neer, 1985) and must be due to insufficient exposure to sunlight (Holick, 1985). Light also indirectly

  7. Fitness and Full Living for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGilio, Deborah A.; Howze, Elizabeth H.

    1984-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about exercise that keep older adults from participating in a regular physical fitness program. This article explores some of these misconceptions and offers strategies for developing appropriate and safe programs for the older population. (DF)

  8. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  9. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Sascha

    2014-08-01

    In environmental radiation monitoring, the time-variable natural gamma radiation background complicates the nuclide identification and analysis of a gamma spectrum. A full spectrum analysis based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method for the description of the time-variable background and adjustment calculations is a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared with a peak-based analysis, if applied to a time series of gamma spectra. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental radiation monitoring. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation.

    PubMed

    Macario, Julien; Yao, Peng; Shi, Shouyuan; Zablocki, Alicia; Harrity, Charles; Martin, Richard D; Schuetz, Christopher A; Prather, Dennis W

    2012-10-08

    In recent years, the development of new lithium niobate electro-optic modulator designs and material processing techniques have contributed to support the increasing need for faster optical networks by considerably extending the operational bandwidth of modulators. In an effort to provide higher bandwidths for future generations of networks, we have developed a lithium niobate electro-optic phase modulator based on a coplanar waveguide ridged structure that operates up to 300 GHz. By thinning the lithium niobate substrate down to less than 39 µm, we are able to eliminate substrate modes and observe optical sidebands over the full millimeter-wave spectrum.

  11. Full Duplex, Spread Spectrum Radio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to support the development of a full duplex, spread spectrum voice communications system. The assembly and testing of a prototype system consisting of a Harris PRISM spread spectrum radio, a TMS320C54x signal processing development board and a Zilog Z80180 microprocessor was underway at the start of this project. The efforts under this project were the development of multiple access schemes, analysis of full duplex voice feedback delays, and the development and analysis of forward error correction (FEC) algorithms. The multiple access analysis involved the selection between code division multiple access (CDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA). Full duplex voice feedback analysis involved the analysis of packet size and delays associated with full loop voice feedback for confirmation of radio system performance. FEC analysis included studies of the performance under the expected burst error scenario with the relatively short packet lengths, and analysis of implementation in the TMS320C54x digital signal processor. When the capabilities and the limitations of the components used were considered, the multiple access scheme chosen was a combination TDMA/FDMA scheme that will provide up to eight users on each of three separate frequencies. Packets to and from each user will consist of 16 samples at a rate of 8,000 samples per second for a total of 2 ms of voice information. The resulting voice feedback delay will therefore be 4 - 6 ms. The most practical FEC algorithm for implementation was a convolutional code with a Viterbi decoder. Interleaving of the bits of each packet will be required to offset the effects of burst errors.

  12. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  13. Full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Williams, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    A full-spectrum (encompassing radiation on both sides of the Wien displacement peak) multiwavelength pyrometer was developed. It measures the surface temperature of arbitrary nongray ceramics by curve fitting a spectrum in this spectral region to a Planck function of temperature T. This function of T is modified by the surface spectral emissivity. The emissivity function was derived experimentally from additional spectra that were obtained by using an auxiliary radiation source and from application of Kirchhoff's law. This emissivity was verified by results that were obtained independently by using electromagnetic and solid-state theories. In the presence of interfering reflected radiation this general pyrometry improves the accuracy of the measured temperature by measuring an additional spectrum that characterizes the interfering radiation source.

  14. Full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Williams, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    A full-spectrum (encompassing radiation on both sides of the Wien displacement peak) multiwavelength pyrometer was developed. It measures the surface temperature of arbitrary nongray ceramics by curve fitting a spectrum in this spectral region to a Planck function of temperature T. This function of T is modified by the surface spectral emissivity. The emissivity function was derived experimentally from additional spectra that were obtained by using an auxiliary radiation source and from application of Kirchhoff's law. This emissivity was verified by results that were obtained independently by using electromagnetic and solid-state theories. In the presence of interfering reflected radiation this general pyrometry improves the accuracy of the measured temperature by measuring an additional spectrum that characterizes the interfering radiation source.

  15. Full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Daniel; Williams, W. D.

    1992-04-01

    A full-spectrum (encompassing radiation on both sides of the Wien displacement peak) multiwavelength pyrometer was developed. It measures the surface temperature of arbitrary nongray ceramics by curve fitting a spectrum in this spectral region to a Planck function of temperature T. This function of T is modified by the surface spectral emissivity. The emissivity function was derived experimentally from additional spectra that were obtained by using an auxiliary radiation source and from application of Kirchhoff's law. This emissivity was verified by results that were obtained independently by using electromagnetic and solid-state theories. In the presence of interfering reflected radiation this general pyrometry improves the accuracy of the measured temperature by measuring an additional spectrum that characterizes the interfering radiation source.

  16. Advantages of full spectrum flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Claire K; Mourant, Judith R

    2013-03-01

    A charge coupled device-based flow-cytometer for the measurement of full spectra was implemented and characterized. The spectral resolution was better than 1.5 nm and the coefficient of variation for fluorescence from flow check beads was 5% or better. Both cell and bead data were analyzed by fitting to measured component spectra. Separation of flow check and align flow beads, which have similar spectra, was nearly identical whether using a spectral analysis or a scatter analysis. After mixing, cells stained with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide were measured at different timepoints. The contribution of these 12 nm separated emission spectra could be separately quantified and the kinetic process of the samples becoming homogeneous due to fluorophor dissociation and rebinding was observed. Principle component analysis was used to reduce noise and alternating least squares (ALS) was used to analyze one set of noise-reduced cell data without knowledge of the component spectra. The component spectra obtained via ALS are very similar to the measured component spectra. The contributions of ethidium bromide and propidium iodide to the individual spectra are also similar to those obtained via the spectral fitting procedure.

  17. Feasibility of full-spectrum endoscopy: Korea’s first full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopic trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong-Yeop; Cho, Youn Hee; Kim, Mi A; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Lee, Chun Tek; Lee, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) colonoscopy system as the first report on the utility thereof in a Korean population. METHODS: We explored the efficacy of the FUSE colonoscopy in a retrospective, single-center feasibility study performed between February 1 and July 20, 2015. A total of 262 subjects (age range: 22-80) underwent the FUSE colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening, polyp surveillance, or diagnostic evaluation. The cecal intubation success rate, the polyp detection rate (PDR), the adenoma detection rate (ADR), and the diverticulum detection rate (DDR), were calculated. Also, the success rates of therapeutic interventions were evaluated with biopsy confirmation. RESULTS: All patients completed the study and the success rates of cecal and terminal ileal intubation were 100% with the FUSE colonoscope; we found 313 polyps in 142 patients and 173 adenomas in 95. The overall PDR, ADR and DDR were 54.2%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively, and were higher in males, and increased with age. The endoscopists and nurses involved considered that the full-spectrum colonoscope improved navigation and orientation within the colon. No colonoscopy was aborted because of colonoscope malfunction. CONCLUSION: The FUSE colonoscopy yielded a higher PDR, ADR, DDR than did traditional colonoscopy, without therapeutic failure or complications, showing feasible, effective, and safe in this first Korean trial. PMID:26937150

  18. Assessing Full Spectrum BCT Engineer Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    volcano mine systems, six Mongoose MICLIC trailers, six HMEEs, six DEUCEs, one Bobcat skid steer tractor, four rapidly emplaced bridge systems (REBS), six...provide obstacle reduction capability. The full width plows and Mongoose MICLIC explosive 50 line clearing charges on the ABVs and the mine...rollers, plows, and Mongoose MICLIC systems for lane reduction. The Mobility Support Platoon of the SBCT engineer company has one hundred feet of Medium

  19. Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria for Rotorcraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    conducted at Yuma Proving Ground using a crane and drop tower with guide beam (Figure 6-8). Another example [90] of this type of guide beam system...guide beam was then lifted using a crane to achieve the desired inclination angle. The inclination angle and travel distance is selected such that when...The LandIR gantry is a steel A-frame structure that is 240-ft. high, 400-ft. long, and 265-ft. wide at the base. Full-scale crash tests are

  20. Particle precipitation: How the spectrum fit impacts atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, J. M.; Nieder, H.; Yakovchouk, O. S.; Sinnhuber, M.

    2016-11-01

    Particle precipitation causes atmospheric ionization. Modeled ionization rates are widely used in atmospheric chemistry/climate simulations of the upper atmosphere. As ionization rates are based on particle measurements some assumptions concerning the energy spectrum are required. While detectors measure particles binned into certain energy ranges only, the calculation of a ionization profile needs a fit for the whole energy spectrum. Therefore the following assumptions are needed: (a) fit function (e.g. power-law or Maxwellian), (b) energy range, (c) amount of segments in the spectral fit, (d) fixed or variable positions of intersections between these segments. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of different assumptions on ionization rates as well as their consequences for atmospheric chemistry modeling. As the assumptions about the particle spectrum are independent from the ionization model itself the results of this paper are not restricted to a single ionization model, even though the Atmospheric Ionization Module OSnabrück (AIMOS, Wissing and Kallenrode, 2009) is used here. We include protons only as this allows us to trace changes in the chemistry model directly back to the different assumptions without the need to interpret superposed ionization profiles. However, since every particle species requires a particle spectrum fit with the mentioned assumptions the results are generally applicable to all precipitating particles. The reader may argue that the selection of assumptions of the particle fit is of minor interest, but we would like to emphasize on this topic as it is a major, if not the main, source of discrepancies between different ionization models (and reality). Depending on the assumptions single ionization profiles may vary by a factor of 5, long-term calculations may show systematic over- or underestimation in specific altitudes and even for ideal setups the definition of the energy-range involves an intrinsic 25% uncertainty for the

  1. Improvements in Spectrum's fit to program data tool.

    PubMed

    Mahiane, Severin G; Marsh, Kimberly; Grantham, Kelsey; Crichlow, Shawna; Caceres, Karen; Stover, John

    2017-04-01

    The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS-supported Spectrum software package (Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA) is used by most countries worldwide to monitor the HIV epidemic. In Spectrum, HIV incidence trends among adults (aged 15-49 years) are derived by either fitting to seroprevalence surveillance and survey data or generating curves consistent with program and vital registration data, such as historical trends in the number of newly diagnosed infections or people living with HIV and AIDS related deaths. This article describes development and application of the fit to program data (FPD) tool in Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS' 2016 estimates round. In the FPD tool, HIV incidence trends are described as a simple or double logistic function. Function parameters are estimated from historical program data on newly reported HIV cases, people living with HIV or AIDS-related deaths. Inputs can be adjusted for proportions undiagnosed or misclassified deaths. Maximum likelihood estimation or minimum chi-squared distance methods are used to identify the best fitting curve. Asymptotic properties of the estimators from these fits are used to estimate uncertainty. The FPD tool was used to fit incidence for 62 countries in 2016. Maximum likelihood and minimum chi-squared distance methods gave similar results. A double logistic curve adequately described observed trends in all but four countries where a simple logistic curve performed better. Robust HIV-related program and vital registration data are routinely available in many middle-income and high-income countries, whereas HIV seroprevalence surveillance and survey data may be scarce. In these countries, the FPD tool offers a simpler, improved approach to estimating HIV incidence trends.

  2. 2D-ELDOR using full S(c-) fitting and absorption lineshapes.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full S(c-) method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the S(c-) signal. The full S(c-) fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the S(c-) spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full S(c-) method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  3. 2D-ELDOR using full Sc- fitting and absorption lineshapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H.

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full Sc- method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the Sc- signal. The full Sc- fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the Sc- spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full Sc- method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  4. A neutrino model fit to the CMB power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, T.; Johnson, R. W. F.; Schewtschenko, J. A.; Whitbourn, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The standard cosmological model, Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM), provides an excellent fit to cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. However, the model has well-known problems. For example, the cosmological constant, Λ, is fine-tuned to 1 part in 10100 and the CDM particle is not yet detected in the laboratory. Shanks previously investigated a model which assumed neither exotic particles nor a cosmological constant but instead postulated a low Hubble constant (H0) to allow a baryon density compatible with inflation and zero spatial curvature. However, recent Planck results make it more difficult to reconcile such a model with CMB power spectra. Here, we relax the previous assumptions to assess the effects of assuming three active neutrinos of mass ≈5 eV. If we assume a low H0 ≈ 45 km s-1 Mpc-1 then, compared to the previous purely baryonic model, we find a significantly improved fit to the first three peaks of the Planck power spectrum. Nevertheless, the goodness of fit is still significantly worse than for ΛCDM and would require appeal to unknown systematic effects for the fit ever to be considered acceptable. A further serious problem is that the amplitude of fluctuations is low (σ8 ≈ 0.2), making it difficult to form galaxies by the present day. This might then require seeds, perhaps from a primordial magnetic field, to be invoked for galaxy formation. These and other problems demonstrate the difficulties faced by models other than ΛCDM in fitting ever more precise cosmological data.

  5. Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via photonic nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglei; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-07-24

    Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i.e., Janus nanoparticles. The solar thermal conversion efficiency can be improved by 10.8% compared with core-shell nanofluids. The extinction coefficient of Janus dimers with various configurations is also investigated to unveil the effects of particle couplings. This work provides the possibility to achieve full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion, and may have potential applications in efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization.

  6. Effects of full-spectrum lighting in submarines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Luria, S.M.

    1987-04-09

    Crewmen on a nuclear submarine were monitored during two patrols, one during which the submarine was lighted with standard fluorescent lights and a second during which it was equipped with full-spectrum lights whose spectral distribution is much more similar to sunlight and emit a greater amount of high-energy ultraviolet light. The levels of 25-OH vitamin D in their blood was measured at the start and during the sixth week of each patrol. In addition, the men kept daily logs during the patrols noting such things as their health and mood. There was no evidence that the full-spectrum lights prevent the typical decline of vitamin D levels in the blood during a patrol. However, the initial levels of vitamin D in the blood were quite different, and it is difficult to interpret the results. The men preferred the full-spectrum light and rated their health as being better under this light, but this was not accompanied by higher ratings of mood or quality of sleep.

  7. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.

    2016-05-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence

  8. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics. PMID:27633055

  9. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  10. Full-spectrum analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, P H; Limburg, J; de Meijer, R J

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new system to measure natural gamma-radiation in situ will be presented. This system combines a high-efficiency BGO scintillation detector with full-spectrum data analysis (FSA). This technique uses the (nearly) full spectral shape and the so-called 'standard spectra' to calculate the activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 238U present in a geological matrix (sediment, rock, etc.). We describe the FSA and the determination of the standard spectra. Standard spectra are constructed for various geometries and a comparison in intensity and shape will be made. The performance of such a system has been compared to a more traditional system, consisting of a NaI detector in combination with the 'windows' analysis. For count rates typically encountered in field experiments, the same accuracy is obtained 10-20 times faster using the new system. This allows for shorter integration times and hence shorter measurements or a better spatial resolution. The applicability of such a system will be illustrated via an example of an airborne experiment in which the new system produced results comparable to those of much larger traditional systems. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the current status of the system and an outlook for future research.

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Natural Fit with DDD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.; Babkie, Andrea M.

    2003-01-01

    This position statement from the Critical Issues Committee of the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Council for Exceptional Children focuses on clarifying the place of autism spectrum disorders within the field of developmental disabilities. The representation of concerns relating to autism spectrum disorders by the Developmental…

  12. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility.

    PubMed

    Mok, Pearl L H; Webb, Roger T; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-07-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971-1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Pearl L.H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  14. Embracing a Full Spectrum Definition of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In this viewpoint the author makes a case for developing a clear and concise definition of art therapy that can easily be adopted by art therapists working across a spectrum of theoretical frameworks. The reader is asked to widen the lens through which art therapy is defined by considering its influence on society, the mind, health, and behavior.…

  15. Embracing a Full Spectrum Definition of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In this viewpoint the author makes a case for developing a clear and concise definition of art therapy that can easily be adopted by art therapists working across a spectrum of theoretical frameworks. The reader is asked to widen the lens through which art therapy is defined by considering its influence on society, the mind, health, and behavior.…

  16. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  17. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  18. Advanced alpha spectrum analysis based on the fitting and covariance analysis of dependent variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihantola, S.; Pelikan, A.; Pöllänen, R.; Toivonen, H.

    2011-11-01

    The correct handling of statistical uncertainties is crucial especially when unfolding alpha spectra that contain a low number of counts or overlapping peaks from different nuclides. For this purpose, we have developed a new spectrum analysis software package called ADAM, which performs a full covariance calculus for alpha-particle emitting radionuclides. By analyzing a large number of simulated and measured spectra, the program was proved to give unbiased peak areas and statistically correct uncertainty limits. This applies regardless of the peak areas and the number of unknown parameters during the fitting. In addition, ADAM performs reliable deconvolution for multiplets, which opens the way for the determination of isotope ratios, such as 239Pu/240Pu.

  19. Quantum Dot Sensitized Nanotubes for Full Solar Spectrum Photovoltaic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Sohana

    The demand for energy with limited non-renewable sources of energy has called researchers to find clean renewable energy sources. Solar light is considered good choice of the alternate energy. Our effort in this work was to investigate efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems by designing a hybrid photoelectrode with good absorption as well as charge transport properties. A coupled semiconductor material, one-dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (1D TiO2-NTs), filled with low band semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), PbS QDs, for better charge carrier transport was prepared and investigated. The vertically standing self assembled nanotubular array was attained by anodizing the Ti metal in two different solutions: (1) Ethylene Glycol with 0.5 wt% NH4F and 3 vol percent water and (2) 0.5M H3PO4 with 0.5 wt% NH4F. The anodized samples were annealed and then filled with the nanoparticles of other low band gap semiconductor materials. The CdS nanoparticles were used for the better understanding of the sensitizing process. The material was then switched to the PbS. As in the hypothesis, if PbS quantum dots are uniformly distributed in the 1D TiO2 Multiple Charge Carrier Generation can be created since PbS has a small band gap. A chemical bath deposition process in the presence of ultrasonic waves was adopted for the deposition of the QDs. Saturated lead sulfide solution was used as the lead source and the 0.2 M Na2S solution for the sulfur source. The process resulted in the successful uniform deposition of the PbS QDs onto the 1D TiO2 NTs. The deposited compound obeyed the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 as desired. Photocurrent densities of 4.5 mA/cm2 was obtained, which is higher than the TiO2 alone in a polysulfide solution. PbS-TiO2 can be a suitable candidate for harvesting a broad solar spectrum as the UV-vis study proved that they absorb the light in the UV range.

  20. Combined Fit of Spectrum and Composition Data as Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2016-12-21

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above $5 \\cdot 10^{18}$ eV, i.e.~the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called "ankle" feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism. The fit results suggest sources characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies, hard spectra and heavy chemical composition. We also show that uncertainties about physical quantities relevant to UHECR propagation and shower development have a non-negligible impact on the fit results.

  1. Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; ...

    2017-04-20

    In this paper, we present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above 5 • 1018 eV, i.e. the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called 'ankle' feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism. The fit results suggest sources characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies, hard spectra and heavy chemical composition. We also show that uncertaintiesmore » about physical quantities relevant to UHECR propagation and shower development have a non-negligible impact on the fit results.« less

  2. Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlín, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröoder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zong, Z.

    2017-04-01

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above 5 ṡ 1018 eV, i.e. the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called "ankle" feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism. The fit results suggest sources characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies, hard spectra and heavy chemical composition. We also show that uncertainties about physical quantities relevant to UHECR propagation and shower development have a non-negligible impact on the fit results.

  3. Waveform fitting and geometry analysis for full-waveform lidar feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Fuan; Lai, Jhe-Syuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsiu

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach that integrates spline curve fitting and geometry analysis to extract full-waveform LiDAR features for land-cover classification. The cubic smoothing spline algorithm is used to fit the waveform curve of the received LiDAR signals. After that, the local peak locations of the waveform curve are detected using a second derivative method. According to the detected local peak locations, commonly used full-waveform features such as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and amplitude can then be obtained. In addition, the number of peaks, time difference between the first and last peaks, and the average amplitude are also considered as features of LiDAR waveforms with multiple returns. Based on the waveform geometry, dynamic time-warping (DTW) is applied to measure the waveform similarity. The sum of the absolute amplitude differences that remain after time-warping can be used as a similarity feature in a classification procedure. An airborne full-waveform LiDAR data set was used to test the performance of the developed feature extraction method for land-cover classification. Experimental results indicate that the developed spline curve- fitting algorithm and geometry analysis can extract helpful full-waveform LiDAR features to produce better land-cover classification than conventional LiDAR data and feature extraction methods. In particular, the multiple-return features and the dynamic time-warping index can improve the classification results significantly.

  4. Do We Need Norms of Fitness for Children with Autistic Spectrum Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Maurice; Dickinson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly sedentary habits of children, and rising obesity levels, are prompting concern for children's future health. Children with autistic spectrum condition (ASC) show a clear trend in this regard. Within school, an understanding of how an individual's fitness compares to age norms is important in order to design appropriate exercise…

  5. Do We Need Norms of Fitness for Children with Autistic Spectrum Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Maurice; Dickinson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly sedentary habits of children, and rising obesity levels, are prompting concern for children's future health. Children with autistic spectrum condition (ASC) show a clear trend in this regard. Within school, an understanding of how an individual's fitness compares to age norms is important in order to design appropriate exercise…

  6. Garment fit and protection from sustained +Gz acceleration with 'full-coverage' anti-G trousers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Alec T; Lythgoe, Daniel T; Darby, Catherine L J; Devlin, Joseph M; Connolly, Desmond M; Scott, Jonathan P R

    2013-06-01

    Garment fit may influence the effectiveness with which Full-Coverage Anti-G Trousers (FCAGT) transmit pressure to the skin surface, and hence provide protection from sustained +Gz acceleration. A search of the available literature, however, did not reveal any prior work quantifying this effect. Three related studies were performed. In Study I, using a mannequin, garment-to-surface pressure transmission ratios were measured at various locations under normally fitted (NF) and loosely fitted (LF) FCAGT. In Study II, garment pressure-volume ratios and lung volumes were measured at +1 Gz in six men wearing FCAGT in three conditions: NF, LF, or NF with inflatable socks at 13 kPa differential pressure (NF+SOCKS). In Study III, relaxed +Gz tolerance (RGT) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) at +7, +8, and +9 Gz were measured in eight men wearing FCAGT in four experimental conditions: NF; LF; abdomen LF, legs NF; or abdomen NF, legs LF. LF did not affect pressure transmission over the lower limbs or lower abdomen, but transmission over the upper abdomen was significantly compromised. Lung volumes were reduced with FCAGT inflation, but LF was associated with greater expiratory reserve volumes and increased FCAGT volume. Under +Gz acceleration, LF over the abdomen (with or without lower limb LF) decreased RGT and increased RPE, but not with lower limb LF when abdominal fit was normal. Care should be taken to achieve and maintain a snug FCAGT fit, especially of the abdominal portion of the FCAGT, to ensure optimal anti-G protection during sustained acceleration.

  7. Ritz assignment and Watson fits of the high-resolution ring-puckering spectrum of oxetane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moruzzi, Giovanni; Kunzmann, Marc; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; Winnewisser, Manfred

    2003-05-01

    Oxetane is a four-membered ring molecule exhibiting a large-amplitude ring-puckering motion. In order to analyze this vibration we recorded a rotationally resolved far-infrared spectrum between 50 and 145 cm -1. The analysis of the ring-puckering fundamental band with the assignment of 1108 lines, has been presented in a previous paper. In the present work we present a list of further 6531 assigned transitions between the five lowest excited ring-puckering states. The 4983 term values involved in the transitions assigned in this and in the preceding work have been evaluated by the "Ritz" program, and are now available. An A-reduced Watson Hamiltonian in any of the three representations I r, II r, and III r was used to perform a fit of the assigned transitions. Precise rotational constants and quartic as well as a full set of sextic centrifugal distortion constants were obtained for the investigated ring-puckering states. For the first time, high-resolution values for the vibrational Gv parameters have been obtained, and we have added terms in x6 and x8 to the double minimum-potential well describing the ring-puckering motion, in order to reproduce their values within the experimental accuracy. The same potential still reproduces the lower resolution values of the Q-branch origins involving higher ring-puckering states up to vrp=14 found in the previous literature.

  8. Heat transfer and pressure drop studies in a circular tube fitted with straight full twist

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Siva Rama; Pathipaka, Govardhan; Sivashanmugam, P.

    2009-03-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer characteristics of circular tube fitted with straight full twist insert has been presented. The heat transfer coefficient increases with Reynolds number and decreasing spacer distance with maximum being 2 in. spacer distance for both the type of twist inserts. Also, there is no appreciable increase in heat transfer enhancement in straight full twist insert with 2 in. spacer distance. Experiments were carried out in turbulent flow using straight full twist insert with 4 in. spacer and similar trend of increasing Nusselt number with Reynolds number was observed. Performance evaluation analysis was made and the maximum performance ratio was obtained for each twist insert corresponding to the Reynolds number of 2550. (author)

  9. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  10. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  11. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  12. Fitting the Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Composition with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisch, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the south pole consists of a square-kilometer surface array and a cubic-kilometer underground array. The combined information from cosmic-ray induced air showers that trigger both arrays can be used to measure the energy and mass of the primary particle. The deep IceCube detector, between 1.5 and 2.5 km in the ice, measures the high energy muons, produced early in the shower development, while the surface array, called IceTop, measures the lower energy particles that make up the extensive air shower. These two measurements are used in a likelihood based reconstruction of both energy and mass of the individual primary particle, and through a statistical approach, fitting distributions of reconstructed parameters with simulation. A method for fitting the spectrum and composition will be shown, as well as an optimized approach for breaking degeneracies in the fit.

  13. Full wave effects on the lower hybrid wave spectrum and driven current profile in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, S.; Ko, J.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J.; Ma, Y.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Wallace, G.; Wolfe, S. M.; C-Mod Group, Alcator; Scott, S.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-08-15

    A numerical modeling of current profile modification by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) using a fullwave/Fokker-Planck simulation code is presented. A MHD stable LHCD discharge on Alcator C-Mod was analyzed, and the current profile from full wave simulations was found to show better agreement with the experiment than a ray-tracing code. Comparison of full wave and ray-tracing simulation shows that, although ray-tracing can reproduce the stochastic wave spectrum broadening, the full wave calculation predicts even wider spectrum broadening, and the wave spectrum fills all of the kinematically allowed domain. This is the first demonstration of LHCD current profile modeling using a full wave simulation code in a multi-pass absorption regime, showing the clear impact of full wave effects on the LHCD driven current profile.

  14. Spectrum interrogation of fiber acoustic sensor based on self-fitting and differential method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Lu, Ping; Ni, Wenjun; Liao, Hao; Wang, Shun; Liu, Deming; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2017-02-20

    In this article, we propose an interrogation method of fiber acoustic sensor to recover the time-domain signal from the sensor spectrum. The optical spectrum of the sensor will show a ripple waveform when responding to acoustic signal due to the scanning process in a certain wavelength range. The reason behind this phenomenon is the dynamic variation of the sensor spectrum while the intensity of different wavelength is acquired at different time in a scanning period. The frequency components can be extracted from the ripple spectrum assisted by the wavelength scanning speed. The signal is able to be recovered by differential between the ripple spectrum and its self-fitted curve. The differential process can eliminate the interference caused by environmental perturbations such as temperature or refractive index (RI), etc. The proposed method is appropriate for fiber acoustic sensors based on gratings or interferometers. A long period grating (LPG) is adopted as an acoustic sensor head to prove the feasibility of the interrogation method in experiment. The ability to compensate the environmental fluctuations is also demonstrated.

  15. Accuracy of atmospheric parameters of FGK dwarfs determined by spectrum fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Tsymbal, V.; Titarenko, A.; Sitnova, T.; Alexeeva, S.; Fossati, L.; Mashonkina, L.

    2016-02-01

    We performed extensive tests of the accuracy of atmospheric parameter determination for FGK stars based on the spectrum fitting procedure Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME). Our stellar sample consists of 13 objects, including the Sun, in the temperature range 5000-6600 K and metallicity range -1.4-+0.4. The analysed stars have the advantage of having parameters derived by interferometry. For each star, we use spectra obtained with different spectrographs and different signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For the fitting, we adopted three different sets of constraints and test how the derived parameters depend upon the spectral regions (masks) used in SME. We developed and implemented in SME a new method for estimating uncertainties in the resulting parameters based on fitting residuals, partial derivatives, and data uncertainties. For stars in the 5700-6600 K range, the best agreement with the effective temperatures derived by interferometry is achieved when spectrum fitting includes the H α and H β lines, while for cooler stars the choice of the mask does not affect the results. The derived atmospheric parameters do not strongly depend on spectral resolution and S/N of the observations, while the uncertainties in temperature and surface gravity increase with increasing effective temperature, with minima at 50 K in Teff and 0.1 dex in log g, for spectra with S/N=150-200. A non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) analysis of the Ti I/Ti II and Fe I/Fe II ionization equilibria and abundances determined from the atomic C I (NLTE) and molecular CH species supports the parameters we derived with SME by fitting the observed spectra including the hydrogen lines.

  16. Full-Duplex Cooperative Sensing for Spectrum-Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wangdong; Yuan, En; Wei, Li; Zhao, Yuexin

    2017-01-01

    In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), spectrum sensing is critical for guaranteeing that the opportunistic spectrum access by secondary users (SUs) will not interrupt legitimate primary users (PUs). The application of full-duplex radio to spectrum sensing enables SU to carry out sensing and transmission simultaneously, improving both spectrum awareness and CRN throughput. However, the issue of spectrum sensing with full-duplex radios deployed in heterogeneous environments, where SUs may observe different spectrum activities, has not been addressed. In this paper, we give a first look into this problem and develop a light-weight cooperative sensing framework called PaCoSIF, which involves only a pairwise SU transmitter (SU-Tx) and its receiver (SU-Rx) in cooperation. A dedicated control channel is not required for pairwise cooperative sensing with instantaneous feedback (PaCoSIF) because sensing results are collected and fused via the reverse channel provided by full-duplex radios. We present a detailed protocol description to illustrate how PaCoSIF works. However, it is a challenge to optimize the sensing performance of PaCoSIF since the two sensors suffer from spectrum heterogeneity and different kinds of interference. Our goal is to minimize the false alarm rate of PaCoSIF given the bound on the missed detection rate by adaptively adjusting the detection threshold of each sensor. We derive an expression for the optimal threshold using the Lagrange method and propose a fast binary-searching algorithm to solve it numerically. Simulations show that, with perfect signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) information, PaCoSIF could decrease the false alarm rate and boost CRN throughput significantly against conventional cooperative sensing when SUs are deployed in spectrum-heterogeneous environments. Finally, the impact of SINR error upon the performance of PaCoSIF is evaluated via extensive simulations. PMID:28767083

  17. Full-Duplex Cooperative Sensing for Spectrum-Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Qi, Wangdong; Yuan, En; Wei, Li; Zhao, Yuexin

    2017-08-02

    In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), spectrum sensing is critical for guaranteeing that the opportunistic spectrum access by secondary users (SUs) will not interrupt legitimate primary users (PUs). The application of full-duplex radio to spectrum sensing enables SU to carry out sensing and transmission simultaneously, improving both spectrum awareness and CRN throughput. However, the issue of spectrum sensing with full-duplex radios deployed in heterogeneous environments, where SUs may observe different spectrum activities, has not been addressed. In this paper, we give a first look into this problem and develop a light-weight cooperative sensing framework called PaCoSIF, which involves only a pairwise SU transmitter (SU-Tx) and its receiver (SU-Rx) in cooperation. A dedicated control channel is not required for pairwise cooperative sensing with instantaneous feedback (PaCoSIF) because sensing results are collected and fused via the reverse channel provided by full-duplex radios. We present a detailed protocol description to illustrate how PaCoSIF works. However, it is a challenge to optimize the sensing performance of PaCoSIF since the two sensors suffer from spectrum heterogeneity and different kinds of interference. Our goal is to minimize the false alarm rate of PaCoSIF given the bound on the missed detection rate by adaptively adjusting the detection threshold of each sensor. We derive an expression for the optimal threshold using the Lagrange method and propose a fast binary-searching algorithm to solve it numerically. Simulations show that, with perfect signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) information, PaCoSIF could decrease the false alarm rate and boost CRN throughput significantly against conventional cooperative sensing when SUs are deployed in spectrum-heterogeneous environments. Finally, the impact of SINR error upon the performance of PaCoSIF is evaluated via extensive simulations.

  18. Hybrid nanocone forests with high absorption in full-solar spectrum for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yudong; Mao, Haiyang; Xiong, Jijun; Ming, Anjie; Wang, Weibing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, hybrid nanocone forests (HNFs) with high absorption in full-solar-spectrum are fabricated based on a plasma repolymerization technique. The HNFs combine light trapping effect of the nanocone forests with surface plasmon resonance effect of the metallic nanoparticles, thus can achieve an optimized absorption larger than 80% in the full-solar spectrum (i.e. 200-2500nm). Besides, with the hybrid nanostructures, the absorption decrease around the Si bandgap width can be narrowed greatly, while the normalized utilization efficiency of solar radiation can be increased. Therefore, usage of the HNFs as a texture structure in solar cells to obtain higher conversion efficiencies is foreseeable.

  19. P-MaNGA: full spectral fitting and stellar population maps from prototype observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Coccato, Lodovico; Tojeiro, Rita; Cappellari, Michele; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Blanton, Mike; Bundy, Kevin; Cales, Sabrina; Cherinka, Brian; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Li, Cheng; Maiolino, Roberto; Masters, Karen; Tremonti, Christy; Wake, David; Wang, Enci; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Zhang, Kai; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-05-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-yr SDSS-IV (Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV) survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600 to 10 300 Å for a representative sample of over 10 000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we derive spatially resolved stellar population properties and radial gradients by performing full spectral fitting of observed galaxy spectra from P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. These data include spectra for 18 galaxies, covering a large range of morphological type. We derive age, metallicity, dust, and stellar mass maps, and their radial gradients, using high spectral-resolution stellar population models, and assess the impact of varying the stellar library input to the models. We introduce a method to determine dust extinction which is able to give smooth stellar mass maps even in cases of high and spatially non-uniform dust attenuation. With the spectral fitting, we produce detailed maps of stellar population properties which allow us to identify galactic features among this diverse sample such as spiral structure, smooth radial profiles with little azimuthal structure in spheroidal galaxies, and spatially distinct galaxy sub-components. In agreement with the literature, we find the gradients for galaxies identified as early type to be on average flat in age, and negative (-0.15 dex/Re) in metallicity, whereas the gradients for late-type galaxies are on average negative in age (-0.39 dex/Re) and flat in metallicity. We demonstrate how different levels of data quality change the precision with which radial gradients can be measured. We show how this analysis, extended to the large numbers of MaNGA galaxies, will have the potential to shed light on galaxy structure and evolution.

  20. Structural information from multilamellar liposomes at full hydration: Full q-range fitting with high quality x-ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Georg; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Laggner, Peter

    2000-09-01

    We present a method for analyzing small angle x-ray scattering data on multilamellar phospholipid bilayer systems at full hydration. The method utilizes a modified Caillé theory structure factor in combination with a Gaussian model representation of the electron density profile such that it accounts also for the diffuse scattering between Bragg peaks. Thus the method can retrieve structural information even if only a few orders of diffraction are observed. We further introduce a procedure to derive fundamental parameters, such as area per lipid, membrane thickness, and number of water molecules per lipid, directly from the electron density profile without the need of additional volumetric measurements. The theoretical apparatus is applied to experimental data on 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine liposome preparations.

  1. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  2. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  4. APPROACHING THE PREVALENCE OF THE FULL SPECTRUM OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Jones, Kenneth L.; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were determined in this fourth study of first grade children in a South African community. METHODS Active case ascertainment methods were employed among 747 first grade pupils. The detailed characteristics of children within the continuum of FASD are contrasted with randomly-selected, normal controls on: 1. physical growth and dysmorphology; 2. cognitive/behavioral characteristics; and 3. maternal risk factors. RESULTS The rates of specific diagnoses within the FASD spectrum continue to be among the highest reported in any community in the world. The prevalence (per 1,000) is: FAS - 59.3 to 91.0; PFAS – 45.3 to 69.6; and ARND – 30.5 to 46.8. The overall rate of FASD is therefore 136.1 to 208.8 per 1,000 (or 13.6 to 20.9%). Clinical profiles of the physical and cognitive/behavioral traits of children with a specific FASD diagnosis and controls are provided for understanding the full spectrum of FASD in a community. The spectral effect is evident in the characteristics of the diagnostic groups and summarized by the total (mean) dysmorphology scores of the children: FAS = 18.9; PFAS = 14.3; ARND = 12.2; normal controls, alcohol exposed = 8.2; and unexposed = 7.1. Documented drinking during pregnancy is significantly correlated with verbal (r = -.253) and non-verbal ability (r = -.265), negative behaviors (r = .203) and total dysmorphology score (r = .431). Other measures of drinking during pregnancy are significantly associated with FASD, including binge drinking as low as three drinks per episode on two days of the week. CONCLUSIONS High rates of specific diagnoses within FASD were well documented in this new cohort of children. FASD persists in this community. The data reflect an increased ability to provide accurate and discriminating diagnoses throughout the continuum of FASD. PMID:23241076

  5. Full spectrum of psychiatric disorders related to foreign migration: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2013-04-01

    Although increased risk for schizophrenia among immigrants is well established, knowledge of the broader spectrum of psychiatric disorders associated with a foreign migration background is lacking. To examine the full range of psychiatric disorders associated with any type of foreign migration background among persons residing in Denmark, including foreign-born adoptees, first- and second-generation immigrants, native Danes with a history of foreign residence, and persons born abroad to Danish expatriates. Danish population-based cohort study. Persons were followed up from their 10th birthday for the development of mental disorders based on outpatient and inpatient data. All persons born between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 2000 (N = 1 859 419) residing in Denmark by their 10th birthday with follow-up data to December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidences for psychiatric outcomes. All categories of foreign migration background, except persons born abroad to Danish expatriates, were associated with increased risk for at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Foreign-born adoptees had increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders and had the highest IRRs for these disorders compared with other foreign migration categories. First- and second-generation immigrants having 2 foreign-born parents had significantly increased IRRs for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and had similar risk magnitudes. Second-generation immigrants having 1 foreign-born parent had significantly increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders. Native Danes with a history of foreign residence had increased IRRs for bipolar affective disorder, affective disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The extent to which a background of foreign migration confers an increased risk for the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders varies according to parental origin, with greatest risks for foreign-born adoptees. The spectrum of psychiatric

  6. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Climate Change, Instability and a Full Spectrum Approach to Conflict Prevention in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    Climate change is an emerging threat to the national security of the United States. It has the potential to enhance the underlying causes of failed...around the globe. If climate change is the catalyst of crises to come, Africa Command (AFRICOM) must employ innovative and proactive cooperative theater...security plans and full spectrum stability operations to meet the challenges. This paper will first describe the threat posed by climate change and

  8. Signal-to-noise ratio losses in full spectrum combining of signals with a downconverted subcarrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Y.; Statman, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the results of the signal-to-noise ratio loss in the process of full spectrum combining of signals with a downconverted subcarrier under imperfect conditions. These imperfect conditions not only include the misalignment of the carrier, the subcarrier, and the symbols, but they also include the nonideal filtering in the subcarrier downconversion process, the cutoff of the data bandwidth, and the distortion in signal waveform.

  9. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Heera, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm–4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc’s model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  10. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heera, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-01

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se30Te70-x Snx system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm-4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc's model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  11. Angular power spectrum estimation of cosmic ray anisotropies with full or partial sky coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligny, O.; Armengaud, E.; Beau, T.; Da Silva, P.; Hamilton, J.-Ch; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Revenu, B.

    2004-10-01

    We study the angular power spectrum estimate in order to search for large scale anisotropies in the arrival direction distribution of the highest-energy cosmic rays. We show that this estimate can be performed even in the case of partial sky coverage and validated over the full sky under the assumption that the observed fluctuations are statistically spatially stationary. If this hypothesis—which can be tested directly on the data—is not satisfied, it would prove, of course, that the cosmic ray sky is non-isotropic but also that the power spectrum is not an appropriate tool to represent its anisotropies, whatever the sky coverage available. We apply the method to simulations of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reconstructing an input power spectrum with the Southern site only and with both Northern and Southern ones. Finally, we show the improvement that a full-sky observatory brings to test an isotropic distribution, and we discuss the sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory to large scale anisotropies.

  12. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  13. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  14. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  15. Wireless neurosensor for full-spectrum electrophysiology recordings during free behavior.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Borton, David A; Komar, Jacob; Agha, Naubahar; Lu, Yao; Li, Hao; Laurens, Jean; Lang, Yiran; Li, Qin; Bull, Christopher; Larson, Lawrence; Rosler, David; Bezard, Erwan; Courtine, Grégoire; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2014-12-17

    Brain recordings in large animal models and humans typically rely on a tethered connection, which has restricted the spectrum of accessible experimental and clinical applications. To overcome this limitation, we have engineered a compact, lightweight, high data rate wireless neurosensor capable of recording the full spectrum of electrophysiological signals from the cortex of mobile subjects. The wireless communication system exploits a spatially distributed network of synchronized receivers that is scalable to hundreds of channels and vast environments. To demonstrate the versatility of our wireless neurosensor, we monitored cortical neuron populations in freely behaving nonhuman primates during natural locomotion and sleep-wake transitions in ecologically equivalent settings. The interface is electrically safe and compatible with the majority of existing neural probes, which may support previously inaccessible experimental and clinical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of 90sr in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation counting with full spectrum DPM method.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Chung, K H; Choi, G K; Lee, C W

    2002-08-01

    90Sr activity was measured with the full spectrum DPM (FS-DPM) counting method after plotting the quench correction curves of 90Sr and 90Y, and the FS-DPM method was applied to determine the 90Sr in liquid waste samples. The optimum regions of 90Sr and 90Y were set for measuring 90Sr with the dual label DPM (DL-DPM) method. The direct measurement of purified 90Sr with spectrum unfolding techniques could overcome the disadvantages of the DL-DPM method. The activities of 90Sr in the 90Sr/90Y standardized solution measured with the FS-DPM protocols were close to the true activity. The concentrations of 90Sr in the liquid waste samples measured with the FS-DPM counting method were compared with those obtained with conventional methods.

  17. Adiposity as a full mediator of the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammation in schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hermoso, A; Agostinis-Sobrinho, C; Mota, J; Santos, R M; Correa-Bautista, J E; Ramírez-Vélez, R

    2017-06-01

    Studies in the paediatric population have shown inconsistent associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammation independently of adiposity. The purpose of this study was (i) to analyse the combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and (ii) to determine whether adiposity acts as a mediator on the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hs-CRP in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 935 (54.7% girls) healthy children and adolescents from Bogotá, Colombia. The 20 m shuttle run test was used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. We assessed the following adiposity parameters: body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. High sensitivity assays were used to obtain hs-CRP. Linear regression models were fitted for mediation analyses examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hs-CRP was mediated by each of adiposity parameters according to Baron and Kenny procedures. Lower levels of hs-CRP were associated with the best schoolchildren profiles (high cardiorespiratory fitness + low adiposity) (p for trend <0.001 in the four adiposity parameters), compared with unfit and overweight (low cardiorespiratory fitness + high adiposity) counterparts. Linear regression models suggest a full mediation of adiposity on the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hs-CRP levels. Our findings seem to emphasize the importance of obesity prevention in childhood, suggesting that having high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness may not counteract the negative consequences ascribed to adiposity on hs-CRP. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Approaching the prevalence of the full spectrum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a South African population-based study.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Jones, Kenneth L; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H Eugene; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were determined in this fourth study of first-grade children in a South African community. Active case ascertainment methods were employed among 747 first-grade pupils. The detailed characteristics of children within the continuum of FASD are contrasted with randomly selected, normal controls on (i) physical growth and dysmorphology; (ii) cognitive/behavioral characteristics; and (iii) maternal risk factors. The rates of specific diagnoses within the FASD spectrum continue to be among the highest reported in any community in the world. The prevalence (per 1,000) is as follows: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)-59.3 to 91.0; partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS)-45.3 to 69.6; and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)-30.5 to 46.8. The overall rate of FASD is therefore 135.1 to 207.5 per 1,000 (or 13.6 to 20.9%). Clinical profiles of the physical and cognitive/behavioral traits of children with a specific FASD diagnosis and controls are provided for understanding the full spectrum of FASD in a community. The spectral effect is evident in the characteristics of the diagnostic groups and summarized by the total (mean) dysmorphology scores of the children: FAS = 18.9; PFAS = 14.3; ARND = 12.2; and normal controls, alcohol exposed = 8.2 and unexposed = 7.1. Documented drinking during pregnancy is significantly correlated with verbal (r = -0.253) and nonverbal ability (r = -0.265), negative behaviors (r = 0.203), and total dysmorphology score (r = 0.431). Other measures of drinking during pregnancy are significantly associated with FASD, including binge drinking as low as 3 drinks per episode on 2 days of the week. High rates of specific diagnoses within FASD were well documented in this new cohort of children. FASD persists in this community. The data reflect an increased ability to provide accurate and discriminating diagnoses throughout the continuum of FASD. Copyright © 2012 by the

  19. Analysis of the 237Np-233Pa photon spectrum using the full response function method.

    PubMed

    Shchukin, G; Iakovlev, K; Morel, J

    2004-01-01

    A study has been made of X- and gamma-ray emission from 237Np in equilibrium with 233Pa using the full response function method. This analysis process is characterised by photon spectrometry in which the entire spectrum is modelled in a pseudo-empirical way by means of elementary functions describing the total absorption and escape peaks, the Compton diffusion internal and external to the detector and the peaks resulting from detection of internal conversion electrons. This method has been applied to determine the L X-, K X- and gamma-rays emission probabilities in 237Np and 233Pa decay studies.

  20. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations.

    PubMed

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V; Elena, Santiago F

    2014-04-09

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  1. Adaptive BP-Dock: An Induced Fit Docking Approach for Full Receptor Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bolia, Ashini; Ozkan, S Banu

    2016-04-25

    We present an induced fit docking approach called Adaptive BP-Dock that integrates perturbation response scanning (PRS) with the flexible docking protocol of RosettaLigand in an adaptive manner. We first perturb the binding pocket residues of a receptor and obtain a new conformation based on the residue response fluctuation profile using PRS. Next, we dock a ligand to this new conformation by RosettaLigand, where we repeat these steps for several iterations. We test this approach on several protein test sets including difficult unbound docking cases such as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 protease. Adaptive BP-Dock results show better correlation with experimental binding affinities compared to other docking protocols. Overall, the results imply that Adaptive BP-Dock can easily capture binding induced conformational changes by simultaneous sampling of protein and ligand conformations. This can provide faster and efficient docking of novel targets for rational drug design.

  2. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  3. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  4. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  5. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  6. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  7. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  8. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  9. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  10. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full... which shall not reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the apparatus. (c) Apparatus...

  11. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  12. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  13. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... reduce the respiratory protective qualities of the gas mask. (c) Half-mask facepieces shall not...

  14. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and sizes. (b) Full facepieces shall provide for the optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses... provide an airtight seal. (d) Facepieces shall be designed to prevent eyepiece, spectacle, and...

  15. Isoparametric fitting: A method for approximating full-field experimental data distributed on any shaped 3D domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    With the present paper, the author proposes a fitting method for approximating experimental data retrieved from any full-field technique. Unlike most of the fitting procedures, the method works on data distributed on a surface of any shape, and the mathematical model is able to take into account of both the 3D shape of the surface and of the experimental quantity to be fitted. The paper reports all the mathematical steps necessary for applying the method, which was tested on two sets of experimental data obtained by an out-of-plane speckle interferometer working in two different conditions of noise. Experimental results showed the capability of the method to work in presence of high level of noise.

  16. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  17. Prediction of the bottomonium D-wave spectrum from full lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Daldrop, J O; Davies, C T H; Dowdall, R J

    2012-03-09

    We calculate the full spectrum of D-wave states in the Υ system in lattice QCD for the first time, by using an improved version of nonrelativistic QCD on coarse and fine "second-generation" gluon field configurations from the MILC Collaboration that include the effect of up, down, strange, and charm quarks in the sea. By taking the 2S-1S splitting to set the lattice spacing, we determine the (3)D2-1S splitting to 2.3% and find agreement with experiment. Our prediction of the fine structure relative to the (3)D2 gives the (3)D3 at 10.181(5) GeV and the (3)D1 at 10.147(6) GeV. We also discuss the overlap of (3)D1 operators with (3)S1 states.

  18. Microcephaly and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: The full-blown CNS spectrum in newborns with ZIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Leyser, Marcio; Fernandes, Alexandre; Passos, Pamela; Pupe, Camila; Matta, Andre Pc; Vasconcelos, Marcio Moacyr; Nascimento, Osvaldo Jm

    2017-01-15

    The recent alarming statements concerning the newborn ZIKV-induced microcephaly epidemics in the Northeast of Brazil, released by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, as well as important international health agencies, such as the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization, raised many "why and how" questions so far, that will hopefully be scientifically answered, as more researches in that regard come up in the long term. In this paper, we describe another potentially ZIKV-induced central nervous system and musculoskeletal disorder that has accompanied microcephaly in these children: atrhogryposis multiplex congenita. The goal is to bring up some hypotheses for possible underlying molecular mechanisms based on published data taken from animal models, such as ovine and cattle, which once infected by other types of arboviroses and viruses that also belong to the Flaviviridae family, presented, too, with the full-blown CNS spectrum of malformations at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new method for COD analysis with full-spectrum based on Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei-wei; Li, Dan; Cai, Zong-qi; Hao, Fu-guo

    2016-09-01

    A new on-line monitoring system was developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water based on full-spectrum analysis. In this system, Artificial Neural Net (ANN) work was used to obtain the transmission equation between absorbance and COD value by measuring absorption spectra of water with known COD value, and then the established equation could inverse the COD values of the unknown water samples. For the COD determination of simulated complicated water samples, the instrumental reliability was well validated by a comparison made between the ANN method and the PLS method. The monitoring system of the ANN method provided advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high precision, no consumption of reagent. And it was demonstrated an ideal alternative to real-time and on-line monitoring of COD in water.

  20. Simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents using full-spectrum micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Touch, M.; Barber, W.; Badea, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major challenges for in vivo, micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging is poor soft tissue contrast. To increase contrast, exogenous contrast agents can be used as imaging probes. Combining these probes with a photon counting x-ray detector (PCXD) allows energy-sensitive CT and probe material decomposition from a series of images associated with different x-ray energies. We have implemented full-spectrum micro-CT using a PCXD and 2 keV energy sampling. We then decomposed multiple k-edge contrast materials present in an object (iodine, barium, and gadolinium) from water. Since the energy bins were quite narrow, the projection data was very noisy. This noise and further spectral distortions amplify errors in post-reconstruction material decompositions. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel post-reconstruction denoising scheme which jointly enforces local and global gradient sparsity constraints, improving the contrast-to-noise ratio in full-spectrum micro-CT data and resultant material decompositions. We performed experiments using both calibration phantoms and ex vivo mouse data. Denoising increased the material contrast-to-noise ratio by an average of 13 times relative to filtered backprojection reconstructions. The relative decomposition error after denoising was 21%. To further improve material decomposition accuracy in future work, we also developed a model of the spectral distortions caused by PCXD imaging using known spectra from radioactive isotopes (109Cd, 133Ba). In future work, we plan to combine this model with the proposed denoising algorithm, enabling material decomposition with higher sensitivity and accuracy.

  1. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Meeyoung; Lee, Kyeong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Min-Kie; Han, Ju-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Odyssey, one of the NASA¡¯s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  2. Fitting the High Ability Program to the Needs of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Lisa Davia; Pierson, Eric E.; Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    As the number of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders grows, leaders are increasingly recognizing the limitations of the existing literature base to serve unique subsets of students on the spectrum. To date, there is a dearth of research regarding individuals who are both diagnosed on the spectrum and identified as gifted or high…

  3. {upsilon} spectrum and m{sub b} from full lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Gulez, E.; Shigemitsu, J.; Allison, I.; Davies, C.T.H.; Lepage, G.P.; Wingate, M.

    2005-11-01

    We show results for the {upsilon} spectrum calculated in lattice QCD including for the first time vacuum polarization effects for light u and d quarks as well as s quarks. We use gluon field configurations generated by the MILC collaboration. The calculations compare the results for a variety of u and d quark masses, as well as making a comparison to quenched results (in which quark vacuum polarization is ignored) and results with only u and d quarks. The b quarks in the {upsilon} are treated in lattice Nonrelativistic QCD through NLO in an expansion in the velocity of the b quark. We concentrate on accurate results for orbital and radial splittings where we see clear agreement with experiment once u, d and s quark vacuum polarization effects are included. This now allows a consistent determination of the parameters of QCD. We demonstrate this consistency through the agreement of the {upsilon} and B spectrum using the same lattice bare b quark mass. A one-loop matching to continuum QCD gives a value for the b quark mass in full lattice QCD for the first time. We obtain m{sub b}{sup MS}(m{sub b}{sup MS})=4.4(3) GeV. We are able to give physical results for the heavy quark potential parameters, r{sub 0}=0.469(7) fm and r{sub 1}=0.321(5) fm. Results for the fine structure in the spectrum and the {upsilon} leptonic width are also presented. We predict the {upsilon}-{eta}{sub b} splitting to be 61(14) MeV, the {upsilon}{sup '}-{eta}{sub b}{sup '} splitting as 30(19) MeV and the splitting between the h{sub b} and the spin-average of the {chi}{sub b} states to be less than 6 MeV. Improvements to these calculations that will be made in the near future are discussed.

  4. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure.

  5. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. Aim To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. Method A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. Results The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. Conclusions The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure. PMID:26938863

  6. Applying Full Spectrum Analysis to a Raman Spectroscopic Assessment of Fracture Toughness of Human Cortical Bone.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Alexander J; Granke, Mathilde; Ayala, Oscar D; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2017-10-01

    A decline in the inherent quality of bone tissue is a † Equal contributors contributor to the age-related increase in fracture risk. Although this is well-known, the important biochemical factors of bone quality have yet to be identified using Raman spectroscopy (RS), a nondestructive, inelastic light-scattering technique. To identify potential RS predictors of fracture risk, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to 558 Raman spectra (370-1720 cm(-1)) of human cortical bone acquired from 62 female and male donors (nine spectra each) spanning adulthood (age range = 21-101 years). Spectra were analyzed prior to R-curve, nonlinear fracture mechanics that delineate crack initiation (Kinit) from crack growth toughness (Kgrow). The traditional ν1phosphate peak per amide I peak (mineral-to-matrix ratio) weakly correlated with Kinit (r = 0.341, p = 0.0067) and overall crack growth toughness (J-int: r = 0.331, p = 0.0086). Sub-peak ratios of the amide I band that are related to the secondary structure of type 1 collagen did not correlate with the fracture toughness properties. In the full spectrum analysis, one principal component (PC5) correlated with all of the mechanical properties (Kinit: r = - 0.467, Kgrow: r = - 0.375, and J-int: r = - 0.428; p < 0.0067). More importantly, when known predictors of fracture toughness, namely age and/or volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), were included in general linear models as covariates, several PCs helped explain 45.0% (PC5) to 48.5% (PC7), 31.4% (PC6), and 25.8% (PC7) of the variance in Kinit, Kgrow, and J-int, respectively. Deriving spectral features from full spectrum analysis may improve the ability of RS, a clinically viable technology, to assess fracture risk.

  7. Langevin simulation of the full QCD hadron mass spectrum on a lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Oyanagi, Y.; Ukawa, A.

    1987-08-01

    Langevin simulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) on a lattice is carried out fully taking into account the effect of the quark vacuum polarization. It is shown that the Langevin method works well for full QCD and that simulation on a large lattice is practically feasible. A careful study is made of systematic errors arising from a finite Langevin time-step size. The magnitude of the error is found to be significant for light quarks, but the well-controlled extrapolation allows a separation of the values at the vanishing time-step size. As another important ingredient for the feasibility of Langevin simulation the advantage of the matrix inversion algorithm of the preconditioned conjugate residual method is described, as compared with various other algorithms. The results of a hadron-mass-spectrum calculation on a 9/sup 3/ x 18 lattice at ..beta.. = 5.5 with the Wilson quark action having two flavors are presented. It is shown that the contribution of vacuum quark loops significantly modifies the hadron masses in lattice units, but that the dominant part can be absorbed into a shift of the gauge coupling constant at least for the ground-state hadrons. Some suggestion is also presented for the physical effect of vacuum quark loops for excited hadrons.

  8. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  9. Full Spectrum Visible LED Light Activated Antibacterial System Realized by Optimized Cu2O Crystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaotong; Xue, Chaowen; Fang, Fang; Song, Xiangwei; Yu, Fen; Liu, Miaoxing; Wei, Zhipeng; Fang, Xuan; Zhao, Dongxu; Xin, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-04-06

    Assisted by three-dimensional printing technology, we proposed and demonstrated a full spectrum visible light activated antibacterial system by using a combination of 500 nm sized Cu2O crystals and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Further improved antibacterial ratios were achieved, for the first time, with pure Cu2O for both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria among all of the six different color LED lamps. For practical antibacterial applications, we revealed that the nonwoven fabric could act as excellent carrier for Cu2O crystals and provide impressive antibacterial performance. Furthermore, integrated with our self-developed app, the poly(ethylene terephthalate) film loaded with Cu2O crystals also showed significant antibacterial property, thus making it possible to be applied in field of touch screen. The present research not only provided a healthier alternative to traditional ultraviolet-based sterilization but also opened an auto-response manner to decrease the rate of microbial contamination on billions of touch screen devices.

  10. Preliminary Experience Using Full-Spectrum Endoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sayo; Imai, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Masao; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. High-quality colonoscopy is needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) has recently shown potential in improving adenoma detection during colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Methods. From April 2015 to February 2016, 130 patients underwent FUSE colonoscopy for screening at a tertiary cancer center. Cecal intubation rate (CIR), procedure time, polyp/adenoma detection rate (PDR/ADR), and mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC) were compared in matched-control patients (n = 260) who underwent standard colonoscopy (SC). Accordingly, endoscopists subjectively evaluated the utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Results. The CIR of FUSE colonoscopy was 94.6%. Cecal intubation time (8.8 min versus 5.1 min, P < 0.001) and total procedure time (21.6 min versus 17.3 min, P < 0.001) in the FUSE group were significantly longer than those in the SC group. PDR (68.3 versus 71.2%, P = 0.567), ADR (63.4% versus 58.5%, P = 0.355), and APC (1.4 versus 1.4, P = 0.917) were not significantly different between the two groups. The wide view of FUSE colonoscopy was superior to that of SC based on the questionnaires. Conclusions. FUSE colonoscopy did not demonstrate superiority to SC in a clinical setting. PMID:27994617

  11. Plethora of relativistic charged spheres: The full spectrum of Guifoyle's static, electrically charged spherical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2017-05-01

    We show that Guilfoyle's exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations for spherical symmetric static electrically charged matter with a Reissner-Nordström exterior possess a bewildering plethora of different types of solutions. For the parameter space of the solutions we use two normalized variables, q2/R2 and r0/R , where q is the total electric charge, r0 is the radius of the object, and R is a length representing the square root of the inverse energy density of the matter. The two other parameters, the mass m and the Guilfoyle parameter a , both dependent on q , r0 and R , are analyzed in detail. The full parameter space of solutions q2/R2×r0/R is explored with the corresponding types of solutions being identified and analyzed. The different types of solutions are regular charged stars, including charged dust stars and stars saturating the Buchdahl-Andréasson bound, quasiblack holes, regular charged black holes with a de Sitter core, regular black holes with a core of phantom charged matter, other exotic regular black holes, Schwarzschild stars, Schwarzschild black holes, Kasner spacetimes, pointlike and planar naked singularities, and the Minkowski spacetime. Allowing for q2<0 , in which case it is not possible to interpret q as electric charge, also yields new solutions, some of which are interesting and regular, others are singular. Some of these types of solutions as well as the matter properties have been previously found and studied, here the full spectrum being presented in a unified manner.

  12. Spectral reflectance characteristics of different snow and snow-covered land surface objects and mixed spectrum fitting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.-H.; Zhou, Z.-M.; Wang, P.-J.; Yao, F.-M.; Yang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The field spectroradiometer was used to measure spectra of different snow and snow-covered land surface objects in Beijing area. The result showed that for a pure snow spectrum, the snow reflectance peaks appeared from visible to 800 nm band locations; there was an obvious absorption valley of snow spectrum near 1030 nm wavelength. Compared with fresh snow, the reflection peaks of the old snow and melting snow showed different degrees of decline in the ranges of 300~1300, 1700~1800 and 2200~2300 nm, the lowest was from the compacted snow and frozen ice. For the vegetation and snow mixed spectral characteristics, it was indicated that the spectral reflectance increased for the snow-covered land types(including pine leaf with snow and pine leaf on snow background), due to the influence of snow background in the range of 350~1300 nm. However, the spectrum reflectance of mixed pixel remained a vegetation spectral characteristic. In the end, based on the spectrum analysis of snow, vegetation, and mixed snow/vegetation pixels, the mixed spectral fitting equations were established, and the results showed that there was good correlation between spectral curves by simulation fitting and observed ones(correlation coefficient R2=0.9509).

  13. Type I errors and power of the parametric bootstrap goodness-of-fit test: full and limited information.

    PubMed

    Tollenaar, Nikolaj; Mooijaart, Ab

    2003-11-01

    In sparse tables for categorical data well-known goodness-of-fit statistics are not chi-square distributed. A consequence is that model selection becomes a problem. It has been suggested that a way out of this problem is the use of the parametric bootstrap. In this paper, the parametric bootstrap goodness-of-fit test is studied by means of an extensive simulation study; the Type I error rates and power of this test are studied under several conditions of sparseness. In the presence of sparseness, models were used that were likely to violate the regularity conditions. Besides bootstrapping the goodness-of-fit usually used (full information statistics), corrected versions of these statistics and a limited information statistic are bootstrapped. These bootstrap tests were also compared to an asymptotic test using limited information. Results indicate that bootstrapping the usual statistics fails because these tests are too liberal, and that bootstrapping or asymptotically testing the limited information statistic works better with respect to Type I error and outperforms the other statistics by far in terms of statistical power. The properties of all tests are illustrated using categorical Markov models.

  14. Esophageal atresia in newborns: a wide spectrum from the isolated forms to a full VACTERL phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VATER association was first described in 1972 by Quan and Smith as an acronym which identifies a non-random co-occurrence of Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Tracheoesophageal fistula and/or Esophageal atresia, Radial dysplasia. It is even possible to find out Cardiovascular, Renal and Limb anomalies and the acronym VACTERL was adopted, also, embodying Vascular, as single umbilical artery, and external genitalia anomalies. Methods Data on patients with esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between January 2003 and January 2013 were evaluated for the contingent occurrence of typical VACTERL anomalies (VACTERL-type) and non tipical VACTERL anomalies (non-VACTERL-type). The inclusion criterion was the presence of EA with or without TEF plus two or more of the following additional malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiovascular defects, renal anomalies and lower limb deformities, like radial dysplasia. Results Among 52 patients with EA/TEF, 20 (38,4%) had isolated EA and 7 (21,8%) had a recognized etiology such a syndrome and therefore were excluded. Among 32 infants with EA and associated malformations, 15 (46,8%) had VACTERL association. The most common anomalies were congenital heart defects (73,3%), followed by vertebral anomalies (66,6%). Many patients also had additional non-VACTERL-type defects. Single umbilical artery was the most common one followed by nervous system abnormalities and anomalies of toes. Between the groups of infants with VACTERL type and non-VACTERL-type anomalies, there are several overlapping data regarding both the tipically described spectrum and the most frequently reported non-VACTERL-type malformations. Thus, it is possible to differentiate infants with a full phenotype (VACTERL full phenotype) and patients that do not meet all the criteria mentioned above, but with some homologies with the first group (VACTERL partial

  15. Physical Fitness Assessment Across the Disability Spectrum in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Testing Modalities.

    PubMed

    Pilutti, Lara A; Sandroff, Brian M; Klaren, Rachel E; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Platta, Matthew E; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Stratton, Michelle; Motl, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate assessment of physical fitness (ie, aerobic capacity and muscular strength) is necessary for the design and evaluation of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, this is challenging in persons with substantial disability, because of physical inaccessibility and insensitivity of certain exercise testing modalities. This study compared different methods of measuring cardiorespiratory (arm ergometer vs recumbent stepper) and muscular (hand-held dynamometry vs computerized dynamometry) fitness across the MS disability spectrum. Associations between physical fitness and other measures that represented all domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) were also examined. Sixty-four participants with MS completed 2 symptom-limited cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength tests. We also assessed disability, cognition, fatigue, walking speed and endurance, health-related quality of life, and activities of daily living. Across all levels of disability, peak aerobic capacity assessed by recumbent stepping was higher compared with arm ergometry (P < 0.001). Peak torque of the knee extensors and knee flexors was significantly higher assessed by computerized dynamometry compared with hand-held dynamometry (P < 0.001). Aerobic capacity and peak torque decreased as a function of increasing disability (P < 0.001). Significant, moderate to strong correlations were observed between the physical fitness measures and measures representing all domains of the ICF, irrespective of the fitness testing mode. Overall, peak physical capacity was higher when assessed by recumbent stepping and computerized dynamometry. The assessment and prescription of exercise in MS should be based on these modalities to provide the most appropriate stimulus for exercise training adaptations. There continues to be an important association between physical fitness and other measures that represent all domains of the ICF, regardless of

  16. Predictors of 1-year outcomes in the Taiwan Acute Coronary Syndrome Full Spectrum Registry.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Fu-Tien; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Li, Ai-Hsien; Wen, Ming-Shien; Lai, Wen-Ter; Lin, Shing-Jong; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Kuo, Chieh; Li, Yi-Heng; Hwang, Juey-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines have been formulated for optimal management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Taiwan ACS Full Spectrum Registry aimed to evaluate the ACS management and identify the predictors of clinical outcomes of death/myocardial infarction/stroke 1 year post hospital discharge. Three thousand and eighty confirmed ACS patients enrolled in this registry were followed up for 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patient data on medical interventions as well as clinical events were recorded and analyzed by descriptive statistics. One-year mortality among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina was 6.1%, 10.1%, and 6.2%, respectively. Use of secondary preventive therapies was suboptimal throughout the follow-up phase, especially dual antiplatelet therapy, which fell from 74.8% patients at discharge to 24.9% patients at 1-year follow-up. The odds of an adverse incidence of death/myocardial infarction/stroke 1 year after discharge was significantly reduced in patients receiving aspirin and clopidogrel for ≥9 months and was consequently higher in patients in whom dual antiplatelet therapy was discontinued or prescribed for <9 months. Chronic renal failure, in-hospital bleeding, a diagnosis of NSTEMI, and antiplatelet therapy discontinuation had a negative association with 1-year outcomes, whereas the use of drug-eluting stents and antiplatelet agents, clopidogrel and aspirin, were predictors of positive outcomes. There is a significant deviation from evidence-based guidelines in ACS management in Taiwan as reported in other countries. Policy adherence, especially with regard to dual antiplatelet therapy may hold the key to long-term favorable outcomes and improved survival rates in ACS patients in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Full Spectrum of LPS Activation in Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Volunteers by Whole Transcriptomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; Zhao, Jing; Donahoe, Michael P.; Barge, Suchitra; Horne, William T.; Kolls, Jay K.; McVerry, Bryan J.; Birukova, Anastasiya; Tighe, Robert M.; Foster, W. Michael; Hollingsworth, John; Ray, Anuradha; Mallampalli, Rama; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding macrophage activation, little is known regarding how human alveolar macrophages in health calibrate its transcriptional response to canonical TLR4 activation. In this study, we examined the full spectrum of LPS activation and determined whether the transcriptomic profile of human alveolar macrophages is distinguished by a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dominant type I interferon signature. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were obtained from healthy volunteers, stimulated in the presence or absence of ultrapure LPS in vitro, and whole transcriptomic profiling was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). LPS induced a robust type I interferon transcriptional response and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7 as the top upstream regulator of 89 known gene targets. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)-18, a negative regulator of interferon α/β responses, was among the top up-regulated genes in addition to IL10 and USP41, a novel gene with no known biological function but with high sequence homology to USP18. We determined whether IRF-7 and USP-18 can influence downstream macrophage effector cytokine production such as IL-10. We show that IRF-7 siRNA knockdown enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and USP-18 overexpression attenuated LPS-induced production of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of USP18, USP41, IL10, and IRF7. An independent cohort confirmed LPS induction of USP41 and IL10 genes. These results suggest that IRF-7 and predicted downstream target USP18, both elements of a type I interferon gene signature identified by RNA-Seq, may serve to fine-tune early cytokine response by calibrating IL-10 production in human alveolar macrophages. PMID:27434537

  18. Application of the full spectrum inversion algorithm to simulated airborne GPS radio occultation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Loknath; Xie, Feiqin; Haase, Jennifer S.

    2016-10-01

    With a GPS receiver on board an airplane, the airborne radio occultation (ARO) technique provides dense lower-tropospheric soundings over target regions. Large variations in water vapor in the troposphere cause strong signal multipath, which could lead to systematic errors in RO retrievals with the geometric optics (GO) method. The spaceborne GPS RO community has successfully developed the full-spectrum inversion (FSI) technique to solve the multipath problem. This paper is the first to adapt the FSI technique to retrieve atmospheric properties (bending and refractivity) from ARO signals, where it is necessary to compensate for the receiver traveling on a non-circular trajectory inside the atmosphere, and its use is demonstrated using an end-to-end simulation system. The forward-simulated GPS L1 (1575.42 MHz) signal amplitude and phase are used to test the modified FSI algorithm. The ARO FSI method is capable of reconstructing the fine vertical structure of the moist lower troposphere in the presence of severe multipath, which otherwise leads to large retrieval errors in the GO retrieval. The sensitivity of the modified FSI-retrieved bending angle and refractivity to errors in signal amplitude and errors in the measured refractivity at the receiver is presented. Accurate bending angle retrievals can be obtained from the surface up to ˜ 250 m below the receiver at typical flight altitudes above the tropopause, above which the retrieved bending angle becomes highly sensitive to the phase measurement noise. Abrupt changes in the signal amplitude that are a challenge for receiver tracking and geometric optics bending angle retrieval techniques do not produce any systematic bias in the FSI retrievals when the SNR is high. For very low SNR, the FSI performs as expected from theoretical considerations. The 1 % in situ refractivity measurement errors at the receiver height can introduce a maximum refractivity retrieval error of 0.5 % (1 K) near the receiver, but

  19. The use of full spectrum digital photography for evidence collection and preservation in cases involving forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Franklin D; Golden, Gregory S

    2010-09-10

    Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and, perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that occur when light strikes skin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience the Full Spectrum of Social Studies. World Cultures: Science, Reading, Mathematics, Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy J.

    This collection of 20 classroom activities, games, and problem sets has been revised over several years to fit the changing needs of students. They are designed to introduce students to world cultures through activity participation in the areas of science, reading, mathematics and art. The various cultures explored include: ancient Egypt, ancient…

  1. Experience the Full Spectrum of Social Studies. World Cultures: Science, Reading, Mathematics, Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy J.

    This collection of 20 classroom activities, games, and problem sets has been revised over several years to fit the changing needs of students. They are designed to introduce students to world cultures through activity participation in the areas of science, reading, mathematics and art. The various cultures explored include: ancient Egypt, ancient…

  2. Molecular intermediates of fitness gain of an RNA virus: characterization of a mutant spectrum by biological and molecular cloning.

    PubMed

    Arias, A; Lázaro, E; Escarmís, C; Domingo, E

    2001-05-01

    The mutant spectrum of a virus quasispecies in the process of fitness gain of a debilitated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) clone has been analysed. The mutant spectrum was characterized by nucleotide sequencing of three virus genomic regions (internal ribosome entry site; region between the two AUG initiation codons; VP1-coding region) from 70 biological clones (virus from individual plaques formed on BHK-21 cell monolayers) and 70 molecular clones (RT--PCR products cloned in E. coli). The biological and molecular clones provided statistically indistinguishable definitions of the mutant spectrum with regard to the distribution of mutations among the three genomic regions analysed and with regard to the types of mutations, mutational hot-spots and mutation frequencies. Therefore, the molecular cloning procedure employed provides a simple protocol for the characterization of mutant spectra of viruses that do not grow in cell culture. The number of mutations found repeated among the clones analysed was higher than expected from the mean mutation frequencies. Some components of the mutant spectrum reflected genomes that were dominant in the prior evolutionary history of the virus (previous passages), confirming the presence of memory genomes in virus quasispecies. Other components of the mutant spectrum were genomes that became dominant at a later stage of evolution, suggesting a predictive value of mutant spectrum analysis with regard to the outcome of virus evolution. The results underline the observation that greater insight into evolutionary processes of viruses may be gained from detailed clonal analyses of the mutant swarms at the sequence level.

  3. ICPES analyses using full image spectra and astronomical data fitting algorithms to provide diagnostic and result information

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Goode, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    ICP emission analyses are prone to errors due to changes in power level, nebulization rate, plasma temperature, and sample matrix. As a result, accurate analyses of complex samples often require frequent bracketing with matrix matched standards. Information needed to track and correct the matrix errors is contained in the emission spectrum. But most commercial software packages use only the analyte line emission to determine concentrations. Changes in plasma temperature and the nebulization rate are reflected by changes in the hydrogen line widths, the oxygen emission, and neutral ion line ratios. Argon and off-line emissions provide a measure to correct the power level and the background scattering occurring in the polychromator. The authors` studies indicated that changes in the intensity of the Ar 404.4 nm line readily flag most matrix and plasma condition modifications. Carbon lines can be used to monitor the impact of organics on the analyses and calcium and argon lines can be used to correct for spectral drift and alignment. Spectra of contaminated groundwater and simulated defense waste glasses were obtained using a Thermo Jarrell Ash ICP that has an echelle CID detector system covering the 190-850 nm range. The echelle images were translated to the FITS data format, which astronomers recommend for data storage. Data reduction packages such as those in the ESO-MIDAS/ECHELLE and DAOPHOT programs were tried with limited success. The radial point spread function was evaluated as a possible improved peak intensity measurement instead of the common pixel averaging approach used in the commercial ICP software. Several algorithms were evaluated to align and automatically scale the background and reference spectra. A new data reduction approach that utilizes standard reference images, successive subtractions, and residual analyses has been evaluated to correct for matrix effects.

  4. Full Spectrum Operations: An Analysis of Course Content at the Command and General Staff College

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    cultural norms. Seven percent of lessons involved regional studies on Algeria, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Middle East, and Islam that emphasized the...destruction, unrestricted warfare, and cyber warfare, which do not yet fit neatly within the operational theme construct. Finally, 1 percent explored... Bullis , Ruth Collins, and Christopher Paparone. “Mapping the Route of Leadership Education: Caution Ahead.” Parameters 34, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 46-60

  5. Application of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the Brillouin spectrum fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuankai; Yang, Yuanhong; Li, Anqi

    2008-10-01

    Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing system based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering frequency shift measurement may measure temperature in the optical fiber, due to the dependence of spontaneous Brillouin scattering frequency shift on temperature. In this paper, nonlinear theoretical models of the Brillouin spectrum in the BOTDR temperature sensing system are analyzed. The model parameters are optimized with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. By numerical calculation, it is indicated that pseudo-Voigt function can approach approximated the Voigt profile well and quickly.

  6. The full spectrum of ethical issues in the care of patients with ALS: a systematic qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Seitzer, F; Kahrass, H; Neitzke, G; Strech, D

    2016-02-01

    Dealing systematically with ethical issues in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. The aim of the study was to determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. We conducted a systematic review in Medline and Google Books (restricted to English and German literature published between 1993 and 2014). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. The literature review retrieved 56 references that together mentioned a spectrum of 103 ethical issues in ALS care. The spectrum was structured into six major categories that consist of first and second-order categories of ethical issues. The systematically derived spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care presented in this paper raises awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in ALS care. It also offers a basis for the systematic development of informational and training materials for health professionals, patients and their relatives, and society as a whole. Finally, it supports a rational and fair selection of all those ethical issues that should be addressed in health policies, position papers and clinical practice guidelines. Further research is needed to identify ways to systematically select the most relevant ethical issues not only in the clinical environment, but also for the development of clinical practice guidelines.

  7. Full spectrum of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models

    SciTech Connect

    Dossa, Anselme F. E-mail: ansdossa@gmail.com; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H. E-mail: gavossevou@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the rigorous analytical determination of the spectrum of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models. To reach this goal, we exploit the hidden symmetries in these models by means of the unitary and similarity transformations in addition to the Bargmann-Fock space description. In each case, the purely quantum mechanical problem of the Rabi model studied is reduced to solutions for differential equations. This eventually gives a third-order differential equation for each of these models, which is reduced to a second-order differential equation by additional transformations. The analytical expressions of the wave functions describing the energy levels are obtained in terms of the confluent hypergeometric functions.

  8. Sample space reducing cascading processes produce the full spectrum of scaling exponents.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-09-11

    Sample Space Reducing (SSR) processes are simple stochastic processes that offer a new route to understand scaling in path-dependent processes. Here we define a cascading process that generalises the recently defined SSR processes and is able to produce power laws with arbitrary exponents. We demonstrate analytically that the frequency distributions of states are power laws with exponents that coincide with the multiplication parameter of the cascading process. In addition, we show that imposing energy conservation in SSR cascades allows us to recover Fermi's classic result on the energy spectrum of cosmic rays, with the universal exponent -2, which is independent of the multiplication parameter of the cascade. Applications of the proposed process include fragmentation processes or directed cascading diffusion on networks, such as rumour or epidemic spreading.

  9. The full spectrum of handlebar injuries in children: a decade of experience.

    PubMed

    Nataraja, R M; Palmer, C S; Arul, G S; Bevan, C; Crameri, J

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic paediatric handlebar injury (HBI) is known to occur with different vehicles, affect different body regions, and have substantial associated morbidity. However, previous handlebar injury research has focused on the specific combination of abdominal injury and bicycle riding. Our aim was to fully describe the epidemiology and resultant spectrum of injuries caused by a HBI. Retrospective data analysis of all paediatric patients (<18 years) in a prospectively identified trauma registry over a 10-year period. Primary outcome was the HBI, its location and management. The effects of patient age, vehicle type, the impact region, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were also evaluated. HBI patients were compared against a cohort injured while riding similar vehicles, but not having sustained a HBI. 1990 patients were admitted with a handlebar-equipped vehicle trauma; 236 (11.9%) having sustained a HBI. HBI patients were twice as likely to be aged between 6 and 14 years old compared with non-HBI patients (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.2). 88.6% of the HBI patients sustained an isolated injury, and 45.3% had non-abdominal handlebar impact. There were no significant differences in median ISS (p=0.4) or need for operative intervention (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.5) between HBI and non-HBI patients. HBI patients had a significantly longer LOS (1.8 days vs. 1.2 days; p=0.001), and more frequently required a major operation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2-5.4). The majority of splenic, renal and hepatic injuries were managed conservatively. Although the majority of paediatric HBI is associated with both intra-abdominal injury and bicycle riding, it produces a spectrum of potentially serious injuries and patients are more likely to undergo major surgery. Therefore these patients should always be treated with a high degree of suspicion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Standard forward-viewing colonoscopy versus full-spectrum endoscopy: an international, multicentre, randomised, tandem colonoscopy trial

    PubMed Central

    Gralnek, Ian M.; Siersema, Peter D.; Halpern, Zamir; Segol, Ori; Melhem, Alaa; Suissa, Alain; Santo, Erwin; Sloyer, Alan; Fenster, Jay; Moons, Leon M. G.; Dik, Vincent K.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Rex, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Although colonoscopy is the accepted standard for detection of colorectal adenomas and cancers, many adenomas and some cancers are missed. To avoid interval colorectal cancer, the adenoma miss rate of colonoscopy needs to be reduced by improvement of colonoscopy technique and imaging capability. We aimed to compare the adenoma miss rates of full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopy with those of standard forward-viewing colonoscopy. Methods We did an international, multicentre, randomised trial at three sites in Israel, one site in the Netherlands, and two sites in the USA between Feb 1, 2012, and March 31, 2013. Patients aged 18–70 years referred for colorectal cancer screening, polyp surveillance, or diagnostic assessment underwent same-day, back-to-back tandem colonoscopy with standard forward-viewing colonoscope and the full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscope. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with block size of 20, to which procedure was done first. The endoscopist was masked to group allocation until immediately before the start of colonoscopy examinations; patients were not masked. The primary endpoint was adenoma miss rates. We did per-protocol analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01549535. Findings 197 participants were enrolled. 185 participants were included in the per-protocol analyses: 88 (48%) were randomly assigned to receive standard forward-viewing colonoscopy first, and 97 (52%) to receive full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopy first. By per-lesion analysis, the adenoma miss rate was significantly lower in patients in the full-spectrum endoscopy group than in those in the standard forward-viewing procedure group: five (7%) of 67 vs 20 (41%) of 49 adenomas were missed (p<0·0001). Standard forward-viewing colonoscopy missed 20 adenomas in 15 patients; of those, three (15%) were advanced adenomas. Full-spectrum endoscopy missed five adenomas in five patients in

  11. Autism Spectrum Phenotype in Males and Females with Fragile X Full Mutation and Premutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang M.; Huggins, Richard; Taylor, Annette K.; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2007-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of autism was assessed in individuals with full mutation and premutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Generic (ADOS-G) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). The participants, aged 5-80 years, comprised 33 males and 31 females with full mutation, 7 males and 43 females with…

  12. Autism Spectrum Phenotype in Males and Females with Fragile X Full Mutation and Premutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang M.; Huggins, Richard; Taylor, Annette K.; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2007-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of autism was assessed in individuals with full mutation and premutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Generic (ADOS-G) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). The participants, aged 5-80 years, comprised 33 males and 31 females with full mutation, 7 males and 43 females with…

  13. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    PubMed

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  14. Transport of Intensity phase imaging by intensity spectrum fitting of exponentially spaced defocus planes.

    PubMed

    Jingshan, Zhong; Claus, Rene A; Dauwels, Justin; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2014-05-05

    We propose an alternative method for solving the Transport of Intensity equation (TIE) from a stack of through-focus intensity images taken by a microscope or lensless imager. Our method enables quantitative phase and amplitude imaging with improved accuracy and reduced data capture, while also being computationally efficient and robust to noise. We use prior knowledge of how intensity varies with propagation in the spatial frequency domain in order to constrain a fitting algorithm [Gaussian process (GP) regression] for estimating the axial intensity derivative. Solving the problem in the frequency domain inspires an efficient measurement scheme which captures images at exponentially spaced focal steps, significantly reducing the number of images required. Low-frequency artifacts that plague traditional TIE methods can be suppressed without an excessive number of captured images. We validate our technique experimentally by recovering the phase of human cheek cells in a brightfield microscope.

  15. Eigenvector decomposition of full-spectrum x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Brian J; Lalush, David S

    2012-03-07

    Energy-discriminated x-ray computed tomography (CT) data were projected onto a set of basis functions to suppress the noise in filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstructions. The x-ray CT data were acquired using a novel x-ray system which incorporated a single-pixel photon-counting x-ray detector to measure the x-ray spectrum for each projection ray. A matrix of the spectral response of different materials was decomposed using eigenvalue decomposition to form the basis functions. Projection of FBP onto basis functions created a de facto image segmentation of multiple contrast agents. Final reconstructions showed significant noise suppression while preserving important energy-axis data. The noise suppression was demonstrated by a marked improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) along the energy axis for multiple regions of interest in the reconstructed images. Basis functions used on a more coarsely sampled energy axis still showed an improved SNR. We conclude that the noise-resolution trade off along the energy axis was significantly improved using the eigenvalue decomposition basis functions.

  16. Ions motion effects on the full unstable spectrum in relativistic electron beam plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bret, A.; Dieckmann, M. E.

    2008-01-15

    A relativistic fluid model is implemented to assess the role of the ions motion in the linear phase of relativistic beam plasma electromagnetic instabilities. The all unstable wave vector spectrum is investigated, allowing us to assess how ion motions modify the competition between every possible instability. Beam densities up to the plasma one are considered. Due to the fluid approach, the temperatures must remain small, i.e., nonrelativistic. In the cold limit, ions motion affect the most unstable mode when the beam gamma factor {gamma}{sub b} > or approx. {alpha}M/mZ{sub i}, {alpha} being the beam to plasma density ratio, Z{sub i} the ion charge, M their mass, and m the electrons. The return current plays an important role by prompting Buneman-type instabilities which remain in the nonrelativistic regime up to high beam densities. Nonrelativistic temperatures only slightly affect these conclusions, except in the diluted beam regime where they can stabilize the Buneman modes.

  17. Maximizing the Psychological Battlespace: Effectively Planning and Integrating Operational-Level Psychological Operations (PSYOP) into Full-Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maximizing the Psychological Battlespace: Effectively 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Planning and Integrating Operational-Level Psychological 5b. GRANT NUMBER Operations (PSYOP) into Full-Spectrum Operations 5c. PROGRAM...is a non-trivial process, especially in the asymmetric threat environments experienced during GWOT. PSYOP is an alchemy that combines elements of

  18. Vision Research Literature May Not Represent the Full Intellectual Range of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alyse C.; Chouinard, Philippe A.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2017-01-01

    Sensory, in particular visual processing is recognized as often perturbed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, in terms of the literature pertaining to visual processing, individuals in the normal intelligence range (IQ = 90–110) and above, are more frequently represented in study samples than individuals who score below normal in the borderline intellectual disability (ID) (IQ = 71–85) to ID (IQ < 70) ranges. This raises concerns as to whether or not current research is generalizable to a disorder that is often co-morbid with ID. Thus, the aim of this review is to better understand to what extent the current ASD visual processing literature is representative of the entire ASD population as either diagnosed or recognized under DSM-5. Our recalculation of ASD prevalence figures, using the criteria of DSM-5, indicates approximately 40% of the ASD population are likely to be ID although searching of the visual processing literature in ASD up to July 2016 showed that only 20% of papers included the ASD with-ID population. In the published literature, the mean IQ sampled was found to be 104, with about 80% of studies sampling from the 96–115 of the IQ range, highlighting the marked under-representation of the ID and borderline ID sections of the ASD population. We conclude that current understanding of visual processing and perception in ASD is not based on the mean IQ profile of the DSM-5 defined ASD population that now appears to lie within the borderline ID to ID range. Give the importance of the role of vision for the social and cognitive processing in ASD, we recommend accurately representing ASD via greater inclusion of individuals with IQ below 80, in future ASD research. PMID:28261072

  19. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons as full-spectrum light harvesting photocatalyst for environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanbit; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Kim, Yujin; Ma, Rory; Choi, Jiha; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    The inferior utilization efficiency of light is the main obstacle to the practical application of traditional photocatalysts such as TiO2 and ZnO. In this regard, the development of novel photocatalysts with the capability of harvesting full spectrum light (from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR)) energy is a promising solution for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. Here, we report the discovery of a single material that can harvest UV, visible (VIS), and NIR radiations to decompose heavy metal contaminants in aqueous solution. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons were synthesized through a facile solution approach and employed in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-VIS-NIR pulsed laser irradiation, which was generated from the fundamental, second and third harmonics of Nd:YAG laser, respectively. The nanostructures showed efficient Cr(VI) reduction under UV, VIS and NIR laser irradiation and the measured reduction efficiency (%) was 71.22%, 69.52%, and 40.79%, respectively after 120 min. A possible explanation for the photocatalytic activity in Cr(VI) reduction was proposed. This is the first study of its kind where pulsed laser and ZIF-67 rhombic dodecahedrons capable of harvesting full spectrum light energy have been employed for the removal of Cr(VI) from water. The extraordinary capacity of harvesting full-spectrum light and long-term stability make ZIF-67 a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  20. Full Spectrum of Postnatal Tooth Phenotypes in a Novel Irf6 Cleft Lip Model.

    PubMed

    Chu, E Y; Tamasas, B; Fong, H; Foster, B L; LaCourse, M R; Tran, A B; Martin, J F; Schutte, B C; Somerman, M J; Cox, T C

    2016-10-01

    reinforce the notion that various isolated tooth defects could be considered part of the CLP spectrum in relatives of an affected individual. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  1. Spectrum of a lattice exciton in a transverse magnetic field: Emergence of full translational symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berciu, Mona

    2014-06-01

    We show that even in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, the eigenstates of an exciton remain invariant to the full lattice translation group. This is expected if the exciton is viewed as a neutral quasiparticle, but not if one views it as a bound electron-hole pair. Single electron and hole wave functions are invariant only to the magnetic translation group, and their momenta are restricted to the magnetic Brillouin zone; the associated folding is the origin of their Hofstadter butterfly spectra. We find that such folding is not necessary for exciton eigenstates, which are characterized by momenta in the full Brillouin zone and thus have higher symmetry than the Hamiltonian. The magnetic field can have a significant effect on the shape of the exciton dispersion, however. While similar effects have been noted in continuous models, we find qualitatively different behavior for Frenkel excitons, whose origin we clarify. We also derive an analytical solution for the Hofstadter butterfly on a square lattice and analyze its dispersion in the full Brillouin zone.

  2. Comparative quantification of dietary supplemented neural creatine concentrations with (1)H-MRS peak fitting and basis spectrum methods.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Russell, Bruce R; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical procedure that can be used to non-invasively measure the concentration of a range of neural metabolites. Creatine is an important neurometabolite with dietary supplementation offering therapeutic potential for neurological disorders with dysfunctional energetic processes. Neural creatine concentrations can be probed using proton MRS and quantified using a range of software packages based on different analytical methods. This experiment examines the differences in quantification performance of two commonly used analysis packages following a creatine supplementation strategy with potential therapeutic application. Human participants followed a seven day dietary supplementation regime in a placebo-controlled, cross-over design interspersed with a five week wash-out period. Spectroscopy data were acquired the day immediately following supplementation and analyzed with two commonly-used software packages which employ vastly different quantification methods. Results demonstrate that neural creatine concentration was augmented following creatine supplementation when analyzed using the peak fitting method of quantification (105.9%±10.1). In contrast, no change in neural creatine levels were detected with supplementation when analysis was conducted using the basis spectrum method of quantification (102.6%±8.6). Results suggest that software packages that employ the peak fitting procedure for spectral quantification are possibly more sensitive to subtle changes in neural creatine concentrations. The relative simplicity of the spectroscopy sequence and the data analysis procedure suggest that peak fitting procedures may be the most effective means of metabolite quantification when detection of subtle alterations in neural metabolites is necessary. The straightforward technique can be used on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Full-Facepiece Respirator Fit on Fire Fighters in the Municipality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Balkhyour, Mansour A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personal variables on the fit of the respirators used by firefighters and workers in highly polluted environments. However, resistance from many plants managers was met to conduct the study on their workers. Therefore, we were forced to limit the study on firefighters who were found very cooperative. Forty volunteer firefighters from different departments participated in the study. They were subjected to a daily leak rate measurement using a Control Negative Pressure (CNP) fit tester for five consecutive days. Two types of respirators were used for each volunteer: the Drager type and the MSA. At the end of the study, the association between face shape and presence of beard with the respirator leak rates was investigated. A significant difference in the leak rate was detected between the two types of respirators used, with the Drager respirator having higher leak rates. The presence of a beard increased dramatically the leak rate whatever the face shape was. The oval shape was the best fitting to the respirators, followed by the rounded and finally the rectangular face. The study recommends that personal variables like face shape must be taken into consideration and fit testing must be carried out periodically, to specify the respirator that best fits each firefighter. Having beard must be absolutely prohibited, since it can be life threatening in environmental dangerous conditions such those encountered during extinguishing fires and overhaul situations. PMID:23343987

  4. The Study of Spectrum Reconstruction Based on Fuzzy Set Full Constraint and Multiendmember Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Lin, Y.; Hu, X.; Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Tong, Q.; Helder, D.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    Hyperspectral imaging system can obtain spectral and spatial information simultaneously with bandwidth to the level of 10 nm or even less. Therefore, hyperspectral remote sensing has the ability to detect some kinds of objects which can not be detected in wide-band remote sensing, making it becoming one of the hottest spots in remote sensing. In this study, under conditions with a fuzzy set of full constraints, Normalized Multi-Endmember Decomposition Method (NMEDM) for vegetation, water, and soil was proposed to reconstruct hyperspectral data using a large number of high-quality multispectral data and auxiliary spectral library data. This study considered spatial and temporal variation and decreased the calculation time required to reconstruct the hyper-spectral data. The results of spectral reconstruction based on NMEDM showed that the reconstructed data has good qualities and certain applications, which makes it possible to carry out spectral features identification. This method also extends the application of depth and breadth of remote sensing data, helping to explore the law between multispectral and hyperspectral data.

  5. Effect of color on pilot performance and transfer functions using a full-spectrum, calligraphic, color display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The use of blue and red color in out-of-window cockpit displays, in full-spectrum calligraphic computer-generated display systems, is studied with attention given to pilot stereographic depth perception and response to visual cues. Displays for vertical approach, with dynamic and frozen-range landing approach and perspective arrays, are analyzed. Pilot transfer function and the transfer function associated with the contrasted approach and perspective arrays are discussed. Out-of-window blue lights are perceived by pilots as indicating greater distance depth, red lights as indicating proximity. The computer-generated chromatic display was adapted to flight simulators for the tests.

  6. In situ γ-ray spectrometry in the marine environment using full spectrum analysis for natural radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Androulakaki, E G; Kokkoris, M; Tsabaris, C; Eleftheriou, G; Patiris, D L; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2016-08-01

    The Full Spectrum Analysis approach was applied to obtain activity concentration estimations for in situ measurements in the marine environment. The 'standard spectra' were reproduced using the MCNP-CP code. In order to extract the activity concentrations, χ(2) minimization calculations were performed by implementing the MINUIT code. The method was applied to estimate the activity concentrations for measurements in the marine environment in three different test cases. The estimated activity concentrations were in good agreement with the experimentally derived ones within uncertainties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of color on pilot performance and transfer functions using a full-spectrum, calligraphic, color display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The use of blue and red color in out-of-window cockpit displays, in full-spectrum calligraphic computer-generated display systems, is studied with attention given to pilot stereographic depth perception and response to visual cues. Displays for vertical approach, with dynamic and frozen-range landing approach and perspective arrays, are analyzed. Pilot transfer function and the transfer function associated with the contrasted approach and perspective arrays are discussed. Out-of-window blue lights are perceived by pilots as indicating greater distance depth, red lights as indicating proximity. The computer-generated chromatic display was adapted to flight simulators for the tests.

  8. Full spectrum optical safeguard

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Mark R.

    2008-12-02

    An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

  9. Proximal Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy to Predict Soil Properties Using Windows and Full-Spectrum Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B.; van Henten, Eldert J.

    2013-01-01

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0–15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0–15 cm soil depths than in the 15–30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method. PMID:24287541

  10. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  11. Information-bearing acoustic change outperforms duration in predicting intelligibility of full-spectrum and noise-vocoded sentences.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian E

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between information-bearing acoustic changes in the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The availability of information-bearing acoustic changes reliably predicts intelligibility of full-spectrum [Stilp and Kluender (2010). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(27), 12387-12392] and noise-vocoded sentences amid noise interruption [Stilp et al. (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(2), EL136-EL141]. However, other research reports that proportion of signal duration preserved also predicts intelligibility of noise-interrupted speech. These factors have only ever been investigated independently, obscuring whether one better explains speech perception. The present experiments manipulated both factors to answer this question. A broad range of sentence durations (160-480 ms) containing high or low information-bearing acoustic changes were replaced by speech-shaped noise in noise-vocoded (Experiment 1) and full-spectrum sentences (Experiment 2). Sentence intelligibility worsened with increasing noise replacement, but in both experiments, information-bearing acoustic change was a statistically superior predictor of performance. Perception relied more heavily on information-bearing acoustic changes in poorer listening conditions (in spectrally degraded sentences and amid increasing noise replacement). Highly linear relationships between measures of information and performance suggest that exploiting information-bearing acoustic change is a shared principle underlying perception of acoustically rich and degraded speech. Results demonstrate the explanatory power of information-theoretic approaches for speech perception.

  12. STS-97 Mission Specialist Garneau with full launch and entry suit during pre-pack and fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During pre-pack and fit check in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-97 Commander Brent Jett gets help with his gloves from suit technician Bill Todd. Mission STS-97 is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at about 10:06 p.m. EST.

  13. A Genetic Multimutation Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder Fits Disparate Twin Concordance Data from the USA and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, Paul H.; Marvin, Alison R.; Law, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by genetics, environmental factors, or a combination of both is still being debated today. To help resolve this issue, a genetic multimutation model of ASD development was applied to a wide variety of age-of-onset data from the USA and Canada, and the model is shown to fit all the data. Included in this analysis is new, updated data from the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. We find that the age-of-onset distribution for males and females is identical, suggesting that ASD may be an autosomal disorder. The ASD monozygote concordance rate in twin data predicted by the genetic multimutation model is shown to be compatible with the observed rates. If ASD is caused entirely by genetics, then the ASD concordance rate of a cohort of monozygote twins should approach 100% as the youngest pair of twins in the cohort passes 10 years of age, a prediction that constitutes a critical test of the genetic hypothesis. Thus, by measuring the ASD concordance rate as a cohort of monozygote twins age, the hypothesis that this disorder is caused entirely by genetic mutations can be tested. PMID:27347528

  14. A Genetic Multimutation Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder Fits Disparate Twin Concordance Data from the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ivan; Lipkin, Paul H; Marvin, Alison R; Law, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by genetics, environmental factors, or a combination of both is still being debated today. To help resolve this issue, a genetic multimutation model of ASD development was applied to a wide variety of age-of-onset data from the USA and Canada, and the model is shown to fit all the data. Included in this analysis is new, updated data from the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) of the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. We find that the age-of-onset distribution for males and females is identical, suggesting that ASD may be an autosomal disorder. The ASD monozygote concordance rate in twin data predicted by the genetic multimutation model is shown to be compatible with the observed rates. If ASD is caused entirely by genetics, then the ASD concordance rate of a cohort of monozygote twins should approach 100% as the youngest pair of twins in the cohort passes 10 years of age, a prediction that constitutes a critical test of the genetic hypothesis. Thus, by measuring the ASD concordance rate as a cohort of monozygote twins age, the hypothesis that this disorder is caused entirely by genetic mutations can be tested.

  15. KANSL1 gene disruption associated with the full clinical spectrum of 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Igoa, María; Hernández-Charro, Blanca; Bengoa-Alonso, Amaya; Pérez-Juana-del-Casal, Aranzazu; Romero-Ibarra, Carlos; Nieva-Echebarria, Beatriz; Ramos-Arroyo, María Antonia

    2015-08-22

    Chromosome 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome is a multisystem genomic disorder caused by a recurrent 600-kb-long deletion, or haploinsufficiency of the chromatin modifier gene KANSL1, which maps to that region. Patients with KANSL1 intragenic mutations have been reported to display the major clinical features of 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome. However, they did not exhibit the full clinical spectrum of this disorder, which might indicate that an additional gene or genes, located in the 17q21.31 locus, might also be involved in the syndrome's phenotype. Conventional and molecular karyotypes were performed on a female patient with intellectual disability, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heart defects, hydronephrosis, hypotonia, pigmentary skin anomalies and facial dysmorphic features. FISH analysis was conducted for chromosomal breakpoint localization. qRT-PCR was applied for the comparative gene expression of KANSL1 gene in the patient and a control group. Herein, we present the first report of disruption and haploinsufficiency of the KANSL1 gene, secondary to a t(1;17)(q12;q21)dn chromosomal translocation in a girl that also carried a de novo ~289-kb deletion on 16p11.2. KANSL1 gene expression studies and comparative clinical analysis of patients with 17q21.31 deletions and intragenic KANSL1 gene defects indicate that KANSL1 dysfunction is associated with the full spectrum of the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, which includes characteristic facial features, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and structural defects of the brain, heart and genitourinary system, as well as, musculoskeletal and neuroectodermal anomalies. Moreover, we provide further evidence for the overlapping clinical phenotype of this condition with the cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. KANSL1 gene haploinsufficiency is necessary and sufficient to cause the full spectrum of the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome. We hypothesize that the KANSL1 gene might have an effect on the Ras

  16. A full-spectrum analysis of high-speed train interior noise under multi-physical-field coupling excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show

  17. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; ...

    2016-09-29

    Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical information processing. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favorable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. We semi-quantitatively model the permittivity change, whose large amplitude stems from a significant electron redistribution under intraband pumping due to the low electron concentration. Further, we observe a transient response in themore » microsecond regime associated with the slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Finally, our results demonstrate that all-optical control of the visible spectrum can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals.« less

  18. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-09-29

    Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical information processing. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favorable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. We semi-quantitatively model the permittivity change, whose large amplitude stems from a significant electron redistribution under intraband pumping due to the low electron concentration. Further, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with the slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Finally, our results demonstrate that all-optical control of the visible spectrum can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals.

  19. PTMap--a sequence alignment software for unrestricted, accurate, and full-spectrum identification of post-translational modification sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Chen, Wei; Cobb, Melanie H; Zhao, Yingming

    2009-01-20

    We present sequence alignment software, called PTMap, for the accurate identification of full-spectrum protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) and polymorphisms. The software incorporates several features to improve searching speed and accuracy, including peak selection, adjustment of inaccurate mass shifts, and precise localization of PTM sites. PTMap also automates rules, based mainly on unmatched peaks, for manual verification of identified peptides. To evaluate the quality of sequence alignment, we developed a scoring system that takes into account both matched and unmatched peaks in the mass spectrum. Incorporation of these features dramatically increased both accuracy and sensitivity of the peptide- and PTM-identifications. To our knowledge, PTMap is the first algorithm that emphasizes unmatched peaks to eliminate false positives. The superior performance and reliability of PTMap were demonstrated by confident identification of PTMs on 156 peptides from four proteins and validated by MS/MS of the synthetic peptides. Our results demonstrate that PTMap is a powerful algorithm capable of identification of all possible protein PTMs with high confidence.

  20. Aperiodic TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal: full-visible-spectrum solar light harvesting in photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-09-23

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  1. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shapes and sizes. (b) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses... of corrective spectacles or lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer....

  2. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer. (c) Mouthpieces shall be equipped.... (d) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses which shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shapes and sizes. (b) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses... of corrective spectacles or lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer....

  4. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lenses, and insure against any restriction of movement by the wearer. (c) Mouthpieces shall be equipped.... (d) Full facepieces shall provide for optional use of corrective spectacles or lenses which shall...

  5. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Saad, Ahmed S.; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-01

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models.

  6. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Hany W; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Saad, Ahmed S; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-05

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-09-28

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamical calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical B{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′}←X{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′} UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045–20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201–4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438–10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.

  8. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-09-01

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamical calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical tilde{B}{}^1A^' }leftarrow tilde{X}{}^1A^' } UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045-20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201-4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438-10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.

  9. Evaluation of the marginal fit of full ceramic crowns by the microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) technique

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Necla; Ozturk, Atiye Nilgun; Malkoc, Meral Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the marginal gap (MG) and absolute marginal discrepancy (MD) of full ceramic crowns with two finish line designs, shoulder and chamfer, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) before and after cementation. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were divided into two groups based on the finish line design: Group I: 90° shoulder and Group II: 135° chamfer. The specimens were further grouped based on the type of full ceramic crown they received: Group A: Feldspathic Cerec inLab ceramic system, Group B: Cerec inLab aluminum oxide ceramic system and Group C: Lithium disilicate press ceramic system. Before cementation, five crowns from each group were scanned using micro-CT in two sections, sagittal and coronal, to determine the MG and MD values for four regions of the crown (sagittal buccal, sagittal lingual, coronal mesial and coronal distal). After cementation and thermal cycling, the scanning was repeated. Measurements were obtained from 10 points for each region, 80 points totally, to evaluate the MG and MD values. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Results were statistically analyzed using one- and two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P = 0.05). Results: Full ceramic systems showed clinically acceptable marginal adaptation values. The Feldspathic Cerec inLab ceramic system generally presented the lowest variance, except in the MG values of the coronal mesial region. The MG and MD values of all ceramics increased significantly after cementation, except in the shoulder preparation design (sagittal buccal region) for MG and in the chamfer preparation design (sagittal lingual region) for MD values. Conclusions: Full-ceramic crowns showed clinically acceptable marginal adaptation values. The Feldspathic Cerec inLab ceramic system (Vitablocs Mark II) generally presented the lowest variance when compared with the other ceramics, except for the MG values on the mesial surface of the coronal section

  10. MODELING THE NONLINEAR CLUSTERING IN MODIFIED GRAVITY MODELS. I. A FITTING FORMULA FOR THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM OF f(R) GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Based on a suite of N-body simulations of the Hu-Sawicki model of f(R) gravity with different sets of model and cosmological parameters, we develop a new fitting formula with a numeric code, MGHalofit, to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. We compare the MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z ≤ 1) to the f(R) simulations and find that the relative error of the MGHalofit fitting formula of P(k) is no larger than 6% at k ≤ 1 h Mpc{sup –1} and 12% at k in (1, 10] h Mpc{sup –1}, respectively. Based on a sensitivity study of an ongoing and a future spectroscopic survey, we estimate the detectability of a signal of modified gravity described by the Hu-Sawicki model using the power spectrum up to quasi-nonlinear scales.

  11. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. Furthermore, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Our results demonstrate that all-optical control of light can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals.

  12. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D; Ocola, Leonidas E; Diroll, Benjamin T; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2016-09-29

    Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. Furthermore, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Our results demonstrate that all-optical control of light can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals.

  13. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots.

    PubMed

    Hellwege, E M; Czapla, S; Jahnke, A; Willmitzer, L; Heyer, A G

    2000-07-18

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers.

  14. Aperiodic TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal: Full-Visible-Spectrum Solar Light Harvesting in Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25245854

  15. Therapeutic effects of full spectrum light on the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Oh, Chang Taek; Hong, Hyuckki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Kim, Bong-Jun; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Full spectrum light (FSL) includes UVA, visible light and infrared light. Many studies have investigated the application of FSL in severe cases of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans; however, FSL has not yet been studied in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of FSL on AD-like skin lesions using NC/Nga mice, with the aim of mitigating itching and attenuating the expression of adhesion molecules. We examined the effects of FSL on mite allergen-treated NC/Nga mice by assessing skin symptom severity, ear thickness, serum IgE levels, and the cytokine expression. We examined the histology of lesions using hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue and immunohistochemical staining. Our findings suggest that FSL phototherapy exerts positive therapeutic effects on Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by reducing IgE levels, thus promoting recovery of the skin barrier. The mechanisms by which FSL phototherapy exerts its effects may also involve the inhibition of scratching behavior, reduction of IL-6 levels and reductions in adhesion molecule expression. The present study indicates that FSL phototherapy inhibits the development of AD in NC/Nga mice by suppressing cytokine, chemokine and adhesion molecule expression, and thus, could potentially be useful in treating AD. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Field sampling of loose erodible material: A new system to consider the full particle-size spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martina; Gill, Thomas E.; Webb, Nicholas P.; Van Zee, Justin W.

    2017-10-01

    A new system is presented to sample and enable the characterization of loose erodible material (LEM) present on a soil surface, which may be susceptible for entrainment by wind. The system uses a modified MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment sampler connected to a corded hand-held vacuum cleaner. Performance and accuracy of the system was tested in the laboratory using five reference soil samples with different textures. Sampling was most effective for sandy soils, while effectiveness decreases were found for soils with high silt and clay contents in dry dispersion. This effectiveness decrease can be attributed to loose silt and clay-sized particles and particle aggregates adhering to and clogging a filter attached to the MWAC outlet. Overall, the system was found to be effective in collecting sediment for most soil textures and theoretical interpretation of the measured flow speeds suggests that LEM can be sampled for a wide range of particle sizes, including dust particles. Particle-size analysis revealed that the new system is able to accurately capture the particle-size distribution (PSD) of a given sample. Only small discrepancies (maximum cumulative difference <10% at 63 μm) were found between the PSDs before and after vacuuming for all test soils. Despite limitations of the system, it is an advance toward sampling the full particle-size spectrum of loose sediment available for entrainment with the overall goal to better understand the mechanisms of dust emission and their variability.

  17. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    PubMed Central

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers. PMID:10890908

  18. Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability. Furthermore, we observe a transient response in the microsecond regime associated with slow lattice cooling, which arises from the large aspect-ratio and low thermal conductivity of ITO-NRAs. Our results demonstrate that all-optical control of light can be achieved by using heavily doped wide-bandgap semiconductors in their transparent regime with speed faster than that of noble metals. PMID:27682836

  19. A full-spectrum k-distribution look-up table for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous gaseous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaojun; Ge, Wenjun; Modest, Michael F.; He, Boshu

    2016-01-01

    A full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) look-up table has been constructed for gas mixtures within a certain range of thermodynamic states for three species, i.e., CO2, H2O and CO. The k-distribution of a mixture is assembled directly from the summation of the linear absorption coefficients of three species. The systematic approach to generate the table, including the generation of the pressure-based absorption coefficient and the generation of the k-distribution, is discussed. To efficiently obtain accurate k-values for arbitrary thermodynamic states from tabulated values, a 6-D linear interpolation method is employed. A large number of radiative heat transfer calculations have been carried out to test the accuracy of the FSK look-up table. Results show that, using the FSK look-up table can provide excellent accuracy compared to the exact results. Without the time-consuming process of assembling k-distribution from individual species plus mixing, using the FSK look-up table can save considerable computational cost. To evaluate the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the FSK look-up table, radiative heat transfer via a scaled Sandia D Flame is calculated to compare the CPU execution time using the FSK method based on the narrow-band database, correlations, and the look-up table. Results show that the FSK look-up table can provide a computationally cheap alternative without much sacrifice in accuracy.

  20. Effects of correlated noise on the full-spectrum combining and complex-symbol combining arraying techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazirani, P.

    1995-01-01

    The process of combining telemetry signals received at multiple antennas, commonly referred to as arraying, can be used to improve communication link performance in the Deep Space Network (DSN). By coherently adding telemetry from multiple receiving sites, arraying produces an enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over that achievable with any single antenna in the array. A number of different techniques for arraying have been proposed and their performances analyzed in past literature. These analyses have compared different arraying schemes under the assumption that the signals contain additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and that the noise observed at distinct antennas is independent. In situations where an unwanted background body is visible to multiple antennas in the array, however, the assumption of independent noises is no longer applicable. A planet with significant radiation emissions in the frequency band of interest can be one such source of correlated noise. For example, during much of Galileo's tour of Jupiter, the planet will contribute significantly to the total system noise at various ground stations. This article analyzes the effects of correlated noise on two arraying schemes currently being considered for DSN applications: full-spectrum combining (FSC) and complex-symbol combining (CSC). A framework is presented for characterizing the correlated noise based on physical parameters, and the impact of the noise correlation on the array performance is assessed for each scheme.

  1. A comparison of full-spectrum and complex-symbol combining techniques for the Galileo S-band mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Million, S.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Full-spectrum combining (FSC) and complex-symbol combining (CSC) are two antenna-arraying techniques being considered for the Galileo spacecraft's upcoming encounter with Jupiter. This article describes the performance of these techniques in terms of symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation and symbol SNR loss. It is shown that both degradation and loss are approximately equal at low values of symbol SNR but diverge at high SNR values. For the Galileo S-band (2.2 to 2.3 GHz) mission, degradation provides a good estimate of performance as the symbol SNR is typically below -5 dB. For the following arrays - two 70-m antennas, one 70-m and one 34-m antenna, one 70-m and two 34-m antennas, and one 70-m and three 34-m antennas - it is shown that FSC has less degradation than CSC when the subcarrier and symbol window-loop bandwidth products are above 3.0, 10.0, 8.5, and 8.2 mHz at the symbol rate of 200 sym/sec, and above 1.2, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5 mHz at a symbol rate of 400 sym/sec, respectively. Moreover, for an array of four 34-m antennas, FSC has less degradation than CSC when the subcarrier and symbol window-loop bandwidth products are above 0.32 mHz at the symbol rate of 50 sym/sec and above 0.8 mHz at the symbol rate of 25 sym/sec.

  2. The prognostic meaning of the full spectrum of aVR ST-segment changes in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheuk-Kit; Gao, Wanzhen; Stewart, Ralph A H; French, John K; Aylward, Philip E G; White, Harvey D

    2012-02-01

    ST-elevation in lead aVR is known to be associated with a worse prognosis in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) but the significance of ST depression in lead aVR has been unclear. Infarction of the inferior apex of the left ventricle may not be appreciated on the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) except by observing ST depression in lead aVR which is reciprocal to lead V(7). We therefore determined the prognostic value of the full spectrum of aVR ST changes in patients presenting with acute ST elevation MI. Lead aVR ST level was measured on randomization and 60 min ECGs in 15 315 patients with normal conduction from the HERO-2 trial. The outcome measure was 30-day mortality. aVR ST elevation ≥1 mm was associated with higher 30-day mortality for both inferior (22.5% for ≥1.5 mm and 13.2% for 1 mm) and anterior (23.5% for ≥1.5 mm and 11.5% for 1 mm) infarction. In contrast, deeper aVR ST depression (0, 0.5, 1, and ≥1.5 mm) was associated with higher mortality for anterior infarction (9.8, 13.2, 12.8, and 16.8%, respectively, trend P-value <0.0001) but not for inferior infarction. The resolution of aVR ST depression and ST elevation 60 min after fibrinolysis was associated with lower mortality. There is a U-shaped relationship between 30-day mortality and aVR ST level in patients presenting with anterior but not inferior ST elevation MI.

  3. Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury Across the Full Disease Spectrum: A Population-Based Medical Record Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Leibson, Cynthia L.; Brown, Allen W.; Ransom, Jeanine E.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Perkins, Patricia K.; Mandrekar, Jay; Malec, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Extremely few objective estimates of traumatic brain injury incidence include all ages, both sexes, all injury mechanisms, and the full spectrum from very mild to fatal events. Methods We used unique Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage resources, including highly sensitive and specific diagnostic coding, to identify all Olmsted County, MN, residents with diagnoses suggestive of traumatic brain injury regardless of age, setting, insurance, or injury mechanism. Provider-linked medical records for a 16% random sample were reviewed for confirmation as definite, probable, possible (symptomatic), or no traumatic brain injury. We estimated incidence per 100,000 person-years for 1987–2000 and compared these record-review rates with rates obtained using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data-systems approach. For the latter, we identified all Olmsted County residents with any CDC-specified diagnosis codes recorded on hospital/emergency department administrative claims or death certificates 1987–2000. Results Of sampled individuals, 1257 met record-review criteria for incident traumatic brain injury; 56% were ages 16–64 years, 56% were male, 53% were symptomatic. Mechanism, sex, and diagnostic certainty differed by age. The incidence rate per 100,000 person-years was 558 (95% confidence interval = 528–590) versus 341 (331–350) using the CDC data system approach. The CDC approach captured only 40% of record-review cases. Seventy-four percent of missing cases presented to hospital/emergency department; none had CDC-specified codes assigned on hospital/emergency department administrative claims or death certificates; 66% were symptomatic. Conclusions Capture of symptomatic traumatic brain injuries requires a wider range of diagnosis codes, plus sampling strategies to avoid high rates of false-positive events. PMID:21968774

  4. Full life-cycle assessment of gene flow consistent with fitness differences in transgenic and wild-type Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Pennington, Kelly M; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Morton, Michael S; Cooper, Anne M; Miller, Loren M

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic fish in development for aquaculture could escape from farms and interbreed with wild relatives in the nearby environment. Predicting whether escapes would result in transgene introgression is a major challenge in assessing environmental risks of transgenic fish. Previous studies have simulated gene flow from transgenic fish using mathematical modeling of fitness traits to predict the relative selective value of transgenic genotypes. Here, we present the first study of gene flow over the full life cycle in openly-breeding populations of transgenic animals, along with measurement of fitness traits. We conducted two invasion experiments in which we released two lines of growth-enhanced transgenic fish (T67 and T400), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), into populations of wild-type (W) medaka in structured mesocosms. After several generations, the frequency of transgenic fish varied across replicates in the first invasion experiment (6 months), but the frequency of transgenic fish decreased in the second experiment (19 months). We also measured selected fitness traits in transgenic and wild-type medaka because these traits could be used to predict the relative selective value of a genotype. We found that: T400 males were more fertile than W males; offspring of W females lived longer than those with transgenic mothers; and W and T67 females reached sexual maturity sooner than T400 females. In contrast with other research that reported larger transgenic males had a mating advantage, we found that W males obtained more matings with females than T males; genetic background effects may account for our differing results as we compared W and T fish derived from different strains. The decreasing frequency of transgenic fish in the second invasion experiment suggests that transgenic fish had a selective disadvantage in the experimental environment. Our finding of transgenic advantage of some fitness traits and wild-type advantage in others is consistent with our

  5. High-Level, First-Principles, Full-Dimensional Quantum Calculation of the Ro-vibrational Spectrum of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Carter, Stuart; Bowman, Joel M; Dawes, Richard; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2014-07-03

    The ro-vibrational spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) has been determined quantum mechanically based on nine-dimensional potential energy and dipole surfaces for its ground electronic state. The potential energy surface is fitted to more than 50 000 high-level ab initio points with a root-mean-square error of 25 cm(-1), using a recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial neural network method. The calculated rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, and spectral intensities of CH2OO are in excellent agreement with experiment. The potential energy surface provides a valuable platform for studying highly excited vibrational and unimolecular reaction dynamics of this important molecule.

  6. Social Skills Success for Students with Autism/Asperger's: Helping Adolescents on the Spectrum to Fit In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Two nationally known experts in friendship formation and anxiety management address the social challenges faced by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The book helps educators instruct youth on conversing with others, displaying appropriate body language, managing anxiety, initiating and participating in get-togethers, and more. The…

  7. Social Skills Success for Students with Autism/Asperger's: Helping Adolescents on the Spectrum to Fit In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Two nationally known experts in friendship formation and anxiety management address the social challenges faced by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The book helps educators instruct youth on conversing with others, displaying appropriate body language, managing anxiety, initiating and participating in get-togethers, and more. The…

  8. Fitting In: Tips for Promoting Acceptance and Friendships for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda

    2007-01-01

    In order for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to find acceptance and to develop friendships similar to those of their typical peers, they must be provided with the opportunities to do so. With appropriate planning and supports, inclusive classrooms can provide such opportunities for children with ASD, just as they do for typical…

  9. Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G. Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-01-01

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants

  10. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-01-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

  11. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2002-09-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

  12. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-10-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report emphasizes the design of the thermophotovoltaic receiver and the whole system simulation model.

  13. Bright CuInS2/CdS nanocrystal phosphors for high-gain full-spectrum luminescent solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kathryn E; Kilburn, Troy B; Alzate, Dane G; McDowall, Stephen; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2015-06-04

    The performance of colloidal CuInS2/CdS nanocrystals as phosphors for full-spectrum luminescent solar concentrators has been examined. Their combination of large solar absorption, high photoluminescence quantum yields, and only moderate reabsorption produces the highest projected flux gains of any nanocrystal luminophore to date.

  14. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Cross-Cutting R & D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; David L. Beshears

    2006-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations: Niche applications for HSL technology, Luminaire design characteristics for linear and point lighting fixtures, and Daylight affects on productivity.

  15. Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

    2006-03-30

    This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

  16. Laboratory Observations of the Full Spectrum of Fault Slip Modes: Implications for the Mechanics of Slow Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, J.; Saffer, D. M.; Scuderi, M.; Marone, C.

    2015-12-01

    Faults fail in a spectrum of slip behavior as demonstrated by slow slip events, slow and low-frequency earthquakes, episodic tremor and slip, and non-volcanic tremor. The underlying causes of this spectrum of behavior and the processes that control the failure mode of a particular fault are poorly understood, and constitute one of the most pressing conundrums of the field. Field observations provide documentation of slow-slip events at many different locations, but provide little insight into their mechanism. We present a systematic experimental study of slow slip and provide a mechanical explanation for the spectrum of fault slip modes from slow, aseismic slip to fast earthquake-like stick-slip. Utilizing a double-direct shear configuration in a bi-axial apparatus, we conducted constant loading velocity shearing tests. The effective system stiffness was altered by changing the effective normal stress and via the material used for the loading blocks. In experiments that exhibited stable sliding, we conducted velocity step tests to estimate the rate-and-state parameters of the material. From the rate-and-state parameters, we calculate the predicted critical stiffness value (kc) at which frictional failure should transition from stable to unstable sliding. We find that slow slip occurs near the stability threshold, which is in turn controlled by the interplay of fault frictional properties, effective normal stress, and elastic stiffness of the surrounding rock. Moreover, both the peak slip velocity and the duration of slip vary systematically with distance from the stability threshold, expressed as a ratio of the system stiffness to the critical stiffness (k/kc). Our results suggest a general mechanism for slow earthquakes and the spectrum of fault slip behaviors. Such a mechanism is consistent with the broad range of geologic environments in which these phenomena are observed, from subduction zones to the low-angle normal faults at the base of fast moving ice

  17. Investigation of the full spectrum phonon lifetime in thin silicon films from the bulk spectral phonon mean-free-path distribution by using kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jae Sik

    2017-03-01

    Phonon dynamics in nanostructures is critically important to thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices because it determines the transport and other crucial properties. However, accurately evaluating the phonon lifetimes is extremely difficult. This study reports on the development of a new semi-empirical method to estimate the full-spectrum phonon lifetimes in thin silicon films at room temperature based on the experimental data on the phonon mean-free-path spectrum in bulk silicon and a phenomenological consideration of phonon transport in thin films. The bulk of this work describes the theory and the validation; then, we discuss the trend of the phonon lifetimes in thin silicon films when their thicknesses decrease.

  18. Square Pegs, Round Hole? Ensuring Fit in the AYAO Spectrum for Adolescents and Young Adults with Genetic Risk for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary L.; Smith, Kristin N.; Young, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case example of a young woman at genetic risk for future cancer. We discuss psychosocial challenges that adolescents and young adults (AYAs) may share with their cancer survivor peers, and describe an example of psychosocial care. A scientific foundation denoting the needs of AYAs at risk for heritable cancers is lacking, and it is unknown if these AYAs receive adequate support services. This is a call to action for practitioners and researchers to engage in initiatives that assure these AYAs have access to valuable support and more clearly mark their place within the spectrum of AYA oncology. PMID:24066273

  19. Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-02-14

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.

  20. FOURFIT-A Computer Code for Determining Equivalent Nuclear Yield and Peak Overpressure by a Fourier Spectrum Fit Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-25

    NBPTS equal to 2048. Each array must be at least large enough to accomodate this value. i3 7% 4 z 32 "- : -" ,-. - -.- ;-.°. :. .’ -,i...F5.2.5X..WI -,*F5.2) WR:TE(48. 113) IOPT.IFILT ICOUNT *0 NBPTS 2048 IF(IOPT.EO.3) GO TO 7 CALL EBREAD IF(IOPT.EO.2) GO TO 666 CALL FIT 7 ICOUINT - I CALL...UPON THE POSITIVE PHASE DURATION. DTB - DP/ NBPTS GO TO 15 5 ISTL(i) - IOHWITH FOURF ISTL(2) - iGHIT SPEICHE ISTL(3) - 1OHR-BRODE ISTL(4) - 10H ISTL(5

  1. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2005-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system: (1) Performance specifications were developed for the tracking subsystem and collector optics, (2) Thermal management experiments for the fiber optic bundle entrance region, and (3) Bioreactor testing, cost-modeling, and redesign. Much of the planned work has been slowed due to significant procurement delays of the primary mirror. However, taken as a whole, they do confirm progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. Due to this procurement delay, a no-cost extension of the project completion date has been requested and approved.

  2. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2004-08-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  3. Realizing full visible spectrum metamaterial half-wave plates with patterned metal nanoarray/insulator/metal film structure.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanmeng; Ren, Wenzhen; Cai, Hongbing; Ding, Huaiyi; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-04-07

    Abrupt phase shift introduced by plasmonic resonances has been frequently used to design subwavelength wave plates for optical integration. Here, with the sandwich structure consisting of a top periodic patterned silver nanopatch, an in-between insulator layer and a bottom thick Au film, we realize a broadband half-wave plate which is capable to cover entire visible light spectrum ranging from 400 to 780 nm. Moreover, when the top layer is replaced with a periodic array of composite super unit cell comprised of two nanopatches with different sizes, the operation bandwidth can be further improved to exceed an octave (400-830 nm). In particular, we demonstrate that the designed half-wave plate can be used efficiently to rotate the polarization state of an ultra-fast light pulse with reserved pulse width. Our result offers a new strategy to design and construct broadband high efficiency phase-response based optical components using patterned metal nanoarray/insulator/metal structure.

  4. Identification of novel virulence genes and metabolic pathways required for full fitness of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive (Olea europaea) knots.

    PubMed

    Matas, Isabel M; Lambertsen, Lotte; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Ramos, Cayo

    2012-12-01

    Comparative genomics and functional analysis of Pseudomonas syringae and related pathogens have mainly focused on diseases of herbaceous plants; however, there is a general lack of knowledge about the virulence and pathogenicity determinants required for infection of woody plants. Here, we applied signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) to Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi during colonization of olive (Olea europaea) knots, with the goal of identifying the range of genes linked to growth and symptom production in its plant host. A total of 58 different genes were identified, and most mutations resulted in hypovirulence in woody olive plants. Sequence analysis of STM mutations allowed us to identify metabolic pathways required for full fitness of P. savastanoi in olive and revealed novel mechanisms involved in the virulence of this pathogen, some of which are essential for full colonization of olive knots by the pathogen and for the lysis of host cells. This first application of STM to a P. syringae-like pathogen provides confirmation of functional capabilities long believed to play a role in the survival and virulence of this group of pathogens but not adequately tested before, and unravels novel factors not correlated previously with the virulence of other plant or animal bacterial pathogens. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Extension of the measurement, assignment, and fit of the rotational spectrum of the two-top molecule methyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle; Shipman, Steven T.; Mae, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Kazue; Hatanaka, Shota; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2014-05-01

    New and previous spectroscopic data were recorded for the two-top molecule methyl acetate using five spectrometers in four different labs: a room temperature chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometer in the frequency range from 8.7 to 26.5 GHz, two molecular beam FTMW spectrometers (2-40 GHz), a free jet absorption Stark-modulated spectrometer (60-78 GHz), and a room temperature millimeter-wave spectrometer (44-68 GHz). Approximately 800 new lines with J up to 40 and K up to 16 were assigned. In total, 1603 lines were fitted with 34 parameters using an internal rotation Hamiltonian in the Rho Axis Method (RAM) and the program BELGI-Cs-2tops to standard deviations close to the experimental uncertainties. More precise determinations of the top-top interaction and the J, K dependent parameters were carried out.

  6. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based chemometric methods for the simultaneous determination of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate in laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawakkol, Shereen M.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Hemdan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Three chemometric methods namely, concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS) and partial least squares (PLS) were applied for the simultaneous quantitative determination of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate in their binary mixtures. All techniques were applied with and without variable selection using genetic algorithm (GA) resulting in six models (CRACLS, GA-CRACLS, SRACLS, GA-SRACLS, PLS, GA-PLS). These models were applied for the simultaneous determination of the drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form via handling their UV spectral data. It was found that GA based models are simpler and more robust than those built with the full spectral data. The proposed models were found to be simple, fast and require no preliminary separation steps; so they can be used for the routine analysis of this binary mixture in quality control laboratories.

  7. In vivo visualization of connections among revised Papez circuit hubs using full q-space diffusion spectrum imaging tractography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng-Hu; Mao, Zhi-Qi; Cong, Fei; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Wang, Bo; Ling, Zhi-Pei; Liang, Shu-Li; Chen, Lin; Yu, Xin-Guang

    2017-08-15

    Structural connections among the hubs of the revised Papez circuit remain to be elucidated in the human brain. As the original Papez circuit failed to explain functional imaging findings, a more detailed investigation is needed to delineate connections among the circuit's key hubs. Here we acquired diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) from eight normal subjects and used data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to elucidate connections among hubs in the retrosplenial gyrus, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei. Our results show that the ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) was visualized in all eight individual DSI datasets, as well as in the DSI and HCP group datasets, but a strictly defined VHC was only visualized in one individual dataset. Thalamic fibers were observed to connect with both the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The RSC was mainly responsible for direct hippocampal connections, while the PCC was not. This indicates that the RSC and PCC represent separate functional hubs in humans, as also shown by previous primate axonal tracing studies and functional magnetic resonance imaging observations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Analysis and fit of the high-resolution spectrum of the Ã1A u- X˜1A g LIF spectrum of the two-equivalent-top molecule biacetyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen-Lin; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Ni, Chi-Kung; Ohashi, Nobukimi; Hougen, Jon T.

    2009-08-01

    The jet-cooled laser-induced visible fluorescence excitation spectrum of the Ã1A u (S 1)- X˜1A g ( S0) transition in biacetyl (CH 3sbnd C( dbnd O) sbnd C( dbnd O) sbnd CH 3) exhibits a long progression in the torsional vibrations of the two equivalent methyl tops in this molecule, whose structure has previously been described and qualitatively understood using local mode ideas applied to the two equivalent methyl rotor torsions together with the G36 symmetry species A1, A2, A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, E4, and G. In the present rotational analysis, we have assigned a G36 symmetry species, two local-mode torsional quantum numbers, and the usual three asymmetric rotor quantum numbers J KaKc to the upper and lower torsion-rotation levels involved in the observed transitions, relying heavily on comparison of quantum-beat patterns to determine transitions with a common upper state. These torsion-rotation transitions were then globally fit using a two-equivalent-top computer program, which was written in the principal axis system of the molecule and which uses a free-rotor basis set for each top, a symmetric-top basis set for the rotational functions, and a single-step diagonalization procedure. We can fit 411 lines involving 16 torsional sublevels from states with zero to three quanta of torsional excitation in the excited electronic state, using 24 parameters to obtain a standard deviation of 0.0045 cm -1, which is quite satisfactory, but inclusion in the fit of 440 transitions from all 17 rotationally assigned torsional levels increases the standard deviation by some 25%. The present fit gives a value of V3 = 238 cm -1 for the threefold barrier height in the excited electronic state, in reasonable agreement with earlier studies.

  9. [Ultrasonic study of deep-vein diameter and blood flow spectrum changes in full-term pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-wen; Chen, Cui-hua; Wang, Li-ping; Sun, Gui-qin; Su, Gui-dong; Song, Tian-rong; Li, Jing; Li, Ying-jia; Wang, Chen; Zhong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    To explore the changes in lower limb deep vein diameters, blood flow velocity and blood biochemistry in full-term pregnant women for early diagnosis and treatment of prothrombotic state. One hundred and twenty-eight full-term pregnant women at high risk of thrombosis (Group A), 61 healthy full-term pregnant women (Group B), and 42 healthy non-pregnant women (Group C) underwent high-resolution color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) for examining the deep veins of the lower limbs. The hematological indexes such as D-D, PLT, HGB, HCT, TT, APTT, PT, and FbgC were also observed in these 3 groups. Compared to Group B, the women in group A showed significantly increased diameters of the common femoral veins (CFV) and left superficial femoral vein (SFV), HCT and DD, but with significantly decreased peak blood flow in the bilateral popliteal veins (POPV) (P<0.01) and increased left POPV diameter (P=0.034). Compared to those in group C, the diameters of the bilateral CFVs, SFVs, POPV, and posterior tibial veins (PTVs) were significantly increased, but the peak blood flow in the bilateral CFVs and POPVs were significantly reduced in groups A and B; the PLT, HGB, HCT, DD, TT, APTT, PT, and FbgC also showed significant changes in groups A and B (P<0.01). The full-term pregnant women are at higher risk of prothrombotic state than non-pregnant women, and the full-term pregnant women with the high risk factors for thrombosis are more likely to have prothrombotic state than healthy full-term pregnant women. CDU examination of the lower limb deep veins can be of value in the diagnosis of prothrombotic state.

  10. Measurement of the w boson mass at the Collider Detector at Fermilab from a fit to the transverse momentum spectrum of the muon

    SciTech Connect

    Vollrath, Ian Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a measurement of the W boson mass from a fit to the transverse momentum spectrum of the muon in W decay. In past measurements this technique was used as a cross-check, however, now presents the best method in terms of systematic uncertainty. We discuss all sources of systematic uncertainty with emphasis on those to which the muon pT measurement is particularly sensitive, specifically, those associated with modeling the production and decay of W bosons. The data were collected with the CDF II detector between March 2002 and September 2003 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of (191 ± 11) pb-1. We measure the W mass to be (80.316 ± 0.066stat. ± 0.051syst.) GeV/c2 = (80.316 ± 0.083) GeV/c2.

  11. Half or full core hole in density functional theory X-ray absorption spectrum calculations of water?

    PubMed

    Cavalleri, Matteo; Odelius, Michael; Nordlund, Dennis; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2005-08-07

    We analyze the performance of two different core-hole potentials in the theoretical modeling of XAS of ice, liquid and gas phase water; the use of a full core-hole (FCH) in the calculations, as suggested by Hetenyi et al. [B. Hetenyi, F. De Angelis, P. Giamozzi and R. Car, J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 120(18), 8632], gives poor agreement with experiment in terms of intensity distribution as well as transition energies, while the half core hole (HCH) potential, in the case of water, provides a better compromise between initial and final state effects, leading to good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. WO3-x sensitized TiO2 spheres with full-spectrum-driven photocatalytic activities from UV to near infrared.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mei; Li, Guilian; Guo, Chongshen; Guo, Wei; Ding, DanDan; Zhang, Shouhao; Liu, Shaoqin

    2016-10-20

    To make full use of solar energy for photocatalytic reactions, in this work, we developed full-spectrum-responsive photocatalysts with noteworthy photocatalytic activities under either UV, visible or even near infrared irradiation for the photodegradation of methylene blue. The core-shell structure of TiO2@WO3-x is designed from the consideration of combining the full-spectrum photo-absorption properties of WO3-x with the excellent semiconductor properties of TiO2. As expected, the WO3-x sensitized TiO2 sphere gives rise to a prominently strong optical absorption in the whole region of 300-2500 nm and thus displays desired photocatalytic properties for the full utilization of all solar energy, especially in the unexploited NIR part, which accounts for most of the sunlight. Encouraged by the above exciting photocatalytic outcome, we then go further to propose a plausible mechanism for interpreting the NIR-driven photocatalytic properties, which is based on the hypothesis of low-valent W(5+) site induced free electrons and evidence-based ESR results.

  13. New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Full-Spectrum Polarized Lighting in a Mail Processing/Office Space

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2001-06-14

    An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of full-spectrum polarized lighting in a work space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual mail processing/office work area provided the capability of evaluating the technologies effectiveness in the real world.

  14. Full-Length Nucleotide Sequences of mcr-1-Harboring Plasmids Isolated from Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates of Different Origins

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Stephan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the full sequences of three mcr-1-carrying plasmids isolated from extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. The plasmids belong to three different replicon types and are 34,640 bp, 209,401 bp, and 247,885 bp in size. We describe for the first time a composite transposon containing mcr-1 localized on a multidrug-resistant (MDR) IncHI2 plasmid harboring additional determinants of resistance to six different classes of antibiotics, including the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and heavy metal resistance. PMID:27324774

  15. Full Spectrum Army Officer Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-22

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Colonel Ronda G. Urey Department of Military...Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Edwards, Jr. United States Army Colonel Ronda G. Urey Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in

  16. Training for Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-12

    Marshal Erwin Rommel observed that American Soldiers were initially inexperienced but learned and adapted quickly and well. Today’s Army is more...experienced than the one in North Africa during World War II; however, today’s complex operational environments require organizations and Soldiers able to

  17. Numerical analysis of interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection flow over a recess using the full-spectrum k-distribution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atashafrooz, M.; Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A.; Lari, K.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection in a laminar radiating gas flow over a recess including two backward and forward facing steps in a duct is investigated numerically. Distributions of absorption coefficients across the spectrum (50 cm-1 < η < 20,000 cm-1) are obtained from the HITRAN2008 database. The full-spectrum k-distribution method is used to account for non-gray radiation properties, while the gray radiation calculations are carried out using the Planck mean absorption coefficient. To find the divergence of radiative heat flux distribution, the radiative transfer equation is solved by the discrete ordinates method. The effects of radiation-conduction parameter, wall emissivity, scattering coefficient and recess length on heat transfer behaviors of the convection-radiation system are investigated for both gray and non-gray mediums. In addition, the results of gray medium are compared with non-gray results in order to judge if the differences between these two approaches are significant enough to justify the usage of non-gray models. Results show that for air mixture with 10 % CO2 and 20 % H2O, use of gray model for the radiative properties may cause significant errors and should be avoided.

  18. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants. A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases. A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171–11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365–27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors

  19. Full particle orbit tracing with the RIO code in the presence of broad-spectrum MHD activity in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Tsidulko, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In order to better understand the behaviour of both neutral beam injected and spontaneously generated fast ions in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch, we have developed the full orbit-following code random ion orbits (RIO). The low magnetic field and relatively large level of MHD activity present in MST require a full orbit code as the guiding centre assumptions are violated even for ions with modest energy. Furthermore, quasi-periodic bursts of MHD activity (sawteeth) generate large transient electric fields and significant modifications to the equilibrium magnetic fields. Understanding the full effect of these sawteeth on the spatial and velocity distribution of the fast ions is of great interest. To this end, RIO now has the ability to take the full 3D, time evolving, magnetic and electric fields produced by the visco-resistive MHD code DEBS as input. In static cases, where broad-spectrum magnetic perturbations from DEBS are input, but fixed in time, beam injected ions are found to be generally well confined with the core fast ion density profile largely unaffected by the magnetic modes while the fast ion density in the mid-radius is substantially reduced. In the dynamic case, the large amplitude magnetic fluctuations that occur at the sawtooth crash produce substantial fast ion loss. Those fast ions that are not lost are accelerated by a large, transient, parallel electric field in the co-current direction. This causes the average energy of the beam ions to increase by ˜20%, consistent with recent experimental measurements.

  20. Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Fitted with Hearing Aids Applying the American Academy of Audiology Pediatric Amplification Guideline: Current Practice and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elizabeth; McCreery, Ryan; Spratford, Meredith; Roush, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Up to 15% of children with permanent hearing loss (HL) have auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which involves normal outer hair cell function and disordered afferent neural activity in the auditory nerve or brainstem. Given the varying presentations of ANSD in children, there is a need for more evidence-based research on appropriate clinical interventions for this population. This study compared the speech production, speech perception, and language outcomes of children with ANSD, who are hard of hearing, to children with similar degrees of mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), all of whom were fitted with bilateral hearing aids (HAs) based on the American Academy of Audiology pediatric amplification guidelines. Speech perception and communication outcomes data were gathered in a prospective accelerated longitudinal design, with entry into the study between six mo and seven yr of age. Three sites were involved in participant recruitment: Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Iowa. The sample consisted of 12 children with ANSD and 22 children with SNHL. The groups were matched based on better-ear pure-tone average, better-ear aided speech intelligibility index, gender, maternal education level, and newborn hearing screening result (i.e., pass or refer). Children and their families participated in an initial baseline visit, followed by visits twice a year for children <2 yr of age and once a yr for children >2 yr of age. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare children with ANSD to children with SNHL. Paired t-tests indicated no significant differences between the ANSD and SNHL groups on language and articulation measures. Children with ANSD displayed functional speech perception skills in quiet. Although the number of participants was too small to conduct statistical analyses for speech perception testing, there appeared to be a trend in which the ANSD group

  1. Best Fit for 'Bounce'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The mineralogy of 'Bounce' rock was determined by fitting spectra from a library of laboratory minerals to the spectrum of Bounce taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The minerals that give the best fit include pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine -- minerals commonly found in basaltic volcanic rocks -- and typical martian dust produced by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

  2. Effects of Door-to-Balloon Times on Outcomes in Taiwanese Patients Receiving Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Report of Taiwan Acute Coronary Syndrome Full Spectrum Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Liao, Pen-Chih; Wu, Chia-Tung; Lai, Wen-Ter; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Chang, Shu-Chen; Mar, Guang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The impact of door-to-balloon (DTB) time on patient outcomes is unclear in a Taiwanese population receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between stratified DTB times and outcomes through analysis of the database from the Taiwan acute coronary syndrome full spectrum registry. Methods Relevant data were collected from case report forms of patients receiving primary PCI who were categorized as group 1, 2, 3, and 4 according to the DTB time < 45, 45-90, 91-135, and > 135 minutes, respectively. The differences were analyzed by using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results There were significant variations in DTB times at baseline, which included patients salvaged at centers, patients with prior cardiovascular disease, and those patients with different coronary artery flows (p < 0.01) separated into 4 groups (n = 189, 443, 299, and 401, respectively). The in-hospital adverse event rates were identical among the 4 groups except for a higher rate of acute renal failure and a longer hospital stay observed in group 4 (p < 0.01). The results showed no decrease in the incidences of repeated revascularization, major adverse cardiac event, or cardiovascular composite at 1 year in group 1. Conclusions This study suggested that the DTB time is not a good determinant for outcomes in Taiwanese patients receiving primary PCI. PMID:27122873

  3. Titanium Dioxide/Upconversion Nanoparticles/Cadmium Sulfide Nanofibers Enable Enhanced Full-Spectrum Absorption for Superior Solar Light Driven Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Wan-Ni; Cong, Huai-Ping; Qian, Hai-Sheng

    2016-06-22

    In this work, we demonstrate an electrospinning technique to fabricate TiO2 /upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)/CdS nanofibers on large scale. In addition, the as-prepared TiO2 nanofibers are incorporated with a high population of UCNPs and CdS nanospheres; this results in Förster resonance energy-transfer configurations of the UCNPs, TiO2 , and CdS nanospheres that are in close proximity. Hence, strong fluorescent emissions for the Tm(3+) ions including the (1) G4 →(3) H6 transition are efficiently transferred to TiO2 and the CdS nanoparticles through an energy-transfer process. The as-prepared TiO2 /UCNPs/CdS nanofibers exhibit full-spectrum solar-energy absorption and enable the efficient degradation of organic dyes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the UCNPs and TiO2 (or CdS). The UCNPs/TiO2 /CdS nanofibers may also have enhanced energy-transfer efficiency for wide applications in solar cells, bioimaging, photodynamics, and chemotherapy.

  4. Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Symptom Flares: Characterization of the Full Spectrum of Flares at Two Sites of the Mapp Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A.; Goodman, Melody S.; Pakpahan, Ratna; Vetter, Joel; Ness, Timothy J.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Lai, H. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the full spectrum of symptom exacerbations defined by interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients as flares, and to investigate their associated health-care utilization and bother at two sites of the Trans-Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (Trans-MAPP) Epidemiology and Phenotyping study. Patients and methods Participants completed a flare survey that asked them: 1) whether they had ever had flares (“symptoms that are much worse than usual”) that lasted <1 hr, >1 hr and <1 day, and >1 day; and 2) for each duration of flare, to report their: a) average length and frequency; b) typical levels of urologic and pelvic pain symptoms; and c) levels of health-care utilization and bother. We compared participants' responses to their non-flare Trans-MAPP values and across flares using generalized linear mixed models. Results Seventy six of 85 participants (89.4%) completed the flare survey, 72 of whom reported having flares (94.7%). Flares varied widely in terms of their duration (seconds to months), frequency (several times per day to once per year or less), and intensity and type of symptoms (e.g., pelvic pain versus urologic symptoms). Flares of all duration were associated with greater pelvic pain, urologic symptoms, disruption to participants' activities, and bother, with increasing severity of each of these factors as the duration of flares increased. Days-long flares were also associated with greater health-care utilization. In addition to duration, symptoms (pelvic pain, in particular) were also significant determinants of flare-related bother. Conclusions Our findings suggest that flares are common and associated with greater symptoms, health-care utilization, disruption, and bother. Our findings also inform the characteristics of flares most bothersome to patients (i.e., increased pelvic pain and duration), and thus of greatest importance to

  5. Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides rb1 and rg1 to be proposed as standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Woung; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Da-Hye; Her, Youl; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2011-11-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for Rb1 and 0.485% for Rg1, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

  6. Power spectrum analysis with least-squares fitting: Amplitude bias and its elimination, with application to optical tweezers and atomic force microscope cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrelykke, Simon F.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    Optical tweezers and atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers are often calibrated by fitting their experimental power spectra of Brownian motion. We demonstrate here that if this is done with typical weighted least-squares methods, the result is a bias of relative size between -2/n and +1/n on the value of the fitted diffusion coefficient. Here, n is the number of power spectra averaged over, so typical calibrations contain 10%-20% bias. Both the sign and the size of the bias depend on the weighting scheme applied. Hence, so do length-scale calibrations based on the diffusion coefficient. The fitted value for the characteristic frequency is not affected by this bias. For the AFM then, force measurements are not affected provided an independent length-scale calibration is available. For optical tweezers there is no such luck, since the spring constant is found as the ratio of the characteristic frequency and the diffusion coefficient. We give analytical results for the weight-dependent bias for the wide class of systems whose dynamics is described by a linear (integro)differential equation with additive noise, white or colored. Examples are optical tweezers with hydrodynamic self-interaction and aliasing, calibration of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models in finance, models for cell migration in biology, etc. Because the bias takes the form of a simple multiplicative factor on the fitted amplitude (e.g. the diffusion coefficient), it is straightforward to remove and the user will need minimal modifications to his or her favorite least-squares fitting programs. Results are demonstrated and illustrated using synthetic data, so we can compare fits with known true values. We also fit some commonly occurring power spectra once-and-for-all in the sense that we give their parameter values and associated error bars as explicit functions of experimental power-spectral values.

  7. Power spectrum analysis with least-squares fitting: amplitude bias and its elimination, with application to optical tweezers and atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    Optical tweezers and atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers are often calibrated by fitting their experimental power spectra of Brownian motion. We demonstrate here that if this is done with typical weighted least-squares methods, the result is a bias of relative size between -2/n and +1/n on the value of the fitted diffusion coefficient. Here, n is the number of power spectra averaged over, so typical calibrations contain 10%-20% bias. Both the sign and the size of the bias depend on the weighting scheme applied. Hence, so do length-scale calibrations based on the diffusion coefficient. The fitted value for the characteristic frequency is not affected by this bias. For the AFM then, force measurements are not affected provided an independent length-scale calibration is available. For optical tweezers there is no such luck, since the spring constant is found as the ratio of the characteristic frequency and the diffusion coefficient. We give analytical results for the weight-dependent bias for the wide class of systems whose dynamics is described by a linear (integro)differential equation with additive noise, white or colored. Examples are optical tweezers with hydrodynamic self-interaction and aliasing, calibration of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models in finance, models for cell migration in biology, etc. Because the bias takes the form of a simple multiplicative factor on the fitted amplitude (e.g. the diffusion coefficient), it is straightforward to remove and the user will need minimal modifications to his or her favorite least-squares fitting programs. Results are demonstrated and illustrated using synthetic data, so we can compare fits with known true values. We also fit some commonly occurring power spectra once-and-for-all in the sense that we give their parameter values and associated error bars as explicit functions of experimental power-spectral values.

  8. Oxygen vacancy induced Bi2WO6 for the realization of photocatalytic CO2 reduction over the full solar spectrum: from the UV to the NIR region.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin Ying; Choo, Yen Yee; Chai, Siang-Piao; Soh, Ai Kah; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2016-12-06

    Photocatalytic CO2 reduction over the UV-Vis-NIR broad spectrum was realized for the first time. The presence of surface oxygen vacancy defects on Bi2WO6 resulted in significant photocatalytic enhancement over the pristine counterpart under UV and visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic responsiveness of Bi2WO6-OV was successfully extended to the NIR region.

  9. Exact relativistic kinetic theory of the full unstable spectrum of an electron-beam-plasma system with Maxwell-Juettner distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bret, A.; Gremillet, L.; Benisti, D.

    2010-03-15

    Following a recent Letter by Bret et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 205008 (2008)], we present a detailed report of the entire unstable k spectrum of a relativistic collisionless beam-plasma system within a fully kinetic framework. In contrast to a number of previously published studies, our linear analysis makes use of smooth momentum distribution functions of the Maxwell-Juettner form. The three competing classes of instabilities, namely, two-stream, filamentation, and oblique modes, are dealt with in a unified manner, no approximation being made regarding the beam-plasma densities, temperatures, and drift energies. We investigate the hierarchy between the competing modes, paying particular attention to the relatively poorly known quasielectrostatic oblique modes in the regime where they govern the system. The properties of the fastest growing oblique modes are examined in terms of the system parameters and compared to those of the dominant two-stream and filamentation modes.

  10. Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Plasmids Does Not Reduce Fitness but Enhances Virulence in Some Strains of Pandemic E. coli Lineages.

    PubMed

    Schaufler, Katharina; Semmler, Torsten; Pickard, Derek J; de Toro, María; de la Cruz, Fernando; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa; Guenther, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages occur frequently worldwide, not only in a human health context but in animals and the environment, also in settings with low antimicrobial pressures. This study investigated the fitness costs of ESBL-plasmids and their influence on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence, such as those involved in the planktonic and sessile behaviors of ST131 and ST648 E. coli. ESBL-plasmid-carrying wild-type E. coli strains, their corresponding ESBL-plasmid-"cured" variants (PCV), and complementary ESBL-carrying transformants were comparatively analyzed using growth curves, Omnilog® phenotype microarray (PM) assays, macrocolony and biofilm formation, swimming motility, and RNA sequence analysis. Growth curves and PM results pointed toward similar growth and metabolic behaviors among the strains. Phenotypic differences in some strains were detected, including enhanced curli fimbriae and/or cellulose production as well as a reduced swimming capacity of some ESBL-carrying strains, as compared to their respective PCVs. RNA sequencing mostly confirmed the phenotypic results, suggesting that the chromosomally encoded csgD pathway is a key factor involved. These results contradict the hypothesis that ESBL-plasmid-carriage leads to a fitness loss in ESBL-carrying strains. Instead, the results indicate an influence of some ESBL-plasmids on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence in some E. coli strains. In conclusion, apart from antibiotic resistance selective advantages, ESBL-plasmid-carriage may also lead to enhanced virulence or adaption to specific habitats in some strains of pandemic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages.

  11. Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Plasmids Does Not Reduce Fitness but Enhances Virulence in Some Strains of Pandemic E. coli Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Schaufler, Katharina; Semmler, Torsten; Pickard, Derek J.; de Toro, María; de la Cruz, Fernando; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa; Guenther, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages occur frequently worldwide, not only in a human health context but in animals and the environment, also in settings with low antimicrobial pressures. This study investigated the fitness costs of ESBL-plasmids and their influence on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence, such as those involved in the planktonic and sessile behaviors of ST131 and ST648 E. coli. ESBL-plasmid-carrying wild-type E. coli strains, their corresponding ESBL-plasmid-“cured” variants (PCV), and complementary ESBL-carrying transformants were comparatively analyzed using growth curves, Omnilog® phenotype microarray (PM) assays, macrocolony and biofilm formation, swimming motility, and RNA sequence analysis. Growth curves and PM results pointed toward similar growth and metabolic behaviors among the strains. Phenotypic differences in some strains were detected, including enhanced curli fimbriae and/or cellulose production as well as a reduced swimming capacity of some ESBL-carrying strains, as compared to their respective PCVs. RNA sequencing mostly confirmed the phenotypic results, suggesting that the chromosomally encoded csgD pathway is a key factor involved. These results contradict the hypothesis that ESBL-plasmid-carriage leads to a fitness loss in ESBL-carrying strains. Instead, the results indicate an influence of some ESBL-plasmids on chromosomally encoded features associated with virulence in some E. coli strains. In conclusion, apart from antibiotic resistance selective advantages, ESBL-plasmid-carriage may also lead to enhanced virulence or adaption to specific habitats in some strains of pandemic ESBL-producing E. coli lineages. PMID:27014251

  12. Fitness cost associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones is diverse across clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae and may select for CTX-M-15 type extended-spectrum β-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Tóth, A; Kocsis, B; Damjanova, I; Kristóf, K; Jánvári, L; Pászti, J; Csercsik, R; Topf, J; Szabó, D; Hamar, P; Nagy, K; Füzi, M

    2014-05-01

    Lowered fitness cost associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones was recently demonstrated to influence the clonal dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the health care setting. We investigated whether or not a similar mechanism impacts Klebsiella pneumoniae. The fitness of K. pneumoniae isolates from major international hospital clones (ST11, ST15, ST147) already showing high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones and of strains from three minor clones (ST25, ST274, ST1028) in which fluoroquinolone resistance was induced in vitro was tested in a propagation assay. Strains from major clones showed significantly less fitness cost than three of four fluoroquinolone-resistant derivatives of minor clone isolates. In addition, plasmids with CTX-M-15 type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were all retained in both major and minor clone isolates, irrespective of the strains' level of fluoroquinolone resistance, while each plasmid harboring SHV-type ESBLs had been lost during the induction of resistance. Major clone K. pneumoniae strains harbored more amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA and parC genes than minor clone isolates. The presence of an active efflux system could be demonstrated in all fluoroquinolone-resistant derivatives of originally SHV-producing minor clone isolates but not in any CTX-M-15-producing strain. Further investigations are needed to expand and confirm our findings on a larger sample. In addition, a long-term observation of our ciprofloxacin-resistant minor clone isolates is required in order to elucidate whether or not they are capable of restoring their fitness while concomitantly retaining high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.

  13. The sex ratio of full and half siblings of people diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder: a Danish Nationwide Register Study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2014-10-01

    In the extreme male brain theory of autism sex steroid hormones are hypothesized to influence brain development and to mediate sex differences in developmental psychopathology. Within this scope we examined the sex ratio (proportion of males) in siblings of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We did a nationwide, register based cohort study of the sex ratio in 17,380 siblings of the 10,297 patients diagnosed with ASD at age 17 years and younger and registered in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register between 1994 and 2012. Among the 17,380 siblings 8,828 were males and 8,552 females. This yields a sex ratio of 0.508, which is not different from the Danish live birth sex ratio of 0.513 during the relevant years (P = 0.18). Overall, our findings provide no support for the hypothesis that there are relatively more males among the siblings of people with ASD. Accordingly, our results do not give support to the extreme male brain theory of autism.

  14. The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve

    2016-03-01

    A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum.

  15. Prompt spectrum of GRB 021206 supports the Cannonball Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigger, Claudia; Wigger, Othmar; Bellm, Eric; Hajdas, Wojtek

    2008-05-01

    GRB 021206 is one of the brightest GRBs ever observed. Its prompt emission, as measured by RHESSI, shows an unexpected spectral hardening around 5 MeV. Below this energy, the spectrum is well described by a Band function with a peak energy of about 700 keV. However, using the full RHESSI energy range up to 17 MeV, the spectrum can not be fitted with a Band function. The Cannonball Model on the other hand predicts such a spectral hardening, and we found that it fits the spectrum of GRB 021206 perfectly.

  16. Prompt spectrum of GRB 021206 supports the Cannonball Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wigger, Claudia; Wigger, Othmar; Bellm, Eric; Hajdas, Wojtek

    2008-05-22

    GRB 021206 is one of the brightest GRBs ever observed. Its prompt emission, as measured by RHESSI, shows an unexpected spectral hardening around 5 MeV. Below this energy, the spectrum is well described by a Band function with a peak energy of about 700 keV. However, using the full RHESSI energy range up to 17 MeV, the spectrum can not be fitted with a Band function. The Cannonball Model on the other hand predicts such a spectral hardening, and we found that it fits the spectrum of GRB 021206 perfectly.

  17. Fringe Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, W. D.

    Fringe Fitting Theory; Correlator Model Delay Errors; Fringe Fitting Techniques; Baseline; Baseline with Closure Constraints; Global; Solution Interval; Calibration Sources; Source Structure; Phase Referencing; Multi-band Data; Phase-Cals; Multi- vs. Single-band Delay; Sidebands; Filtering; Establishing a Common Reference Antenna; Smoothing and Interpolating Solutions; Bandwidth Synthesis; Weights; Polarization; Fringe Fitting Practice; Phase Slopes in Time and Frequency; Phase-Cals; Sidebands; Delay and Rate Fits; Signal-to-Noise Ratios; Delay and Rate Windows; Details of Global Fringe Fitting; Multi- and Single-band Delays; Phase-Cal Errors; Calibrator Sources; Solution Interval; Weights; Source Model; Suggested Procedure; Bandwidth Synthesis

  18. Assessment of electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) parameters of YAG:Ce3 +, TAG:Ce3 + and LuAG:Ce3 + garnet phosphors by spectrum fitting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Govind B.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    The electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) in 4f ↔ 5d optical transitions of Ce3 + ions in YAG, TAG and LuAG garnet phosphors have been analysed in this work. The main EVI parameters that have been estimated and reported here are Huang-Rhys factor, effective phonon energy, Stokes shift, red shift and Zero-phonon line position. The EVI parameters were estimated from the room temperature photoluminescence results that were recently reported. The spectrum fitting method was employed to determine the EVI parameters. An emission band was modelled with the aid of the calculated EVI parameters. The agreement between the modelled emission bands with the experimentally obtained ones validated the estimated values of EVI parameters.

  19. The fungal symbiont of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants expresses the full spectrum of genes to degrade cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Grell, Morten N; Linde, Tore; Nygaard, Sanne; Nielsen, Kåre L; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Lange, Lene

    2013-12-28

    The fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants are natural biomass conversion systems that turn fresh plant forage into fungal biomass to feed the farming ants. However, the decomposition potential of the symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus for processing polysaccharides has remained controversial. We therefore used quantifiable DeepSAGE technology to obtain mRNA expression patterns of genes coding for secreted enzymes from top, middle, and bottom sections of a laboratory fungus-garden of Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. A broad spectrum of biomass-conversion-relevant enzyme genes was found to be expressed in situ: cellulases (GH3, GH5, GH6, GH7, AA9 [formerly GH61]), hemicellulases (GH5, GH10, CE1, GH12, GH74), pectinolytic enzymes (CE8, GH28, GH43, PL1, PL3, PL4), glucoamylase (GH15), α-galactosidase (GH27), and various cutinases, esterases, and lipases. In general, expression of these genes reached maximal values in the bottom section of the garden, particularly for an AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and for a GH5 (endocellulase), a GH7 (reducing end-acting cellobiohydrolase), and a GH10 (xylanase), all containing a carbohydrate binding module that specifically binds cellulose (CBM1). Although we did not directly quantify enzyme abundance, the profile of expressed cellulase genes indicates that both hydrolytic and oxidative degradation is taking place. The fungal symbiont of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants can degrade a large range of plant polymers, but the conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose, and part of the pectin occurs primarily towards the end of the decomposition process, i.e. in the bottom section of the fungus garden. These conversions are likely to provide nutrients for the fungus itself rather than for the ants, whose colony growth and reproductive success are limited by proteins obtained from ingesting fungal gongylidia. These specialized hyphal tips are hardly produced in the bottom section of fungus gardens, consistent with the ants

  20. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-07-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15-30 labels simultaneously.

  1. Gauging the Fullness of our Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    157 Louis Caldera and Dennis J. Reimer. A Statement on the Posture of the United States Army, Fiscal Year 2000. (Presented to the...the article General Shinseki penned with Secretary of the Army Louis Caldera in mid-2000 and the intellectual foundations for FM 3-0 are evident...Shinseki and Caldera addressed the need for Army leaders “to attain the mental and physical agility operationally to move forces from stability and

  2. Using the full IASI spectrum for the physical retrieval of temperature, H2O, HDO, O3, minor and trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, C.; Blasi, M. G.; Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Venafra, S.

    2017-02-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer) is flying on the European MetOp series of weather satellites. Besides acquiring temperature and humidity data, IASI also observes the infrared emission of the main minor and trace atmospheric components with high precision. The retrieval of these gases would be highly beneficial to the efforts of scientists monitoring Earths climate. IASI retrieval capability and algorithms have been mostly driven by Numerical Weather Prediction centers, whose limited resources for data transmission and computing is hampering the full exploitation of IASI information content. The quest for real or nearly real time processing has affected the precision of the estimation of minor and trace gases, which are normally retrieved on a very coarse spatial grid. The paper presents the very first retrieval of the complete suite of IASI target parameters by exploiting all its 8461 channels. The analysis has been exemplified for sea surface and the target parameters will include sea surface temperature, temperature profile, water vapour and HDO profiles, ozone profile, total column amount of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, HNO3, NH3, OCS and CF4. Concerning CO2, CH4 and N2O, it will be shown that their colum amount can be obtained for each single IASI IFOV (Instantaneous Field of View) with a precision better than 1-2%, which opens the possibility to analyze, e.g., the formation of regional patterns of greenhouse gases. To assess the quality of the retrieval, a case study has been set up which considers two years of IASI soundings over the Hawaii, Manua Loa validation station.

  3. Full Spectrum Education for Full Spectrum Operations: Educating the Army’s Junior Captains for Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    phenomenon for the Army. The Army has been the USG ’ s primary stability force since the Civil War. However, the leadership of the Army has James 6 never...advanced degree from a civilian university. The first way is through the highly selective and extremely limited Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) internship

  4. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants.A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases.A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171-11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365-27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors for stage II NEC progressing to

  5. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Kapoor, Jyoti; Anishetty, Sridhar

    2012-07-01

    Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45), a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. t-test, Mann-Whitney test. The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006) in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The findings of this study suggest that a high

  6. A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, K.; Kapoor, Jyoti; Anishetty, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45), a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006) in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the groups. No serious

  7. Sports Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety ... fitness activities in your program. Research shows that cross training builds stronger bones. Remember to listen to ...

  8. Preliminary Rotary Wing Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    6.2.1 Injury Risk Due to Occupant Loads Cervical forces and moments are to be used to evaluate injury to the head/neck, torso acceleration is used to...injury) for dynamic neck tension (lifting forces) at the occipital condyles (C0-C1, upper neck) and cervical vertebrae (C7-T1, lower neck) are defined...Neck Compression and Shear Force Limits The maximum acceptable cervical compression and shear force limits are defined in the following table

  9. Full Spectrum Operations: A Running Start

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    destroying vegetative bacteria and viruses; however protozoa entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia , and cryptosporidium parvum are resistant to it. If they...include Giardia , cyst or trophozite; cryptosporidium, an oocyst, and various amoebae. Removing parasites is a matter of filtration to one micron (1

  10. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water-dimer III: Mixed Jacobi-valence parametrization and benchmark results for the zero point energy, vibrationally excited states, and infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-06-01

    Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H5O2+ cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D2d symmetry, instead of the G16 symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.

  11. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water-dimer III: Mixed Jacobi-valence parametrization and benchmark results for the zero point energy, vibrationally excited states, and infrared spectrum.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-06-21

    Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H(5)O(2)(+) cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D(2d) symmetry, instead of the G(16) symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.

  12. [Study on the method for the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current arc full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES)].

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhi-hong; Yao, Jian-zhen; Tang, Rui-ling; Zhang, Xue-mei; Li, Wen-ge; Zhang, Qin

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determmation of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES) was established. Direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectrometer with a large area of solid-state detectors has functions of full spectrum direct reading and real-time background correction. The new electrodes and new buffer recipe were proposed in this paper, and have applied for national patent. Suitable analytical line pairs, back ground correcting points of elements and the internal standard method were selected, and Ge was used as internal standard. Multistage currents were selected in the research on current program, and each current set different holding time to ensure that each element has a good signal to noise ratio. Continuous rising current mode selected can effectively eliminate the splash of the sample. Argon as shielding gas can eliminate CN band generating and reduce spectral background, also plays a role in stabilizing the are, and argon flow 3.5 L x min(-1) was selected. Evaporation curve of each element was made, and it was concluded that the evaporation behavior of each element is consistent, and combined with the effects of different spectrographic times on the intensity and background, the spectrographic time of 35s was selected. In this paper, national standards substances were selected as a standard series, and the standard series includes different nature and different content of standard substances which meet the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples. In the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 1.1, 0.09, 0.01, 0.41, and 0.56 microg x g(-1) respectively, and the precisions (RSD, n=12) for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 4.57%-7.63%, 5.14%-7.75%, 5.48%-12.30%, 3.97%-10.46%, and 4.26%-9.21% respectively. The analytical accuracy was

  13. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  14. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  15. Darwinian fitness.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Ziehe, Martin

    2007-11-01

    The term Darwinian fitness refers to the capacity of a variant type to invade and displace the resident population in competition for available resources. Classical models of this dynamical process claim that competitive outcome is a deterministic event which is regulated by the population growth rate, called the Malthusian parameter. Recent analytic studies of the dynamics of competition in terms of diffusion processes show that growth rate predicts invasion success only in populations of infinite size. In populations of finite size, competitive outcome is a stochastic process--contingent on resource constraints--which is determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state condition after a random perturbation in the individual birth and death rates. This return rate, a measure of robustness or population stability, is analytically characterized by the demographic parameter, evolutionary entropy, a measure of the uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn. This article appeals to computational and numerical methods to contrast the predictive power of the Malthusian and the entropic principles. The computational analysis rejects the Malthusian model and is consistent with of the entropic principle. These studies thus provide support for the general claim that entropy is the appropriate measure of Darwinian fitness and constitutes an evolutionary parameter with broad predictive and explanatory powers.

  16. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: Method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.

    2014-01-14

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ∼30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH(X{sup ~1}A{sup ′}) + hv → C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH(A{sup ~1}A{sup ′}, B{sup ~1}A{sup ′′}) → C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O(X{sup ~2}B{sub 1}, A{sup ~2}B{sub 2}) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,3{sup 1}A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  17. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R

    2014-01-14

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ∼30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C6H5OH(X̃(1)A(')) + hv → C6H5OH(Ã(1)A('), B̃(1)A('')) → C6H5O(X̃(2)B1, Ã(2)B2) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,3(1)A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  18. Fitting coupled potential energy surfaces for large systems: Method and construction of a 3-state representation for phenol photodissociation in the full 33 internal degrees of freedom using multireference configuration interaction determined data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R.

    2014-01-01

    A recently reported algorithm for representing adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections using a quasi-diabatic state Hamiltonian in four and five atom systems is extended to treat nonadiabatic processes in considerably larger molecules. The method treats all internal degrees of freedom and uses electronic structure data from ab initio multireference configuration interaction wave functions with nuclear configuration selection based on quasi-classical surface hopping trajectories. The method is shown here to be able to treat ˜30 internal degrees of freedom including dissociative and large amplitude internal motion. Two procedures are introduced which are essential to the algorithm, a null space projector which removes basis functions from the fitting process until they are needed and a partial diagonalization technique which allows for automated, but accurate, treatment of the vicinity of extended seams of conical intersections of two or more states. These procedures are described in detail. The method is illustrated using the photodissociaton of phenol, C6H5OH({tilde X}{}1 A^' ) + hv → C6H5OH(tilde A{}1 A^', {tilde B}{}^1{A^' ' }) → C6H5O({tilde X}{}^2B_1, {tilde A}{}^2B_2) + H as a test case. Ab initio electronic structure data for the 1,2,31A states of phenol, which are coupled by conical intersections, are obtained from multireference first order configuration interaction wave functions. The design of bases to simultaneously treat large amplitude motion and dissociation is described, as is the ability of the fitting procedure to smooth the irregularities in the electronic energies attributable to the orbital changes that are inherent to nonadiabatic processes.

  19. Coloring the FITS Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

  20. Rules, culture, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

  1. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  2. YScSi4N6C:Ce(3+)-A Broad Cyan-Emitting Phosphor To Weaken the Cyan Cavity in Full-Spectrum White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunpei; Liu, Zhanning; Zhuang, Weidong; Liu, Ronghui; Xing, Xianran; Liu, Yuanhong; Chen, Guantong; Li, Yanfeng; Ma, Xiaole

    2017-09-18

    On the basis of a rough rule of thumb that the difference in ionic radius for the interstitial cationic pair may affect the structure of some nitride and carbonitride compounds, a novel carbonitride phosphor, YScSi4N6C:Ce(3+), was successfully designed. The crystal structure (space group P63mc (No. 186), a = b = 5.9109(8) Å, c = 9.67701(9) Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°) was characterized by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction and further confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and refined with Rietveld methods. Ce(3+)-doped YScSi4N6C shows a broad excitation band ranging from 280 to 425 nm and a broad cyan emission band peaking at about 469 nm upon excitation by near-UV light (400 nm). The mechanism of thermal quenching for this phosphor was also investigated. In addition, a white light-emitting diode (w-LED) was prepared by coating a near-UV chip (λem = 405 nm) with YScSi4N6C:Ce(3+), β-sialon:Eu(2+) (green), and CaAlSiN3:Eu(2+) (red) phosphors. It emitted a well-distributed warm white light with high color rendering index (CRI) of 94.7 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4159 K. The special color rendering index R12 of the obtained white light was as high as 88. All of the results indicate that this novel phosphor can compensate for the cyan cavity and has potential applications in the full-spectrum lighting field.

  3. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  4. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  5. The Goodness of Simultaneous Fits in ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Matthias; Falkner, Sebastian; Grossberger, Christoph; Ballhausen, Ralf; Dauser, Thomas; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E.; Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Torrejón, José Miguel; Fürst, Felix; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Kretschmar, Peter; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-02-01

    In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008-57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  6. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conference News Contact Us Donate The Zellweger Spectrum Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and Infantile Refsum’s ... of severity of disease. What causes the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? As we mentioned, disorders of the ...

  7. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  8. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  9. A Battery Test to Evaluate Life-Time Physical Fitness With Same Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshizuka, Tetsuo

    A combination of physical fitness tests designed to be administered to a wide spectrum of the population, male and female, children and adults, is described. Three tests are included in this battery--motor fitness, physical fitness, and sports fitness. The philosophy behind this test structure is that motor fitness tests only measure and indicate…

  10. Primordial power spectrum: a complete analysis with the WMAP nine-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2013-07-01

    We have improved further the error sensitive Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm making it applicable directly on the un-binned measured angular power spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background observations to reconstruct the form of the primordial power spectrum. This improvement makes the application of the method significantly more straight forward by removing some intermediate stages of analysis allowing a reconstruction of the primordial spectrum with higher efficiency and precision and with lower computational expenses. Applying the modified algorithm we fit the WMAP 9 year data using the optimized reconstructed form of the primordial spectrum with more than 300 improvement in χ{sup 2}{sub eff} with respect to the best fit power-law. This is clearly beyond the reach of other alternative approaches and reflects the efficiency of the proposed method in the reconstruction process and allow us to look for any possible feature in the primordial spectrum projected in the CMB data. Though the proposed method allow us to look at various possibilities for the form of the primordial spectrum, all having good fit to the data, proper error-analysis is needed to test for consistency of theoretical models since, along with possible physical artefacts, most of the features in the reconstructed spectrum might be arising from fitting noises in the CMB data. Reconstructed error-band for the form of the primordial spectrum using many realizations of the data, all bootstrapped and based on WMAP 9 year data, shows proper consistency of power-law form of the primordial spectrum with the WMAP 9 data at all wave numbers. Including WMAP polarization data in to the analysis have not improved much our results due to its low quality but we expect Planck data will allow us to make a full analysis on CMB observations on both temperature and polarization separately and in combination.

  11. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  12. A Pretty Good Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    We often look for a best-fit function to a set of data. This article describes how a "pretty good" fit might be better than a "best" fit when it comes to promoting conceptual understanding of functions. In a pretty good fit, students design the function themselves rather than choosing it from a menu; they use appropriate variable names; and they…

  13. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  14. Atmospheric Properties Of T Dwarfs Inferred From Model Fits At Low Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorla Godfrey, Paige A.; Rice, Emily L.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Douglas, Stephanie E.

    2016-09-01

    Brown dwarf spectral types (M, L, T, Y) correlate with spectral morphology, and generally appear to correspond with decreasing mass and effective temperature (Teff). Model fits to observed spectra suggest, however, that spectral subclasses do not share this monotonic temperature correlation, indicating that secondary parameters (gravity, metallicity, dust) significantly influence spectral morphology. We seekto disentangle the fundamental parameters that underlie the spectral type sequence of the coolest fully populated spectral class of brown dwarfs using atmosphere models. We investigate the relationship between spectral type and best fit model parameters for a sample of over 150 T dwarfs with low resolution (R 75-100) near-infrared ( 0.8-2.5 micron) SpeX Prism spectra. We use synthetic spectra from four model grids (Saumon & Marley 2008, Morley+ 2012, Saumon+ 2012, BT Settl 2013) and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis to determine robust best fit parameters and their uncertainties. We compare the consistency of each model grid by performing our analysis on the full spectrum and also on individual wavelength bands (Y,J,H,K). We find more consistent results between the J band and full spectrum fits and that our best fit spectral type-Teff results agree with the polynomial relationships of Stephens+2009 and Filippazzo+ 2015 using bolometric luminosities. Our analysis consists of the most extensive low resolution T dwarf model comparison to date, and lays the foundation for interpretation of cool brown dwarf and exoplanet spectra.

  15. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  16. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  17. Inter-trial coherence as a marker of cortical phase synchrony in children with sensorineural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nash-Kille, Amy; Sharma, Anu

    2014-07-01

    Although brainstem dys-synchrony is a hallmark of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), little is known about how the lack of neural synchrony manifests at more central levels. We used time-frequency single-trial EEG analyses (i.e., inter-trial coherence; ITC), to examine cortical phase synchrony in children with normal hearing (NH), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and ANSD. Single trial time-frequency analyses were performed on cortical auditory evoked responses from 41 NH children, 91 children with ANSD and 50 children with SNHL. The latter two groups included children who received intervention via hearing aids and cochlear implants. ITC measures were compared between groups as a function of hearing loss, intervention type, and cortical maturational status. In children with SNHL, ITC decreased as severity of hearing loss increased. Children with ANSD revealed lower levels of ITC relative to children with NH or SNHL, regardless of intervention. Children with ANSD who received cochlear implants showed significant improvements in ITC with increasing experience with their implants. Cortical phase coherence is significantly reduced as a result of both severe-to-profound SNHL and ANSD. ITC provides a window into the brain oscillations underlying the averaged cortical auditory evoked response. Our results provide a first description of deficits in cortical phase synchrony in children with SNHL and ANSD. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inter-trial coherence as a marker of cortical phase synchrony in children with sensorineural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nash-Kille, Amy; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although brainstem dys-synchrony is a hallmark of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), little is known about how the lack of neural synchrony manifests at more central levels. We used time-frequency single-trial EEG analyses (i.e., inter-trial coherence; ITC), to examine cortical phase synchrony in children with normal hearing (NH), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and ANSD. Methods Single trial time-frequency analyses were performed on cortical auditory evoked responses from 41 NH children, 91 children with ANSD and 50 children with SNHL. The latter two groups included children who received intervention via hearing aids and cochlear implants. ITC measures were compared between groups as a function of hearing loss, intervention type, and cortical maturational status. Results In children with SNHL, ITC decreased as severity of hearing loss increased. Children with ANSD revealed lower levels of ITC relative to children with NH or SNHL, regardless of intervention. Children with ANSD who received cochlear implants showed significant improvements in ITC with increasing experience with their implants. Conclusions Cortical phase coherence is significantly reduced as a result of both severe-to-profound SNHL and ANSD. Significance ITC provides a window into the brain oscillations underlying the averaged cortical auditory evoked response. Our results provide a first description of deficits in cortical phase synchrony in children with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:24360131

  19. MUNI-FITS-Utils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrastina, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The FITS standard allows arbitrary use of name-space for keywords, except some reserved keywords. Result of this freedom is that several keywords have the same meaning. Similar problem is that values of keywords have different physical units. These facts complicate automated data processing and also creation of FITS file archives with simple structure. MUNI-FITS-Utils is a package of Python scripts which have been developed in PyFITS, a Python FITS Module. Scripts are user-friendly and allow manipulating FITS headers to get uniform shape. Further functions will be added soon.

  20. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  1. Full Tolerant Archiving System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

    2013-10-01

    The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

  2. Laboratory millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of CCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Helminger, P.; Charo, A.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The laboratory millimeter and submillimeter spectrum of the interstellar radical CCH has been observed and measured in the 174-350 GHz region. The fitted spectral constants are in excellent agreement with those determined from radioastronomical measurement.

  3. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  4. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  5. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  6. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  7. Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

  8. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  9. Quantum algorithm for data fitting.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Braun, Daniel; Lloyd, Seth

    2012-08-03

    We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)]. In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data are pure quantum states, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum-state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

  10. Crash Testing of Helicopter Airframe Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Charles W.; Townsend, William; Boitnott, Richard

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Rotary Wing Structures Technology Demonstration (RWSTD) program, a surrogate RAH-66 seat attachment fitting was dynamically tested to assess its response to transient, crash impact loads. The dynamic response of this composite material fitting was compared to the performance of an identical fitting subjected to quasi-static loads of similar magnitude. Static and dynamic tests were conducted of both smaller bench level and larger full-scale test articles. At the bench level, the seat fitting was supported in a steel fixture, and in the full-scale tests, the fitting was integrated into a surrogate RAH-66 forward fuselage. Based upon the lessons learned, an improved method to design, analyze, and test similar composite material fittings is proposed.

  11. Using fit functions in computational dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christian; Steinhauser, Othmar

    2010-06-28

    This work deals with the development of an appropriate set of fit functions for describing dielectric spectra based on simulated raw data. All these fit functions are of exponential character with properly chosen cofunctions. The type of the cofunctions is different for translation, rotation and their coupling. As an alternative to multiexponential fits we also discuss Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts functions. Since the corresponding Fourier-Laplace series for these stretched exponentials has severe convergence problems, we represent their Fourier-Laplace spectrum as a Havriliak-Negami expression with properly chosen parameters. A general relation between the parameter of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts and the Havriliak-Negami parameters is given. The set of fit functions is applied to the concrete simulation of the hydrated ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium triflate with H(2)O. The systematic variation of the water mole fraction permits to study the gradual transition from a neutral molecular liquid to molecular ionic liquids.

  12. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2016-03-01

    I present the automated line fitting algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT, ALFA provides a powerful way to rapidly extract physical information from observations, an increasingly vital function in the era of highly multiplexed spectroscopy. The two codes can deliver a reliable and comprehensive analysis of very large data sets in a few hours with little or no user interaction.

  13. Estimation of primordial spectrum with post-WMAP 3-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-15

    In this paper we implement an improved (error-sensitive) Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm on the measured angular power spectrum from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3 year data to determine the primordial power spectrum assuming different points in the cosmological parameter space for a flat {lambda}CDM cosmological model. We also present the preliminary results of the cosmological parameter estimation by assuming a free form of the primordial spectrum, for a reasonably large volume of the parameter space. The recovered spectrum for a considerably large number of the points in the cosmological parameter space has a likelihood far better than a 'best fit' power law spectrum up to {delta}{chi}{sub eff}{sup 2}{approx_equal}-30. We use discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for smoothing the raw recovered spectrum from the binned data. The results obtained here reconfirm and sharpen the conclusion drawn from our previous analysis of the WMAP 1st year data. A sharp cut off around the horizon scale and a bump after the horizon scale seem to be a common feature for all of these reconstructed primordial spectra. We have shown that although the WMAP 3 year data prefers a lower value of matter density for a power law form of the primordial spectrum, for a free form of the spectrum, we can get a very good likelihood to the data for higher values of matter density. We have also shown that even a flat cold dark matter model, allowing a free form of the primordial spectrum, can give a very high likelihood fit to the data. Theoretical interpretation of the results is open to the cosmology community. However, this work provides strong evidence that the data retains discriminatory power in the cosmological parameter space even when there is full freedom in choosing the primordial spectrum.

  14. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause 2009 -- Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  15. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  16. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  17. Spectrum Certification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    components on a platform, especially for an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) • Note-To-Holders (NTH) is easier to go through the spectrum certification process... Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) • Application for Equipment Frequency Allocation is required for each RF component i e command and control (C2) link video

  18. Spectrum Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tapasi

    2002-12-01

    Present day life without the use of radio frequencies is totally unimaginable. The mode of usage of the different frequency bands is diverse and ever-changing with constant development of newer technology. In the midst of all this, there is a minority group of spectrum users who are labeled ``passive''. Radio astronomy and remote sensing groups come under this title, having no control over the signal they try to receive, they are often most vulnerable to interference from man-made radio waves. However, through constant need to develop new techniques to detect very week signal, the research done by these passive users of spectrum often benefits the commercial users. It is therefore of utmost importance that both the active and the passive users of radio spectrum may survive and grow together in a manner of peaceful coexistence. This is the goal of spectrum management. As radio waves ``do not know'' of any national boundaries, such management issues have to be agreed upon globally. The mechanisms that have been set up for such purposes with global and national counterparts is explained. How, as a minority, the interests of radio astronomy may be best served now and in future is also discussed.

  19. Comprehensive soldier fitness: building resilience in a challenging institutional context.

    PubMed

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members) organization. There are four program elements: (a) the assessment of emotional, social, family, and spiritual fitness; (b) individualized learning modules to improve fitness in these domains; (c) formal resilience training; and (d) training of Army master resilience trainers (MRTs) to instill better thinking skills and resilience in their subordinates. In contrast to traditional approaches, CSF is proactive; rather than waiting to see who has a negative outcome following stress, it provides ways of improving resilience for all members of the Army. CSF aims to move the full spectrum of responses to trauma and adversity-ranging from stress-related disorders to ordinary resilience-toward personal growth. This program may provide a model for implementing similar interventions in other very large institutions. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Outfitting Campus Fitness Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Explains how universities and colleges, both private and public, are including fitness centers as ways of increasing their student enrollment levels. Comments are provided on school experiences in fitness-center design, equipment purchasing, and maintenance and operating-costs issues. (GR)

  1. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  2. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  3. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Raising a Fit Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Raising a Fit Preschooler Print A A A What's in this article? Helping Kids Learn New Skills How Much Activity Is Enough? Structured Play Unstructured ...

  4. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  5. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  6. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Gary Peter

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed…

  7. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  8. Equality of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoyer, Jesse O.

    2008-01-01

    The author, who has been a personal trainer for the past ten years, recently realized that all fitness centers are not equal. In February, he was able to participate in the grand opening of the Center for Independent Living of Central PA (CILCP), a fitness center that is designed to accommodate persons with disabilities living in the Central…

  9. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  10. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  11. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  12. The Quality Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertiz, Virginia C.; Downey, Carolyn J.

    This paper proposes a two-pronged approach for examining an educational program's "quality of fit." The American Association of School Administrators' (AASA's) Curriculum Management Audit for quality indicators is reviewed, using the Downey Quality Fit Framework and Deming's 4 areas of profound knowledge and 14 points. The purpose is to…

  13. Fitness: A Lifestyle Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennyey, Donna J.

    1985-01-01

    Factors contributing to the evolution of fitness are discussed, and some of the challenges these hold for those in the fields of food and nutrition are identified. This includes a discussion of basic concepts of nutrition and exercise, misconceptions of nutrition and exercise, and fitness instructors as nutrition educators. (Author/CT)

  14. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Gary Peter

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed…

  15. Full Spectrum Operations: Is This the Science of Victory?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Secretary of the Army Louis Caldera and Army Chief of Staff General Eric Shinseki proposed yet another experimental operating concept, the Objective Force...19-22. 124 Adams, The Army After Next, 54. 125 Ibid., 68. 126 Louis Caldera and Eric K. Shinseki, “Army Vision: Soldiers On Point for the Nation...the United States of America. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2006. Caldera , Louis and Eric K. Shinseki. “Army Vision: Soldiers On

  16. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  17. Understanding the Full Spectrum of Organ Injury Following Intrapartum Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    LaRosa, Domenic A.; Ellery, Stacey J.; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a significant global health problem, responsible for ~1.2 million neonatal deaths each year worldwide. Those who survive often suffer from a range of health issues including brain damage—manifesting as cerebral palsy (CP)—respiratory insufficiency, cardiovascular collapse, and renal dysfunction, to name a few. Although the majority of research is directed toward reducing the brain injury that results from intrapartum birth asphyxia, the multi-organ injury observed in surviving neonates is of equal importance. Despite the advent of hypothermia therapy for the treatment of hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), treatment options following asphyxia at birth remain limited, particularly in low-resource settings where the incidence of birth asphyxia is highest. Furthermore, although cooling of the neonate results in improved neurological outcomes for a small proportion of treated infants, it does not provide any benefit to the other organ systems affected by asphyxia at birth. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the multi-organ effects of intrapartum asphyxia, with particular reference to the findings from our laboratory using the precocial spiny mouse to model birth asphyxia. Furthermore, we reviewed the current treatments available for neonates who have undergone intrapartum asphyxia, and highlight the emergence of maternal dietary creatine supplementation as a preventative therapy, which has been shown to provide multi-organ protection from birth asphyxia-induced injury in our preclinical studies. This cheap and effective nutritional supplement may be the key to reducing birth asphyxia-induced death and disability, particularly in low-resource settings where current treatments are unavailable. PMID:28261573

  18. C2 of Space: The Key to Full Spectrum Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    created the Air Force Research Laboratory in 1997, AFRL/IF was tasked to provide Information Dominance technologies to the warfighter. These critical...principles allowing the future Battle Manager’s control of the battlespace. The first five ITTPs come under AFRL’s Information Dominance thrust area...Real-time Sensor-to-Shooter, falls under the Precision Strike thrust area. This paper provides a brief background regarding Information Dominance and

  19. Arrowhead Ripper: Adaptive Leadership in Full Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    of the city. Local mills processed flour from a combination of Iraqi wheat and imported grain, and agents delivered it to the citizens. However...U.S. imported wheat milled into flour and baked that very morning in a local mill that had been previously inoperable for over a year. Even while we...food basket” consisting of rice, flour , tea, sugar, soap, and beans delivered to the people by the food agents who were government employees. Except

  20. Full Spectrum Training and Development: Soldier Skills and Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Technical Services Technical Review by Christopher L. Vowels , U.S. Army Research Institute Peter B. Schaefer, U.S. Army Research Institute...provided by ARI. While answering these questions, please focus on your reactions and experiences throughout the course. Write -in comments, both... Write -in comments, both positive and negative, are encouraged. Please use a separate sheet of paper if you need additional space. 1. How well

  1. A Full Spectrum Case for the Heavy Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    achieve the holy grail of perfect situational awareness, precluding the ‗legacy‘ need for heavy armor protection, proved to be more hope than science...point was to generate protected mobile firepower and create positional advantage via maneuver at the lowest possible cost in blood . Armies did not

  2. Building Cultural Capability for Full-Spectrum Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Research Fellows Jason Brunner, Lisa Gulick, Jeff Herman , Chris Vowels, and Margo Woller provided note-taking and other administrative support for workshop...a review of the relevant research literature (see Abbe, Gulick, & Herman , 2007, and Brown, Christensen, & Abbe, in preparation). However, because no...Menon, 2001). Some variables shown to activate culturally-based cognition and affect in previous research include the language (Perunovic, Heller

  3. Spectrum Analysis of Low and Full Birthweight Newborn Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    Based on findings that report differences between cries of normal and clinically abnormal infants, this study examined the relationship between birthweight and behavioral and acoustic features of neonatal cry because of the long-standing association between birthweight, perinatal trauma, and subsequent development. Subjects were 88 neonates…

  4. Full Spectrum Forces or Special Purpose Forces? A Strategic Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    the military thinks about war, and in the 20th century, there were clear examples 6 Joel ...Leadership, Iraq 2003-4 and Mesopotamia 1914-18: A Comparative Analysis in Ends and Means Aug 2004. Colonel Paul F. Dicker , United States Army Reserves

  5. Spectrum Services 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, L.; Budavári, T.; Csabai, I.; Szalay, A. S.

    2008-10-01

    We present the Filter and Spectrum Services consisting of easy-to-use web applications and web services for searching, plotting and managing large collections of spectral energy distribution data and filter profiles as well as for performing various scientific operations on spectra in a unified framework. The services provide keyword search, advanced query forms and SQL query possibilities for selecting spectra or bandpass curves which may be retrieved in a variety of file formats including XML, VOTable and ASCII. All SDSS DR1-DR5 spectra had been loaded into a database as well as the entire 2dF catalog that adds up to more than 2.5 million SEDs of about a million spatial objects, but registered users can upload their own data making it available for the rest of the community and are free to modify or delete them at any time. Theoretical catalogs, such as the Bruzual-Charlot stochastic burst model spectrum library (100k spectra) and the BaSeL stellar library are also available. Scientific services allow building rest-frame composite spectra out of selected spectra; calculating synthetic magnitudes by convolving spectra with an arbitrary set of bandpass curves of optical instrument filters to generate simulated photometric catalogs on-the-fly; galactic extinction correction, fitting of the continuum using different set of templates (Bruzual-Charlot '03 templates, SDSS eigenspectra), line fitting. All scientific functionalities are available from the web user interface and via the SOAP web services for programmers. MySpectrum is a cross-platform version of the spectrum web service for setting up your own spectrum repository. It integrates into the main service allowing easy access to your data for the whole VO community. The main idea behind our web services is to move scientific functionalities physically close to the database in order to spare network bandwidth. This way scientists may do research without setting up expensive hardware, downloading large datasets

  6. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  7. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  8. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  9. Measuring epistasis in fitness landscapes: The correlation of fitness effects of mutations.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Luca; Schmiegelt, Benjamin; Weinreich, Daniel; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Tajima, Fumio; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-05-07

    Genotypic fitness landscapes are constructed by assessing the fitness of all possible combinations of a given number of mutations. In the last years, several experimental fitness landscapes have been completely resolved. As fitness landscapes are high-dimensional, simple measures of their structure are used as statistics in empirical applications. Epistasis is one of the most relevant features of fitness landscapes. Here we propose a new natural measure of the amount of epistasis based on the correlation of fitness effects of mutations. This measure has a natural interpretation, captures well the interaction between mutations and can be obtained analytically for most landscape models. We discuss how this measure is related to previous measures of epistasis (number of peaks, roughness/slope, fraction of sign epistasis, Fourier-Walsh spectrum) and how it can be easily extended to landscapes with missing data or with fitness ranks only. Furthermore, the dependence of the correlation of fitness effects on mutational distance contains interesting information about the patterns of epistasis. This dependence can be used to uncover the amount and nature of epistatic interactions in a landscape or to discriminate between different landscape models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... key areas: aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition. To do your assessment, you' ... test is a simple way to measure the flexibility of the back of your legs, hips and ...

  11. Exponentially fitted symplectic integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, T. E.; Vigo-Aguiar, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for constructing efficient symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian problems is introduced. This procedure is based on the combination of the exponential fitting technique and symplecticness conditions. Based on this procedure, a simple modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic exponentially fitted method is developed. We give explicitly the symplecticness conditions for the modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström method. We also give the exponential fitting and trigonometric fitting conditions. Numerical results indicate that the present method is much more efficient than the “classical” symplectic Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic method introduced by M.P. Calvo and J.M. Sanz-Serna [J. Sci. Comput. (USA) 14, 1237 (1993)]. We note that the present procedure is appropriate for all near-unimodal systems.

  12. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Shoes should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch as ... damage, people with diabetes may not feel a shoe rubbing against the skin of their foot. Blisters ...

  13. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  14. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  15. Enhanced compressive wideband frequency spectrum sensing for dynamic spectrum access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yipeng; Wan, Qun

    2012-12-01

    Wideband spectrum sensing detects the unused spectrum holes for dynamic spectrum access (DSA). Too high sampling rate is the main challenge. Compressive sensing (CS) can reconstruct sparse signal with much fewer randomized samples than Nyquist sampling with high probability. Since survey shows that the monitored signal is sparse in frequency domain, CS can deal with the sampling burden. Random samples can be obtained by the analog-to-information converter. Signal recovery can be formulated as the combination of an L0 norm minimization and a linear measurement fitting constraint. In DSA, the static spectrum allocation of primary radios means the bounds between different types of primary radios are known in advance. To incorporate this a priori information, we divide the whole spectrum into sections according to the spectrum allocation policy. In the new optimization model, the minimization of the L2 norm of each section is used to encourage the cluster distribution locally, while the L0 norm of the L2 norms is minimized to give sparse distribution globally. Because the L2/L0 optimization is not convex, an iteratively re-weighted L2/L1 optimization is proposed to approximate it. Simulations demonstrate the proposed method outperforms others in accuracy, denoising ability, etc.

  16. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  17. Constraints on the heterogeneity spectrum of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Nicholas; Shearer, Peter; Liu, Qinya

    2016-05-01

    We constrain the heterogeneity spectrum of Earth's upper mantle at scales from a few kilometers to tens of thousands of kilometers using observations from high-frequency scattering, long-period scattering, and tomography. Tomography and high-frequency scattering constraints are drawn from previous studies, but constraints on mantle heterogeneity at intermediate scales (5-500 km) are lacking. To address this, we stack ˜15,000 long-period P coda envelopes to characterize the globally averaged scattered wavefield at periods from 5 to 60 s and at ranges from 50 to 98°. To fit these observations, we consider models of random mantle heterogeneity and compute the corresponding global wavefield using both a ray theoretical "seismic particle" approach and full spectral element simulations. Von Kármán random media distributed throughout the uppermost 600 km of the mantle with a = 2000 km, ɛ = 10%, and κ = 0.05 provide a good fit to the time, range, and frequency dependence of the stacks, although there is a trade-off between ɛ and the thickness of the assumed scattering layer. This random media model also fits previously published 1 Hz stacks of P coda and agrees with constraints on long-wavelength structure from tomography. Finally, we explore geodynamically plausible scenarios that might be responsible for the RMS and falloff rate of the proposed spectrum, including a self-similar mixture of basalt and harzburgite.

  18. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  19. PROSPECT: the Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Donald; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    PROSPECT is a phased experiment consisting of segmented Li-loaded liquid scintillator antineutrino detectors designed to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. The experiment will be located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab. The first phase is a movable 3 tonne detector located 7-9 m from the compact, highly enriched uranium core. Over the past three years, PROSPECT has deployed multiple prototype detectors at HFIR to understand the local background environment and demonstrate active and passive background rejection. A two-segment prototype has been developed that demonstrates critical subsystems of the full detector. Measuring the neutrino spectrum from 235U will give insight to the recent spectral discrepancies and provide an important benchmark for future reactor experiments. As a high statistics experiment, PROSPECT will probe the sterile neutrino best-fit region within one year of operation at HFIR.

  20. Terahertz Spectrum of Trioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, H.; Belov, S. P.; Winnewisser, G.

    1996-02-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of trioxane, (H2CO)3 the trimer of formaldehyde, has been recorded with high resolution in the frequency range between 326 and 947 GHz for the main isotopomer, the 13 C, and the 18O isotopic species in the vibrational ground state. These new high J and K data reveal that the molecule is fairly rigid. For the constants determinable from the recorded high J and K spectra (J = 90 and K = 75) the rotational constant B = 5273.257 180(33) MHz, the two quartic centrifugal distortion constants DJ, and DJK, and the three sextic constants HJ, HJK, and HKJ are needed in the fit to reproduce the measured spectra within experimental accuracy. In addition, for the 13C isotopomer the sextic constants HJK and HKJ are determined as well as the off-diagonal parameters d1 and d2.

  1. Microwave Spectrum of Hexafluoroisopropanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.

    2012-06-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is an important organic solvent and probably the only solvent which can dissolve polythene. IR studies, on this molecule confirm the existence of antiperiplanar (ap) and synclinical (sc) conformers. We have observed pure rotational spectrum of this molecule and the fitted rotational constants (A= 2105.1208(11) MHz, B= 1053.9942(3) MHz, C= 932.3398(3) MHz) confirm the presence of ap conformer. There are many other observed lines which most probably corresponds to sc structure and due to the large amplitude motion of H-atom, some of these transitions show tunneling splitting. Work is in progress for the deuterated (OD) and C-13 isotopologues of the monomer. HFIP is expected to exhibit interesting hydrogen bonding properties and we are planning to investigate them by studying its complex with water. The results will be presented in this talk. H. Schaal, T. Höber, and M. A. Suhm, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 265 (2000).

  2. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-07

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness.

  3. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  4. Different fits satisfy different needs: linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Greguras, Gary J; Diefendorff, James M

    2009-03-01

    Integrating and expanding upon the person-environment fit (PE fit) and the self-determination theory literatures, the authors hypothesized and tested a model in which the satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence partially mediated the relations between different types of perceived PE fit (i.e., person-organization fit, person-group fit, and job demands-abilities fit) with employee affective organizational commitment and overall job performance. Data from 163 full-time working employees and their supervisors were collected across 3 time periods. Results indicate that different types of PE fit predicted different types of psychological need satisfaction and that psychological need satisfaction predicted affective commitment and performance. Further, person-organization fit and demands-abilities fit also evidenced direct effects on employee affective commitment. These results begin to explicate the processes through which different types of PE fit relate to employee attitudes and behaviors.

  5. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts.

  6. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral-line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It converges rapidly and is very flexible in that it can be used with any fitting function. We present examples of cubic-spline and Gaussian fits and give special attention to measurements of blue-red asymmetries of coronal emission lines.

  7. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  8. Ultra-narrow linewidth measurement based on Voigt profile fitting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Meng, Zhou; Wang, Jianfei; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-09

    We study the method of Voigt profile fitting for ultra-narrow linewidth measurement. It filters out the effect of the spectrum broadening due to the 1/f frequency noise and extracts out the Lorentzian lineshape from the measured spectrum. The resolution is thus greatly promoted than the direct measurement from the self-heterodyne technique. We apply this method to an ultra-narrow-linewidth (~40 Hz by heterodyne beat technique) Brillouin/erbium fiber laser. The linewidth estimated from Voigt fitting method is indicated to be more accurate. In contrast, the linewidths estimated direct from the 3-dB and the 20-dB heterodyne-spectrum width are far over the true linewidth of the BEFL. The Voigt fitting method provides an efficient tool for ultra-narrow-linewidth measurement. And compared with heterodyne beat technique, it is applicable for all types of lasers.

  9. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  10. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  11. Finding What Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  12. Directory of Fitness Certifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Janet B.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

  13. Making the Fitness Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

    2005-01-01

    Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

  14. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  15. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  16. Mentoring that Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are…

  17. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  18. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  19. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  20. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  1. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  2. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  3. Finding What Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  4. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  5. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  6. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  7. Mentoring that Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are…

  8. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  9. Manitoba Schools Fitness 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This manual outlines physical fitness tests that may be used in the schools. The tests are based on criterion standards which indicate the levels of achievement at which health risk factors may be reduced. Test theory, protocols, and criterion charts are presented for: (1) muscle strength and endurance, (2) body composition, (3) flexibility, and…

  10. Iterative fitting method for the evaluation and quantification of PAES spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnik, Samantha; Hackenberg, Mathias; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The elemental composition of surfaces is of great importance for the understanding of many surface processes such as catalysis. For a reliable analysis and a comparison of results, the quantification of the measured data is indispensable. Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) is a spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition with outstanding surface sensitivity, but up to now, no standardized evaluation procedure for PAES spectra is available. In this paper we present a new approach for the evaluation of PAES spectra of compounds, using the spectra obtained for the pure elements as reference. The measured spectrum is then fitted by a linear combination of the reference spectra by varying their intensities. The comparison of the results of the fitting routine with a calculation of the full parameter range shows an excellent agreement. We present the results of the new analysis method to evaluate the PAES spectra of sub-monolayers of Ni on a Pd substrate.

  11. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  12. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  13. Ninth Spectrum of Bromine: Br IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y. N.; van Kleef, Th A. M.

    1981-03-01

    The spectrum of bromine was photographed on a 6.60 m and a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph in the region 300-90 Å. The source used was a triggered spark. The ninth spectrum of bromine was analysed on the basis of 3d9-3d84p transitions between 125-104 Å. Parametric level fitting calculations support the analysis. 44 lines are classified in this spectrum. Some Br VIII lines appearing in this region have been accurately measured.

  14. Return to fitness.

    PubMed

    Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.

  15. Social Fitness and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families. PMID:28083312

  16. Simultaneous Fitting of Absorption Spectra and Their Second Derivatives for an Improved Analysis of Protein Infrared Spectra.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Li, Chenge; Eremina, Nadejda; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Barth, Andreas

    2015-07-10

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool in protein science due to its sensitivity to changes in secondary structure or conformation. In order to take advantage of the full power of infrared spectroscopy in structural studies of proteins, complex band contours, such as the amide I band, have to be decomposed into their main component bands, a process referred to as curve fitting. In this paper, we report on an improved curve fitting approach in which absorption spectra and second derivative spectra are fitted simultaneously. Our approach, which we name co-fitting, leads to a more reliable modelling of the experimental data because it uses more spectral information than the standard approach of fitting only the absorption spectrum. It also avoids that the fitting routine becomes trapped in local minima. We have tested the proposed approach using infrared absorption spectra of three mixed α/β proteins with different degrees of spectral overlap in the amide I region: ribonuclease A, pyruvate kinase, and aconitase.

  17. Fits combining hyperon semileptonic decays and magnetic moments and CVC

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, A.; Kielanowski, P.

    1982-10-01

    We have performed a test of CVC by determining the baryon charges and magnetic moments from the hyperon semileptonic data. Then CVC was applied in order to make a joint fit of all baryon semileptonic decay data and baryon magnetic moments for the spectrum generating group (SG) model as well as for the conventional (cabibbo and magnetic moments in nuclear magnetons) model. The SG model gives a very good fit with chi/sup 2//n/sub D/ = 25/20 approximately equals 21% C.L. whereas the conventional model gives a fit with chi/sup 2//n/sub D/ = 244/20.

  18. Mössbauer spectral curve fitting combining fundamentally different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo

    2016-10-01

    We propose the use of fundamentally distinctive techniques to solve the problem of curve fitting a Mössbauer spectrum. The techniques we investigated are: evolutionary algorithm, basin hopping, and hill climbing. These techniques were applied in isolation and combined to fit different shapes of Mössbauer spectra. The results indicate that complex Mössbauer spectra can be automatically curve fitted using minimum user input, and combination of these techniques achieved the best performance (lowest statistical error). The software and sample of Mössbauer spectra have been made available through a link at the reference.

  19. Calibrating White Dwarf Asteroseismic Fitting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Romero, A. D.; Bischoff-Kim, A.

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of looking for intrinsic variability in stars is the unique opportunity to study their internal structure. Once we have extracted independent modes from the data, it appears to be a simple matter of comparing the period spectrum with those from theoretical model grids to learn the inner structure of that star. However, asteroseismology is much more complicated than this simple description. We must account not only for observational uncertainties in period determination, but most importantly for the limitations of the model grids, coming from the uncertainties in the constitutive physics, and of the fitting techniques. In this work, we will discuss results of numerical experiments where we used different independently calculated model grids (white dwarf cooling models WDEC and fully evolutionary LPCODE-PUL) and fitting techniques to fit synthetic stars. The advantage of using synthetic stars is that we know the details of their interior structure so we can assess how well our models and fitting techniques are able to the recover the interior structure, as well as the stellar parameters.

  20. Introducing the Ginga FITS Viewer and Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, E.; Inagaki, T.; Kackley, R.

    2013-10-01

    We introduce Ginga, a new open-source FITS viewer and toolkit based on Python astronomical packages such as pyfits, numpy, scipy, matplotlib, and pywcs. For developers, we present a set of Python classes for viewing FITS files under the modern Gtk and Qt widget sets and a more full-featured viewer that has a plugin architecture. We further describe how plugins can be written to extend the viewer with many different capabilities. The software may be of interest to software developers who are looking for a solution for integrating FITS visualization into their Python programs and end users interested in a new and different FITS viewer that is not based on Tcl/Tk widget technology. The software has been released under a BSD license.

  1. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  2. Kerwan in Full

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-19

    This image from NASA's Dawn spacecraft shows the largest crater on Ceres, called Kerwan. The crater has an appearance scientists refer to as "relaxed," meaning its sharp features have softened since Kerwan formed. Its overall shape looks something like a pancake, especially when viewed near Ceres' limb. The origin of its polygonal shape is not yet well understood; it might be due to large faults in the subsurface generated by other large impacts, as has been suggested for other craters. The smaller crater named Insitor sits in the center of Kerwan. The dark material seen at top right is ejecta from Dantu crater. At 174 miles (280 kilometers) wide, Kerwan is so large that it would have taken about 50 images at Dawn's low-altitude mapping orbit (called LAMO, at 240 miles or 385 kilometers altitude) to cover the crater from one side to the other. Kerwan was also too wide to fit within the camera's field of view at Dawn's high-altitude mapping orbit (called HAMO, at 915 miles, 1,470 kilometers). It fit nicely into this frame from Dawn's Survey phase (an altitude of 2,700 miles or 4,400 kilometers), taken shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit in 2015. Kerwan takes its name from the Hopi spirit of sprouting maize. This picture was obtained on June 12, 2015. Its center coordinates are 10.8 degrees south latitude, 123.9 degrees east longitude. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21411

  3. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  4. Summer Alterations in Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastad, Douglas N.; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated changes in children's physical fitness during summer vacation. Children's cardiorespiratory fitness decreased, as did their body weight, especially for boys. Fall curriculum offerings should be designed to accommodate detrained students. (PP)

  5. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher's Geometric Model?

    PubMed

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher's model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher's model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes-including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients-it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes.

  6. Spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches in software-defined elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bowen; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the architecture of elastic optical network (EON) has been proposed as a candidate solution to accommodate both huge bandwidth requirements and flexible connections in next generation optical networks. In order to improve the spectrum efficiency, we propose different spectrum-space-divided approaches and develop two integer linear programming (ILP) models and several spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection in software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs). Simulation results show that the ILP models achieve better performance in terms of the number of frequency slots and hop counts than the proposed spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection under the static scenario of connection requests. Furthermore, we apply the spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection to reduce the blocking probability and to improve spectrum efficiency under the dynamic connection requests compared to the traditional first-fit spectrum allocation approach in SD-EONs.

  7. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  8. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  9. On the mechanism for breaks in the cosmic ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Malkov, M. A.; Diamond, P. H.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    2012-08-15

    The proof of cosmic ray (CR) origin in supernova remnants (SNR) must hinge on full consistency of the CR acceleration theory with the observations; direct proof is impossible because of the orbit stochasticity of CR particles. Recent observations of a number of galactic SNR strongly support the SNR-CR connection in general and the Fermi mechanism of CR acceleration, in particular. However, many SNR expand into weakly ionized dense gases, and so a significant revision of the mechanism is required to fit the data. We argue that strong ion-neutral collisions in the remnant surrounding lead to the steepening of the energy spectrum of accelerated particles by exactly one power. The spectral break is caused by a partial evanescence of Alfven waves that confine particles to the accelerator. The gamma-ray spectrum generated in collisions of the accelerated protons with the ambient gas is also calculated. Using the recent Fermi spacecraft observation of the SNR W44 as an example, we demonstrate that the parent proton spectrum is a classical test particle power law {proportional_to}E{sup -2}, steepening to E{sup -3} at E{sub br} Almost-Equal-To 7 GeV.

  10. Two-season Atacama Cosmology Telescope polarimeter lensing power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, Blake D.; van Engelen, Alexander; Sehgal, Neelima; Madhavacheril, Mathew; Addison, Graeme E.; Aiola, Simone; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nicholas; Becker, Daniel T.; Beall, James A.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J.; Dünner, Rolando; Dunkley, Joanna; Fox, Anna E.; Gallardo, Patricio; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn; Hill, J. Colin; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hughes, John P.; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Koopman, Brian; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Maurin, Loïc; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Sievers, Jonathan; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Thornton, Robert J.; Van Lanen, Jeff; Vavagiakis, Eve; Wollack, Edward J.

    2017-06-01

    We report a measurement of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from two seasons of Atacama Cosmology Telescope polarimeter (ACTPol) CMB data. The CMB lensing power spectrum is extracted from both temperature and polarization data using quadratic estimators. We obtain results that are consistent with the expectation from the best-fit Planck Λ CDM model over a range of multipoles L =80 - 2100 , with an amplitude of lensing Alens=1.06 ±0.15 (stat )±0.06 (sys ) relative to Planck. Our measurement of the CMB lensing power spectrum gives σ8Ωm0.25=0.643 ±0.054 ; including baryon acoustic oscillation scale data, we constrain the amplitude of density fluctuations to be σ8=0.831 ±0.053 . We also update constraints on the neutrino mass sum. We verify our lensing measurement with a number of null tests and systematic checks, finding no evidence of significant systematic errors. This measurement relies on a small fraction of the ACTPol data already taken; more precise lensing results can therefore be expected from the full ACTPol data set.

  11. Two-Season Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter Lensing Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shewin, Blake D.; van Engelen, Alexander; Sehgal, Neelima; Madhavacheril, Mathew; Addison, Graeme E.; Aiola, Simone; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nicholas; Becker, Daniel T.; Beall, James A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report a measurement of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from two seasons of Atacama Cosmology Telescope polarimeter (ACTPol) CMB data. The CMB lensing power spectrum is extracted from both temperature and polarization data using quadratic estimators. We obtain results that are consistent with the expectation from the best-fit Planck CDM model over a range of multipoles L 80-2100, with an amplitude of lensing A(sub lens) = 1.06 +/- 0.15 stat +/- 0.06 sys relative to Planck. Our measurement of the CMB lensing power spectrum gives sigma 8 omega m(sup 0.25) = 0.643 +/- 0.054; including baryon acoustic oscillation scale data, we constrain the amplitude of density fluctuations to be sigma 8 = 0.831 +/- 0.053. We also update constraints on the neutrino mass sum. We verify our lensing measurement with a number of null tests and systematic checks, finding no evidence of significant systematic errors. This measurement relies on a small fraction of the ACTPol data already taken; more precise lensing results can therefore be expected from the full ACTPol data set.

  12. Unveiling acoustic physics of the CMB using nonparametric estimation of the temperature angular power spectrum for Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2015-02-01

    Estimation of the angular power spectrum is one of the important steps in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis. Here, we present a nonparametric estimate of the temperature angular power spectrum for the Planck 2013 CMB data. The method implemented in this work is model-independent, and allows the data, rather than the model, to dictate the fit. Since one of the main targets of our analysis is to test the consistency of the ΛCDM model with Planck 2013 data, we use the nuisance parameters associated with the best-fit ΛCDM angular power spectrum to remove foreground contributions from the data at multipoles ℓ ≥50. We thus obtain a combined angular power spectrum data set together with the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted over frequency channels. Our subsequent nonparametric analysis resolves six peaks (and five dips) up to ℓ ∼1850 in the temperature angular power spectrum. We present uncertainties in the peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% confidence level. We further show how these reflect the harmonicity of acoustic peaks, and can be used for acoustic scale estimation. Based on this nonparametric formalism, we found the best-fit ΛCDM model to be at 36% confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set—this is considerably larger than the confidence distance (9%) derived earlier from a similar analysis of the WMAP 7-year data. Another interesting result of our analysis is that at low multipoles, the Planck data do not suggest any upturn, contrary to the expectation based on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution in the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology.

  13. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  14. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  15. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion.

  16. Compressive full waveform lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  17. NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

    2014-01-01

    The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit.

  18. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  19. Full Multigrid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

  20. "Care-Full Teaching".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuskey, Patricia Varan; Tango, Robert

    The "Care-Full" teaching process described in this report is an assessment-oriented procedure which monitors the student's specific rate of growth toward defined learning objectives. First, the report briefly delineates eight steps in the process, indicating that teachers and counselors: (1) become aware of the need for assessment; (2) transform…

  1. A spectrum of an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L Jeremy; Deming, Drake; Horning, Karen; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph

    2007-02-22

    Of the over 200 known extrasolar planets, 14 exhibit transits in front of their parent stars as seen from Earth. Spectroscopic observations of the transiting planets can probe the physical conditions of their atmospheres. One such technique can be used to derive the planetary spectrum by subtracting the stellar spectrum measured during eclipse (planet hidden behind star) from the combined-light spectrum measured outside eclipse (star + planet). Although several attempts have been made from Earth-based observatories, no spectrum has yet been measured for any of the established extrasolar planets. Here we report a measurement of the infrared spectrum (7.5-13.2 microm) of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Our observations reveal a hot thermal continuum for the planetary spectrum, with an approximately constant ratio to the stellar flux over this wavelength range. Superposed on this continuum is a broad emission peak centred near 9.65 microm that we attribute to emission by silicate clouds. We also find a narrow, unidentified emission feature at 7.78 microm. Models of these 'hot Jupiter' planets predict a flux peak near 10 microm, where thermal emission from the deep atmosphere emerges relatively unimpeded by water absorption, but models dominated by water fit the observed spectrum poorly.

  2. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-08-21

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  3. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world. PMID:26308059

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Differences of atlases of solar spectrum (Doerr+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Vitas, N.; Fabbian, D.

    2016-04-01

    A parametrically degraded version of the Hamburg spectrum was fitted to the Liege spectrum. The parameters of the model (wavelength shift, broadening, intensity scaling, intensity offset) represent the different characteristics of the respective instruments, observational strategies, and data processing. The fits were carried out for all identified solar lines in the line list provided by Pierce and Breckinridge (1973, The Kitt-Peak Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths, Vol. Contribution No. 559 (Kitt Peak National Observatory); hereafter PB73) for an interval of ±15pm around the line cores. From an initial testrun we found that the offset parameter (stray-light) is compatible with zero. The final fits were carried out with only three free parameters. The results from that run are provided in the file 'fitres.dat'. A second file (liegepar.dat) contains derived parameters (spectral resolving power, position of the continuum) for the Liege spectrum that can be used in studies that compare Liege data to other data (e.g. synthetic spectra). For instance, synthetic spectra have to be degraded to match the spectral resolving power of the Liege spectrum for a valid comparison. Our analysis showed that a Gaussian convolution kernel with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of lambda/R (lambda: wavelength; R: spectral resolving power) is a very good approximation to the actual instrumental profile of the Liege atlas. Likewise, the continuum of the Liege atlas at a particular wavelength can be matched to the continuum of the Hamburg atlas by division with the parameter 'C' from liegepar.dat. The correction parameters in liegepar.dat should be interpolated to the desired wavelength range before being applied in any data analysis. We want to stress that the parameters provided here result from the fitting-procedure as described in the paper, with no further consistency checks or corrections applied. Some fits are affected by nearby telluric blends. We recommend to apply an

  5. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of processing up to 6 tons per hour of dioxin contaminated soil was conducted at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, MS. publish information

  7. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  8. Semiclassical Quantization of the Bogoliubov Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.

    2007-07-13

    We analyze the Bogoliubov spectrum of the three-site Bose-Hubbard model with a finite number of Bose particles by using a semiclassical approach. The Bogoliubov spectrum is shown to be associated with the low-energy regular component of the classical Hubbard model. We identify the full set of the integrals of motion of this regular component and, quantizing them, obtain the energy levels of the quantum system. The critical values of the energy, above which the regular Bogoliubov spectrum evolves into a chaotic spectrum, is indicated as well.

  9. Air Force Physical Fitness Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-15

    with illness, and in the extreme, with premature death.” 1 The American College of Sports Medicine states that physical fitness is divided into...battlefield stressors. 7 Field Manual (FM) 6-22 Army Leadership states, “If not physically fit before deployment, the effects of additional stress...Journal of Sports Exercise Psychology 20 (1998): 339-357. 4 Marine Corps Order P6100.12, Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test and Body Composition

  10. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder. It often appears in the first 3 years of life. ASD ... better diagnosis and newer definitions of ASD. Autism spectrum disorder now includes syndromes that used to be ...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can ... that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E- ...

  13. Rotational spectrum of cis-cis HOONO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Fry, Juliane L.; Miller, Charles E.

    2004-03-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of cis-cis peroxynitrous acid, HOONO, has been observed. Over 220 transitions, sampling states up to J'=67 and Ka'=31, have been fitted with an rms uncertainty of 48.4 kHz. The experimentally determined rotational constants agree well with ab initio values for the cis-cis conformer, a five-membered ring formed by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The small, positive inertial defect Δ=0.075667(60) amu Å2 and lack of any observable torsional splittings in the spectrum indicate that cis-cis HOONO exists in a well-defined planar structure at room temperature.

  14. Regulatory Fit Improves Fitness for People With Low Exercise Experience.

    PubMed

    Kay, Sophie A; Grimm, Lisa R

    2017-04-01

    Considering only 20.8% of American adults meet current physical activity recommendations, it is important to examine the psychological processes that affect exercise motivation and behavior. Drawing from regulatory fit theory, this study examined how manipulating regulatory focus and reward structures would affect exercise performance, with a specific interest in investigating whether exercise experience would moderate regulatory fit effects. We predicted that regulatory fit effects would appear only for participants with low exercise experience. One hundred and sixty-five young adults completed strength training exercise tasks (i.e., sit-ups, squats, plank, and wall-sit) in regulatory match or mismatch conditions. Consistent with predictions, only participants low in experience in regulatory match conditions exercised more compared with those in regulatory mismatch conditions. Although this is the first study manipulating regulatory fit in a controlled setting to examine exercise behavior, findings suggest that generating regulatory fit could positively influence those low in exercise experience.

  15. Broadband distortion modeling in Lyman-α forest BAO fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, Michael; Kirkby, David; Bautista, Julian E.; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Busca, Nicolás G.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Slosar, Anže; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Margala, Daniel; Schneider, Donald P.; Vazquez, Jose A.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the Lyman-α absorption observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars has been used as a tracer of large-scale structure by means of the three-dimensional Lyman-α forest auto-correlation function at redshift zsimeq 2.3, but the need to fit the quasar continuum in every absorption spectrum introduces a broadband distortion that is difficult to correct and causes a systematic error for measuring any broadband properties. We describe a k-space model for this broadband distortion based on a multiplicative correction to the power spectrum of the transmitted flux fraction that suppresses power on scales corresponding to the typical length of a Lyman-α forest spectrum. Implementing the distortion model in fits for the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak position in the Lyman-α forest auto-correlation, we find that the fitting method recovers the input values of the linear bias parameter bF and the redshift-space distortion parameter βF for mock data sets with a systematic error of less than 0.5%. Applied to the auto-correlation measured for BOSS Data Release 11, our method improves on the previous treatment of broadband distortions in BAO fitting by providing a better fit to the data using fewer parameters and reducing the statistical errors on βF and the combination bF(1+βF) by more than a factor of seven. The measured values at redshift z=2.3 are βF=1.39+0.11 +0.24 +0.38-0.10 -0.19 -0.28 and bF(1+βF)=-0.374+0.007 +0.013 +0.020-0.007 -0.014 -0.022 (1σ, 2σ and 3σ statistical errors). Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main results are publicly available.

  16. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  17. FUSE observations of a full orbit of Scorpius X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Boroson, Bram; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Raymond, John E-mail: svrtilek@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-09-20

    We obtained UV spectra of X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 in the 900-1200 Å range with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer over the full 0.79 day binary orbit. The strongest emission lines are the doublet of O VI at 1032,1038 Å and the C III complex at 1175 Å. The spectrum is affected by a multitude of narrow interstellar absorption lines, both atomic and molecular. Examination of line variability and Doppler tomograms suggests emission from both the neighborhood of the donor star and the accretion disk. Models of turbulence and Doppler broadened Keplerian disk lines Doppler shifted with the orbit of the neutron star added to narrow Gaussian emission lines with undetermined Doppler shift fit the data with consistent values of disk radius, inclination, and radial line brightness profile. The Doppler shift of the narrow component with the orbit suggests an association with the donor star. We test our line models with previously analyzed near UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and archival spectra obtained with the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

  18. FUSE Observations of a Full Orbit of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroson, Bram; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Raymond, John

    2014-09-01

    We obtained UV spectra of X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 in the 900-1200 Å range with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer over the full 0.79 day binary orbit. The strongest emission lines are the doublet of O VI at 1032,1038 Å and the C III complex at 1175 Å. The spectrum is affected by a multitude of narrow interstellar absorption lines, both atomic and molecular. Examination of line variability and Doppler tomograms suggests emission from both the neighborhood of the donor star and the accretion disk. Models of turbulence and Doppler broadened Keplerian disk lines Doppler shifted with the orbit of the neutron star added to narrow Gaussian emission lines with undetermined Doppler shift fit the data with consistent values of disk radius, inclination, and radial line brightness profile. The Doppler shift of the narrow component with the orbit suggests an association with the donor star. We test our line models with previously analyzed near UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and archival spectra obtained with the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

  19. Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

  20. Time-domain fitting of battery electrochemical impedance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, S. M. M.; Birkl, C. R.; Howey, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective technique for diagnosing the behaviour of electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells, usually by fitting data to an equivalent circuit model (ECM). The common approach in the laboratory is to measure the impedance spectrum of a cell in the frequency domain using a single sine sweep signal, then fit the ECM parameters in the frequency domain. This paper focuses instead on estimation of the ECM parameters directly from time-domain data. This may be advantageous for parameter estimation in practical applications such as automotive systems including battery-powered vehicles, where the data may be heavily corrupted by noise. The proposed methodology is based on the simplified refined instrumental variable for continuous-time fractional systems method ('srivcf'), provided by the Crone toolbox [1,2], combined with gradient-based optimisation to estimate the order of the fractional term in the ECM. The approach was tested first on synthetic data and then on real data measured from a 26650 lithium-ion iron phosphate cell with low-cost equipment. The resulting Nyquist plots from the time-domain fitted models match the impedance spectrum closely (much more accurately than when a Randles model is assumed), and the fitted parameters as separately determined through a laboratory potentiostat with frequency domain fitting match to within 13%.

  1. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) balance. Smith DeFrance described the 6-component type balance in NACA TR No. 459 (which also includes a schematic diagram of the balance and its various parts). 'Ball and socket fittings at the top of each of the struts hod the axles of the airplane to be tested; the tail is attached to the triangular frame. These struts are secured to the turntable, which is attached to the floating frame. This frame rests on the struts (next to the concrete piers on all four corners), which transmit the lift forces to the scales (partially visible on the left). The drag linkage is attached to the floating frame on the center line and, working against a known counterweight, transmits the drag force to the scale (center, face out). The cross-wind force linkages are attached to the floating frame on the front and rear sides at the center line. These linkages, working against known counterweights, transmit the cross-wind force to scales (two front scales, face in). In the above manner the forces in three directions are measured and by combining the forces and the proper lever arms, the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments can be computed. The scales are of the dial type and are provided with solenoid-operated printing devices. When the proper test condition is obtained, a push-button switch is momentarily closed and the readings on all seven scales are recorded simultaneously, eliminating the possibility of personal errors.'

  2. Full-dimensional, permutationally invariant and size-extensive potential energy surfaces for small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, B. J.; Bowman, Joel M.; Park, Seung; Stanton, John F.

    2005-03-01

    We have constructed full-dimensional potential energy surfaces for a variety of molecular systems, among them CH5+, H3O2-, H4O2, H5O2+, C2H2O, C3H3O, CH2O, and HOONO/HONO2. The property of invariance under permutations of like nuclei is built into the basis for the least-squares fitting procedure, and we relied on the MAGMA computational algebra system to find the invariants and to help generate the codes. The use of a cluster expansion (many-body expansion), going up to five-body or at most six-body terms, caters for dissociation and reaction processes and also for extension to larger systems. The fitted potential and its gradient are evaluated on a millisecond timescale, making it possible to do molecular dynamics or quantum Monte Carlo calculations at ab initio accuracy without anywhere near the cost that is normally associated with ab initio MD, or even with a Car-Parrinello treatment. We also use the fitted surface for MULTIMODE calculations of vibrational spectrum. The poster will present the computational approach and results for the mentioned systems.

  3. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  4. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  5. Neoclassical physics in full distribution function gyrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Latu, G.; Strugarek, A.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.

    2011-06-01

    Treatment of binary Coulomb collisions when the full gyrokinetic distribution function is evolved is discussed here. A spectrum of different collision operators is presented, differing through both the physics that can be addressed and the numerics they are based on. Eulerian-like (semi-Lagrangian) and particle in cell (PIC) (Monte-Carlo) schemes are successfully cross-compared, and a detailed confrontation to neoclassical theory is shown.

  6. Fitting the optical constants of gold, silver, chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the visible bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique; Grosges, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The fitting of metal optical properties is a topic that has applications in advanced simulations of spectroscopy, plasmonics, and optical engineering. In particular, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) requires an analytical model of dispersion that verifies specific conditions to produce a full spectrum in a single run. Combination of Drude and Lorentz models, and Drude and critical points models, are known to be efficient, but the number of parameters to be adjusted for fitting data can prevent accurate results from simulated annealing or Nelder-Mead. The complex number relative permittivities of Au, Ag, Al, Cr, and Ti from either Palik or Johnson and Christy experimental data in the visible domain of wavelengths are successfully fitted by using the result of the particle swarm optimization method with FDTD constraint, as a starting point for the Nelder-Mead method. The results are well positioned compared to those that can be found in the literature. The results can be used directly for numerical simulations in the visible domain. The method can be applied to other materials, such as dielectrics, and to other domain of wavelengths.

  7. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  8. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  9. Staff Development: Fine and Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The Merrimack Education Center in Chelmsford (Massachusetts) responded to needs for stress management training and morale boosting in its 22-district service area with a midwinter "Fitness for Educators" conference. Participants learned techniques for maintaining physical fitness, managing hyperactivity, developing holistic health…

  10. Fantastic Disc Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael R.; Johnson, Romona; Thomas, Jessica; Spell, Melissa; Popham, John; Croft, Brent; Umpleby, Albert; Verbel, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Disc activities are an excellent elementary content area for both skill and fitness enhancement. They may occur through progressive skill and drill practice, small sided-game examples, modifications of traditional disc activities appropriate to large groups, and with adjustments designed to increase activity and fitness levels. For games in this…

  11. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  12. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  13. Fitting Surge Functions to Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of fitting a surge function to a set of data such as that for a drug response curve is considered. A variety of different techniques are applied, including using some fundamental ideas from calculus, the use of a CAS package, and the use of Excel's regression features for fitting a multivariate linear function to a set of transformed…

  14. Health Fitness Standards. Aerobic Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Chuck

    1988-01-01

    An exploration of the current thinking about levels of fitness necessary to meet health fitness standards, with particular focus on aerobic capacity, discusses major health problems, the prevalence of heart disease, how health standards are set, and how health habits change as people age. (CB)

  15. Focal fits during chlorambucil therapy

    PubMed Central

    Naysmith, A.; Robson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An elderly man receiving chlorambucil for chronic lymphatic leukaemia developed focal fits. The onset and frequency were dose related. There was no evidence of metabolic disturbance or of meningeal leukaemia. Although reported in children and well recognized in animals, chlorambucil-induced fits in an adult have not been previously recorded. PMID:118440

  16. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  17. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  18. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  19. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  20. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for you — and how to ... lean muscle mass and burn calories more efficiently? Strength training to the rescue! Strength training is a ...

  1. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  2. [Galaxy spectrum subtraction of a mixed spectrum based on two class PCA eigen-spectra].

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang-Ping; Wu, Fu-Chao; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2010-06-01

    The authors present a new method called two class PCA for decomposing the mixed spectra, namely, for subtracting the host galaxy contamination from each SN spectrum. The authors improved the quality of reconstructed galaxy spectrum and computational efficiency, and these improvements were realized because we used both the PCA eigen spectra of galaxy templates library and SN templates library to model the mixed spectrum. The method includes mainly three steps described as follows. The first step is calculating two class PCA eigen spectra of galaxy templates and SN templates respectively. The second step is determining all reconstructed coefficients by the SVD matrix decomposition or orthogonal transformation. And the third step is computing a reconstructed galaxy spectrum and subtracting it from each mixed spectrum. Experiments show that this method can obtain an accurate decomposition of a mixed synthetic spectrum, and is a method with low time-consumption to get the reliable SN spectrum without galaxy contamination and can be used for spectral analysis of large amount of spectra. The time consumption using our method is much lower than that using chi2-template fitting for a spectrum.

  3. Frequency spectrum analysis for spectrum stabilization in airborne gamma-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Ge, Liangquan; Zhang, Qingxian; Gu, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal multi-crystal spectral drifts often can be observed when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer. Currently, these spectral drifts of each crystal are generally eliminated through manual adjustment, which is time-consuming and labor-ineffective. To realize this quick automatic spectrum stabilization of multi-crystal, a frequency spectrum analysis method for natural gamma-ray background spectrum is put forward in this paper to replace traditional spectrum stabilization method used characteristic peak. Based on the polynomial fitting of high harmonics in frequency spectrum and gamma-ray spectral drift, it calculates overall spectral drift of natural gamma-ray spectrum and adjusts the gain of spectrometer by this spectral drift value, thus completing quick spectrum stabilization in the power on stage of spectrometer. This method requires no manual intervention and can obtain the overall spectral drift value automatically under no time-domain pre-processing to the natural gamma-ray spectra. The spectral drift value calculated by this method has an absolute error less than five channels (1024 resolution) and a relative error smaller than 0.80%, which can satisfy the quick automatic spectrum stabilization requirement when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer instead of manual operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FitSKIRT: Oligochromatic Fitting of Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geyter, G.; Baes, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present the updated version of FitSKIRT, a method to fit radiative transfer models to UV/optical/NIR images of dusty galaxies. Among various improvements made to the code, the most substantial one is the ability to simultaneously fit to several images. This oligochromatic fitting technique (“oligo” stems from Ancient Greek meaning “a few”) can use several reference images, ranging from the UV to NIR, to constrain the parameters of the model more appropriately. Since the alterations made to the code are quite substantial, we revisit the test case used to test the previous version. This new test case is created to check to which degree the improved FitSKIRT is capable of retrieving the initial parameters. Both the images and parameter values are compared to provide insights and valorize the updated fitting procedure. The result is a highly automated fitting routine capable of providing more accurate constraints on both the distribution and properties of stars and dust in dusty galaxies.

  5. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.

  6. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  7. Atmospheric Properties of T Dwarfs Inferred from Model Fits at Low Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Paige A.; Rice, Emily L.; Filippazzo, Joe; Douglas, Stephanie; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that cool over time because they are not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion at their cores. While spectral types (M, L, T, Y) generally correlate with decreasing temperature, spectral subclasses (T0, T1, T2, etc.) do not, suggesting that secondary parameters (gravity, metallicity, dust) play a role in the spectral type-temperature relationship. We investigate this relationship for T dwarfs, which make up the coolest fully-populated spectral class of substellar objects. Our sample consists of 154 T dwarfs with low resolution (R~75-100) near-infrared (~0.8-2.5 micron) spectra from the SpeX Prism Library and the literature. We compare each observed spectrum to synthetic spectra from four model grids using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine robust best-fit parameters and uncertainties. We evaluate the best fit parameters from each model grid per object to constrain how spectral type relates to decreasing temperature and increasing surface gravity and to compare the consistency of each model grid. To test for discrepant results when fitting to relatively narrow wavelength ranges, this analysis is performed on the full spectrum of the Y, J, H, and K bands and on each band separately. New detections of cooler objects extending into the Y dwarf and exoplanet regimes motivate our model comparisons and search for trends with spectral type and other observational properties across the decreasing temperatures in order to better understand the atmospheres of substellar objects, including cool gas giant exoplanets.

  8. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  9. Incremental full configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The incremental expansion provides a polynomial scaling method for computing electronic correlation energies. This article details a new algorithm and implementation for the incremental expansion of full configuration interaction (FCI), called iFCI. By dividing the problem into n-body interaction terms, accurate correlation energies can be recovered at low n in a highly parallel computation. Additionally, relatively low-cost approximations are possible in iFCI by solving for each incremental energy to within a specified threshold. Herein, systematic tests show that FCI-quality energies can be asymptotically reached for cases where dynamic correlation is dominant as well as where static correlation is vital. To further reduce computational costs and allow iFCI to reach larger systems, a select-CI approach (heat-bath CI) requiring two parameters is incorporated. Finally, iFCI provides the first estimate of FCI energies for hexatriene with a polarized double zeta basis set, which has 32 electrons correlated in 118 orbitals, corresponding to a FCI dimension of over 1038.

  10. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  11. Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    fitting its potential wearers, a group of people from a broad spectrum of the population, and will detail some of the methods that can be employed to ensure and validate a good fit.

  12. Complexity of Fit, with Application to Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    fitting its potential wearers, a group of people from a broad spectrum of the population, and will detail some of the methods that can be employed to ensure and validate a good fit.

  13. MissFITS: Basic Maintenance and Packaging Tasks on FITS Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmo, Chiara; Bertin, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    MissFITS is a program that performs basic maintenance and packaging tasks on FITS files using an optimized FITS library. MissFITS can: add, edit, and remove FITS header keywords;split and join Multi-Extension-FITS (MEF) files;unpile and pile FITS data-cubes; and, create, check, and update FITS checksums, using R. Seaman's protocol.

  14. Rhea: Full Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-06

    This giant mosaic reveals Saturn's icy moon Rhea in her full, crater-scarred glory. This view consists of 21 clear-filter images and is centered at 0.4 degrees south latitude, 171 degrees west longitude. The giant Tirawa impact basin is seen above and to the right of center. Tirawa, and another basin to its southwest, are both covered in impact craters, indicating they are quite ancient. The bright, approximately 40-kilometer-wide (25-mile) ray crater seen in many Cassini views of Rhea is located on the right side of this mosaic (at 12 degrees south latitude, 111 degrees west longitude). See PIA07764 for a close-up view of the eastern portion of the bright, ray crater. There are few signs of tectonic activity in this view. However, the wispy streaks on Rhea that were seen at lower resolution by NASA's Voyager and Cassini spacecraft, were beyond the western (left) limb from this perspective. In high-resolution Cassini flyby images of Dione, similar features were identified as fractures caused by extensive tectonism. Rhea is Saturn's second-largest moon, at 1,528 kilometers (949 miles) across. The images in this mosaic were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera during a close flyby on Nov. 26, 2005. The images were acquired as Cassini approached the moon at distances ranging from 79,190 to 58,686 kilometers (49,206 to 36,466 miles) from Rhea and at a Sun-Rhea-spacecraft, or phase, angle of about 19 degrees. Image scale in the mosaic is 354 meters (1,161 feet) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07763

  15. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  16. Coupling of solid-solution and heterojunction in a 2D-1D core-shell-like BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I hierarchy for promoting full-spectrum photocatalysis and molecular oxygen activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwei; Zeng, Chao; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-10-15

    We herein describe the coupling of solid-solution and heterojunction in a 2D-1D BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I hierarchical architecture for optimizing photoabsorption, energy band levels and charge separation, thereby promoting the photo-oxidation and molecular oxygen activation performance. BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I shows a core-shell-like structure with BiOCl0.5I0.5 thin nanoflakes (∼3 to 8 layers) homogeneously vertical coating on the surface of Bi5O7I strips. The photo-responsive range of BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I can be orderly tuned from 450nm to 650nm by increasing the BiOCl0.5I0.5 content. Regardless of visible light (λ>420nm) or UV light (365nm) irradiation, BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I casts highly promoted photocatalytic activity in decomposing methyl orange (MO) compared to the BiOCl0.5I0.5 and Bi5O7I. This enhancement on full-spectrum photoreactivity is attributable to the facilitated charge separation derived from BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I heterojunction with intimate interfacial interaction, which is approved by transient photocurrent response under visible and UV-vis light. To probe the photocatalytic mechanism, active species trapping tests are performed over BiOCl0.5I0.5, Bi5O7I and BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I, which reveal superoxide radical (O2(-)) and hole (h(+)) take dominant roles in photo-oxidation reaction. BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I was also found possessing a stronger ability in molecular oxygen activation with a O2(-) production rate of 2.22×10(-7)molL(-1)h(-1), which far outperforms Bi5O7I (1.35×10(-7)molL(-1)h(-1)) and BiOCl0.5I0.5 (1.54×10(-7)molL(-1)h(-1)). It further corroborates the efficient band charge transfer between BiOCl0.5I0.5 and Bi5O7I. This work may furnish a new concept on smart design of high-performance photocatalytic materials via manipulating multiple strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. II. Experienced users, fitted unilaterally.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, José I; Moore, Brian C J; Marriage, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series comparing three procedures for the initial fitting of multichannel compression hearing aids. The first paper reported the results for a group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted bilaterally. This paper reports the results for a different group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted unilaterally. The three procedures were: (1) CAMEQ, which aims to amplify speech so as to give equal loudness per critical band over the frequency range 500-5000 Hz, and to give similar overall loudness to normal over a wide range of speech levels; (2) CAMREST, which aims to amplify speech so as to restore normal specific loudness patterns, over a wide range of speech levels; and (3) DSL [i/o], which aims to map the dynamic range of normal-hearing people into the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired people, with full restoration of audibility. Each subject was fitted with one Danalogic 163D digital hearing aid, using each of the three fitting procedures in turn; the order was counter-balanced across subjects. Prescribed insertion gains for 55 and 80 dB SPL input levels were verified using real-ear measurements. Immediately after fitting with a given procedure, and 1 week after fitting. the gains were adjusted, when required, by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. On average, the adjustments were smallest for the CAMREST procedure, slightly larger for the CAMEQ procedure, and largest of all for DSL [i/o]. For the DSL [i/o] the gain changes were mostly negative, especially for high frequencies and the higher input level. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least 3 weeks before speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise were measured. The APHAB questionnaire was also administered. The hearing aids were then refitted with the next procedure. SRTs and APHAB scores did not differ significantly between the three procedures. We conclude

  18. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  19. Subclonal components of consensus fitness in an RNA virus clone.

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, E A; Novella, I S; Ledesma, S; Clarke, D K; Moya, A; Elena, S F; Domingo, E; Holland, J J

    1994-01-01

    Most RNA virus populations exhibit extremely high mutation frequencies which generate complex, genetically heterogeneous populations referred to as quasi-species. Previous work has shown that when a large spectrum of the quasi-species is transferred, natural selection operates, leading to elimination of noncompetitive (inferior) genomes and rapid gains in fitness. However, whenever the population is repeatedly reduced to a single virion, variable declines in fitness occur as predicted by the Muller's ratchet hypothesis. Here, we quantitated the fitness of 98 subclones isolated from an RNA virus clonal population. We found a normal distribution around a lower fitness, with the average subclone being less fit than the parental clonal population. This finding demonstrates the phenotypic diversity in RNA virus populations and shows that, as expected, a large fraction of mutations generated during virus replication is deleterious. This clarifies the operation of Muller's ratchet and illustrates why a large number of virions must be transferred for rapid fitness gains to occur. We also found that repeated genetic bottleneck passages can cause irregular stochastic declines in fitness, emphasizing again the phenotypic heterogeneity present in RNA virus populations. Finally, we found that following only 60 h of selection (15 passages in which virus yields were harvested after 4 h), RNA virus populations can undergo a 250% average increase in fitness, even on a host cell type to which they were already well adapted. This is a remarkable ability; in population biology, even a much lower fitness gain (e.g., 1 to 2%) can represent a highly significant reproductive advantage. We discuss the biological implications of these findings for the natural transmission and pathogenesis of RNA viruses. PMID:8207804

  20. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model.

  1. Millimeter Wave Spectrum of Nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, V.

    2016-06-01

    A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane CH_3NO_2 is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 236 GHz have been carried out using spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). The transitions belonging to the m ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. The dataset consisting of 5838 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 50 was fit using a model consisting of 93 parameters and weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.89 has been achieved. In the talk the details of this new study will be discussed. V. Ilyushin, Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczólkowski, H. Mäder, J. T. Hougen J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259 (2010) 26-38.

  2. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  3. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  4. Bilateral fitting subtracting confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiqian; Sheng, Zhong; Qiu, Lirong; Wang, Yun; Shao, Rongjun

    2016-12-20

    This paper proposes a bilateral fitting subtracting confocal microscopy (BFSCM) based on the optical arrangement of conventional confocal microscopy (CM). BFSCM first uses the data in both sides of a confocal axial response curve, which are very sensitive to the axial position of the sample, for respective linear fitting to obtain two fitting straight lines, and then obtains a difference confocal line by subtraction of the two fitting lines. Finally, it calculates the zero position of the difference confocal line to precisely capture the focus position of the confocal system, and thereby achieving a high-precision measurement of the 3D structure of the sample. The theoretical analyses and experiments indicate that BFSCM can improve the axial resolution, and has anti-interference capability and focusing ability with bipolar absolute zero point tracking, while it does not change the structure and lateral resolution of CM. BFSCM provides a novel method for the improvement of CM axial resolution.

  5. Flexible fitting for fluid lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Tube fitting, consisting of movable tubular section containing two spring pressure Teflon actuated low friction seals, two standard connectors, and two hexagonal retaining nuts, provides flexible joint that allows axial and rotational motion.

  6. Physical Fitness in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-17

    situations, deal with the day to day duty demands, and maintain a trim physical appearance. But if it has been years since you exercised , do not run right...how much exercise is required to achieve and maintain a fit unit and secondly, how is this fitness requirement modified by age and sex . The Training...as the activity in which you are involved becomes easier, increase the amount. You can do 7 this by varying the intensity (how hard you exercise as

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: I Zw 1 unusual emission line spectrum (Veron-Cetty+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron-Cetty, M.-P.; Joly, M.; Veron, P.

    2004-02-01

    Fig. 8 represents the synthetic FeII spectrum, derived from I Zw 1, corrected for internal extinction with a Galactic extinction law (Savage & Mathis 1979) and E(B-V)=0.20. template_iwz1.fits is this 1D spectrum, fits format. (1 data file).

  8. Fragile X spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45–54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130–250 females and 1 in 250–810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term “Fragile X Spectrum Disorder” (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  9. Fragile X spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-11-01

    The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45-54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130-250 females and 1 in 250-810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term "Fragile X Spectrum Disorder" (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD.

  10. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, Phillip

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested, and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.

  11. Local area analysis of high-degree solar oscillations: New ring fitting procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Deborah A.; Toomre, Juri; Hill, Frank; Gough, Douglas O.

    1995-01-01

    The local area analysis of five-minute solar oscillations using ring diagrams to determine subphotospheric velocity flows is a tool for convection zone dynamics. In relation to the problem of the large computational task of fitting the rings, a faster method is presented that carries out the ring fitting using data obtained with a high l helioseismometer. Noise sources are eliminated, and a perturbation approach is used to fit the azimuthally averaged spectrum. The parameters determined in this way are held constant while the ring diagram is fitted. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  12. Covariance fitting of highly-correlated data in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Boram; Jang, Yong-Chull; Jung, Chulwoo; Lee, Weonjong

    2013-07-01

    We address a frequently-asked question on the covariance fitting of highly-correlated data such as our B K data based on the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have a fitting function accurate enough to fit extremely precise data. When eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are small, even a tiny error in the fitting function yields a large chi-square value and spoils the fitting procedure. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market, such as the cut-off method, modified covariance matrix method, and Bayesian method. We also propose a brand new method, the eigenmode shift (ES) method, which allows a full covariance fitting without modifying the covariance matrix at all. We provide a pedagogical example of data analysis in which the cut-off method manifestly fails in fitting, but the rest work well. In our case of the B K fitting, the diagonal approximation, the cut-off method, the ES method, and the Bayesian method work reasonably well in an engineering sense. However, interpreting the meaning of χ 2 is easier in the case of the ES method and the Bayesian method in a theoretical sense aesthetically. Hence, the ES method can be a useful alternative optional tool to check the systematic error caused by the covariance fitting procedure.

  13. Spectrum 101: An Introduction to Spectrum Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    This interference can come from another friendly source, a host or neighboring nation source, or an enemy jammer . The DoD has a Joint Spectrum...users, demonstrate this concept. Wireless local area networks (LANs), Bluetooth devices, cordless phones, and microwave ovens all share the same

  14. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  15. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  16. "Plug and play" full-dimensional ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces and anharmonic vibrational analysis for CH4-H2O.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chen; Conte, Riccardo; Houston, Paul L; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-03-28

    The potential energy surface of the methane-water dimer is represented as the sum of a new intrinsic two-body potential energy surface and pre-existing intramolecular potentials for the monomers. Different fits of the CH4-H2O intrinsic two-body energy are reported. All these fits are based on 30 467 ab initio interaction energies computed at CCSD(T)-F12b/haTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ for C and O, cc-pVTZ for H) level of theory. The benchmark fit is a full-dimensional, permutationally-invariant analytical representation with root-mean-square (rms) fitting error of 3.5 cm(-1). Two other computationally more efficient two-body potentials are also reported, albeit with larger rms fitting errors. Of these a compact permutationally invariant fit is shown to be the best one in combining precision and speed of evaluation. An intrinsic two-body dipole moment surface is also obtained, based on MP2/haTZ expectation values, with an rms fitting error of 0.002 au. As with the potential, this dipole moment surface is combined with existing monomer ones to obtain the full surface. The vibrational ground state of the dimer and dissociation energy, D0, are determined by diffusion Monte Carlo calculations, and MULTIMODE calculations are performed for the IR spectrum of the intramolecular modes. The relative accuracy of the different intrinsic two-body potentials is analyzed by comparing the energetics and the harmonic frequencies of the global minimum well, and the maximum impact parameter employed in a sample methane-water scattering calculation.

  17. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  20. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  1. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  2. The CMBR spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, A.

    1997-05-01

    Here we give an introduction to the observed spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and discuss what can be learned about it. Particular attention will be given to how Compton scattering can distort the spectrum of the CMBR. An incomplete bibliography of relevant papers is also provided.

  3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  4. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  5. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 23.625 Section 23.625... Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the... actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at...

  6. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factors. 23.625 Section 23.625... Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the... actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at...

  7. Ligand fitting with CCP4

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are often used to infer biology and inform structure-based drug discovery. Hence, it is important to build accurate, reliable models of ligands that give confidence in the interpretation of the respective protein–ligand complex. This paper discusses key stages in the ligand-fitting process, including ligand binding-site identification, ligand description and conformer generation, ligand fitting, refinement and subsequent validation. The CCP4 suite contains a number of software tools that facilitate this task: AceDRG for the creation of ligand descriptions and conformers, Lidia and JLigand for two-dimensional and three-dimensional ligand editing and visual analysis, Coot for density interpretation, ligand fitting, analysis and validation, and REFMAC5 for macromolecular refinement. In addition to recent advancements in automatic carbohydrate building in Coot (LO/Carb) and ligand-validation tools (FLEV), the release of the CCP4i2 GUI provides an integrated solution that streamlines the ligand-fitting workflow, seamlessly passing results from one program to the next. The ligand-fitting process is illustrated using instructive practical examples, including problematic cases such as post-translational modifications, highlighting the need for careful analysis and rigorous validation. PMID:28177312

  8. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... June 22, 2015 top About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For the Media Contact Us Language ...

  9. Exploration and extension of an improved Riemann track fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandlie, A.; Frühwirth, R.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a new Riemann track fit which operates on translated and scaled measurements has been proposed. This study shows that the new Riemann fit is virtually as precise as popular approaches such as the Kalman filter or an iterative non-linear track fitting procedure, and significantly more precise than other, non-iterative circular track fitting approaches over a large range of measurement uncertainties. The fit is then extended in two directions: first, the measurements are allowed to lie on plane sensors of arbitrary orientation; second, the full error propagation from the measurements to the estimated circle parameters is computed. The covariance matrix of the estimated track parameters can therefore be computed without recourse to asymptotic properties, and is consequently valid for any number of observation. It does, however, assume normally distributed measurement errors. The calculations are validated on a simulated track sample and show excellent agreement with the theoretical expectations.

  10. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  11. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  12. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. I. Experienced users, fitted bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Moore, B C; Alcántara, J I; Marriage, J

    2001-12-01

    We compared the effectiveness of three procedures for the initial fitting of hearing aids with multi-band compression: (1) CAMEQ, which aims to amplify speech so as to give equal loudness per critical band over the frequency range important for speech intelligibility, and to give similar overall loudness to 'normal': (2) CAMREST, which aims to amplify speech so as to restore 'normal' specific loudness patterns, over a wide range of speech levels; (3) DSL I/O, which aims to map the dynamic range of normally hearing people into the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired people, with 'full' restoration of audibility. Ten experienced hearing aid users with moderate sensorineural loss were fitted bilaterally with Danalogic 163D digital hearing aids, using each procedure in turn; the order was counterbalanced across subjects. The fitting required specification of gains for input levels of 55 and 80 dB SPL at six centre frequencies. Real-ear measurements were made to ensure that target gains were reached (+/-3 dB). Immediately after fitting with a given procedure, and one week after fitting, the gains were adjusted when required by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. The amount of adjustment required provides one measure of the adequacy of the initial fitting. On average, the adjustments were smallest for the CAMEQ procedure. The gain changes were slightly larger for the CAMREST procedure and were largest of all for DSL I/O. For the latter, the gain changes were mostly negative, especially for high frequencies and the higher input level. This indicates that the DSL I/O procedure prescribes more high-frequency gain than is preferred by adult users. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least three weeks before filling out the APHAB questionnaire and taking part in laboratory measurements of the speech reception threshold (SRT) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise at levels of 60 and 75 dB SPL

  13. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  14. On the interpretation of the geomagnetic energy spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benton, E.R.; Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two recent high-degree magnetic energy spectra, based mostly on MAGSAT data, are compared and found to agree very well out to order and degree n = 15, but the spectrum remains somewhat uncertain for higher degrees. The hypothesis that a primary break in the slope of the spectrum, plotted semi-logarithmically, is due to a transition from dominance by core sources to dominance by crustal magnetization is tested. Simple arrays of dipoles and current loops are found whose combined fields fit the spectrum. Two distinctly different ranges of source depth are found to be adequate. Because one range is shallow and the other deep, the hypothesis is supported. ?? 1987.

  15. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  16. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  17. A Futuristic Alternative: Campus Fitness Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, C. E.; Oatey, Jennifer Sue

    1980-01-01

    The components of a prescription physical fitness program include a physical examination, fitness and dietary assessment, consultations to determine the fitness and diet prescriptions, instructional sessions, and periodic reviews of the individual's prescription. (CJ)

  18. Measurements and implications of the SDSS DR7 galaxy angular power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Brett P.

    We calculate the angular power spectrum of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) by using a quadratic estimation method with KLcompression. The primary data sample includes over 18 million galaxies covering more than 5,700 square degrees after masking areas with bright objects, reddening greater than 0.2 magnitudes, and seeing of more than 1.5 arcseconds. We also construct a volume-limited sample of 3.2 million galaxies in the same area, consisting of galaxies with absolute r-band magnitudes Mr < --21.2 and photometric redshifts z < 0.4. We test for systematic effects by calculating the angular power spectrum on simulated data and by SDSS stripe, and we find that these measurements are minimally affected by seeing and reddening. We calculate the angular power spectrum for ℓ ≤ 200 multipoles by using 40 bands for the full area data, ℓ ≤ 1000 multipoles using 50 bands for individual stripes, and ℓ ≤ 1600 multipoles using 64 bands for a selected area near the North Galactic Pole at high resolution. We also calculate the angular power spectra for the main galaxy sample separated into 3 magnitude bins, as well as the volume-limited sample separated into 2 redshift shells and early- and late-type galaxies to examine the evolution of the angular power spectrum. We determine the theoretical linear angular power spectrum by projecting the 3D power spectrum to two dimensions for a basic comparison to our observational results for the SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample and subsamples separated by magnitude. For our high resolution and volume-limited samples, we generate nonlinear angular power spectra using CAMB nonlinear 3D matter power spectra for our projections. By minimizing the chi2 fit between these data and the theoretical angular power spectra, we measure a fit of Om = +0.18-0.11 with a linear bias of b = 0.94 +/- 0.04 for the entire SDSS DR7 main galaxy sample, Om = 0.267 +/- 0.038, Ob = 0.045 +/- 0.012, and b = 1

  19. PROSPECT - A Precision Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Prospect Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    PROSPECT, the PRecision Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment, is a multi-phased short baseline reactor antineutrino experiment that aims to precisely measure the U-235 antineutrino spectrum and prob for oscillation effects involving a possible Δm2 1 eV2 scale sterile neutrino. In PROSPECT Phase-I, an optically segmented Li-6 loaded liquid scintillator detector will be deployed at at the baseline of 7-12m from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROSPECT will measure the spectrum of U-235 to aid in resolving the unexplained inconsistency between predictive spectral models and recent experimental measurements using LEU cores, while the oscillation measurement will probe the best fit region suggested by global fitting studies within 1-year data taking. This talk will introduce the design of PROSPECT Phase-I, the discovery potential of the experiment, and the progress the collaboration has made toward realizing PROSPECT Phase-I. Department of Energy

  20. Definition of the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), version 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pence, W. D.; Chiappetti, L.; Page, C. G.; Shaw, R. A.; Stobie, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) has been used by astronomers for over 30 years as a data interchange and archiving format; FITS files are now handled by a wide range of astronomical software packages. Since the FITS format definition document (the “standard”) was last printed in this journal in 2001, several new features have been developed and standardized, notably support for 64-bit integers in images and tables, variable-length arrays in tables, and new world coordinate system conventions which provide a mapping from an element in a data array to a physical coordinate on the sky or within a spectrum. The FITS Working Group of the International Astronomical Union has therefore produced this new version 3.0 of the FITS standard, which is provided here in its entirety. In addition to describing the new features in FITS, numerous editorial changes were made to the previous version to clarify and reorganize many of the sections. Also included are some appendices which are not formally part of the standard. The FITS standard is likely to undergo further evolution, in which case the latest version may be found on the FITS Support Office Web site at fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/">http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/, which also provides many links to FITS-related resources.