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Sample records for full term neonates

  1. Unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction in full term infants

    PubMed Central

    Estan, J.; Hope, P.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the prevalence of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction in infants born at 32 weeks gestation and above; to describe the clinical course, imaging results, and outcome of neonatal cerebral infarction; and to investigate possible aetiology.
METHODS—Twelve cases of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction were identified from neonatal unit records for the years 1987-93. Each case was matched with two controls.
RESULTS—All cases of neonatal cerebral infarction occurred in full term infants. The prevalence was around 1 in 4000, and neonatal cerebral infarction was found in 12% of infants presenting with neonatal seizures. Cerebral ultrasound scans failed to demonstrate lesions seen by computed tomography in nine of 12 cases. Cases were more likely than controls to require assisted ventilation for resuscitation at birth (OR 7.0, 95% confidence interval 1.04-53.5), but Apgar scores at 5 minutes were no different. One infant with neonatal cerebral infarction developed a hemiparesis, the other 11 had normal motor development when assessed at 11-60 (median 33) months. None had overt cognitive deficits or persisting seizure disorder.
CONCLUSIONS—Neonatal cerebral infarction is a relatively common cause of neonatal seizures, but the aetiology remains unclear. Parents need to be made aware of possible neurological sequelae, but most cases in this series had a normal outcome.

 Keywords: cerebral infarction; seizures; neurodevelopmental outcome; stroke; hemiplegia. PMID:9135286

  2. Multivariate analysis of full-term neonatal polysomnographic data.

    PubMed

    Gerla, V; Paul, K; Lhotska, L; Krajca, V

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is one of the most important noninvasive methods for studying maturation of the child brain. Sleep in infants is significantly different from sleep in adults. This paper addresses the problem of computer analysis of neonatal polygraphic signals. We applied methods designed for differentiating three important neonatal behavioral states: quiet sleep, active sleep, and wakefulness. The proportion of these states is a significant indicator of the maturity of the newborn brain in clinical practice. In this study, we used data provided by the Institute for Care of Mother and Child, Prague (12 newborn infants of similar postconceptional age). The data were scored by an experienced physician to four states (wake, quiet sleep, active sleep, movement artifact). For accurate classification, it was necessary to determine the most informative features. We used a method based on power spectral density (PSD) applied to each EEG channel. We also used features derived from electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), ECG, and respiration [pneumogram (PNG)] signals. The most informative feature was the measure of regularity of respiration from the PNG signal. We designed an algorithm for interpreting these characteristics. This algorithm was based on Markov models. The results of automatic detection of sleep states were compared to the "sleep profiles" determined visually. We evaluated both the success rate and the true positive rate of the classification, and statistically significant agreement of the two scorings was found. Two variants, for learning and for testing, were applied, namely learning from the data of all 12 newborns and tenfold cross-validation, and learning from the data of 11 newborns and testing on the data from the 12th newborn. We utilized information obtained from several biological signals (EEG, ECG, PNG, EMG, EOG) for our final classification. We reached the final success rate of 82.5%. The true positive rate was 81.8% and the false

  3. The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d) consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05). The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (p < 0.05) and the estimators of community richness (Chao) indexes (p < 0.05) showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025). In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates. PMID:26287241

  4. Baby massage ameliorates neonatal jaundice in full-term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Sadakata, Mieko; Ishida, Mayumi; Sekizuka, Naoto; Sayama, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common physiological problem affecting over half of all full term and most preterm infants. Thus, newborn infants must be monitored for signs of hyperbilirubinemia to prevent acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. Evidence exists supporting the benefits of baby massage as a form of mild hand to skin contact, to increase neonatal physical and mental development. In the present study, the effects of gentle baby massage on neonatal jaundice in full term newborn infants were evaluated by a controlled clinical trial. The inclusion criteria of newborn neonates were as follows: (1) gestational age of 37-41 weeks, (2) birth weight of 2,800-3,600 g, (3) Apgar score at birth of 8-10, and (4) being a healthy neonate without neonatal asphyxia and hemolytic condition. Breastfed newborns without phototherapy were included: 20 in the massage group and 22 in the control group. We found the mean stool frequency of the massaged infants on day 1 and day 2 (4.6 and 4.3) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3.3 and 2.6) (p<0.05). The transcutaneous bilirubin levels on the second to fifth day and serum total bilirubin levels on fourth day were significantly decreased in the massage group, compared to the control group. In conclusion, baby massage at an early stage after birth could reduce neonatal bilirubin levels. We suggest baby massage is beneficial for ameliorating neonatal jaundice.

  5. The prognostic value of amplitude-integrated EEG in full-term neonates with seizures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Lili; Hou, Xinlin; Sun, Guoyu; Li, Lei; Liu, Yunzhe; Zhou, Congle; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures pose a high risk for adverse outcome in survived infants. While the prognostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is well established in neonates with encephalopathy and asphyxia, neonatal seizure studies focusing on the direct correlation between early aEEG measurement and subsequent neurologic outcome are scarce. In this study, the prognostic value of aEEG features was systematically analyzed in 143 full-term neonates to identify prognostic indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Neonatal aEEG features of background pattern, cyclicity, and seizure activity, as well as the etiology of neonatal seizures, were significantly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at one year of age. aEEG background pattern was highly associated with neurologic outcomes (χ² = 116.9), followed by aEEG cyclicity (χ² = 87.2) and seizure etiology (χ² = 79.3). Multiple linear regression showed that the four predictors explained 71.2% of the variation in neurological outcome, with standardized β coefficients of 0.44, 0.24, 0.22, and 0.14 for the predictors of aEEG background pattern, cyclicity, etiology, and aEEG seizure activity, respectively. This clinically applicable scoring system based on etiology and three aEEG indices would allow pediatricians to assess the risk for neurodevelopmental impairment and facilitate an early intervention in newborns developing seizures.

  6. The Prognostic Value of Amplitude-Integrated EEG in Full-Term Neonates with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lili; Hou, Xinlin; Sun, Guoyu; Li, Lei; Liu, Yunzhe; Zhou, Congle; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures pose a high risk for adverse outcome in survived infants. While the prognostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is well established in neonates with encephalopathy and asphyxia, neonatal seizure studies focusing on the direct correlation between early aEEG measurement and subsequent neurologic outcome are scarce. In this study, the prognostic value of aEEG features was systematically analyzed in 143 full-term neonates to identify prognostic indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Neonatal aEEG features of background pattern, cyclicity, and seizure activity, as well as the etiology of neonatal seizures, were significantly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at one year of age. aEEG background pattern was highly associated with neurologic outcomes (χ2 = 116.9), followed by aEEG cyclicity (χ2 = 87.2) and seizure etiology (χ2 = 79.3). Multiple linear regression showed that the four predictors explained 71.2% of the variation in neurological outcome, with standardized β coefficients of 0.44, 0.24, 0.22, and 0.14 for the predictors of aEEG background pattern, cyclicity, etiology, and aEEG seizure activity, respectively. This clinically applicable scoring system based on etiology and three aEEG indices would allow pediatricians to assess the risk for neurodevelopmental impairment and facilitate an early intervention in newborns developing seizures. PMID:24236076

  7. [Nursing physical examination of the full-term neonate: self-instructional software].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria das Graças de Oliveira; Barbosa, Vera Lucia; Naganuma, Masuco

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to elaborate software about the physical examination of full-term newborns (TNB) for neonatal nursing teaching at undergraduate level. The software was developed according to the phases of planning, content development and evaluation. The construction of the modules was based on Gagné's modern learning theory and structured on the Keller Plan, in line with the systemic approach. The objectives were to elaborate and evaluate the contents of the self-instructional modules, to be used as a teaching strategy in the undergraduate course. After being structured, the material was reviewed and analyzed by 11 neonatal nursing experts, who rated the 42 exposed items as good or excellent.

  8. MR-determined hippocampal asymmetry in full-term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Deanne K; Wood, Stephen J; Doyle, Lex W; Warfield, Simon K; Egan, Gary F; Inder, Terrie E

    2009-02-01

    Hippocampi are asymmetrical in children and adults, where the right hippocampus is larger. To date, no literature has confirmed that hippocampal asymmetry is evident at birth. Furthermore, gender differences have been observed in normal hippocampal asymmetry, but this has not been examined in neonates. Stress, injury, and lower IQ have been associated with alterations to hippocampal asymmetry. These same factors often accompany preterm birth. Therefore, prematurity is possibly associated with altered hippocampal asymmetry. There were three aims of this study: First, we assessed whether hippocampi were asymmetrical at birth, second whether there was a gender effect on hippocampal asymmetry, and third whether the stress of preterm birth altered hippocampal asymmetry. This study utilized volumetric magnetic resonance imaging to compare left and right hippocampal volumes in 32 full-term and 184 preterm infants at term. Full-term infants demonstrated rightward hippocampal asymmetry, as did preterm infants. In the case of preterm infants, hippocampal asymmetry was proportional to total hemispheric asymmetry. This study is the first to demonstrate that the normal pattern of hippocampal asymmetry is present this early in development. We did not find gender differences in hippocampal asymmetry at term. Preterm infants tended to have less asymmetrical hippocampi than full-term infants, a difference which became significant after correcting for hemispheric brain tissue volumes. This study may suggest that hippocampal asymmetry develops in utero and is maintained into adulthood in infants with a normal neurological course.

  9. Tolerance of skin care regimen in healthy, full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Iarkowski, Laura Ellen; Tierney, Neena K; Horowitz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To assess the tolerance of a baby cleanser and lotion (both lightly fragranced) on healthy, full-term neonates. Twenty-six infant-mother pairs were enrolled in a 6-week, nonrandomized, controlled-use study that took place in the routine setting of a pediatric clinic and mothers' homes. During study weeks 1 to 6, neonates were bathed by their mother with water and a test cleanser (JOHNSON'S® HEAD-TO-TOE® Baby Wash). During study weeks 1 to 3, mothers also applied test lotion (JOHNSON'S® Baby Lotion) to the babies' skin immediately after bathing and one to three times/day on bathing and non-bathing days. During study weeks 4 to 6, no lotion was applied. At baseline and weeks 3 and 6, the infants' pediatrician or mother or both performed visual skin assessments. Twenty-three infant-mother pairs completed the study. The mean age of neonates at enrolment was 17.4 days (range, 13-28 days). Pediatrician observations found no clinical signs of irritation, erythema, or dryness with any significant difference in scores of these parameters compared with baseline throughout the study. Assessment of skin softness, smoothness, dryness, and overall skin condition was very good at baseline and remained so with minimal changes throughout the study. Mothers reported improvements versus baseline (P ≤ 0.05) in overall skin appearance, moisturization, softness, and smoothness on the arms and legs at weeks 3 and 6. A total of four (15.4%) subjects experienced adverse events. For three of the subjects, the investigator suspected that the adverse events were unrelated to either of the test products. In one participant, the cause of the adverse event could not be determined. The use of a lightly fragranced nonstinging baby cleanser, with or without a lightly fragranced baby lotion, was well tolerated by newborns and resulted in observable skin benefits per the pediatricians' and mothers' assessment.

  10. Tolerance of skin care regimen in healthy, full-term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Iarkowski, Laura Ellen; Tierney, Neena K; Horowitz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the tolerance of a baby cleanser and lotion (both lightly fragranced) on healthy, full-term neonates. Materials and methods Twenty-six infant–mother pairs were enrolled in a 6-week, nonrandomized, controlled-use study that took place in the routine setting of a pediatric clinic and mothers’ homes. During study weeks 1 to 6, neonates were bathed by their mother with water and a test cleanser (JOHNSON’S® HEAD-TO-TOE® Baby Wash). During study weeks 1 to 3, mothers also applied test lotion (JOHNSON’S® Baby Lotion) to the babies’ skin immediately after bathing and one to three times/day on bathing and non-bathing days. During study weeks 4 to 6, no lotion was applied. At baseline and weeks 3 and 6, the infants’ pediatrician or mother or both performed visual skin assessments. Results Twenty-three infant–mother pairs completed the study. The mean age of neonates at enrolment was 17.4 days (range, 13–28 days). Pediatrician observations found no clinical signs of irritation, erythema, or dryness with any significant difference in scores of these parameters compared with baseline throughout the study. Assessment of skin softness, smoothness, dryness, and overall skin condition was very good at baseline and remained so with minimal changes throughout the study. Mothers reported improvements versus baseline (P ≤ 0.05) in overall skin appearance, moisturization, softness, and smoothness on the arms and legs at weeks 3 and 6. A total of four (15.4%) subjects experienced adverse events. For three of the subjects, the investigator suspected that the adverse events were unrelated to either of the test products. In one participant, the cause of the adverse event could not be determined. Conclusion The use of a lightly fragranced nonstinging baby cleanser, with or without a lightly fragranced baby lotion, was well tolerated by newborns and resulted in observable skin benefits per the pediatricians’ and mothers’ assessment. PMID:23761977

  11. Cranial computed tomography and real-time sonography in full-term neonates and infants

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.J.; Patel, J.; Gado, M.H.; Shackelford, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    The results of cranial ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were compared in 52 full-term neonates and young infants. The chief indications for examination included: increasing head size, dysmorphic features, myelomeningocele, inflammatory disease, and asphyxia. Disorders detected included hydrocephalus, parenchymal abnormalities, intracranial hemorrhage, extraparenchymal fluid collections, and vascular and other developmental malformations. CT and US essentially were equivalent in detecting hydrocephalus, moderate to large intraventricular hemorrhages or subdural collections, and large focal parenchymal lesions, although CT was somewhat better in determining the level and cause of obstruction in patients with hydrocephalus and characterizing parenchymal abnormalities. CT was more sensitive than ultrasound in detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (100% vs. 0%), diffuse parenchymal abnormality (100% vs. 33%), and small intraventricular hemorrhages (100% vs. 0%) but these lesions often were not clinically significant. The results suggest that US should be used as the primary neuroradiological examination in term infants; CT probably should be reserved for further investigation after US in those patients with a history of hypoxia and progressive clinical deterioration.

  12. Development of hydrogen excretion between feeds in breast and artificially fed full-term normal neonates.

    PubMed

    Davies, A G; Fitzgerald, A; Robb, T A; Davidson, G P

    1989-04-01

    The breath hydrogen test for carbohydrate malabsorption has been proved to be sensitive, specific and noninvasive. This study was performed to determine its applicability in the newborn period. Postprandial hydrogen excretion in the first 5 days of life was measured in 105 full-term normal newborns, who were either artificially or breast fed. Samples of expired air were collected via a nasopharyngeal catheter at 30 min intervals between feeds. Some babies showed no hydrogen production after 5 days, while others produced high (200 parts/10(6] levels. The incidence of hydrogen production increased postnatally--more than 80% of babies produced hydrogen by 5 days of age. None of the babies was unwell or developed frequent or loose stools suggestive of clinical carbohydrate malabsorption. It is therefore postulated that these high hydrogen levels reflect biochemical evidence of clinically insignificant carbohydrate malabsorption in this age group. This study shows clearly that an interfeed interval of 4 h in these babies is insufficient to cause breath hydrogen levels to fall in a predictable way. The ethical and practical difficulties in fasting these infants for longer periods suggest that conventional carbohydrate challenges with breath hydrogen estimations will be difficult in the neonate.

  13. Lidocaine response rate in aEEG-confirmed neonatal seizures: Retrospective study of 413 full-term and preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Weeke, Lauren C; Toet, Mona C; van Rooij, Linda G M; Groenendaal, Floris; Boylan, Geraldine B; Pressler, Ronit M; Hellström-Westas, Lena; van den Broek, Marcel P H; de Vries, Linda S

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the seizure response rate to lidocaine in a large cohort of infants who received lidocaine as second- or third-line antiepileptic drug (AED) for neonatal seizures. Full-term (n = 319) and preterm (n = 94) infants, who received lidocaine for neonatal seizures confirmed on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), were studied retrospectively (January 1992-December 2012). Based on aEEG findings, the response was defined as good (>4 h no seizures, no need for rescue medication); intermediate (0-2 h no seizures, but rescue medication needed after 2-4 h); or no clear response (rescue medication needed <2 h). Lidocaine had a good or intermediate effect in 71.4%. The response rate was significantly lower in preterm (55.3%) than in full-term infants (76.1%, p < 0.001). In full-term infants the response to lidocaine was significantly better than midazolam as second-line AED (21.4% vs. 12.7%, p = 0.049), and there was a trend for a higher response rate as third-line AED (67.6% vs. 57%, p = 0.086). Both lidocaine and midazolam had a higher response rate as third-line AED than as second-line AED (p < 0.001). Factors associated with a good response to lidocaine were the following: higher gestational age, longer time between start of first seizure and administration of lidocaine, lidocaine as third-line AED, use of new lidocaine regimens, diagnosis of stroke, use of digital aEEG, and hypothermia. Multivariable analysis of seizure response to lidocaine included lidocaine as second- or third-line AED and seizure etiology. Seizure response to lidocaine was seen in ~70%. The response rate was influenced by gestational age, underlying etiology, and timing of administration. Lidocaine had a significantly higher response rate than midazolam as second-line AED, and there was a trend for a higher response rate as third-line AED. Both lidocaine and midazolam had a higher response rate as third-line compared to second-line AED, which could be due to a pharmacologic synergistic

  14. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources.

  15. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources. PMID:27109095

  16. Effect of Breast-Feeding and Maternal Holding in Relieving Painful Responses in Full-Term Neonates: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Hala M; Shuriquie, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of breast-feeding with maternal holding as compared with maternal holding without breast-feeding in relieving painful responses during heel lance blood drawing in full-term neonates. A convenience sample of 128 full-term newborn infants, in their fourth to sixth days of life, undergoing heel lance blood drawing for screening of hypothyroidism were included in the study. The neonates were randomly assigned into 2 equivalent groups. During heel lance blood drawing for infants, they either breast-fed with maternal holding (group I) or were held in their mother's lap without breast-feeding (group II). The painful responses were assessed simultaneously by 2 neonatal nurses blinded to the purpose of the study. Outcome measures for painful responses of the full-term neonates were evaluated with the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. Independent t test showed significant differences in Premature Infant Pain Profile scale scores among the 2 groups (t = -8.447, P = .000). Pain scores were significantly lower among infants who were breast-fed in addition to maternal holding. Evidence from this study indicates that the combination of breast-feeding with maternal holding reduces painful responses of full-term infants during heel lance blood drawing.

  17. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale as a predictor of cognitive development and IQ in full-term infants: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Canals, Josefa; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Esparó, Griselda; Fernández-Ballart, Joan

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive capacity of neonatal behaviour on infant mental and psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months, and infant intelligence at 6 years. Eighty full-term newborns were followed from 3 days until 6 years. Neonatal behaviour was assessed by the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 3 days postpartum, infant mental and psychomotor development was assessed by the Bayley Scales for Infant Development at 4 and 12 months, and child intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 6 years. Neonatal general irritability was the predictor of mental development at 12 months. Self-regulation behaviours were predictors of psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months and verbal and total intelligence quotient at 6 years. Neonatal orientation was a predictor of performance Wechsler subtests related to visomotor abilities and attention. Neonatal self-regulation behaviours were the best predictors of infant development and intelligence. We suggest that the NBAS could be a useful tool to observe behaviours related to later development in healthy infants. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates-a 30 year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Laura; Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent's and teacher's assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001) and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001) and tertiary (p < 0.004) education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0

  19. Birth-related retinal hemorrhages in healthy full-term newborns and their relationship to maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Yu; Li, Zijing; Lin, Yu; Liu, Ran; Wei, Chunyi; Ding, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose was to explore underlying maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors of retinal hemorrhages (RH) in healthy full-term newborns. A total of 1199 full-term infants, with gestational age more than 37 weeks and Apgar score of 7 or above, were included in this study. Infants with severe systemic diseases or any other eye diseases were excluded. Eye examinations with RetCamIII within 1 week of birth were performed in all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were analyzed and compared between newborns with RH and those without RH. RH was seen in 294 of the 1199 infants (24.5 %) in this study. Among factors examined in the study, spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (odds ratio [OR] =3.811 [95 % CI2.649-5.483], P < 0.001) and cephalhematoma (OR = 1.823 [95 % CI1.009-3.296], P = 0.047) correlated positively with RH occurrence in newborns, while a history of cesarean delivery correlated negatively with RH occurrence (OR = 0.296 [95 % CI0.139-0.630], P = 0.002). There was no statistical correlation found between RH and the other risk factors examined in this study. These factors included gender, gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, volume, and turbidity of amniotic fluid, duration of the first or second stage of labor, anemia, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP), fetal distress, intracranial hemorrhage, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. RH is common in full-term newborns. A lower prevalence of newborn RH was found in infants delivered by mothers with a history of cesarean delivery. In contrast, SVD and cephalhematoma were found to be potential risk factors for the development of newborn RH in full-term infants. Infants with these risk factors may, therefore, require greater attention in regard to RH development.

  20. Late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord in full-term neonates: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Eileen K; Hassan, Eman S

    2007-03-21

    With few exceptions, the umbilical cord of every newborn is clamped and cut at birth, yet the optimal timing for this intervention remains controversial. To compare the potential benefits and harms of late vs early cord clamping in term infants. Search of 6 electronic databases (on November 15, 2006, starting from the beginning of each): the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Neonatal Group trials register, the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL; hand search of secondary references in relevant studies; and contact of investigators about relevant published research. Controlled trials comparing late vs early cord clamping following birth in infants born at 37 or more weeks' gestation. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality of trials and extracted data for outcomes of interest: infant hematologic status; iron status; and risk of adverse events such as jaundice, polycythemia, and respiratory distress. The meta-analysis included 15 controlled trials (1912 newborns). Late cord clamping was delayed for at least 2 minutes (n = 1001 newborns), while early clamping in most trials (n = 911 newborns) was performed immediately after birth. Benefits over ages 2 to 6 months associated with late cord clamping include improved hematologic status measured as hematocrit (weighted mean difference [WMD], 3.70%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.00%-5.40%); iron status as measured by ferritin concentration (WMD, 17.89; 95% CI, 16.58-19.21) and stored iron (WMD, 19.90; 95% CI, 7.67-32.13); and a clinically important reduction in the risk of anemia (relative risk (RR), 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40-0.70). Neonates with late clamping were at increased risk of experiencing asymptomatic polycythemia (7 studies [403 neonates]: RR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.11-13.21; 2 high-quality studies only [281 infants]: RR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.00-15.36). Delaying clamping of the umbilical cord in full-term neonates for a minimum of 2 minutes following birth is

  1. Application of a neonatal assessment of visual function in a population of low risk full-term newborn.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Daniela; Romeo, Domenico M M; Serrao, Francesca; Cesarini, Laura; Gallini, Francesca; Cota, Francesco; Leone, Daniela; Zuppa, Antonio A; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cowan, Frances; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-04-01

    We have previously developed and described a battery of 9 items suitable for assessing different clinical aspects of visual function in newborn infants. Application of the test battery to a cohort of low risk term-born infants at 48 and 72 h after birth 1) to define the normative distribution of results for each item and 2) to document any effect of postnatal age. 124 term-born low risk infants were assessed at 48 h; fifty of them were re-assessed 24 h later at 72 h. The visual test battery was successfully completed in 110 of the 124 infants assessed at 48 h and in all the 50 infants assessed at 72 h after birth. For 3 of the 9 items (fixation on a black/white target of concentric circles, on a coloured (red/yellow) face and horizontal tracking), the findings were very similar at both ages. For the remaining 6 items the range of findings was wider. There was a statistical difference in the responses obtained at 48 and 72 h for vertical and arc tracking (p<0.05) and the ability to discriminate stripes and attention at distance (p<0.001). Our results provide information on the visual abilities in a low risk population of term-born infants and the distribution of frequency of their visual responses to our battery of visual tests. These findings may be used as reference data when using our visual test battery in both clinical and research settings.

  2. Effect of late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord (on haemoglobin level) in full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Nesheli, Hassan Mahmoodi; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Haghshenas, Mohsen; Bijani, Ali; Moghaddams, Tahereh Galini

    2014-11-01

    Sixty term infants delivered vaginally were assigned randomly to one of the two management groups; early cord clamping (ECC) or delayed cord clamping (DCC). Six months after delivery, the children in both groups were called back for follow-up. Blood samples were obtained for measuring haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin (SF) levels. The mean Hb, HCT, SI and TS at 6 months were significantly higher in the DCC group (95% confidence interval (CI); p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.024 and p<0.009). The mean SF at 6 months was also higher in the DCC group but it was not significant (p<0.071). Polycythaemia, jaundice and other undesirable side-effects of DCC were not seen.

  3. Impact of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis upon the intestinal microbiota and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in vaginally delivered full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Milani, Christian; Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Alaez, Lidia; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-08-08

    Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Antibiotics are among the drugs most frequently used in early life, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP), present in over 30% of deliveries, being the most frequent source of exposure. However, our knowledge on the effects of IAP on the microbiota establishment is still limited. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of IAP investigating a cohort of 40 full-term vaginally delivered infants born after an uncomplicated pregnancy, 18 of which were born from mothers receiving IAP. Fecal samples were collected at 2, 10, 30, and 90 days of age. We analyzed the composition of the fecal microbiota during the first 3 months of life by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantified fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. The presence of genes for resistance to antibiotics was determined by PCR in the samples from 1-month-old infants. Our results showed an altered pattern of intestinal microbiota establishment in IAP infants during the first weeks of life, with lower relative proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes and increased of Preoteobacteria and Firmicutes. A delay in the increase on the levels of acetate was observed in IAP infants. The analyses of specific antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher occurrence of some β-lactamase coding genes in infants whose mothers received IAP. Our results indicate an effect of IAP on the establishing early microbiota during the first months of life, which represent a key moment for the development of the microbiota

  4. Size of testes, ovaries, uterus and breast buds by ultrasound in healthy full-term neonates ages 0-3 days.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Summer L; Edgar, J Christopher; Ford, Eileen G; Adgent, Margaret A; Schall, Joan I; Kelly, Andrea; Umbach, David M; Rogan, Walter J; Stallings, Virginia A; Darge, Kassa

    2016-12-01

    Hormonally sensitive organs in the neonate can change size within days of birth as circulating maternal estrogen wanes. Although several reports document the size of these organs through infancy, few focus attention on the near-birth period. Clinical and research evaluation of hormonal and genitourinary disorders would benefit from reference size standards. We describe the size of the uterus, ovaries, testes and breast buds in healthy term neonates. As part of the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study, we sonographically measured the largest diameter of these organs in sagittal, transverse and anterior-posterior planes for 194 female and 204 male newborns up to 3 days old. We calculated mean, median and percentiles for longest axis length and for volume calculated from measured diameters. We evaluated size differences by laterality, gender and race and compared our observations against published values. Mean length and mean volume were as follows: uterus, 4.2 cm and 10.0 cm(3); ovary, 1.0 cm and 0.2 cm(3); testis, 1.1 cm and 0.3 cm(3) (0.4 cm(3) Lambert volume); female breast bud, 1.2 cm and 0.7 cm(3); male breast bud, 1.1 cm and 0.6 cm(3). Breast buds were larger in females than males. Laterality differences were typically below the precision of clinical measurement. No significant race differences were detected. Using data from our large cohort together with published values, we provide guidelines for evaluating the size of reproductive organs within the first 3 days of age. Discrepancies between our results and published values are likely attributable to technique.

  5. Neonatal Outcomes in Early Term Birth

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Laura I.; Reddy, Uma M.; Männistö, Tuija; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey; Hinkle, Stefanie; Chen, Zhen; Lu, Ms. Zhaohui; Laughon, S. Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine neonatal morbidity rates for early term birth compared to full term birth by precursor leading to delivery. Study Design This was a retrospective study of 188,809 deliveries from 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation with electronic medical record data from 2002 to 2008. Precursors for delivery were categorized as spontaneous labor, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), indicated, and no recorded indication. After excluding anomalies, rates of neonatal morbidities by precursor were compared at each week of delivery. Results Early term births (37 0/7 – 38 6/7 weeks) accounted for 34.1% of term births. Overall, 53.6% of early term births were due to spontaneous labor, followed by 27.6% indicated, 15.5% with no recorded indication, and 3.3% with PROM. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and respiratory morbidity were lowest at or beyond 39 weeks compared to the early term period for most precursors, although indicated deliveries had the highest morbidity compared to other precursors. The greatest difference in morbidity was between 37 and 39 weeks for most precursors, while most differences in morbidities between 38 and 39 weeks were not significant. Respiratory morbidity was higher at 37 than 39 weeks regardless of route of delivery. Conclusion Given the higher neonatal morbidity at 37 compared to 39 weeks regardless of delivery precursor, our data support recent recommendations for designating early term to include 37 weeks. Prospective data is urgently needed to determine the optimal timing of delivery for common pregnancy complications. PMID:24631438

  6. The Dubowitz Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Lilly; Ricciw, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    In an ideal world, each neonate should have a comprehensive neurological examination but in practice this is often difficult. In this review we will describe what a routine neurological evaluation in the full-term neonate should consist of and how the Dubowitz examination is performed. The examination has been used for over 20 years and can be…

  7. The Dubowitz Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Lilly; Ricciw, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    In an ideal world, each neonate should have a comprehensive neurological examination but in practice this is often difficult. In this review we will describe what a routine neurological evaluation in the full-term neonate should consist of and how the Dubowitz examination is performed. The examination has been used for over 20 years and can be…

  8. Neurological abnormalities in full-term asphyxiated newborns and salivary S100B testing: the "Cooperative Multitask against Brain Injury of Neonates" (CoMBINe) international study.

    PubMed

    Gazzolo, Diego; Pluchinotta, Francesca; Bashir, Moataza; Aboulgar, Hanna; Said, Hala Mufeed; Iman, Iskander; Ivani, Giorgio; Conio, Alessandra; Tina, Lucia Gabriella; Nigro, Francesco; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Romolo; Marinoni, Emanuela; Zimmermann, Luc J; Gavilanes, Antonio D W; Vles, Hans J S; Kornacka, Maria; Gruszfeld, Darek; Frulio, Rosanna; Sacchi, Renata; Ciotti, Sabina; Risso, Francesco M; Sannia, Andrea; Florio, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns: its prognosis depends both on the severity of the asphyxia and on the immediate resuscitation to restore oxygen supply and blood circulation. Therefore, we investigated whether measurement of S100B, a consolidated marker of brain injury, in salivary fluid of PA newborns may constitute a useful tool for the early detection of asphyxia-related brain injury. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 292 full-term newborns admitted to our NICUs, of whom 48 suffered PA and 244 healthy controls admitted at our NICUs. Saliva S100B levels measurement longitudinally after birth; routine laboratory variables, neurological patterns, cerebral ultrasound and, magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The primary end-point was the presence of neurological abnormalities at 12-months after birth. S100B salivary levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in newborns with PA than in normal infants. When asphyxiated infants were subdivided according to a good (Group A; n = 15) or poor (Group B; n = 33) neurological outcome at 12-months, S100B was significantly higher at all monitoring time-points in Group B than in Group A or controls (P<0.001, for all). A cut-off >3.25 MoM S100B achieved a sensitivity of 100% (CI5-95%: 89.3%-100%) and a specificity of 100% (CI5-95%: 98.6%-100%) as a single marker for predicting the occurrence of abnormal neurological outcome (area under the ROC curve: 1.000; CI5-95%: 0.987-1.0). S100B protein measurement in saliva, soon after birth, is a useful tool to identify which asphyxiated infants are at risk of neurological sequelae.

  9. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of the central nervous system’s (CNS’s) sensory connectivity is driven by modality-specific sensory input in early life. For the somatosensory system, this input is the physical, tactile interaction with the environment. Nociceptive circuitry is functioning at the time of birth; however, there is still considerable organization and refinement of this circuitry that occurs postnatally, before full discrimination of tactile and noxious input is possible. This fine-tuning involves separation of tactile and nociceptive afferent input to the spinal cord’s dorsal horn and the maturation of local and descending inhibitory circuitry. Disruption of that input in early postnatal life (for example, by tissue injury or other noxious stimulus), can have a profound influence on subsequent development, and consequently the mature functioning of pain systems. In this review, the impact of neonatal surgical incision on nociceptive circuitry is discussed in terms of the underlying developmental neurobiology. The changes are complex, occurring at multiple anatomical sites within the CNS, and including both neuronal and glial cell populations. The altered sensory input from neonatal injury selectively modulates neuronal excitability within the spinal cord, disrupts inhibitory control, and primes the immune system, all of which contribute to the adverse long-term consequences of early pain exposure. PMID:26174217

  10. Intracardiac Fungal Mass in a Term Neonate

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M.; Kurkluoglu, Mustafa; Hynes, Conor F.; Klugman, Darren; Puscasiu, Elena; Nath, Dilip S.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic fungal infections pose insidious challenges in neonatal intensive care settings. We present the case of a 9-day-old male term neonate admitted for polymicrobial sepsis and hepatic dysfunction who later developed candidemia superinfection. Despite broad antifungal therapy, the fungemia was complicated by progressive growth of a fungus ball in the right ventricular outflow tract that threatened cardiac function. Surgical excision of the mass was undertaken by right atriotomy and histologic examination confirmed Candida albicans. PMID:28289498

  11. [Neonatal morbidity in early-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nadal, S; Demestre, X; Raspall, F; Alvarez, J A; Elizari, M J; Vila, C; Sala, P

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades has increased significantly The birth of children from 37 to 38 weeks of gestation, a period called early term, has significantly increased in the past twenty years or so, parallel to the increase in induced deliveries and the cesarean rate. Retrospective cohorts population study, which included those babies born between 37 and 41 weeks of gestation in the period 1992-2011 (n=35.539). This population was divided into two cohorts, early term newborn (RNTP) of 37-38 weeks (n=11,318), and full term newborn (RNTC), of 39-41 weeks of gestation (n=24,221). The rates of cesarean section, neonatal unit admission, respiratory morbidity, apnea and need for assisted ventilation, hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, hypoglycemia, seizures, hypoxic-ischemia encephalopathy, need for parenteral nutrition and early sepsis were all reviewed. There was a progressive increase in the number of caesarean sections throughout the period studied (from 30.9% to 40.3%). The cesarean section rate was higher in RNTP than in the RNTC (38.3% vs 31.3%, P<.0001). On comparing the two groups, significant differences were found in the rate of admission to neonatal unit, 9.1% vs 3.5% (P<.0001); respiratory morbidity (hyaline membrane 0.14% vs 0.007% [P<.0001], transient tachypnea 1.71% vs 0.45% [P<.0001], mechanical ventilation 0.2% vs 0.07% [P<.009], continuous positive airway pressure 0.11% vs 0.01% [P<.0001]), phototherapy 0.29% vs 0.07% (P<.0001), hypoglycemia 0.54% vs 0.11% (P<.0001), parenteral nutrition 0.16% vs 0.04% (P<.0001). There were no significant differences in the rate of early sepsis, pneumothorax, aspiration syndromes, seizures and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In our environment, there is a significant number of RNTP, which have a significantly higher morbidity than newborns RNTC registered. After individualizing each case, it is essential not end a pregnancy before 39 weeks of gestation, except for maternal, placental or fetal conditions indicating

  12. Major full thickness skin burn injuries in premature neonate twins.

    PubMed

    Rimdeika, R; Bagdonas, R

    2005-02-01

    Burns in neonates have been reported following the use of pulse oximeters, various electrodes, chemical disinfecting agents and phototherapy blankets. Burn injuries in premature neonates are very rare and there have been no reports on major full skin thickness injuries. This case reports on preterm neonate male twins delivered at a Community Hospital. After the delivery they were placed on water warmers for 15-20 min and then transported into incubators. Burn injuries were noticed 1h after the delivery. Infant One, weight 1500 g, had an injury of 20% TBSA on his dorsum, waist and buttocks. The other infant, weight 1835 g, had an injury of 14% TBSA on the same areas. The infants were transported to the University Hospital. At the seventh day after the injury they recovered from respiratory distress and surgical procedures started. The eschar was excised deep to fascia and wounds were grafted with 0.1mm thickness skin grafts harvested from the thigh and cut into islets. Autografts were protected by overlay with fresh allograft harvested from the twins' father. Surgery procedures were performed in two steps, each second day, not exceeding 10% of total body area during excision. Donor sites healed at the eighth day after the surgery. Burn wounds healed gradually by way of spontaneous replacement of allograft and wound closure by spontaneous epithelization from the autograft islets. Eighteen days after the surgery all the grafted wounds were found epithelized. We conclude that in premature neonates relatively low temperatures may cause deep burn injuries. We recommend the delivery of preterm childbirths at well equipped facilities with staff qualified in nursing of premature neonates.

  13. Neurosonography of the pre-term neonate

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a description of our present understanding of the premature brain as seen through the eyes of the sonogram. Neurosonography of the Pre-Term Neonate ties the pathophysiology, anatomy and the all important clinical follow-up data to the sonogram. The book is divided into five sections: Scanning Techniques and Normal Anatomy, Pathophysiology of Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage and Ischemia, Neurosonography - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia, Incidence and Outcome - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia and Comparison of Two Modalities: Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography.

  14. Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome in preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Dabek, M T; Poeschl, J; Englert, S; Ruef, P

    2013-09-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is treated with a variety of drug preparations. With the optional treatment of NAS with chloral hydrate, phenobarbital or morphine the cumulative drug consumption of the mentioned drugs, the length of hospital stay and treatment duration was evaluated in preterm and term neonates. Retrospective, uncontrolled study which evaluates different therapies of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in preterm and term neonates. During the past 16 years data were obtained from medical records of 51 neonates with NAS; 9 preterm and 35 term neonates were evaluated and 7 were excluded because of incomplete data sets. 31 (72.1%) received a pharmacological treatment (6 preterm and 25 term neonates). Treatment started at 4.3 [3.3-5.3] d. Mean duration of treatment was 11.7 [6.6-16.7] d. In our study chloral hydrate (ch) and phenobarbital (pb) were first line medication escalated by the morphine (mp) solution. Mean cumulative dosage of ch was 643.5 [260.3-1 026.7] mg, of pb 53.2 [19.7-86.8] mg and of mp 4.22 [0-8.99] mg. Our study group showed similar treatment duration and length of hospital stay compared to other studies. The cumulative dose of mp was lower compared to most studies. This benefit resulted at the expense of a further medication with pb and ch. However, 6 of 9 preterm neonates needed significantly less pharmacological therapy compared to term neonates indicating less susceptibility of immature brain to abstinence of maternalo-pioids. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Jaundice in the full-term newborn.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shannon Munro

    2006-01-01

    Jaundice is a common problem affecting over half of all full-term and most preterm infants. Jaundice describes the yellow orange hue of the skin caused by excessive circulating levels of bilirubin that accumulate in the skin. In most healthy full-term newborns, jaundice is noticed during the first week of life. Shortened hospital stays and inconsistent follow up, especially for first-time breastfeeding mothers, prompted the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to update management guidelines. Health care providers need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of jaundice to prevent brain, vision, and hearing damage. Treatment of choice for jaundice remains close observation and frequent feeding followed by phototherapy, and finally exchange transfusion for severe or refractory cases.

  16. Long term effects of neonatal hypoglycaemia on pancreatic function.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Paulose, C S

    2015-02-01

    Low blood glucose in neonates predisposes to long term pancreatic damage. We focused on evaluating long term consequences of neonatal hypoglycaemia in pancreatic functions. Pancreatic function was analysed by measuring DNA/protein synthesis, glucose/ATP uptake in vitro. Gene expression of Pdx1, NeuroD1, Pax4, Bax, caspase 3, Beclin1 were done. Muscarinic receptors were analysed by radio receptor assay. Overall pancreatic efficiency was reduced in one-month-old rats exposed to neonatal hypoglycaemia as indicated by decreased DNA/protein synthesis and glucose/ATP uptake in vitro. Both Pdx1 and Neuro D1 expression were significantly down-regulated whereas Pax4 was up-regulated. Up-regulated Bax, caspase 3 and beclin1 along with reduced muscarinic receptors accounts for activation of cell death pathways. The study revealed a drastic reduction in pancreatic functions along with activation of apoptotic factors in one month old rats exposed to neonatal hypoglycaemia.

  17. [EEG and ischemic stroke in full-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Selton, D; André, M; Hascoët, J M

    2003-06-01

    The aims of this study were to describe EEG anomalies in unilateral neonatal ischemic stroke without hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and to determine possible links between these abnormalities and long-term outcome. In 6 full-term newborns without severe fetal distress ischemic stroke was confirmed by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty EEGs were recorded during the neonatal period, 5 in acute stage and 15 later. The duration of the follow-up ranged from 3 to 9 years. All newborns developed unilateral clonic seizures, right-sided (5 cases) or left-sided (1 case); seizures began between 14 and 48 h of life. At follow-up, 3 children were normal at 2 and 6 years of age, while the 3 others had sequelae: epilepsy at 9 years of age in one, and unilateral mild cerebral palsy in the 2 others (3 and 4 years of age), with behavioral problems in one of them. Critical EEG discharges, rhythmic sharp waves and/or slow waves were recorded on the injured side. Abnormalities of interictal activity were excess of alpha or theta rhythms, transitory EEG discontinuity or low voltage. The 2 children with cerebral palsy had numerous unilateral post-ictal positive rolandic slow sharp waves (PRSSWs), which were similar to the positive rolandic sharp waves of premature infants; the child with behavioral problems had numerous positive left-sided temporal fast sharp waves. PRSSWs could be associated with contralateral motor sequelae, while positive left temporal fast sharp waves were associated with long term behavioral problems. These findings may be used for future prospective studies aimed at specifying the relation between EEG abnormalities and long-term outcome.

  18. Individualized follow up programme and early discharge in term neonates.

    PubMed

    De Carolis, Maria Pia; Cocca, Carmen; Valente, Elisabetta; Lacerenza, Serafina; Rubortone, Serena Antonia; Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2014-07-15

    Early discharge of mother/neonate dyad has become a common practice, and its effects are measured by readmission rates. We evaluated the safety of early discharge followed by an individualized Follow-up programme and the efficacy in promoting breastfeeding initiation and duration. During a nine-month period early discharge followed by an early targeted Follow-up was carried out in term neonates in the absence of weight loss <10% or hyperbilirubinaemia at risk of treatment. Follow-up visits were performed at different timepoints with a specific flow-chart according to both bilirubin levels and weight loss at discharge. During the study period early discharge was performed in 419 neonates and Follow-up was carried out in 408 neonates (97.4%). No neonates required readmission for hyperbilirubinaemia and dehydration during the first 28 days of life. Breastfeeding rate was 90.6%, 75.2%, 41.5% at 30, 90 and 180 days of life, respectively. A six-month phone interview was performed for 383 neonates (93.8%) and satisfaction of parents about early discharge was high in 345 cases (90.1%). Early discharge in association with an individualized Follow-up programme resulted safe for the neonate and effective for breastfeeding initation and duration.

  19. Neonatal and longer term management following substance misuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mactier, Helen

    2013-11-01

    Substance misuse in pregnancy is not a new problem, but although impaired foetal growth and the risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome are widely appreciated, relatively little attention has been paid to longer term consequences for the infant. Available evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to opioids and other drugs of misuse is detrimental to the developing foetal brain; consistent with this, poor in utero head growth, delayed infant visual maturation and impaired general neurodevelopmental progress independent of social confounders are increasingly being recognised. This review considers current evidence and discusses best practice in the neonatal management and follow-up of affected babies. More studies are required to explore alternatives to methadone maintenance in pregnancy and to define optimal treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. All infants born to drug-misusing mothers must be considered vulnerable, even if they have not required treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thromboelastography in term neonates: an alternative approach to evaluating coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Elizabeth K; Forman, Katie R; Wong, Edward C C; Gallagher, Meanavy; Luban, Naomi L C; Massaro, An N

    2017-01-01

    To develop normative ranges for citrate-modified and heparinase-modified thromboelastography (TEG) in term neonates. Prospective observational study. An outborn neonatal and cardiac intensive care unit in a free-standing academic children's hospital. Thirty term neonates were enrolled as control subjects. Seventeen infants with clinically documented bleeding requiring blood transfusion were enrolled in the comparison group. Citrate-modified and heparinase-modified TEG parameters were calculated from blood specimens drawn via peripheral arterial stick or arterial line. TEG in neonates differs from older children and adults; clotting time (R) and clot kinetics (K) values are generally lower while fibrinolysis or rate of clot breakdown (LY30) and coagulation index (CI) are often higher in neonates. TEG values in term neonates calculated as median (Q1-Q3) are as follows: R 4.150 (3.200-6.200), K 1.550 (1.200-1.800), α angle (α) 70.100 (66.000-72.900), maximum amplitude (MA) 61.850 (59.400-66.000), LY30 1.050 (0.100-1.600) and CI 1.950 (0.100 to 2.900). Cut points selected for optimal predictive value for bleeding using receiver operating curve analyses were R>6.3 (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 80%); K>2.5 (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 96.7%); α<59 (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 96.7%); MA<57 (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 86.7%); CI<-0.15 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 83.3%). The reference ranges and cut points for citrate-modified and heparinase-modified TEG can be used to diagnose and evaluate coagulopathy in term neonates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Association of cord blood levels of IL-17A, but not TGF-β with pre-term neonate.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Masoud; Mirzaie, Sakineh; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Sabzali, Zahra; Ghyasi, Mina; Mokhtari, Mitra; Bahramabadi, Reza; Hakimi, Hamid; Ghorban, Khodayar; Dadmanesh, Maryam; Ehsani, Vahid; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    It has been documented that cytokines play important roles in the induction of normal functions of the placenta. It has been hypothesized that abnormal expression of the cytokines may be associated with unsuccessful pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and tumor growth factor (TGF-β) in pre-term, term neonates, and their corresponding mothers. This study was performed on 100 term and 60 pre-term neonates, and also on their corresponded mothers. Serum levels of IL-17A and TGF-β were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results revealed that the serum levels of IL-17A were significantly decreased in pre-term neonates in comparison to full-term neonates. However, the serum levels of IL-17A in the mothers either with pre-term or full-term neonates were not different. Also the serum levels of TGF-β were not changed in pre-term neonates and their mothers when compared with full-term neonates and their mothers, respectively. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that IL-17A may play crucial roles in induction of normal pregnancies and also probably participates in normal growth of fetus.

  2. Association of cord blood levels of IL-17A, but not TGF-β with pre-term neonate

    PubMed Central

    Mobini, Masoud; Mirzaie, Sakineh; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Sabzali, Zahra; Ghyasi, Mina; Mokhtari, Mitra; Bahramabadi, Reza; Hakimi, Hamid; Ghorban, Khodayar; Dadmanesh, Maryam; Ehsani, Vahid; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been documented that cytokines play important roles in the induction of normal functions of the placenta. It has been hypothesized that abnormal expression of the cytokines may be associated with unsuccessful pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and tumor growth factor (TGF-β) in pre-term, term neonates, and their corresponding mothers. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 100 term and 60 pre-term neonates, and also on their corresponded mothers. Serum levels of IL-17A and TGF-β were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Our results revealed that the serum levels of IL-17A were significantly decreased in pre-term neonates in comparison to full-term neonates. However, the serum levels of IL-17A in the mothers either with pre-term or full-term neonates were not different. Also the serum levels of TGF-β were not changed in pre-term neonates and their mothers when compared with full-term neonates and their mothers, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be concluded that IL-17A may play crucial roles in induction of normal pregnancies and also probably participates in normal growth of fetus. PMID:26330848

  3. Neonatal morbidity after spontaneous labor onset prior to intended cesarean delivery at term: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Glavind, Julie; Milidou, Ioanna; Uldbjerg, Niels; Maimburg, Rikke; Henriksen, Tine B

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate if labor onset before planned cesarean delivery (CD) affects the risk of neonatal admission, respiratory distress, or neonatal infectious morbidity. Our cohort included singleton term pregnant women with intended CD who delivered at Aarhus University Hospital from 1990 to 2012. Two groups of women were identified: women with intended CD performed before labor (nonlabor CD) and women with intended CD performed after spontaneous labor onset (labor-onset CD); in both groups there was no other maternal or fetal medical indication for an immediate CD or for early-term CD scheduling. Data were stratified in early-term (37-38 weeks) and full-term (39-40 weeks) deliveries. The main outcome measures were neonatal admission, respiratory distress and neonatal infectious morbidity. Among 103 919 live births, 5071 deliveries were nonlabor CDs and 731 were labor-onset CDs. Compared to nonlabor CD, labor-onset CD was associated with similar risks of neonatal admission and respiratory distress, both at early and full term, but with a two- to three-fold increased risk of newborn septicemia or antibiotic treatment at early term. Labor onset at early term was associated with a lower risk of maternal blood loss of more than 500 mL, but with a higher risk of postoperative antibiotic treatment and endometritis. Labor onset before planned CD was not associated with a decrease in neonatal respiratory morbidity, but may be associated with increased risks of neonatal infection. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Savajols, Elodie; Burguet, Antoine; Grimaldi, Marianne; Godoy, Florence; Sagot, Paul; Semama, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st) 2009 and December 31(st) 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]). There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  5. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  6. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  7. Neonatal management and long-term sequelae.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Henry L

    2009-12-01

    Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction is best defined by using customised birth weight percentiles based upon the growth potential for an individual infant. Growth restriction in utero may be classified as asymmetric or symmetric depending upon the duration of the process. Asymmetric growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, maternal hypertensive conditions, long-standing maternal diabetes, smoking, living at altitude or multiple gestation. Symmetric growth restriction may be due to congenital infections, chromosomal or other abnormalities, fetal alcohol syndrome, low socioeconomic status or be constitutional. The underlying cause of growth restriction often predicts the potential adverse effects on the foetus and newborn and later effects in childhood and adulthood. With placental insufficiency, there may be chronic or acute on chronic fetal hypoxia with birth asphyxia and hypothermia, neonatal hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and coagulopathy. Management is directed at prevention or early treatment of these conditions. In contrast, symmetrically growth-restricted infants should be examined carefully to look for congenital infections and malformations that may need specific interventions. Infants with constitutional short stature generally do not need any specific management. Feeding of growth-restricted infants is important to overcome deficiencies incurred in utero. Most infants show catch-up growth although about 10% do not. Those with excessive catch-up growth may be at greatest risk of developing insulin resistance in adulthood leading to diabetes, obesity and heart disease. The so-called fetal origins of disease may actually have a postnatal onset related more to excessive weight gain in infancy. There is still controversy over the indications for growth hormone treatment in growth-restricted infants who remain of short stature in early childhood. Intrauterine growth restriction is also associated with a five- to seven-fold increased risk of

  8. Car Seat Screening for Low Birth Weight Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Davis, Natalie L

    2015-07-01

    Car seat tolerance screening (CSTS) is a common predischarge assessment of neonates. Almost half of nurseries and NICUs have low birth weight (LBW, <2.5 kg) as an inclusion criterion, regardless of birth gestational age (GA). Little is known about the epidemiology of CSTS in this cohort. The objective of this study was to identify incidence and risk factors for CSTS failure in term LBW infants. This was a retrospective medical record review of 220 full-term LBW infants qualifying for CSTS over a 4-year period between January 2010 to December 2013. We described CSTS results and performed bivariate analyses to evaluate for predictors of failure. Overall failure incidence was 4.8%. There were no differences between those who passed and those who failed based on birth weight, birth GA, race, gender, Apgar scores, respiratory support requirements, magnesium exposure, corrected GA, or weight at the time of CSTS. Maternal urine toxicology positive for opiates was found to be a significant predictor of CSTS failure. Of the 9 subjects who failed, 2 had a specific diagnosis identified (Prader-Willi syndrome and long QT syndrome) after a failed CSTS prompted closer examination and workup before discharge. We found a similar incidence of failure for full-term LBW infants as has been previously reported for preterm infants. The infants who failed were more likely to have mothers who tested positive for opiates before delivery. Epidemiologic data are provided to help guide future CSTS policies and protocol development for this group. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. A Rare Full-Term Newborn Case of Rib Osteomyelitis with Suspected Preceding Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Sahoko; Fujimoto, Hiroki; Kawamoto, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Acute osteomyelitis is uncommon in full-term neonates and occurs most frequently in those with critical illnesses, often following episodes of sepsis, skin infection, umbilical catheterization, urinary tract anomalies, or a complicated delivery. Here, we report a very rare case of acute rib osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in a 13-day-old full-term male neonate. Ultrasonography (US) enabled diagnosis and revealed a coexisting costochondral junction rib fracture, which was not detected on routine chest radiography. Following a 29-day course of intensive parenteral antibiotic therapy, the patient was discharged in good health at 42 days of age without any scar formation. Due to its accessibility and safety, US can be a promising modality for detecting acute osteomyelitis in neonates with clinically highly suspected conditions in the neonatal intensive care unit setting, particularly those involving thin and mobile bones subject to respiratory motion. However, further studies are required to assess the utility of US in these cases and negative results. In low-risk neonates with osteomyelitis, an accompanying fracture should be considered. PMID:26929860

  10. To Study the Correlation of Thompson Scoring in Predicting Early Neonatal Outcome in Post Asphyxiated Term Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha; Dolker, Stanzin; Kothapalli, Sharada

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world each year, an estimated 23% of the 4 million neonatal deaths and 8% of all deaths in <5 years of age are associated with signs of asphyxia at birth. Aim To study the role of cord arterial blood gas analysis at birth and serial Thompson score in predicting the early neonatal outcome in post asphyxiated term neonates. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics, in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi from May 2014 to February. 2015. This study was a prospective cross-sectional study. During this period, a total of 145 post asphyxiated term neonates born in labour room/obstetric operation theatre were recruited. An informed consent was taken from all the parents. The protocol was approved by the institutional ethical committee. Inclusion criteria were full-term babies with low-Apgar score i.e., 1 min score of ≤ 7 National Neonatal Perinatal Database 2010 (NNPD 2010). Statistical Analysis SPSS 17.0 Software has been used for data analysis. The data were expressed in terms of Means, Standard Deviation and Proportion, followed by comparison between groups through chi-square test or Fisher’s-exact test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The present study was carried out on 145 post asphyxiated full-term babies with low-Apgar score i.e., 1min score of ≤7mild Thompson score on day I,2,3 were 96 (66.2%), 119 (82.06%), 125 (86.20%), moderate Thompson score on day 1,3, 7 were 13 (8.9%), 6 (4.13%), 2 (1.37%) and severe Thompson score on day 1, 3, 7 were 36 (24.8%), 13 (8.96%), 7 (4.82%) respectively. Total 11 patients died out of 145 post asphyxiated full-term babies within 7 days, among 11 patients, 7 died within 3 days. There was clinical improvement among HIE patients as indicated by serial Thompson score done on day 1, 3 and 7. Among 145 patients 62(42.8%) had seizure and 83(57.2%) did not have seizure. Most common type of

  11. To Study the Correlation of Thompson Scoring in Predicting Early Neonatal Outcome in Post Asphyxiated Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Bhagwani, Dalip Kumar; Sharma, Manisha; Dolker, Stanzin; Kothapalli, Sharada

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world each year, an estimated 23% of the 4 million neonatal deaths and 8% of all deaths in <5 years of age are associated with signs of asphyxia at birth. To study the role of cord arterial blood gas analysis at birth and serial Thompson score in predicting the early neonatal outcome in post asphyxiated term neonates. The study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics, in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi from May 2014 to February. 2015. This study was a prospective cross-sectional study. During this period, a total of 145 post asphyxiated term neonates born in labour room/obstetric operation theatre were recruited. An informed consent was taken from all the parents. The protocol was approved by the institutional ethical committee. Inclusion criteria were full-term babies with low-Apgar score i.e., 1 min score of ≤ 7 National Neonatal Perinatal Database 2010 (NNPD 2010). SPSS 17.0 Software has been used for data analysis. The data were expressed in terms of Means, Standard Deviation and Proportion, followed by comparison between groups through chi-square test or Fisher's-exact test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The present study was carried out on 145 post asphyxiated full-term babies with low-Apgar score i.e., 1min score of ≤7mild Thompson score on day I,2,3 were 96 (66.2%), 119 (82.06%), 125 (86.20%), moderate Thompson score on day 1,3, 7 were 13 (8.9%), 6 (4.13%), 2 (1.37%) and severe Thompson score on day 1, 3, 7 were 36 (24.8%), 13 (8.96%), 7 (4.82%) respectively. Total 11 patients died out of 145 post asphyxiated full-term babies within 7 days, among 11 patients, 7 died within 3 days. There was clinical improvement among HIE patients as indicated by serial Thompson score done on day 1, 3 and 7. Among 145 patients 62(42.8%) had seizure and 83(57.2%) did not have seizure. Most common type of seizure was subtle seizure in 25 (40.3%) followed by multifocal in 21 (33

  12. Complement and contact activation in term neonates after fetal acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, J.; Wagner, M.; Strauss, E.; Obladen, M.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate complement and contact activation after fetal acidosis.
METHODS—Fifteen term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy after umbilical arterial pH < 7.10 were compared with 15 healthy neonates with umbilical arterial pH > 7.20. Determinations of the complement function and C1-inhibitor activity were performed as kinetic tests 22-28 hours after birth. C1q, C1-inhibitor, and factor B concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion and those of C3a, C5a, and factor XIIa by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay.
RESULTS—Median complement function (46 vs 73 %), C1q (4.3 vs 9.1 mg/dl), and factor B (5.2 vs 7.7 mg/dl) decreased after fetal acidosis. The activated split products C3a (260 vs 185 µg/l), C5a (5.0 vs 0.6 µg/l), and factor XIIa (3.2 vs 1.3 µg/l) increased in the neonates after fetal acidosis. No differences were found in the concentration and activity of C1-inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS—Complement and contact activation occurred in the newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Activation of these systems generates mediators which can trigger inflammation and tissue injury.

 PMID:9577283

  13. Long-term clinical outcome of neonatal EEG findings.

    PubMed

    Almubarak, Salah; Wong, Peter K H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study is to determine how specific EEG findings during neonatal period correlate with clinical outcome on follow-up. This is a retrospective study of 118 term newborns who had EEG in the first month of life and subsequent clinical assessment between 4 and 16 years. Clinical neurologic outcome was classified into "favorable" when patients had no or only mild limitation in assessment, "unfavorable" when patients had moderate to severe abnormalities in assessment, and "epilepsy" when patients had seizures. Of the 118 neonates, 36 (30.5%) had favorable and 82 (69.5%) had unfavorable outcome; 89 (75.4%) had epilepsy and 28 (23.7%) had not. Sixty-seven (57%) had abnormal EEG background of which 56 had both unfavorable outcome and epilepsy; 102 (86%) had sharp transient discharges of which 75 had unfavorable outcome; 20 (17%) had ictal epileptiform discharges of which 18 had unfavorable outcome; 98 (83%) had abnormal overall EEG impression of which 77 had unfavorable outcome and 80 had epilepsy. Abnormal EEG background (particularly suppression) during neonatal period may be predictive of Unfavorable outcome. Overall impression of EEG may be predictive of clinical outcome, even when individual parameters were not predictive. Other findings did not appear to be predictive.

  14. Short-term survival of hyperammonemic neonates treated with dialysis.

    PubMed

    Picca, Stefano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Bartuli, Andrea; De Palo, Tommaso; Papadia, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Materassi, Marco; Donati, Maria Alice; Verrina, Enrico; Schiaffino, Maria Cristina; Pecoraro, Carmine; Iaccarino, Emilia; Vidal, Enrico; Burlina, Alberto; Emma, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    In severe neonatal hyperammonemia, extracorporeal dialysis (ECD) provides higher ammonium clearance than peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, there are limited outcome data in relation to dialysis modality. Data from infants with hyperammonemia secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) treated with dialysis were collected in six Italian centers and retrospectively analyzed. Forty-five neonates born between 1990 and 2011 were enrolled in the study. Of these, 23 were treated with PD and 22 with ECD (14 with continuous venovenous hemodialysis [CVVHD], 5 with continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis [CAVHD], 3 with hemodialysis [HD]). Patients treated with PD experienced a shorter duration of predialysis coma, while those treated with HD had a shorter ammonium decay time compared with all the other patients (p < 0.05). No difference in ammonium reduction rate was observed between patients treated with PD, CAVHD or CVVHD. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency (CPS) was significantly associated with increased risk of death (OR: 9.37 [1.52-57.6], p = 0.016). Predialysis ammonium levels were significantly associated with a composite end-point of death or neurological sequelae (adjusted OR: 1.13 [1.02-1.27] per 100 μmol/l, p = 0.026). No association was found between outcome and dialysis modality. In this study, a delayed ECD treatment was not superior to PD in improving the short-term outcome of neonates with hyperammonemia secondary to IEM.

  15. Nursing and midwifery management of hypoglycaemia in healthy term neonates.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Vivien; Watts, Robin; Robertson, Jeanette; Haddow, Gaby

    2005-08-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The primary objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence for maintenance of euglycaemia* in healthy term neonates, and the management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia in otherwise healthy term neonates. TYPES OF STUDIES: The review included any relevant published or unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Studies that focus on the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care devices for blood glucose screening and/or monitoring in the neonate were initially included as a subgroup of this review. However, the technical nature and complexity of the statistical information published in diagnostic studies retrieved during the literature search stage, as well as the considerable volume of published research in this area, suggested that it would be more feasible to analyse diagnostic studies in a separate systematic review. The review focused on studies that included healthy term (37- to 42-week gestation) appropriate size for gestational age neonates in the first 72 h after birth. •  preterm or small for gestational age newborns; •  term neonates with a diagnosed medical or surgical condition, congenital or otherwise; •  babies of diabetic mothers; •  neonates with symptomatic hypoglycaemia; •  large for gestational age neonates (as significant proportion are of diabetic mothers). TYPES OF INTERVENTION: All interventions that fell within the scope of practice of a midwife/nurse were included: •  type (breast or breast milk substitutes), amount and/or timing of feeds, for example, initiation of feeding, and frequency; •  regulation of body temperature; •  monitoring (including screening) of neonates, including blood or plasma glucose levels and signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Interventions that required initiation by a medical practitioner were excluded from the review. Outcomes that were of interest included: •  occurrence of hypoglycaemia; •  re-establishment and maintenance

  16. Gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes for term babies.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Liam; Prior, Tomas; Greer, Ristan; Kumar, Sailesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the gender specific intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in term, singleton, appropriately grown babies. De-identified, routinely collected data of all women meeting inclusion criteria between 2001 and 2011 were examined (n=9223). Inclusion criteria were public (non-insured), primiparous women who had delivered singleton, appropriately grown babies at term. In this retrospective cohort study, we estimated 95% confidence intervals. Outcomes measured were maternal demographics, mode of delivery, birthweight, APGAR score, cord blood acidemia, respiratory distress, any resuscitation requirement, nursery admission and stillbirth rates. The sex ratio of male babies was 1.05:1 (4718 males; 4505 females, p=0.85). Male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental (p=0.004) or caesarean (p<0.001). Birthweight was found to be a significant influencing factor on mode of delivery. Even after adjusting for birthweight, male babies were more likely to be delivered by instrumental delivery (OR 1.24, p<0.001), as well as by emergency caesarean for failure to progress (OR 1.24, p=0.04) and fetal distress (OR 1.38, p<0.001). Male babies, despite having greater birthweights than female babies (p<0.001), were more likely to have lower APGAR scores at 5 min (p=0.004), require neonatal resuscitation (p<0.001), develop respiratory distress (p=0.005) and require nursery admission (p<0.001). No statistical difference between male and female babies was found for cord blood acidemia (p=0.58) or stillbirth (p=0.49). This large cohort study demonstrates that term, appropriately grown male babies in primiparous pregnancies fare more poorly in the intrapartum and neonatal periods than female babies. Even when birthweight was accounted for, male babies still required higher rates of intervention in the intrapartum and neonatal periods. This suggests gender may play an independent role in influencing pregnancy outcomes, although the underlying

  17. Obstetric outcomes of isolated oligohydramnios during early-term, full-term and late-term periods and determination of optimal timing of delivery.

    PubMed

    Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Akpinar, Funda; Demirdag, Erhan; Yerebasmaz, Neslihan; Ensari, Tugba; Akyol, Aysegul; Ulubas Isik, Dilek; Yalvac, Serdar

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the obstetric outcomes of isolated oligohydramnios during the early-term, full-term, and late-term periods, and to determine the optimal timing of delivery. A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary center. Isolated oligohydramnios cases were divided into early-term, full-term, and late-term groups. Evaluated outcomes were fetal birthweight, 5-min Apgar score < 7, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, neonatal intensive care unit admission, transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN), requirement of ventilator, newborn jaundice, mode of delivery, induction of labor, and undiagnosed small-for-gestational-age fetus before delivery. Composite outcome was defined as perinatal outcomes taken together (neonatal intensive care unit admission, TTN, requirement of ventilator, and newborn jaundice). The study period included 1213 cases of term isolated oligohydramnios. Within this cohort there were 347 early-term, 781 full-term and 85 late-term patients. The cesarean rate and the rate of newborn jaundice were higher in early-term cases (37.8% and 3.5%, respectively) than in full-term cases (30.1% and 0.9%, respectively). Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was higher in late-term than full-term cases. Timing of delivery did not affect occurrence of TTN, 5-min Apgar score < 7, ventilator requirement, or composite outcome. In total, 15-17% of isolated oligohydramnios cases involved undetected small-for-gestational-age fetuses. As this study was not a randomized controlled trial, a decisive conclusion may not be possible. However, until well-designed controlled studies are conducted, expectant management may be appropriate up to the full-term period and induction of labor may be appropriate management when the full-term period is reached. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Neonatal outcomes of late preterm and early term birth.

    PubMed

    Machado, Luis C; Passini, Renato; Rosa, Izilda R; Carvalho, Heráclito B

    2014-08-01

    To compare neonatal deaths and complications in infants born at 34-36 weeks and six days (late preterm: LPT) with those born at term (37-41 weeks and six days); to compare deaths of early term (37-38 weeks) versus late term (39-41 weeks and six days) infants; to search for any temporal trend in LPT rate. A retrospective cohort study of live births was conducted in the Campinas State University, Brazil, from January 2004 to December 2010. Multiple pregnancies, malformations and congenital diseases were excluded. Control for confounders was performed. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. After exclusions, there were 17,988 births (1653 late preterm and 16,345 term infants). A higher mortality in LPT versus term was observed, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 5.29 (p<0.0001). Most complications were significantly associated with LPT births. There was a significant increase in LPT rate throughout the study period, but no significant trend in the rate of medically indicated deliveries. A higher mortality was observed in early term versus late term infants, with adjusted OR: 2.43 (p=0.038). LPT and early term infants have a significantly higher risk of death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal opiate abstinence syndrome in term and preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Doberczak, T M; Kandall, S R; Wilets, I

    1991-06-01

    Data on 178 term and 34 preterm infants born to methadone-maintained mothers were analyzed to assess the effects of neonatal opiate abstinence in infants of varying gestational ages. More mothers in the term group (79%) than in the preterm group (53%) had abused other drugs during pregnancy (p less than 0.001). Mean (+/- SD) gestational age was 39.5 weeks +/- 1.4 for term infants and 34.3 weeks +/- 2.6 for preterm infants. On the basis of a semiobjective symptom scoring scale, term infants had more severe abstinence symptoms and more prominent central nervous system manifestations than preterm infants. The severity of abstinence symptoms correlated with maternal methadone dosage in both term and preterm infants. Maternal multiple drug abuse (e.g., heroin, cocaine) did not influence severity of abstinence symptoms in either group. More term infants (145/178) than preterm infants (20/34) required treatment for these symptoms (p less than 0.005). In 13 of 178 term infants, compared with 1 of 34 preterm infants, abstinence-related seizures developed. Peak severity occurred 1 to 2 days earlier in term than in preterm infants. A less severe abstinence syndrome in preterm infants may be due to (1) developmental immaturity of either dendritic ramifications, specific opiate receptors, or neurotransmitter function, or (2) reduced total drug exposure during the intrauterine period.

  20. Association of maternal scaffolding to maternal education and cognition in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean R; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Schrader, Ron; Fuller, Janell

    2013-01-01

    Parental behaviour described as 'scaffolding' has been shown to influence outcomes in at-risk children. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal verbal scaffolding in toddlers born preterm and full term. The scaffolding behaviour of mothers of toddlers born preterm and healthy full term was compared during a 5-min videotaped free play session with standardized toys. We compared two types of scaffolding and their associations with socio-demographic, neonatal medical factors and cognition. The mothers of toddlers born full term used more complex scaffolding. Maternal education was associated with complex scaffolding scores for the preterm children only. Specifically, the preterm children who were sicker in the neonatal period, and whose mothers had higher education, used more complex scaffolding. In addition, children born preterm, who had less days of ventilation, had higher cognitive scores when their mothers used more complex scaffolding. Similarly, cognitive and scaffolding scores were higher for children born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive styles of toddlers born preterm compared with full term. Teaching parents play methods that support early problem-solving skills may support a child's method of exploration and simultaneously their language development. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  1. Creatine, Glutamine plus Glutamate, and Macromolecules Are Decreased in the Central White Matter of Premature Neonates around Term.

    PubMed

    Koob, Meriam; Viola, Angèle; Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Ratiney, Hélène; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Girard, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates. Thirty-two infants, 16 term neonates (mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.8±1 weeks) and 16 premature neonates (mean gestational age at birth: 29.1±2 weeks, mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.2±1 weeks) were investigated. The MRI/MRS protocol performed at 1.5T involved diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS with the Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Preterm neonates showed significantly higher ADC values in the temporal white matter (P<0.05), the occipital white matter (P<0.005) and the thalamus (P<0.05). The proton spectrum of the centrum semiovale was characterized by significantly lower taurine/H2O and macromolecules/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 30 ms, and reduced (creatine+phosphocreatine)/H2O and (glutamine+glutamate)/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 135 ms in the preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. Our findings indicate that premature neonates with normal conventional MRI present a delay in brain maturation affecting the white matter and the thalamus. Their brain metabolic profile is characterized by lower levels of creatine, glutamine plus glutamate, and macromolecules in the centrum semiovale, a finding suggesting altered energy metabolism and protein synthesis.

  2. Long-Term Outcomes of Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Denise J; Taylor, Susan; Armstrong, Kathleen; Shaffer-Hudkins, Emily; Germain, Aaron M; Brooks, Sandra S; Cline, Genieveve J; Clark, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Parents of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the NICU may have questions about the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to methadone, both asked and unasked. Although the signs of withdrawal will abate relatively quickly, parents should be aware of potential vision, motor, and behavioral/cognitive problems, as well as sleeping disturbances and ear infections so their infants can be followed closely and monitored by their pediatrician with appropriate referrals made. Furthermore, this knowledge may inspire parents to enroll their infants in an early intervention program to help optimize their outcomes. There are still many unanswered questions about epigenetic consequences, risk for child abuse/neglect, and risk of future substance abuse in this population.

  3. Temperature measurement in the preterm and term neonate: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqueline; Alcock, Gary; Usher, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a constant body temperature is important to all humans but even more so for newborn babies (neonates), especially those born pre-term. Because accurate measurement of body temperature is an important component of thermoregulation management in the neonate, a review of the literature was undertaken to determine the most appropriate method and site of temperature measurement in both the preterm and term neonate. The available evidence indicates that the axilla remains the most common place for temperature measurement.

  4. [Ponderal index to describe a term neonatal population].

    PubMed

    Caiza Sánchez, M E; Díaz Rosselló, J L; Simini, F

    2003-07-01

    The terms small, appropriate, and large for gestational age cannot identify some alterations in body composition that might be identified by the ponderal index. The aim of the present study was to correlate birth weight with ponderal index to identify other patterns of intrauterine growth. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which only one curve of the ponderal index was created for each week of gestational age (weeks 33 to 42) and including the 10th, 50th and 90th centiles because sex does not influence this index. This curve was based on 26,770 healthy infants born in Uruguay and registered in the Perinatal Information System of the Latin American Center for Perinatology. The database consisted of 194,908 infants born between 1995 and 1999. Exclusion criteria were mothers aged less than 15 years or more than 35 years, primiparas, those with > 4 pregnancies, smokers, a diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation, chronic and pregnancy-related hypertension, cardiac problems, anemic and diabetic mothers, twins with congenital malformations, and intervals between pregnancies of less than 2 years or more than 5 years. Finally, the ponderal index of 43,189 neonates with a gestational age of 40 weeks was compared with the centiles of weight for gestational age to establish alterations in intrauterine growth. Relating the ponderal index with birth weight revealed altered patterns of intrauterine growth in 13 %, 10.3 % and 7.9 % of neonates with appropriate, small and large birth weights, respectively. Moreover, six unusual patters were identified. Use of the ponderal index curve for gestational age together with other growth curves improves the nutritional assessment of newborns. Further studies should be designed to develop strategies for the immediate, medium- and long-term management of identified risk groups.

  5. Propranolol concentrations after oral administration in term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Filippi, L; Cavallaro, G; Fiorini, P; Malvagia, S; Della Bona, M L; Giocaliere, E; Bagnoli, P; Dal Monte, M; Mosca, F; Donzelli, G; la Marca, G

    2013-05-01

    While propranolol pharmacokinetics has been extensively studied in adults, this study reports the first evaluation of propranolol pharmacokinetics in term and preterm neonates. Propranolol concentrations were measured in four term and 32 preterm newborns treated with oral propranolol at the dose of 0.5 or 0.25 mg/kg every 6 h by serial dried blood spots. The levels of propranolol, although with high inter-individual variability, were proportional with the administered dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated at the steady state in newborns treated with 0.5 mg/kg/6 h showed values of maximal (71.7 ± 29.8 ng/mL), minimal (42.2 ± 20.8 ng/mL) and average concentration (60.8 ± 25.0 ng/mL), time of maximal concentration (2.6 ± 0.9 h) and area under the time-concentration curve (364.7 ± 150.2 ng/mL/h) similar to those observed in adults. In both dosing groups, elimination half-life was significantly longer (14.9 ± 4.3 and 15.9 ± 6.1 h), and apparent total body clearance (27.2 ± 13.9 and 31.3 ± 13.3 mL/kg/min) lower than those reported in adults, suggesting a slower metabolism in newborns. No differences were observed between newborns with different gestational age or different sex. Neonates treated with propranolol-exhibited drug concentrations proportional with the dose, with significant long half-life.

  6. Parents' perceptions of eating skills of pre-term vs full-term infants from birth to 3 years.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; van Doorn, Jan; van den Berg, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with feeding and eating are more common among pre-term infants compared with full-term infants. The primary objective of this study was to describe parents' perceptions of developmental eating patterns and occurrence of eating difficulties in a group of pre-term infants, compared with a control group. A parent questionnaire was administered for a study group (27 pre-term infants born between 28-33 weeks gestation) and a control group (29 full-term infants born between 38-41 weeks gestation). Parents of the pre-term children reported significantly more problems with early feeding, but only half of them reported that their infants received intervention to aid their feeding development during neonatal care. At 3 years of age the pre-term children weighed significantly less than the full-term children, but their parents were more satisfied with their eating habits and portion sizes than the control group parents. This finding may reflect differing parenting experiences between the two groups rather than an actual difference in eating skills. It suggests that parents of pre- term infants would benefit from practical guidance in supporting their premature infants in developing eating skills. Future studies using objective measures are recommended to verify the findings reported here.

  7. Language acquisition in premature and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Pittaluga, Enrica; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-02-23

    We tested healthy preterm (born near 28 +/- 2 weeks of gestational age) and full-term infants at various different ages. We compared the two populations on the development of a language acquisition landmark, namely, the ability to distinguish the native language from a rhythmically similar one. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma-band power associated with passive listening to (i) the infants' native language (Spanish), (ii) a rhythmically close language (Italian), and (iii) a rhythmically distant language (Japanese) as a marker of gains in language discrimination. Preterm and full-term infants were matched for neural maturation and duration of exposure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display a response to native speech near 6 months after their term age. Neural maturation seems to constrain advances in speech discrimination at early stages of language acquisition.

  8. Feasibility and Safety of Therapeutic Hypothermia and Short Term Outcome in Neonates with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Jayashree; Lewis, Leslie Edward; Bhat, Ramesh Y; Anusha, K M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is well known for neuroprotection in asphyxiated neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The authors aimed to study the feasibility and safety of therapeutic hypothermia and short term outcome in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Total 31 neonates with moderate to severe HIE were enrolled in the study. Continuous temperature recording was noted in 31 neonates; 17 neonates were studied prospectively while 14 neonates were studied retrospectively. Rectal temperature was monitored in 31 neonates and maintained between 33 and 34 °C by switching off the warmer and using ice packs. Reusable ice packs were used which were inexpensive. Therapeutic hypothermia was maintained for 72 h and babies were then rewarmed 0.5 °C every hour. Therapeutic hypothermia was feasible and inexpensive. There was no major complication during the study. MRI was done in 17 neonates; 52 % were found to have normal MRI at the end of first week. Among the study neonates (n = 31) 64.5 % were neurologically normal at the time of discharge. To conclude, therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in a low resource setting and is a safe way of neuroprotection. Short term outcome was also favourable in these neonates.

  9. Foetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage in term newborn infants: Hacettepe University experience.

    PubMed

    Tavil, Betül; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Bayhan, Turan; Aytaç, Selin; Unal, Sule; Kuskonmaz, Baris; Yigit, Sule; Cetin, Mualla; Yurdakök, Murat; Gumruk, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, causes and clinical management of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) diagnosed during foetal life or in the first month of life in term neonates with a discussion of the role of haematological risk factors. This study included term neonates (gestational age 37-42 weeks) with ICH diagnosed, treated and followed up in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, between January 1994 and January 2014. Medical follow-up was obtained retrospectively from hospital files and prospectively from telephonic interviews and/or clinical visits. During the study period, 16 term neonates were identified as having ICH in our hospital. In six (37.5%) neonates, ICH was diagnosed during foetal life by obstetric ultrasonography, and in 10 (62.5%) neonates, it has been diagnosed after birth. Haemorrhage types included intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in eight (50.0%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage in six (37.5%), subarachnoid haemorrhage in one (6.2%) and subdural haemorrhage in one (6.2%) neonate. IVH was the most common (n = 5/6, 83.3%) haemorrhage type among neonates diagnosed during foetal life. Overall, haemorrhage severity was determined as mild in three (18.7%) neonates, moderate in three (18.75%) neonates and severe in 10 (62.5%) neonates. During follow-up, one infant was diagnosed as afibrinogenemia, one diagnosed as infantile spasm, one cystic fibrosis, one orofaciodigital syndrome and the other diagnosed as Friedrich ataxia. Detailed haematological investigation and search for other underlying diseases are very important to identify the reason of ICH in term neonates. Furthermore, early diagnosis, close monitoring and prompt surgical interventions are significant factors to reduce disabilities.

  10. Post-term pregnancy is an independent risk factor for neonatal morbidity even in low-risk singleton pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Linder, Nehama; Hiersch, Liran; Fridman, Elana; Klinger, Gil; Lubin, Daniel; Kouadio, Franck; Melamed, Nir

    2017-07-01

    To determine the independent association of post-term pregnancy with neonatal outcome in low-risk newborns. Retrospective cohort. Tertiary university-affiliated medical centre. All newborns of low-risk singleton pregnancies born at 39+0 to 44+0 weeks' gestation over a 5-year period. multiple gestation, maternal hypertensive disorder, diabetes or cholestasis, placental abruption or intrapartum fever (>38°C), small for gestational age (<10th centile) and major congenital or chromosomal anomalies. None. Admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), hospital length of stay, 5-min Apgar score, birth trauma, respiratory, neurological, metabolic and infectious morbidities and neonatal mortality. The adverse outcome rate was compared among three groups based on gestational age at birth: post-term (≥42+0 weeks), late term (41+0 to 41+6 weeks) and full term (39+0 to 40+6 weeks). Of the 23 524 eligible neonates, 747 (3.2%) were born post-term, 4632 (19.7%) late term and 18 145 (77.1%) full term. Women in the post-term group versus the late-term group had a significantly higher rate of caesarean section (8.9% vs 5.6%, p<0.001) and operative vaginal delivery (9.6% vs 7.4%, p=0.024). Post-term pregnancy versus full-term pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of NICU admission (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8), respiratory morbidity (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8) and infectious morbidity (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.69). Post-term pregnancy versus late-term pregnancy was similarly associated with an increased risk of NICU admission (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.9), respiratory morbidity (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 5.0) and infectious morbidity (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and with hypoglycaemia (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.4). Post-term delivery was not associated with neonatal mortality. Post-term pregnancy is an independent risk factor for neonatal morbidity even in low-risk singleton pregnancies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in Preterm and Term Neonates: Model Development and External Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah F.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Stockmann, Chris; King, Amber D.; Deutsch, Nina; Williams, Elaine F.; Allegaert, Karel; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; van den Anker, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for intravenous paracetamol in preterm and term neonates and to assess the generalizability of the model by testing its predictive performance in an external dataset. Methods Nonlinear mixed-effects models were constructed from paracetamol concentration–time data in NONMEM 7.2. Potential covariates included body weight, gestational age, postnatal age, postmenstrual age, sex, race, total bilirubin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. An external dataset was used to test the predictive performance of the model through calculation of bias, precision, and normalized prediction distribution errors. Results The model-building dataset included 260 observations from 35 neonates with a mean gestational age of 33.6 weeks [standard deviation (SD) 6.6]. Data were well-described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Weight predicted paracetamol clearance and volume of distribution, which were estimated as 0.348 L/h (5.5 % relative standard error; 30.8 % coefficient of variation) and 2.46 L (3.5 % relative standard error; 14.3 % coefficient of variation), respectively, at the mean subject weight of 2.30 kg. An external evaluation was performed on an independent dataset that included 436 observations from 60 neonates with a mean gestational age of 35.6 weeks (SD 4.3). The median prediction error was 10.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.1–14.3] and the median absolute prediction error was 25.3 % (95 % CI 23.1–28.1). Conclusions Weight predicted intravenous paracetamol pharmacokinetics in neonates ranging from extreme preterm to full-term gestational status. External evaluation suggested that these findings should be generalizable to other similar patient populations. PMID:26201306

  12. Severe methemoglobinemia caused by continuous lidocaine infusion in a term neonate.

    PubMed

    Bohnhorst, Bettina; Hartmann, Hans; Lange, Matthias

    2016-12-28

    Neonates and young infants are especially prone to develop drug-induced methemoglobinemia. Therefore, lidocaine is not licensed as local anesthetic in children below the age of 3 months. However, its systemic use is advocated for neonatal seizures. Cardiac arrhythmia has been reported as sole major side effect. Here we report a case of severe methemoglobinemia caused by continuous infusion of lidocaine in a term neonate with neonatal seizures. The increase of methemoglobin up to 13.8% was accompanied by hypoxemia and cyanosis, necessitating additional inspired oxygen and CPAP ventilation. After stopping lidocaine infusion methemoglobin levels fell and the neonate could be weaned from ventilation. Neonates treated with lidocaine for seizures must be monitored for the occurrence of methemoglobinemia.

  13. Holistic approach for automated background EEG assessment in asphyxiated full-term infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matic, Vladimir; Cherian, Perumpillichira J.; Koolen, Ninah; Naulaers, Gunnar; Swarte, Renate M.; Govaert, Paul; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To develop an automated algorithm to quantify background EEG abnormalities in full-term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Approach. The algorithm classifies 1 h of continuous neonatal EEG (cEEG) into a mild, moderate or severe background abnormality grade. These classes are well established in the literature and a clinical neurophysiologist labeled 272 1 h cEEG epochs selected from 34 neonates. The algorithm is based on adaptive EEG segmentation and mapping of the segments into the so-called segments’ feature space. Three features are suggested and further processing is obtained using a discretized three-dimensional distribution of the segments’ features represented as a 3-way data tensor. Further classification has been achieved using recently developed tensor decomposition/classification methods that reduce the size of the model and extract a significant and discriminative set of features. Main results. Effective parameterization of cEEG data has been achieved resulting in high classification accuracy (89%) to grade background EEG abnormalities. Significance. For the first time, the algorithm for the background EEG assessment has been validated on an extensive dataset which contained major artifacts and epileptic seizures. The demonstrated high robustness, while processing real-case EEGs, suggests that the algorithm can be used as an assistive tool to monitor the severity of hypoxic insults in newborns.

  14. Long-term Behavioral Consequences of Brief, Repeated Neonatal Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Knuth, Emily D.; Etgen, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    Rats subjected to stressful stimuli during the stress hyporesponsive period exhibit varied neuroendocrine and behavioral changes as neonates, adolescents and adults. The current work examined the effects of neonatal isolation stress, using a within-litter design, on adult anxiety-related behavior and endocrine stress reactivity. Neonatal rats were isolated daily for 1 hr from postnatal day (P) 4-9, a manipulation previously shown to induce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses on P9 (Knuth and Etgen, 2005). Control animals were either handled briefly or left undisturbed (with-dam). Adult rats were tested for anxiety-related behavior using the elevated plus maze and open field, and for endocrine responses following restraint stress. Neonatal isolation decreased center exploration of the open field following 1 hr restraint, including decreased time in the center compared to with-dam or handled controls, and decreased center entries and distance traveled in the center compared to with-dam controls. It also decreased time in and entries into the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to handled controls, suggesting enhanced anxiety-related behavior. Neonatal isolation had no effect on basal or restraint-induced levels of ACTH or corticosterone. These findings indicate that neonatal isolation may enhance anxiety-related behaviors, especially in response to stress, without altering HPA function. Section: Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience PMID:17125746

  15. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Human Milk From Mothers of Preterm Compared With Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Metsvaht, Hanna Kadri; Treumuth, Sirli; Merila, Mirjam; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-05-01

    Human milk is the preferred nutrition for neonates and a source of bacteria. Research aim: The authors aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and genetic content of staphylococci in the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates. Staphylococci were isolated once per week in the 1st month postpartum from the human milk of mothers of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used. The presence of the mecA gene, icaA gene of the ica-operon, IS 256, and ACME genetic elements was determined by PCR. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates had higher counts of staphylococci but lower species diversity. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates more often contained Staphylococcus epidermidis mecA (32.7% vs. 2.6%), icaA (18.8% vs. 6%), IS 256 (7.9% vs. 0.9%), and ACME (15.4% vs. 5.1%), as well as Staphylococcus haemolyticus mecA (90.5% vs. 10%) and IS 256 (61.9% vs. 10%). The overall distribution of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) types and sequence types was similar between the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates, but a few mecA-IS 256-positive MLVA types colonized only mothers of preterm neonates. Maternal hospitalization within 1 month postpartum and the use of an arterial catheter or antibacterial treatment in the neonate increased the odds of harboring mecA-positive staphylococci in human milk. Limiting exposure of mothers of preterm neonates to the hospital could prevent human milk colonization with more pathogenic staphylococci.

  16. Umbilical Cord Arterial Lactate Compared With pH for Predicting Neonatal Morbidity at Term

    PubMed Central

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Stout, Molly J.; Shanks, Anthony; Odibo, Anthony O.; Macones, George A.; Cahill, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that umbilical cord arterial lactate is superior to pH for predicting short-term neonatal morbidity at term. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consecutive, nonanomalous, singleton, vertex, term births from 2009 to 2012 at Washington University Medical Center. Umbilical arterial lactate and pH were measured immediately after delivery, prior to knowledge of neonatal outcomes. The primary outcome was a composite neonatal morbidity consisting of neonatal death, intubation, mechanical ventilation, meconium aspiration syndrome, hypoxic encephalopathy, and need for hypothermic therapy. The predictive ability of lactate and pH were compared using receiver-operating characteristics curves. Optimal cut-off values of lactate and pH were estimated based on the maximal Youden index. Results Of 4,997 term deliveries during the study period, 4,910 met inclusion criteria. The composite neonatal morbidity occurred in 56 neonates (1.1%). The mean lactate level was nearly two-fold higher in neonates with the composite morbidity (6.49 vs 3.26 mmol/L, p<0.001), while mean pH values were less distinct (7.19 vs 7.29, p<0.001). Lactate was significantly more predictive of neonatal morbidity than pH (ROC curve area: 0.84 vs 0.78, p=0.03). The optimal cut-off value for prediciting neonatal morbidity was 3.90 mmol/L for lactate and 7.25 for pH. Corresponding sensitivities and specificities were also higher for lactate (83.9% and 74.1% vs 75.0% and 70.6%, respectively). Conclusion Results of this large prospective cohort study show that umbilical cord arterial lactate is a more discriminating measure of neonatal morbidity at term than pH. PMID:25198278

  17. Umbilical Cord Venous Lactate for Predicting Arterial Lactic Acidemia and Neonatal Morbidity at Term

    PubMed Central

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Stout, Molly J.; Macones, George A.; Cahill, Alison G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the utility of umbilical venous lactate, more readily available than umbilcal cord arterial lactate, for predicting arterial lactic acidemia and neonatal outcomes at term. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive, non-anomalous, singleton, term births following labor in a large academic medical center (2009 – 2014). Umbilical arterial and venous lactate were measured immediately after delivery, prior to knowledge of neonatal outcomes. The outcome measures were arterial lactic acidemia (>3.9mmol/L) and a composite neonatal outcome consisting of neonatal death and any of a number of neonatal morbidities including intubation, mechanical ventilation, meconium aspiration syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and therapeutic hypothermia. Predictive ability of venous lactate was estimated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results Among 7,741 births, venous lactate was strongly predictive of arterial lactic acidemia (AUC=0.958). The ‘optimal’ cut-point of venous lactate for predicting both arterial lactic acidemia and the composite neonatal outcome was 3.4mmol/L This predicted arterial lactic acidemia with sensitivity of 87.0% and specificity of 91.3%. Positive and negative predictive values were 79.9% and 94.7%, respectively. The composite neonatal outcome occurred in 104 neonates (1.3%). Compared with arterial lactate, venous lactate predicted the composite neonatal outcome with comparable sensitivity (75.0% versus 74.0%, P>0.99), but slightly lower specificity (69.7% versus 72.2%, P<0.01). Conclusion Umbilical venous lactate strongly predicts arterial lactic acidemia and is comparable to arterial lactate for predicting neonatal morbidity at term. It could be used as a measure of neonatal morbidity when arterial blood is not available. PMID:26959212

  18. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Pain and Stress on Reactivity of the Nociceptive System.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, I P; Mikhailenko, V A

    2016-10-01

    The influence of inflammatory pain and/or weaning stress at different terms of neonatal development on functional activity of the nociceptive system during adulthood was studied in rats. Repeated stress in 1-2-day-old rat pups (a premature baby model) enhanced pain sensitivity to peripheral inflammation in both males and females. Repeated inflammatory pain experienced by male pups aged 1-2 or 7-8 days (models of preterm and full-term baby), even in presence of mother, enhanced pain behavior under conditions of repeated inflammatory pain in adulthood. Pain sensitivity in adult animals before (hot plate test) and after formation of the inflammatory focus (formalin test) depended on the age when the animals were subjected to the injury, type of exposure, and on animal sex. The priority data obtained by us will help to understand the mechanisms of long-term effects of early injuries and are important for pediatricians and neonatologists.

  19. Acute liver failure in a term neonate after repeated paracetamol administration

    PubMed Central

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Carla Borrasca; Branco, Maíra Migliari; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Hyslop, Stephen; Caldas, Jamil Pedro S.; Moreno, Carolina Araújo; Porta, Gilda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Severe hepatotoxicity caused by paracetamol is rare in neonates. We report a case of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure in a term neonate. Case description: A 26-day-old boy was admitted with intestinal bleeding, shock signs, slight liver enlargement, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis (pH=7.21; bicarbonate: 7.1mEq/L), hypoglycemia (18mg/dL), increased serum aminotransferase activity (AST=4,039IU/L; ALT=1,087IU/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (total: 9.57mg/dL; direct: 6.18mg/dL) after receiving oral paracetamol (10mg/kg/dose every 4 hours) for three consecutive days (total dose around 180mg/kg; serum concentration 36-48 hours after the last dose of 77µg/ mL). Apart from supportive measures, the patient was successfully treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion during 11 consecutive days, and was discharged on day 34. The follow-up revealed full recovery of clinical and of laboratory findings of hepatic function. Comments: The paracetamol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in neonates and infants differ substantially from those in older children and adults. Despite the reduced rates of metabolism by the P-450 CYP2E1 enzyme system and the increased ability to synthesize glutathione - which provides greater resistance after overdoses -, it is possible to produce hepatotoxic metabolites (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone) that cause hepatocellular damage, if glutathione sources are depleted. Paracetamol clearance is reduced and the half-life of elimination is prolonged. Therefore, a particular dosing regimen should be followed due to the toxicity risk of cumulative doses. This report highlights the risk for severe hepatotoxicity in neonates after paracetamol multiple doses for more than two to three days. PMID:24676202

  20. Comparison of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Manifestations in Preterm Versus Term Opioid-Exposed Infants.

    PubMed

    Allocco, Elizabeth; Melker, Marjorie; Rojas-Miguez, Florencia; Bradley, Caitlin; Hahn, Kristen A; Wachman, Elisha M

    2016-10-01

    Twenty percent to 40% of infants exposed to in utero opioid were delivered preterm. There is currently no neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) scoring tool known to accurately evaluate preterm opioid-exposed infants. This can lead to difficulties in titrating pharmacotherapy in this population. To describe NAS symptoms in preterm opioid-exposed infants in comparison with matched full-term controls. This was a retrospective cohort study from a single tertiary care center of methadone-exposed infants born between 2006 and 2010. Using modified Finnegan scale scores recorded every 3 to 4 hours beginning at 6 hours of life until 24 to 48 hours after medication discontinuation, NAS symptoms was compared between 45 preterm infants and 49 full-term matched controls. Concurrent neonatal medical diagnoses were also compared. The median gestational age in the preterm group was 35 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] = 33-36) versus 39 weeks (IQR = 38-40) in the term group. Preterm infants scored less frequently for many items including sleep disturbance (24.4% vs 46.2%), tremors (77.9% vs 89.7%), muscle tone (87.9% vs 97.4%), sweating (2.1% vs 9.4%), nasal stuffiness (11.9% vs 20.5%), and loose stools (7.0% vs 14.3%) than full-term controls. Preterm infants scored more frequently for hyperactive moro reflex (26.4% vs 5.5%), tachypnea (19.3% vs 16.1%), and poor feeding (24.6% vs 11.8%). Provider awareness of differences in manifestations of preterm and term infants with NAS, as well as concurrent prematurity diagnoses that can influence NAS scoring, is needed. These findings mandate the development of a modified NAS scoring tool for the preterm NAS population. A preterm NAS scoring tool needs to be developed and validated to more accurately evaluate and treat preterm opioid-exposed infants.

  1. Focused Attention, Heart Rate Deceleration, and Cognitive Development in Preterm and Full-Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Petrie Thomas, Julianne H.; Whitfield, Michael F.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI < 70]) at 8 months corrected age (CA). During infant exploratory play at 8 months CA, focused attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23–32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born <29 weeks, fewer days on mechanical ventilation, mean longest focus, and greater HR deceleration during focused attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29–32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. PMID:22487941

  2. Does an increased cesarean section rate improve neonatal outcome in term pregnancies?

    PubMed

    Kupari, Marja; Talola, Nina; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tihtonen, Kati

    2016-07-01

    To clarify whether an increased cesarean section rate improves the short-term neonatal outcome in singleton term pregnancies with cephalic presentation. A retrospective study of institutional data on the mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. The study included two cohorts: 1998-1999 (n = 7437) and 2004-2005 (n = 8505), since the institutional cesarean section rate increased sharply between these cohorts and has remained stable after the latter study period. The caesarean section rate almost doubled from 6.8 to 11.3 % (p < 0.001), during the study period. The rate of neonates suffering severe birth asphyxia remained low in both cohorts (0.4 vs. 0.6 %) and there were no significant differences in neonatal outcome (Apgar score <4 at 1 min and Apgar score <7 at 5 min, severe birth asphyxia, resuscitation or artificial ventilation) between the study periods. In the subgroup of neonates delivered vaginally, no significant differences were found in the above-mentioned neonatal outcomes between the cohorts. Apart from other outcomes admissions to neonatal intensive care unit increased significantly (p < 0.001) during the latter period (0.8 vs 1.6 %). Increasing cesarean section rate from a low to a moderate does not improve the short-term neonatal outcome in term singleton pregnancies. On the contrary neonatal intensive care unit admissions increased with increasing caesarean section rate. Furthermore it is possible to achieve good neonatal outcome with a low cesarean section rate.

  3. Population meta-analysis of low plasma glucose thresholds in full-term normal newborns.

    PubMed

    Alkalay, Arie L; Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Elashoff, Janet D; Farber, Sergio J; Simmons, Charles F

    2006-02-01

    There is extreme variation in the definition of low plasma glucose levels in newborn infants in the first postnatal days, ranging from < 30 to < or = 60 mg/dL. The goal of the present study was to define low thresholds (< or = 5th percentile) of plasma glucose concentrations in full-term normal newborns during the first 72 hours of life. Population meta-analysis was performed on published studies of neonatal hypoglycemia ascertained by MedLine search. One-way analysis of variance was computed across the studies for each of the following four postnatal time periods: 1 to 2 (physiological nadir), 3 to 23, 24 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours. The estimated < or = 5th percentiles of neonatal hypoglycemia during 1 to 2, 3 to 23, 24 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours after birth were < or = 28, < or = 40, < or = 41, and < or = 48 mg/dL, respectively. Based on this statistical definition, we recommend that low thresholds of plasma glucose levels of 28, 40, and 48 mg/dL be adopted in full-term normal newborns at 1 to 2, 3 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours of life, respectively.

  4. Effect of breast-feeding frequency on hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed term neonate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Juang; Yeh, Tsu-Fu; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemic neonates have significantly less bodyweight gain from nursery discharge to outpatient department (OPD) follow up. We tested the hypothesis that discharge instructions encouraging frequent breast-feeding given in the nursery would increase infant bodyweight gain and decrease the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. We enrolled consecutively live-born neonates who were discharged from the nursery and who received OPD follow up within the first 2 weeks of birth in 2011. The nursing staff discussed the discharge instructions with the parents at the time of nursery discharge. Parents were asked to fill in a nursing information form to record the frequency of breast-feeding and diaper change per day. Parents of 98 breast-fed term neonates provided complete nursing information forms. These 98 neonates were classified into two groups according to breast-feeding frequency, namely <8 times/day (63 neonates) and ≥8 times/day (35 neonates). A significant positive correlation between breast-feeding frequency and diaper change frequency per day indicated that the data were highly reliable. The gestational age, Apgar score, birthweight, and bodyweight at nursery discharge and at OPD were similar between the two groups. Neonates who were breast-fed ≥8 times/day had a significantly lower incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. Nursery discharge instructions that encouraged mothers to breast-feed their newborns frequently decreased the rate of hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breast-fed term neonates. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. The role of pancreatic insulin secretion in neonatal glucoregulation. I. Healthy term and preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hawdon, J M; Aynsley-Green, A; Alberti, K G; Ward Platt, M P

    1993-01-01

    The glucoregulatory role of insulin in adult subjects is undisputed. However, less is known about the secretion of insulin and its actions in the neonatal period, either for healthy subjects, or for those at risk of disordered blood glucose homoeostasis. The relationships between blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations were therefore examined in 52 healthy children (aged 1 month-10 years), 67 appropriate birth weight for gestational age (AGA) term infants, and 39 AGA preterm neonates. In children and AGA neonates, plasma immunoreactive insulin concentration was positively related to blood glucose concentration. However, although both groups of neonates had significantly lower blood glucose concentrations than children, plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations were significantly higher in both term and preterm neonates, when compared with children. The variation in plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations was greater for neonates than for children. These data suggest, that compared with older subjects, plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations are high in newborn babies and that neonatal pancreatic insulin secretion is less closely linked to circulating blood glucose concentrations. There are important implications for the interpretation of studies in hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic neonates. PMID:8466262

  6. Creatine, Glutamine plus Glutamate, and Macromolecules Are Decreased in the Central White Matter of Premature Neonates around Term

    PubMed Central

    Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Ratiney, Hélène; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Girard, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates. Thirty-two infants, 16 term neonates (mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.8±1 weeks) and 16 premature neonates (mean gestational age at birth: 29.1±2 weeks, mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.2±1 weeks) were investigated. The MRI/MRS protocol performed at 1.5T involved diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS with the Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Preterm neonates showed significantly higher ADC values in the temporal white matter (P<0.05), the occipital white matter (P<0.005) and the thalamus (P<0.05). The proton spectrum of the centrum semiovale was characterized by significantly lower taurine/H2O and macromolecules/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 30 ms, and reduced (creatine+phosphocreatine)/H2O and (glutamine+glutamate)/H2O ratios (P<0.05) at a TE of 135 ms in the preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. Our findings indicate that premature neonates with normal conventional MRI present a delay in brain maturation affecting the white matter and the thalamus. Their brain metabolic profile is characterized by lower levels of creatine, glutamine plus glutamate, and macromolecules in the centrum semiovale, a finding suggesting altered energy metabolism and protein synthesis. PMID:27547969

  7. Neonatal Outcomes in Twin Pregnancies Delivered Moderately Preterm, Late Preterm and Term

    PubMed Central

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S.; Momirova, Valerija; Peaceman, Alan M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Rouse, Dwight J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Malone, Fergal D.; Iams, Jay D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; Sorokin, Yoram; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Lo, Julie; Harper, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We compared neonatal outcomes in twin pregnancies following moderately preterm birth (MPTB), late preterm birth (LPTB) and term birth. A secondary analysis of a multi-center, randomized controlled trial of multiple gestations was conducted. MPTB was defined as delivery between 320/7 and 336/7 weeks and LPTB between 340/7 and 366/7 weeks. Primary outcome was a neonatal outcome composite consisting of one or more of the following: neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, early onset culture-proven sepsis, stage 2 or 3 necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonray dysplasia, grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, pneumonia, or severe retinopathy of prematurity. Among 552 twin pregnancies, the MPTB rate was 14.5%, LPTB 49.8% and term birth rate 35.7%. The rate of the primary outcome was different between groups: 30.0% for MPTB, 12.8% for LPTB, 0.5% for term (p< 0.001). Compared with term neonates, the primary neonatal outcome composite was increased following MPTB (relative risk [RR] 58.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 11.3 to 1693.0) and LPTB (RR 24.9; 95% CI 4.8 to 732.2). Twin pregnancies born moderately and late preterm encounter higher rates of neonatal morbidities compared to twins born at term. PMID:20175042

  8. Benign "setting sun" phenomenon in full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hideto

    2003-06-01

    I report two normally developed infants showing benign" setting sun" phenomenon. A 2(2-12)-year-old boy and a 7-year-old boy, who were born without any complications at full term, developed brief episodes of downward gazing during sucking and crying after birth However, there were no other clinical or laboratory findings, and they developed normally. The phenomenon was not visible until 6 months and 7 months, respectively. The "setting sun" phenomenon usually indicates underlying severe brain damage and can also be seen, although rarely, in healthy full-term infants until 1 to 5 months. However, the benign "setting sun" phenomenon might exist until 6 or 7 months of age in normal infants.

  9. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in term neonates in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Haider, Batool A; Sharma, Renee; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-02-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries. Vitamin A supplementation in children six months of age and older has been found to be beneficial, but no effect of supplementation has been noted for children between one and five months of age. Supplementation during the neonatal period has been suggested to have an impact by increasing body stores in early infancy. To evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation for term neonates in low and middle income countries with respect to prevention of mortality and morbidity. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 13 March 2016), Embase (1980 to 13 March 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 13 March 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Also trials with a factorial design. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted study data. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 12 trials (168,460 neonates) in this review, with only a few trials reporting disaggregated data for term infants. Therefore, we analysed data and presented estimates for term infants (when specified) and for all infants.Data for term neonates from three studies did not show a statistically significant effect on the risk of infant mortality at six months in the vitamin A group compared with the control group (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 1.18; I(2) = 63%). Analysis of data for all infants from 11 studies revealed no evidence of a significant reduction in the risk of

  10. Intraventricular hemorrhage in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a comparison study between neonates treated with and without hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Gorelik, Natalia; Daneman, Alan; Epelman, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background To retrospectively determine the prevalence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using head ultrasound (HUS) and MRI, and to compare the incidence of IVH in term babies with HIE treated by therapeutic hypothermia versus those managed conventionally. Methods A total of 61 term neonates from two institutions were diagnosed with HIE shortly after birth. Thirty infants from one institution were treated with whole body hypothermia. These infants had to satisfy the entry criteria for the neonatal hypothermia protocol of the institution. Thirty-one neonates underwent conventional treatment at the second institution. At that time, hypothermia was not yet a standard of care at that institution. All the neonates underwent HUS in their first 23 days of life. The 54 survivors also underwent MRI. The imaging studies were all reviewed for IVH. Results Amongst the 30 babies, who received whole body hypothermia, there were 18 males and 12 females, the mean birth weight was 3.5 kg (2.5 to 5.2 kg), and the HUS study was performed within 14.8 to 41 hours of life. The group of 31 infants treated conventionally was comprised of 12 boys and 19 girls, the infants had an average birth weight of 3.3 kg (2.3 to 4.2 kg), and they underwent HUS 1 to 23 days after birth, with only five children being older than 1 week at the time of the imaging studies. Four of the 61 infants (7%) were diagnosed with IVH on HUS. Three were confirmed with MRI. The fourth case showed a bilateral enlarged choroid plexus on HUS, but IVH could not be confirmed with MRI, as the infant did not survive. In the group of neonates treated with hypothermia, there were three cases (10%) of IVH, whereas in the group managed conventionally, IVH occurred in one infant (3%). Conclusions Our study shows that IVH remains uncommon in term infants with HIE. IVH was more prevalent in the group treated with hypothermia. PMID:27942469

  11. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohui; Dinan, Tara; Barwood, Joanne M.; De Luca, Simone N.; Soch, Alita; Ziko, Ilvana; Chan, Stanley M. H.; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Li, Songpei; Molero, Juan; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat) and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day) high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects. PMID:25628527

  12. [Respiratory disorders in preterm and term neonates: an update on diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Gortner, L; Tutdibi, E

    2011-08-01

    Respiratory disorders remain a major problem in postnatal adaptation. In term neonates, an increased incidence of the risk for transient tachypnoea of the neonate has been observed during the past decade, most likely secondary to an increased usage of primary Caesarean section. The disorder is mainly caused by a delayed resorption of foetal lung fluid. Further disorders in term neonates include meconium aspiration syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia leading to impaired gas exchange and pulmonary hypertension. In preterm neonates, respiratory distress syndrome is the main disorder leading to severe acute and long-term impaired gas exchange. Prenatal administration of glucocorticoids and postnatal surfactant therapy remains an established principle in perinatal care for very preterm neonates. The most relevant long-term sequelae, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is currently being observed in about 15% of preterms with less than 32 weeks of gestation and is associated with severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary consequences. Due to the overall improvement in perinatal care, respiratory disorders still remain a major problem in pulmonary adaptation. However, mortality secondary to neonatal lung failure has been decreased substantially by the improvements in the whole field of perinatal medicine.

  13. Intractable diarrhoea caused by cytomegalovirus enterocolitis in an immunocompetent term neonate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Maria, Arti; Goyal, Deepak; Verma, Arushi

    2013-12-01

    Symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection mainly affects preterm and immunocompromised infants and usually manifest as rash, pneumonia, hepatospleenomegaly or encephalitis. To our knowledge intractable diarrhoea at two weeks of age caused by postnatally acquired CMV in immunocompetent term neonate is not reported. An unusual case of postnatally acquired CMV enterocolitis manifesting as protracted diarrhoea in an immunocompetent baby in neonatal period is reported. We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intractable diarrhoea in neonatal period and treatment with intravenous ganciclovir for CMV enterocolitis is not only indicated but is therapeutic.

  14. Fluid and electrolyte management in term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K

    2001-12-01

    Disorders of fluid and electrolyte are common in neonates. Proper understanding of the physiological changes in body water and solute after birth is essential to ensure a smooth transition from the aquatic in utero environment. The newborn kidney has a limited capacity to excrete excess water and sodium and overload of fluid or sodium in the first week may result in conditions like necrotizing enterocolitis and patent ductus arteriosus. The beneficial effect of fluid restriction on the neonatal morbidity has been shown in multiple clinical trials. Simple measures like use of transparent plastic barriers, caps and socks are effective in reducing insensible water loss. Guidelines for the management of fluids according to birth weight, day of life and specific clinical conditions are provided in the protocols.

  15. Nonthyroidal illnesses syndrome in full-term newborns with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Helena Baptista Nunes da; Araujo, Maria Cristina Korbage de; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Ceccon, Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de

    2015-12-01

    To assess hormonal changes in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in full-term newborns (NT) with sepsis. We included 28 NT with sepsis divided into 2 groups according to the time of normalization of serum and clinical indicators of infection: group A(A), 16 NT with improvement in up to 8 days; and group B(B), 12 NT improvement after 8 days. Among the 28 NT, 15 NT progressed to septic shock, with 5 NT group A and 10 NT in group B. NT were excluded when they showed severe sepsis and asphyxia, and congenital malformations, as well as those whose mothers had thyroid disease and IUGR. 17 NT (60.7%) presented NTIS. Low T3 was observed in NTIS in 10 NT (58.8%), and low T4 and T3 in 5 NT (29.5%), all of them with septic shock. Two NT showed mixed changes (11.7%). After sepsis was cured, there was no hormonal change, except in 3 NT. Administration of dopamine, furosemide, and corticosteroids did not affect the results. This study indicates that nonthyroidal illness syndrome may be transiently present during sepsis in full-term newborns, especially in cases of prolonged sepsis. Low T3 can occur without changes in reverse T3 (different from adults), and low T4 and T3 occur mainly in patients with septic shock.

  16. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants

    PubMed Central

    Haley, David W.; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol–memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24 h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels. PMID:16122876

  17. Excessive weight loss in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Bruna Gil

    2016-09-01

    To determine the risk factors for weight loss over 8% in full-term newborns at postpartum discharge from a Baby Friendly Hospital. The cases were selected from a cohort of infants belonging to a previous study. Healthy full-term newborns with birth weight ≥2.000g, who were exclusively breastfed, and excluding twins and those undergoing phototherapy as well as those discharged after 96 hours of life, were included. The analyzed maternal variables were maternal age, parity, ethnicity, type of delivery, maternal diabetes, gender, gestational age and appropriate weight for age. Adjusted multiple and univariate Cox regression analyses were used, considering as significant p<0.05. We studied 414 newborns, of whom 107 (25.8%) had excessive weight loss. Through the univariate regression, risk factors associated with weight loss >8% were caesarean delivery and older maternal age. At the adjusted multiple regression analysis, the model to explain the weight loss was cesarean delivery (relative risk: 2.27 and 95% of confidence interval: 1.54 to 3.35). The independent predictor for weight loss >8% in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital was the cesarean delivery. It is possible to reduce the number of cesarean sections to minimize neonatal excessive weight loss and the resulting use of infant formula during the first week of life. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Haley, David W; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Cortisol plays an important role in learning and memory. An inverted-U shaped function has been proposed to account for the positive and negative effects of cortisol on cognitive performance and memory in adults, such that too little or too much impair but moderate amounts facilitate performance. Whether such relationships between cortisol and mental function apply to early infancy, when cortisol secretion, learning, and memory undergo rapid developmental changes, is unknown. We compared relationships between learning/memory and cortisol in preterm and full-term infants and examined whether a greater risk for adrenal insufficiency associated with prematurity produces differential cortisol-memory relationships. Learning in three-month old (corrected for gestational age) preterm and full-term infants was evaluated using a conjugate reinforcement mobile task. Memory was tested by repeating the same task 24h later. Salivary cortisol samples were collected before and 20 min after the presentation of the mobile. We found that preterm infants had lower cortisol levels and smaller cortisol responses than full-term infants. This is consistent with relative adrenal insufficiency reported in the neonatal period. Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels.

  19. [Neonatal bacterial meningitis: prospective study of the long-term outcome of 55 children].

    PubMed

    Jornada Krebs, V L; De Albuquerque Diniz, E M; Costa Vaz, F A; Marques Dias, M J; Takiguti, C; Araújo Ramos, J L

    1996-03-01

    Fifty-five infants who presented bacterial neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied to analyze the frequency and the type of sequelae. All the infants were full term newborns. There were 38 boys and 17 girls; the age of disease onset varied from 3 to 28 days. The causative organism was represented mainly by enterobacteriae. The median time of follow-up was 5 years. The frequency of neurologic sequelae was 63.7%, represented mainly by neuropsychomotor development delay (58.2%), hydrocephaly (45.5%) and convulsions (34.5%). Severe motor abnormalities ocurred in 23.6% of children (quadriplegia, diplegia, hemiparesia and ataxia). Convulsions in the acute phase of the disease and the positive cerebrospinal fluid culture were highly associated to sequelae. The school performance, obtained in 25 children, showed presence of disabilities in 48% of cases, which were significantly associated to mental retardation.

  20. Body Composition Trajectories From Infancy to Preschool in Children Born Premature Versus Full-term.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Johannah M; Zhang, Lei; Gray, Heather L; Weir, Katherine; Demerath, Ellen W; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to longitudinally characterize infancy to preschool body composition trajectories and the association of early fat and fat-free mass gains with preschool age body composition in children born premature versus full-term. A cohort of appropriate-for-gestational age preterm (n = 20) and term (n = 51) infants were followed at 3 visits: "neonatal" visit 1 at 2 weeks of age for term and near term corrected age for preterm; "infancy" visit 2 at 3 to 4 months (preterm corrected age); "preschool" visit 3 at 4 years. Body composition via air displacement plethysmography and anthropometrics were measured at all visits. Tracking of infancy weight and body composition with preschool measurements was tested using Pearson partial correlation coefficients. Associations between serial body composition measurements were assessed using multiple linear regression. Early differences in body composition between premature (mean gestational age 31.9 weeks, mean birth weight 1843 g) and full-term (mean gestational age 39.8 weeks) infants were not present at preschool age. Visit 1 body composition was not correlated with preschool measurements in the preterm infants. Visit 2 measurements were correlated with preschool measures. Fat-free mass accretion from visit 1 to visit 2 was positively associated with preschool lean mass (β = 0.038, P = 0.049) in preterm children, whereas fat accretion was not associated with preschool body composition. Children born prematurely and full-term have similar body composition at preschool age. For preterms infancy fat-free mass gains, and not adiposity gains, are positively associated with preschool fat-free mass; this may be associated with lower risk of later obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes.

  1. [Somatometry in the full-term newborn infant (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Ramos Galván, R; Díaz Graham, C; Martí Torroella, G; Pinal, A M

    1977-01-01

    As a preliminary comunication, the authors report a somatometric study carried out in 315 full term newborns from different socioeconomic situation; 152 were born at the Hospital General, S.S.A. and 163, in a private hospital where middle and high class families are attended. The information is grouped on whether measurements are related to physical growth, th state of nutrition or to physical development. Several conditions which necessarily must be taken as independent variables in a study of this sort, such as the age of the parents, but specially of the mother, the period of gestation and of course, the socioeconomic level, were analyzed. The finding of up to 17% of case with height under 47 cm. and/or weight under 2,500 g., outstands the necessity to study the homeorrhesis phenomenon as a very important detail in this type of material.

  2. Neonatal outcome of singleton term breech deliveries in Norway from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Vistad, Ingvild; Klungsøyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Skjeldestad, Finn E

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between planned mode of delivery and neonatal outcomes in breech deliveries. In this retrospective cohort study we studied singleton term breech deliveries in Norway from 1991 to 2011 (n = 30 861) using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We compared planned vaginal delivery with planned cesarean delivery across two time periods: from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2000 (first period) and from 1 November 2000 to 31 December 2011 (second period). Intrapartum and neonatal deaths were validated against source data in medical records, autopsy reports, and other relevant documents. The main outcome measures were intrapartum and neonatal mortality within the first 28 days of life, 5-min Apgar-scores <7 and <4, neonatal intensive care unit stays ≥4 days, respiratory morbidity, and intracranial bleeding disorders. Rate of planned cesarean delivery increased from 34.4 to 51.3% over the period. Simultaneously, early neonatal mortality rate (0-6 days) declined (from 0.10% to 0.04%, p = 0.04). During the second period, 30.7% of term breech presentations were delivered vaginally. Eight deaths in the planned vaginal vs. four in the planned cesarean groups were observed (OR 2.11 95% CI 0.64-7.01). Neonatal morbidity outcomes were significantly worse in planned vaginal deliveries compared with planned cesarean deliveries in both periods. Overall intrapartum and neonatal mortality decreased during the entire period. Higher mortality in planned vaginal delivery relative to planned cesarean delivery in the second period was not statistically significant. However, neonatal morbidity was significantly higher in planned vaginal than planned cesarean deliveries in both periods. This warrants continuous surveillance of breech deliveries. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Iodine-induced hypothyroidism in full-term infants with congenital heart disease: more common than currently appreciated?

    PubMed

    Thaker, V V; Leung, A M; Braverman, L E; Brown, R S; Levine, B

    2014-10-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroid hormone is critical for normal neurocognitive development in young infants, and even transient hypothyroidism can cause adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Both iodine deficiency and excess can cause hypothyroidism. Although iodine-induced hypothyroidism is well recognized in premature infants, full-term neonates have received less attention. Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are commonly exposed to excess iodine from administration of iodinated contrast agents during cardiac catheterization as well as topical application of iodine-containing antiseptics and dressings; hence, this is a vulnerable population. We report three cases of iodine-induced hypothyroidism in full-term neonates with CHD after cardiac angiography and topical application of iodine-containing antiseptics and dressings in the operative setting. Three neonates with CHD and normal thyroid function at birth developed hypothyroidism after exposure to excess iodine. Two of these infants had transient hypothyroidism, and one had severe hypothyroidism requiring ongoing thyroid replacement therapy. All infants were asymptomatic, with hypothyroidism detected incidentally in the inpatient setting due to repeat newborn screening mandated by the long duration of hospitalization in these infants. Iodine-induced hypothyroidism may be under-recognized in infants with CHD exposed to excess iodine. Systematic monitoring of thyroid function should be considered to avoid potential long-term adverse neurodevelopmental effects of even transient thyroid dysfunction in this susceptible population.

  4. Fluid and electrolyte management in term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Deepak; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2008-03-01

    Disorders of fluid and electrolyte are common in neonates and a proper understanding of the physiological changes in body water and solute after birth is essential to ensure a smooth transition from the aquatic in-utero environment. The newborn kidney has a limited capacity to excrete excess water and sodium and overload of fluid or sodium in the first week may result in morbidities like necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus and chronic lung disease. Simple measures like use of transparent plastic barriers, coconut oil application, caps and socks are effective in reducing insensible water loss. Guidelines for the management of fluids according to birth weight, day of life and specific clinical conditions are provided in the protocol.

  5. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    PubMed

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of

  6. International normalized ratio testing with point-of-care coagulometer in healthy term neonates.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Shigeo; Baba, Toru; Ueno, Daizo; Ohishi, Akira

    2014-07-09

    Neonates routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding, which is associated with a high mortality rate and a high frequency of neurological sequelae. A coagulation screening test might be necessary to detect prophylactic failure or incomplete prophylaxis. However, venous access and the volume of blood required for such testing can be problematic. CoaguChek XS is a portable device designed to monitor prothrombin time while only drawing a small volume of blood. Although the device is used in adults and children, studies have not been performed to evaluate its clinical utility in neonates, and the reference value is unknown in this population. The objectives of the present study were to determine the reference intervals (RIs) for international normalized ratio (INR) using the CoaguChek XS by capillary puncture in healthy term neonates, to evaluate factors that correlate with INR, and to evaluate the device by assessing its ease of use in clinical practice. This study included 488 healthy term neonates born at a perinatal center between July 2012 and June 2013. The INRs determined by CoaguChek XS were measured in 4-day-old neonates. The enrolled neonates were orally administered vitamin K 6-12 h after birth. A RI for INRs in 4-day-old neonates was established using the CoaguChek XS with a median value of 1.10 and a range of 0.90-1.30. A significant difference in the INR was noted between male (median value, 1.10; RI, 0.90-1.30) and female (median value, 1.10; RI, 0.90-1.24) neonates (p = 0.049). The INR was found to correlate with gestational age, birth weight, and hematocrit value. The CoaguChek XS device is safe, fast, and convenient for performing INR assays in neonates. Our study is the first to establish a RI for INRs that were measured using the CoaguChek XS in healthy term neonates.

  7. International normalized ratio testing with point-of-care coagulometer in healthy term neonates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonates routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding, which is associated with a high mortality rate and a high frequency of neurological sequelae. A coagulation screening test might be necessary to detect prophylactic failure or incomplete prophylaxis. However, venous access and the volume of blood required for such testing can be problematic. CoaguChek XS is a portable device designed to monitor prothrombin time while only drawing a small volume of blood. Although the device is used in adults and children, studies have not been performed to evaluate its clinical utility in neonates, and the reference value is unknown in this population. The objectives of the present study were to determine the reference intervals (RIs) for international normalized ratio (INR) using the CoaguChek XS by capillary puncture in healthy term neonates, to evaluate factors that correlate with INR, and to evaluate the device by assessing its ease of use in clinical practice. Methods This study included 488 healthy term neonates born at a perinatal center between July 2012 and June 2013. The INRs determined by CoaguChek XS were measured in 4-day-old neonates. Results The enrolled neonates were orally administered vitamin K 6-12 h after birth. A RI for INRs in 4-day-old neonates was established using the CoaguChek XS with a median value of 1.10 and a range of 0.90–1.30. A significant difference in the INR was noted between male (median value, 1.10; RI, 0.90–1.30) and female (median value, 1.10; RI, 0.90–1.24) neonates (p = 0.049). The INR was found to correlate with gestational age, birth weight, and hematocrit value. Conclusions The CoaguChek XS device is safe, fast, and convenient for performing INR assays in neonates. Our study is the first to establish a RI for INRs that were measured using the CoaguChek XS in healthy term neonates. PMID:25008798

  8. A comparative study of neonatal outcomes in placenta previa versus cesarean for other indication at term.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Megan; Balayla, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Currently, no ACOG guidelines address the issue of the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa. Though there is an increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality when electively delivered preterm, it is unclear whether adverse neonatal outcomes exist when these pregnancies make it beyond term. By comparing neonatal outcomes amongst pregnancies with placenta previa versus those from cesarean for another indication at term, the objective of this study was to determine whether placenta previa is an independent risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes at term. We conducted a population-based cohort-study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States. The effect of placenta previa on the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 3,550,842 deliveries meeting inclusion criteria. The incidence of placenta previa at term was 1.3/1000 (n = 4,492), accounting for 40.6% of all previa cases. Relative to cesareans for other indications, pregnancies with placenta previa had an increased risk of IUGR 3.20 [2.50-4.10], SGA 2.70 [2.45-2.97], respiratory distress 3.82 [2.91-5.00], prolonged ventilation 3.41 [2.70-4.32] and neonatal anemia 6.87 [4.43-10.65]. Rates of meconium aspiration syndrome, seizures, birth injury and overall infant mortality do not appear to be affected by this condition. Relative to cesareans for other indications, placenta previa is associated with increased morbidity, but not mortality, at term. This information might be helpful in the development of future guidelines, which are currently needed to guide and standardize clinical practice regarding the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa.

  9. [Neonatal Morbidity in Term Newborns Born by Elective Cesarean Section].

    PubMed

    Resende, Maria Cristina; Santos, Lea; Santos Silva, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A cesariana eletiva quando realizada antes das 39 semanas de idade gestacional associa-se a maior morbilidade neonatal e a maior risco de internamento em unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatais.Objetivo: Avaliar a morbilidade neonatal em recém-nascidos de termo, nascidos por cesariana eletiva. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de todas as cesarianas eletivas realizadas com idade gestacional superior ou igual a 37 semanas numa maternidade de apoio perinatal diferenciado, nos últimos 11 anos (2003 - 2013). Foram excluídas as gestações de risco nomeadamente com rotura prematura de membranas, pré-eclampsia, diabetes mellitus mal controlada, isoimunização Rh, malformações congénitas e gestações múltiplas. Foi feita a comparação entre os grupos de recém-nascidos com idade gestacional inferior a 39 semanas e superior ou igual a 39 semanas. Resultados: Da amostra de 3213 recém-nascidos, 45% (1427) nasceram de cesariana eletiva antes das 39 semanas. Estes recémnascidos tiveram mais internamentos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, odds ratio 2,4 [1,4 - 4,1] p = 0,001, mais morbilidade respiratória, odds ratio de 2,4 [1,6 - 3,8] p < 0,001, mais hiperbilirrubinémia com necessidade de fototerapia odds ratio 2,3 [1,5 - 3,7] p < 0,001, mais hipoglicémia e/ou dificuldade alimentar odds ratio 1,6 [1,2 - 2,4] p = 0,006 e mais internamentos com duração superior a cinco dias odds ratio 2,0 [1,4 - 3] p < 0,001.Discussão: Os recém-nascidos com idade gestacional inferior a 39 semanas tiveram maior morbilidade respiratória e metabólica e consequentemente tiveram maior número de dias de internamento. Conclusão: Ao contrário do que está preconizado ainda existe na instituição um elevado número de cesarianas eletivas antes das 39 semanas. Devem ser programadas acções no sentido de sensibilizar os profissionais para este problema.

  10. Randomized Trial of Plastic Bags to Prevent Term Neonatal Hypothermia in a Resource-Poor Setting

    PubMed Central

    Belsches, Theodore C.; Tilly, Alyssa E.; Miller, Tonya R.; Kambeyanda, Rohan H.; Leadford, Alicia; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Ramani, Manimaran; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Term infants in resource-poor settings frequently develop hypothermia during the first hours after birth. Plastic bags or wraps are a low-cost intervention for the prevention of hypothermia in preterm and low birth weight infants that may also be effective in term infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that placement of term neonates in plastic bags at birth reduces hypothermia at 1 hour after birth in a resource-poor hospital. METHODS: This parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted at University Teaching Hospital, the tertiary referral center in Zambia. Inborn neonates with both a gestational age ≥37 weeks and a birth weight ≥2500 g were randomized 1:1 to either a standard thermoregulation protocol or to a standard thermoregulation protocol with placement of the torso and lower extremities inside a plastic bag within 10 minutes after birth. The primary outcome was hypothermia (<36.5°C axillary temperature) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: Neonates randomized to plastic bag (n = 135) or to standard thermoregulation care (n = 136) had similar baseline characteristics (birth weight, gestational age, gender, and baseline temperature). Neonates in the plastic bag group had a lower rate of hypothermia (60% vs 73%, risk ratio 0.76, confidence interval 0.60–0.96, P = .026) and a higher axillary temperature (36.4 ± 0.5°C vs 36.2 ± 0.7°C, P < .001) at 1 hour after birth compared with infants receiving standard care. CONCLUSIONS: Placement in a plastic bag at birth reduced the incidence of hypothermia at 1 hour after birth in term neonates born in a resource-poor setting, but most neonates remained hypothermic. PMID:23979082

  11. [Influence of gestational age, type of delivery, and resuscitation, on the incidence of pneumothorax in term neonates].

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz-Rodrigo, F; Diez Recinos, A L; Aponte Contreras, O; Pérez Matos, C; Gutiérrez García, L; García Hernández, J A

    2014-03-01

    Elective caesarean section before 39 weeks gestational age (GA) has been associated with a higher incidence of iatrogenic respiratory distress and pneumothorax in term newborn babies, probably because of a higher respiratory morbidity and the need for resuscitation. These factors have not been systematically evaluated in our patients. To determine whether the gestational age, type of delivery, and intensity of resuscitation, are associated with an increase in the incidence of pneumothorax in term neonates. Full term neonates (≥ 37 weeks GA) born in our maternity unit from January 2006 to December 2010 were studied, along with the type of delivery (vaginal, forceps or caesarean section). Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was defined as the need of bag and mask intermittent ventilation, intubation, chest compression, and/or administration of medication. The diagnosis of pneumothorax was clinical and radiological in all cases. A total of 32,238 full term newborns were included. Type of delivery: vaginal 76.1%, C-section 12.4%, and forceps 11.5%. The incidence of pneumothorax was 0.316%. It was significantly higher in C-section (0.85%), than in forceps (0.59%), or non-instrumental vaginal deliveries (0.19%) (P<.001), and in infants ≥ 40 weeks GA (0.37%) compared to ≤ 39 weeks GA (0.24%) (P=.033), and in advanced CPR (4.29%) compared to basic CPR (0.18%) (P<.001). A GA ≥ 40 weeks, C-section, or forceps delivery, and advanced CPR immediately after birth were significantly associated with a higher incidence of pneumothorax in full term newborn babies. In our population, we did not observe an increase in pneumothorax among neonates born by elective C-section before 39 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Neonatal outcomes following elective caesarean delivery at term: a hospital-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Finn, Daragh; O'Neill, Sinéad M; Collins, Aedin; Khashan, Ali S; O'Donoghue, Keelin; Dempsey, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    To assess neonatal outcomes following elective caesarean delivery (CD) at term (≥37 + 0 weeks gestation). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a single Irish maternity hospital. Elective CDs at term between August 2008 and July 2012 were reviewed. Outcome measures were admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), length of stay, respiratory complications, hypoglycaemia, jaundice, newborn sepsis and medical interventions. A total of 4242 women had an elective CD at term, accounting for approximately 15% of all term deliveries. Admission rate to the NICU at 37 weeks gestation was 21.8% versus 10% at 39 weeks (p for trend <0.0001). Similar trends of decreasing risk with later gestational age were noted for the other outcomes. An increased odds of admission to the NICU at 37 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.48 (95% CI 1.28, 4.79)] and at 38 weeks [OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02, 1.77] compared to the reference of 39 weeks gestation was found. This study supports evidence that, with regard to neonatal outcome, 39 weeks gestational age is the optimal delivery time. Heightened awareness of the increased risk of neonatal morbidity, when delivery is performed electively before 39 weeks, is warranted among healthcare workers.

  13. Computational Modeling of Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Bypass Hemodynamics With Full Circle of Willis Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Senol; Ündar, Akif; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedure is employed to repair most congenital heart defects (CHD). Cannulation is a critical component of this procedure where the location and diameter of cannula controls the hemodynamic performance. State-of-the-art computational studies of neonatal CPB employed an isolated aortic arch region by truncating the three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific cerebral system. The present work expanded these studies where the 3D patient-specific MRI reconstruction of the cerebral system, including the Circle of Willis (CoW), is integrated with a hypoplastic neonatal aortic arch. The inlet of the arterial cannula is assigned a steady velocity boundary condition of the CPB pump, while all outlets are modeled as resistance boundary conditions, thus allowing acute comparisons between different cannula configurations. Three-dimensional (3D) flow simulations in the aortic arch model are performed at a Reynolds number of 2150 using an experimentally validated commercial solver. Results demonstrate that the inclusion of 3D CoW is essential to predict the accurate head-neck blood perfusion and therefore critical in deciding the neonatal aortic cannulation strategy preoperatively. Using this integrated model two CPB configurations are studied, where the cannulas were placed at innominate artery (IA) (IA-cannula configuration) and ductus arteriosus (DA) (DA-cannula configuration). Configuration change produced significant differences in flow splits and local hemodynamics of blood flow throughout the whole aortic arch, neck and cerebral arteries. Percent flow rate differences between the IA- and DA-cannula configurations are computed to be: 19%, for descending aorta, 198% for ascending aorta (perfusing coronary arteries), 91% for right anterior cerebral artery, and 68% for left anterior cerebral artery. Another important finding is the retrograde flow at vertebral arteries for IA-cannula configuration, but not for DA-cannula. These results may help to

  14. Findings of perinatal ocular examination performed on 3573, healthy full-term newborns.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Jun-Yang; Fei, Ping; Zhang, Guo-ming; Mao, Jian-bo; Rychwalski, Paul J

    2013-05-01

    To document the findings of a newborn eye examination programme for detecting ocular pathology in the healthy full-term newborn. This is a cross-sectional study of the majority of newborns born in the Kunming Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, China, between May 2010 and June 2011. Infants underwent ocular examination within 42 days after birth using a flashlight, retinoscope, hand-held slit lamp microscope and wide-angle digital retinal image acquisition system. The retinal fundus examination utilised the RetCam wide-field digital imaging system (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, California, USA). The external eye, pupillary light reflex, red reflex, opacity of refractive media, anterior chamber and posterior segments were also examined. A total of 3573 healthy full-term newborns were enrolled and examined in the programme. There was detection of 871 abnormal cases (24.4%). The majority of abnormal exams were 769 (21.52%) retinal haemorrhages. Of these, there were 215 cases of significant retinal haemorrhage, possible sight threatening or amblyogenic, representing 6.02% of the total. In addition, 67 cases (1.88%) involved macular haemorrhage. The other 107 cases (2.99%) with abnormal ocular findings included subconjunctival haemorrhage, congenital microphthalmos, congenital corneal leukoma, posterior synechia, persistent pupillary membrane, congenital cataract, enlarged C/D ratio, retinal hamartoma versus retinoblastoma, optic nerve defects, macular pigment disorder and non-specific peripheral retinopathy. Ocular examination of healthy newborns leads to the detection of a significant number of ocular pathologies. The most commonly discovered ocular abnormality during examination of the newborns in this study is retinal haemorrhage. The long-term impact of these findings is unknown. Although presumed by some to benign, neonatal retinal haemorrhages due to birth trauma could be involved in altering visual development. Further work, including prospective

  15. Venepuncture is preferable to heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, S; Ogihara, T; Fujiwara, E; Ito, K; Nakano, M; Nakayama, S; Hachiya, T; Fujimoto, N; Abe, H; Ban, S; Ikeda, E; Tamai, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The analgesic effect of oral sucrose in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures is generally accepted. For blood sampling, some studies have shown that venepuncture (VP) is less painful than heel lance (HL). Objective: To determine the least painful and most effective method among blood sampling by VP or HL with or without sucrose. Design: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Subjects: A total of 100 healthy, full term newborn infants being screened for inborn errors of metabolism were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups (25 infants in each). Intervention and outcome measure: Seven specially trained nurses took turns to carry out blood sampling two minutes after administration of oral sucrose or water. Neonatal pain was assessed by the neonatal facial coding system (NFCS), as well as by crying. Results: Without sucrose, the NFCS score was higher in the HL group than the VP group during blood sampling (median 58 v 23, p<0.001). Oral sucrose significantly reduced the score of the HL group (58 v 47, p<0.01) and also tended to reduce the score of the VP group (23 v 2, p<0.1). However, the HL with sucrose group still had a higher score than the VP without sucrose group (47 v 23, p<0.01). Crying and the total procedure time showed the same trends as the NFCS score. Conclusions: VP is less painful and more effective than HL for blood sampling in newborn infants. Although oral sucrose may have an additive analgesic effect, it is not necessarily required if VP is used for blood sampling. PMID:15871991

  16. [Umbilical artery blood gases of term neonates at altitude].

    PubMed

    Villamonte, Wilfredo; Escalante, Darío; Yabar, Janet; Jerí, María; Peralta, Paola; Ochoa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the normal values of arterial blood gases in the umbilical artery of term infants at 3400 m altitude, a cross-sectional study was conducted. It was performed in the umbilical artery blood of 300 term infants, with an adequate gestational age and whose birth took place between January 2010 and December 2011 at the Essalud National Hospital Adolfo Guevara Velazco (Cusco, Peru). It was found that the average pH of healthy term infants was 7.33 ± 0.07; the values for percentiles 5 and 95 were 7.18 and 7.40 respectively. Tables with the 5th and 95th percentiles for pH, pO2, pCO2, SO2, p50, base excess and HCO3 of the umbilical artery of term infants at 3400 m altitude are provided.

  17. Expressive language of two year-old pre-term and full-term children.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Selma Mie; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Perissinoto, Jacy

    2009-01-01

    expressive language of pre-term children. to compare the expressive vocabulary of two year-old children born prematurely, to that of those born at term. the study sample was composed by 118 speech-language assessment protocols, divided in two groups: the pre-term group (PTG) composed by 58 underweight premature children followed by a multi-professional team at the Casa do Prematuro (House of Premature Children) at Unifesp, and the full-term group (FTG) composed by 60 full-term born children. In order to evaluate the expressive language of these children, the Lave - Lista de Avaliação do Vocabulário Expressivo (Assessment List of the Expressive Vocabulary) was used. The Lave is an adaptation of the LDS - Language Development Survey - for the Brazilian Portuguese Language. The Lave investigates the expressive language and detects delays in oral language. children born underweight and prematurely present a greater occurrence of expressive language delay, 27.6%. These pre-term children present significantly lower expressive vocabulary and phrasal extension than children of the same age born at full-term in all semantic categories. Family income proved to be positively associated to phrasal extension, as well as to gestational age and weight at birth; thus indicating the effect of these adverse conditions still during the third year of age. The audiological status was associated to word utterances in the PTG. children born prematurely and underweight are at risk in terms of vocabulary development; this determines the need for speech-therapy intervention programs.

  18. [Prognostic value of MR in term neonates with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopath: MRI score and spectroscopy. About 26 cases].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Witte, S; Brissaud, O; Brun, M; Lamireau, D; Bordessoules, M; Chateil, J-F

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy remains a major cause of chronic disability in childhood. Early diagnosis and prognosis are necessary for the clinician to adapt the treatment. However, there is yet no reliable test to predict the patient's evolution. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of a personal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system and of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We included 26 term newborns in condition of neonatal brain suffering. MR examination was performed during the first week of life for all patients and MRI and MRS data were collected. Standardised follow-up visits were made for all patients. Finally, prognostic value of the different criteria was evaluated with statistical tests. Our MRI scoring system proved to be linked to prognosis. A high MRI score, abnormal signal in the internal capsule, white matter or basal ganglia abnormalities with diffusion imaging were associated with unfavourable outcome. These results confirmed the data of the literature concerning the MRI predictive value. Our study also confirmed prognostic interest of MR: particularly, ratios using lactate were significantly linked to prognosis in our study. Specificity of the elevation of these ratios was interesting but sensibility was less optimal. We suggest using our MRI scoring system which associates standard MRI and diffusion imaging, which is significantly related to outcome. We confirm the prognostic value of MRS in this pathological situation. MR with diffusion sequence and spectroscopy, performed three to four days after birth appears to be an essential tool to manage these patients.

  19. Short-Term Variation of the Fetal Heart Rate for Predicting Neonatal Acidosis in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Aernout, Eva Marie; Devos, Patrick; Deruelle, Philippe; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Subtil, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the performance of short-term variation (STV) in predicting the onset of neonatal acidosis in fetuses at risk due to maternal preeclampsia. This retrospective study examined data from a series of 159 women with singleton pregnancies, hospitalized for preeclampsia in a level 3 reference maternity hospital in northern France, with an STV measurement in the 24 h preceding cesarean delivery and a measurement of the newborn's arterial cord pH at birth. The main outcome was determined by a correlation between STV and neonatal pH. The last computerized fetal heart rate analysis took place a mean of 7.9 ± 6.3 h before birth, and neonatal acidosis was diagnosed in 38 newborns (23.9%). Although STV and umbilical artery pH at birth were significantly correlated (x03C1; = 0.16, p < 0.05), the performance of STV in predicting neonatal acidosis was poor, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.63. The sensitivity reached only 50.0% and the specificity 71.9% at the best STV threshold for predicting acidosis. The performance of STV for screening for neonatal acidosis is poor in women with preeclampsia. The divergent results between studies are probably due to the variable intervals between STV measurement and birth. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes after intrauterine and neonatal insults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mwaniki, Michael K; Atieno, Maurine; Lawn, Joy E; Newton, Charles RJC

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Neonatal interventions are largely focused on reduction of mortality and progression towards Millennium Development Goal 4 (child survival). However, little is known about the global burden of long-term consequences of intrauterine and neonatal insults. We did a systematic review to estimate risks of long-term neurocognitive and other sequelae after intrauterine and neonatal insults, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods We searched Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1966, and June 30, 2011, that reported neurodevelopmental sequelae after preterm or neonatal insult. For unpublished studies and grey literature, we searched Dissertation Abstracts International and the WHO library. We reviewed publications that had data for long-term outcome after defined neonatal insults. We summarised the results with medians and IQRs, and calculated the risk of at least one sequela after insult. Findings Of 28 212 studies identified by our search, 153 studies were suitable for inclusion, documenting 22 161 survivors of intrauterine or neonatal insults. The overall median risk of at least one sequela in any domain was 39·4% (IQR 20·0–54·8), with a risk of at least one severe impairment in any insult domain of 18·5% (7·7–33·3), of at least one moderate impairment of 5·0% (0·0–13·3%), and of at least one mild impairment of 10·0% (1·4–17·9%). The pooled risk estimate of at least one sequela (weighted mean) associated with one or more of the insults studied (excluding HIV) was 37·0% (95% CI 27·0–48·0%) and this risk was not significantly affected by region, duration of the follow-up, study design, or period of data collection. The most common sequelae were learning difficulties, cognition, or developmental delay (n=4032; 59%); cerebral palsy (n=1472; 21%); hearing impairment (n=1340; 20%); and visual impairment (n

  1. Free voiding patterns in preterm and full-term newborn infants are different between males and females.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Chuan Chuan; Chen, Yan; Lu, Yu Tao; Yang, Li; Cui, Lin Gang; Wen, Lu; Jia, Liang Hua; Li, Yun Long; Zhang, Qian

    2014-10-01

    The neonatal period is critical in bladder development, encompassing the transition from foetal bladder contractions to voluntary infant urination. The aim of this study was to investigate different voiding parameters between male and female newborn infants. We studied 102 healthy, single birth newborn infants - 54 preterm and 48 full-term - without lower urinary tract diseases, hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit from March 2011 to March 2012. Free voiding was observed from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., and the free voiding parameters and fluid intake were recorded and compared between male and female newborn infants using the Student's t-test and chi-square test. Male preterm newborns demonstrated larger mean postvoid residual volumes and lower bladder emptying rates than female preterm newborns (p < 0.05), and male full-term newborns had lower bladder emptying rates than female full-term newborns (p < 0.05). The bladder emptying rates of newborns defecating simultaneously with voiding were not statistically different between males and females of the same gestational age (p > 0.05). Male newborns were more likely to have larger postvoid residual volumes than females, and defecating simultaneously with voiding may promote bladder emptying in male newborns. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Golden 60 minutes of newborn's life: Part 2: Term neonate.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Pradeep; Shastri, Sweta

    2017-11-01

    The concept of "Golden 60 minutes" or "Golden Hour" has been derived from adult trauma. It has been defined as the first 60 min of postnatal life. It has been seen that care received by any newborn in the initial first hour has implications in the future life, showing the importance of golden hour. The major cause of neonatal mortality term newborn is asphyxia, which can be reduced with effective resuscitation. In golden hour approach for term newborn, the importance is given to effective and evidence based resuscitation, post-resuscitation care, delayed cord clamping, prevention of hypothermia, immediate breast feeding, prevention of hypoglycemia, and starting of therapeutic hypothermia in case of moderate to severe asphyxia. In this part of review, we will cover all the golden hour interventions in term neonate with current evidence.

  3. Breastfeeding or oral sucrose solution in term neonates receiving heel lance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Codipietro, Luigi; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Ponzone, Alberto

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy of breastfeeding versus orally administered sucrose solution in reducing pain response during blood sampling through heel lance. METHODS; We conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial at a neonatal unit of a public hospital in northern Italy on 101 term neonates undergoing heel lance with an automated piercing device for routine neonatal screening for congenital disorders. Newborn infants were randomly assigned to breastfeeding during blood sampling or to the oral administration of 1 mL of 25% sucrose solution. We validated the multidimensional acute pain rating scale of the Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate increase, oxygen saturation decrease, crying behavior (duration of first cry, cry percentage in 2 minutes, and during blood sampling), duration of sampling, and the number of performed heel lances. Median Premature Infant Pain Profile scores were lower in the breastfeeding group (3.0) than in the sucrose-solution group (8.5), and the median group difference was -5.0. The median heart rate increase, oxygen saturation decrease, and duration of first cry for the breastfeeding group were, respectively, 13.0, -1, and 3 and for sucrose group were 22, -3, and 21. Medians were significantly different between the groups. There were no significant differences in the sampling duration and numbers of heel lances. This study suggests that breastfeeding provides superior analgesia for heel lance compared with oral sucrose in term neonates.

  4. [Analysis of the causes of neonatal deaths at term in pregnancy induced hypertension patients].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Du, X

    1997-07-01

    To study the neonatal developmental status, its causes of death and their possible correlation in women complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). 46 autopsies of neonatal death at term with PIH and their clinical data were collected. The developmental status was evaluated by body weight, body length, and the weights of lungs, kidneys, liver and brain. The causes of death were reviewed by the clinicopathologic findings. The neonatal development features for mild PIH in term pregnancy approached to the normal levels of 37 to 38 gestation weeks. In the infants with moderate and severe PIH, the body weights, the weights of lungs and liver were significantly decreased in comparison with those of the mild PIH, respectively (P < 0.05), while the weights of kidneys and brain were not significantly decreased. The causes of death showed that pulmonary hypoplasia accounted for 23.9%, primary pulmonary atelectasis 10.9%, pulmonary hyaline membrane disease 21.7%, massive pulmonary hemorrhage 13.0%, the meconium aspiration 19.6% and others 10.9%. There was no difference in sex among the dead infants. The PIH syndrome had retarded the process of fetal growth and development, and associated with the severity of PIH, mostly involving the lung and the liver. The pulmonary hypoplasia and immaturity were the primary causes for neonatal death in PIH women.

  5. Neonatal morbidity and mortality for repeated cesarean section vs. normal vaginal delivery to uncomplicated term pregnancies at Srinagarind Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wankaew, Nootwadee; Jirapradittha, Junya; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the morbidities and mortality of neonates delivered by elective repeated cesarean section vs. normal vaginal delivery among women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. A retrospective descriptive study was done between January 2009 and December 2011 to determine the morbidities and mortality among uncomplicated term pregnancies at Srinagarind Hospital. Three hundred seventy two neonates delivered by elective repeated cesarean section vs. 1,581 by normal vaginal delivery. A significantly greater number of neonates in the elective repeated cesarean section group required oxygen for neonatal resuscitation compared to neonates in the normal vaginal delivery group (37.6% vs. 20.9%, p < 0.001). Neonates delivered by elective repeated cesarean section were more frequently admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (1.1% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) and had longer hospital stays (4.56 +/- 2.45 vs. 4.07 +/- 1.44 days, p < 0.001). The latter not only had a higher rate of respiratory distress syndrome (0.8% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (3.2% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.001), which required more respiratory support, they also had a higher rate of infection (2.4% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.05) than neonates delivered by normal vaginal delivery. Neonates born by normal vaginal delivery, however had more birth trauma and hyperbilirubinemia than neonates born by elective repeated cesarean section (8.8% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001 and 31.8% vs. 22.6%, p < 0.05, respectively). There was no difference in the mortality rate between the groups. Even among uncomplicated term pregnancies, cesarean section is associated with more neonatal respiratory morbidity and sepsis while those delivered by normal vaginal delivery tend to have a higher rate of birth trauma and hyperbilirubinemia. Clinicians should therefore be concerned about the route of delivery and the probability of negative neonatal outcomes.

  6. [Retrospective analysis of elective caesarean section and respiratory distress syndrome in the term neonates].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-jing; Zhang, Xuan-dong; Shi, Li-ping

    2009-09-01

    Severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by pulmonary surfactant (PS) deficiency is described not only in preterm infants but also in term babies delivered via caesarean section, especially before the onset of labour (elective caesarean section). Once RDS of term neonates happened, mechanical ventilation is needed, and the infants were at high risk of developing further complications such as persistent pulmonary hypertension of neonates (PPHN), pulmonary air leak and cardiovascular instability, even fatal outcome cannot be avoided. The present study aimed to analyze the association between the elective caesarean section and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in term neonates, and to determine the related factors and outcomes of RDS cases in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and neonatology ward. A retrospective study was conducted at the NICU and the Neonatology Ward of A center (Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University) and the NICU of center B (Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Zhejiang University) on 90 term infants who were diagnosed as RDS between June 2006 and June 2008. The general clinical data, mode of delivery, severity of the radiological sign, pulmonary surfactant (PS) application, the onset time and duration of mechanical ventilation, the ratio of PaO(2) to FIO(2) before mechanical ventilation, oxygenation index (OI), duration of oxygen supplementation, the length of hospital stay and complications including pulmonary air leaks (pneumothorax, pulmonary interstitial emphysema), PPHN, systemic hypotension and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were collected. The gestational age distribution was studied in RDS cases delivered by elective caesarean section, and the comparative analysis and non-conditional logistic regression analysis wer performed for clinical characteristics and risk factors between the RDS cases with or without complications. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. There were 88 episodes of elective caesarean

  7. Long term consequences of oxygen therapy in the neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Preterm and term infants are frequently exposed to high concentrations of oxygen for prolonged periods. In experimental models, high and prolonged oxygen exposures cause delayed alveolar septation and a bronchopulmonary dysplasia phenotype. Often, however, the oxygen exposure is tolerated in that the infants recover without severe lung or systemic injury. Multiple exposures change oxygen sensitivity in adult and newborn animals. Examples are antenatal corticosteroids, inflammatory mediators or preconditioning with oxygen, which will increase tolerance to oxygen injury. Intrauterine growth restriction or postnatal nutritional deficits will increase oxygen injury. Different infants probably have quite variable sensitivities to oxygen injury, but there are no biomarkers available to predict the risk of oxygen injury. PMID:20452844

  8. Effects of epidural analgesia on labor length, instrumental delivery, and neonatal short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Farina, Antonio; Turchi, Giovanni; Hasegawa, Yuko; Zanello, Margherita; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to clarify whether the short-term adverse neonatal outcomes associated with epidural analgesia are due to the epidural analgesia itself or to the instrumental delivery. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between epidural analgesia, labor length, and perinatal outcomes. A total of 350 pregnant women at term who delivered under epidural analgesia (cases) were compared with 1400 patients without epidural analgesia (controls). Vacuum extraction (6.5 vs. 2.9 %) and cesarean section (19.9 vs. 11.1 %) were more frequently performed in the cases than controls (p < 0.001). Using a Kaplan-Meier algorithm, it was determined that the mean lengths of the 1st and 2nd stages of labor and the overall durations of labor and delivery were significantly longer in cases compared with controls. A Cox regression analysis showed that the longer labor remained even after adjustment for parity. The neonatal variables stratified by mode of delivery were not different in cases and controls, except for a slightly lower umbilical arterial pH in spontaneous delivery for the cases group. However, the Apgar scores and umbilical arterial pH were significantly lower in the neonates delivered by vacuum extraction compared with those in the neonates delivered by spontaneous delivery or cesarean section, regardless of whether epidural analgesia was performed. A multivariable analysis showed that vacuum extraction much more consistently affected the arterial pH than the analgesia itself (the β coefficients were -0.036 for epidural analgesia vs. -0.050 for vacuum extraction). Epidural analgesia was associated with slowly progressing labor, thus resulting in an increased rate of instrumental delivery. This instrumental delivery appears to adversely affect the neonatal outcomes more strongly than the analgesia itself.

  9. [Clinical criteria for pathogen bacteria in term newborn suspected of neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Glusko-Charlet, A; Fontaine, C; Raucy, M; Barcat, L; Lahana, A; Erbani, R; Poirie, G; Kongolo, G; Diouf, M; Leke, A; Gondry, J; Tourneux, P

    2017-09-08

    Neonatal early onset sepsis (EOS) remains an important etiology of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is difficult due to a lack of sensitivity and specificity markers. In France, the management of newborn infants suspected of infection includes the analysis of gastric suction. The objective of the study was to identify early clinical signs in newborn infants with suspected neonatal sepsis to differentiate a likely infection with pathogen bacteria in the gastric suction culture (Streptococcus agalactiae or Escherichia coli) from a possible infection without such pathogen bacteria. We conducted a retrospective study in the Amiens University Hospital. All term newborn infants born between 1 January and 31 December 2013 and hospitalized for suspected EOS were included. Suspicion of EOS was considered when there were arguments to treat by antibiotics for a period of at least 5 days. Fifty-eight newborn infants were included, 25 had a likely EOS and 33 a possible EOS. Newborn infants with a likely EOS were less mature (P<0.01) with more clinical signs at birth (P<0.01). The most common clinical signs were: hyperthermia (P=0.01), somnolence (P<0.01), and hypotonia (P=0.01). After adjusting for the term, the presence of hyperthermia was no longer significantly different between the two groups (P=0.059), the other clinical signs remained significantly different. The presence of neonatal symptoms at birth appears to be a useful clinical marker of probable neonatal EOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Pain prevention in term neonates: randomized trial for three methods].

    PubMed

    Bonetto, Germán; Salvatico, Estela; Varela, Natalia; Cometto, Cristina; Gómez, Patricia F; Calvo, Bernardo

    2008-10-01

    Every newborn infant is screened for hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria by blood sampling, during the first week of life, but there is not a simple and efficient method to reduce pain during the procedure. Prospective randomised trial, to assess if the administration of oral glucose, paracetamol or EMLA, given individually, can reduce the pain caused in newborns by heel prick, in an outpatient setting. Double-blind study in which seventy six healthy newborns at term were randomly assigned to receive placebo, oral glucose, EMLA in the heel, or oral paracetamol. Heel prick was performed to get a blood sample, and pain was measured by two independent observers, using two scales (NIPS and PIPP). NIPS <4: placebo (9/19= 47%), glucose (16/19= 84%), paracetamol (8/19= 42%) and EMLA (12/19= 63%); PIPP <8: placebo (9/19= 47%), oral glucose (12/19= 63%), paracetamol (5/19= 26%) and EMLA (8/19= 42%). With the use of oral glucose we found RAR: 0.37 (IC 95% 0.09-0.64), RRR: 44% (IC 95% 6-67%), NNT: 2.7 (IC 95% 1.5-11). The best results were obtained with the use of oral glucose, being statistically significant with only one of the scales. The administration of paracetamol or EMLA did not reduce pain. Other complementary and/or combined methods, added to oral glucose, should be considered daily to diminish this painful experience in thousands of children.

  11. Long term effect of monosodium glutamate in liver of albino mice after neo-natal exposure.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T; Bhakta, A; Ghosh, S K

    2011-03-01

    Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring excitatory neurotransmitter. It is extensively used as a food additive and flavoring agent for its UMAMI taste. Simultaneously it is being implicated for varied pathological condition like obesity, gonadal dysfunction, learning difficulty etc. It produces oxygen derived free radicals and metabolized in liver. Neonate mice are sensitive and suffer from adverse effects. Present work was undertaken to study the long term effects on histology of liver following MSG injection in neonates. The changes in the liver parenchyma of 75 days old mice showed variable changes. Areas around central vein were most affected. The liver cords were disrupted, dilated sinusoids, prominent Kupffer cells with accumulation of particulate matter.There were inflammatory cells around central vein. The hepatocyte cell membrane were disrupted, cytoplasm vacuolated, nucleus were pyknotic. Even the normal looking cells showed depletion of PAS +ve material in the cytoplasm.The long term effect on histology showed moderate and patchy hepatocellular damage.

  12. Prediction of neonatal metabolic acidosis in women with a singleton term pregnancy in cephalic presentation.

    PubMed

    Westerhuis, Michelle E M H; Schuit, Ewoud; Kwee, Anneke; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Van Den Akker, Eline S A; Van Beek, Erik; Van Dessel, Hendrikus J H M; Drogtrop, Addy P; Van Geijn, Herman P; Graziosi, Guiseppe C M; Van Lith, Jan M M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Oei, S Guid; Oosterbaan, Herman P; Porath, Martina M; Rijnders, Robert J P; Schuitemaker, Nico W E; Wijnberger, Lia D E; Willekes, Christine; Wouters, Maurice G A J; Visser, Gerard H A; Mol, Ben Willem J; Moons, Karel G M

    2012-03-01

    We sought to predict neonatal metabolic acidosis at birth using antepartum obstetric characteristics (model 1) and additional characteristics available during labor (model 2). In 5667 laboring women from a multicenter randomized trial that had a high-risk singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation beyond 36 weeks of gestation, we predicted neonatal metabolic acidosis. Based on literature and clinical reasoning, we selected both antepartum characteristics and characteristics that became available during labor. After univariable analyses, the predictors of the multivariable models were identified by backward stepwise selection in a logistic regression analysis. Model performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration. To correct for potential overfitting, we (internally) validated the models with bootstrapping techniques. Of 5667 neonates born alive, 107 (1.9%) had metabolic acidosis. Antepartum predictors of metabolic acidosis were gestational age, nulliparity, previous cesarean delivery, and maternal diabetes. Additional intrapartum predictors were spontaneous onset of labor and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Calibration and discrimination were acceptable for both models (c-statistic 0.64 and 0.66, respectively). In women with a high-risk singleton term pregnancy in cephalic presentation, we identified antepartum and intrapartum factors that predict neonatal metabolic acidosis at birth. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

  13. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome in children with hydrocephalus requiring neonatal surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Melot, A; Labarre, A; Vanhulle, C; Rondeau, S; Brasseur, M; Gilard, V; Castel, H; Marret, S; Proust, F

    2016-04-01

    To assess long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in children with hydrocephalus requiring neurosurgical treatment during the neonatal period. This prospective longitudinal population-based study included 43 children with neonatal shunted hydrocephalus. The 43 children were prospectively reviewed in the presence of their parents at the outpatient clinic. Cognitive and motor outcomes were assessed respectively using different Wechsler scales according to age and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Postoperative MRI was routinely performed. The mean gestational age at birth of the 43 consecutive children with neonatal hydrocephalus (sex ratio M/F: 1.39) was 34.5±5.4 weeks of gestation. At mean follow-up of 10.4±4 years, mean total IQ was 73±27.7, with equivalent results in mean verbal and mean performance IQ. Of the 33 children with IQ evaluation, 18 presented an IQ≥85 (41.9%). Efficiency in walking without a mobility device (GMFCS≤2) was obtained in 37 children (86%). Only severity of postoperative ventricular dilation was significantly associated with unfavorable outcome (Evans index>0.37; odds ratio: 0.16, P=0.03). This information could be provided to those families concerned who often experience anxiety when multi-disciplinary management of neonatal hydrocephalus is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in elective and medically indicated inductions of labor at term.

    PubMed

    Baud, David; Rouiller, Sylvie; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Tolsa, Jean-Francois; Vial, Yvan

    2013-11-01

    To compare the adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes after medically indicated and elective labor induction. Both induction groups were also compared to women with spontaneous onset of labor. Retrospective cohort study of 13 971 women with live, cephalic singleton pregnancies who delivered at term (from 1997 to 2007). Adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women who underwent an induction of labor in the presence and absence of standard medical indications. Among 5090 patients with induced labor, 2059 (40.5%) underwent elective labor inductions, defined as inductions without any medical or obstetrical indication. Risks of cesarean or instrumental delivery, postpartum hemorrhage >500 ml, prolonged maternal hospitalization >6 days, Apgar<7 at 5 min of life, arterial umbilical cord pH<7.1, admission in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and prolonged NICU hospitalization >7 days were similar between nulliparous who underwent elective and medical labor induction. Similar results were obtained for multiparous. All the above mentioned risks, but the Apgar<7 at 5 min of life, were significantly increased after induction in comparison to spontaneous labor. Elective induction of labor carries similar obstetrical and neonatal risks as a medically indicated labor induction. Thus, elective induction of labor should be strongly discouraged.

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Objectifying Cerebral Effects of Laser Acupuncture in Term and Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Raith, Wolfgang; Avian, Alexander; Sommer, Constanze; Koestenberger, Martin; Schmölzer, Georg M.; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2013-01-01

    Laser acupuncture (LA) becomes more and more relevant in neonates and infants. With near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a continuous and noninvasive measurement of tissue oxygenation is possible. Aim was to investigate, whether the application of LA was associated with any changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) in term and preterm neonates. The study included 20 neonates (12 males, 8 females). The Large Intestine 4 acupuncture point (LI 4, Hegu) was stimulated by a microlaser needle (10 mW, 685 nm laser needle EG GmbH, Germany) for 5 minutes, bilaterally. All neonates underwent polygraphic recording during undisturbed daytime sleep, including heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and measurement of nasal flow. Using NIRS, rcSO2 was measured continuously. Cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE) was calculated. We did not observe any significant changes in SpO2 and HR values during the whole observation period. However, there was a significant decrease in rcSO2 (P = 0.003) within postintervention period, accompanied by a significant increase in cFTOE (P = 0.010) in postintervention period. PMID:23762122

  16. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P < 0.001) and hypothermic (P < 0.001) than those who only needed positive pressure ventilation (PPV). On logistic regression, DR-CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI. PMID:26566357

  17. Formula feeding potentiates docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid biosynthesis in term and preterm baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Wijendran, Vasuki; Diau, Guan Yeu; Chao, Angela Chueh; Hsieh, Andrea T; Turpeinen, Anu; Lawrence, Peter; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Infant formulas supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are now available in the United States; however, little is known about the factors that affect biosynthesis. Baboon neonates were assigned to one of four treatments: term, breast-fed; term, formula-fed; preterm (155 of 182 days gestation), formula-fed; and preterm, formula+DHA/ARA-fed. Standard formula had no DHA/ARA; supplemented formula had 0.61%wt DHA (0.3% of calories) and 1.21%wt ARA (0.6% of calories), and baboon breast milk contained 0.68 +/- 0.22%wt DHA and 0.62 +/- 0.12%wt ARA. At 14 days adjusted age, neonates received a combined oral dose of [U-13C]alpha-linolenic acid (LNA*) and [U-13C]linoleic acid (LA*), and tissues were analyzed 14 days after dose. Brain accretion of linolenic acid-derived DHA was approximately 3-fold greater for the formula groups than for the breast-fed group, and dietary DHA partially attenuated excess DHA synthesis among preterms. A similar, significant pattern was found in other organs. Brain linoleic acid-derived ARA accretion was significantly greater in the unsupplemented term group but not in the preterm groups compared with the breast-fed group. These data show that formula potentiates the biosynthesis/accretion of DHA/ARA in term and preterm neonates compared with breast-fed neonates and that the inclusion of DHA/ARA in preterm formula partially restores DHA/ARA biosynthesis to lower, breast-fed levels. Current formula DHA concentrations are inadequate to normalize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis to that of breast-fed levels.

  18. Latching-on and suckling of the healthy term neonate: breastfeeding assessment.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity is an acknowledged public health priority. Breastfeeding problems, especially with the healthy term neonate latching-on or feeding with a suboptimal latch, are common reasons for early breastfeeding termination when they result in inadequate breastfeeding, poor milk transfer, and sore nipples. This article describes clinical strategies for systematic latch-on and suckling assessment with the goal of improving the skills of clinicians who provide care for breastfeeding women.

  19. Incidence of early neonatal mortality and morbidity after late-preterm and term cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Roberta; Boulvain, Michel; Irion, Olivier; Berner, Michel; Pfister, Riccardo Erennio

    2009-06-01

    To determine the age-stratified risk of intrapartum and neonatal mortality as well as morbidities of clinical relevance after elective cesarean delivery (ECD). This work was a cohort study including 56 549 prospectively recorded late-preterm and term deliveries. We analyzed the effect of cesarean delivery (CD) before the onset of labor on the following multiple neonatal outcomes before hospital discharge, compared with planned vaginal delivery (PVD) and emergency CD: mortality, birth depression, special care admission, and respiratory morbidity. We adjusted for confounders by multivariate analysis and stratified the risk according to gestational age (GA). Mortality and morbidities had a strong GA-related trend with the lowest incidences consistently found between 38 and 40 weeks of gestation independent of delivery mode. Compared with infants delivered via PVD, infants delivered via ECD had significantly higher rates of mortality (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]: 2.1), risk of special care admission (aRR: 1.4), and respiratory morbidity (aRR: 1.8) but not of depression at birth (aRR: 1.1). Compared with emergency CD, newborns delivered via ECD had less depression at birth (aRR: 0.6) and admission to special care (aRR: 0.8), but mortality (aRR: 0.8) and respiratory morbidity (aRR: 1.0) rates were similar. Gestational age-specific risk estimates are lowest between 38 and 40 weeks and should be included in the informed-consent process. The information should also be used to allow for appropriate preparation with respect to adequate staff and equipment. ECD is consistently associated with increased intrapartum and neonatal mortality, risk of admission, and respiratory morbidity compared with PVD and has no advantage over emergency CD in terms of mortality. Neonatal morbidities are lower after ECD than emergency CD only with term births. Our data provide evidence that ECD should not be performed before term.

  20. Very High Intrapartum Fever in Term Pregnancies and Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dior, Uri P; Kogan, Liron; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Gil, Moran; Bahar, Raz; Ergaz, Zivanit; Porat, Shay; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Intrapartum fever is a well-known risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal intrapartum fever ≥39.0°C at term is a rare event during labor, and there is scarce evidence regarding its implications. To investigate the association between very high intrapartum maternal fever and perinatal outcomes in term pregnancies. A retrospective cohort analysis including 43,560 term, singleton live births in two medical centers between the years 2003 and 2011 was performed. We compared parturients who experienced a maximal intrapartum fever of <38.0°C with two subgroups of parturients who experienced respective maximal fevers of 38.0-38.9°C and ≥39°C. Adjusted risks for adverse perinatal outcomes were calculated by using multiple logistic regression models to control for confounders. Compared with normal intrapartum temperature, intrapartum fever ≥39.0°C was associated with an extremely elevated risk for neonatal sepsis 16.08 (95% CI: 2.15, 120.3) as well as with low Apgar scores and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (p < 0.001). Additionally, very high intrapartum fever was related to significantly higher risk for operative delivery (p < 0.001). Extremely elevated intrapartum fever is an important indicator of severe neonatal morbidity and operative delivery. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in a resource-constrained setting

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The level of clinical care and facilities to support the often more viable full-term newborns with normal birth weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at birth are likely to be attainable in many resource-poor settings. However, the nature of the required care is not evident in current literature. This study therefore set out to determine maternal and perinatal profile of surviving full-term newborns with normal birth weight in a poorly-resourced setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study of newborns with gestational age ≥37 weeks and birth weight ≥2500g recruited in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Primary factors/outcomes were determined by multivariate logistic regression analyses and population attributable risk (PAR). Results Of the 2687 full-term newborns with normal birth weight studied, 242 (9.0%) were admitted into special care baby unit (SCBU) representing 53.6% of all SCBU admissions. Fetal distress, low 5-minute Apgar scores, neonatal sepsis and hyperbilirubinemia as well as maternal factors such as primiparity, type of employment, lack of antenatal care and emergency cesarean delivery were predictive of SCBU admission. The leading contributors to SCBU admission were neonatal sepsis (PAR=96.8%), and hyperbilirubinemia (PAR=58.7%). Conclusion A significant proportion of newborns requiring special care are full-term with normal birth weight and are associated with modifiable risk factors that can be effectively addressed at appropriately equipped secondary-level hospitals. Prenatal maternal education on avoidable risk factors is warranted. PMID:24062865

  2. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in term neonates: a plausible protective role of bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Shekeeb Shahab, M; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Neeraj; Narang, Anil; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-10-01

    In vitro studies have shown unequivocally that bilirubin is an antioxidant. We hypothesized that bilirubin serves a physiological role of an antioxidant in vivo. To investigate the probable protective role of bilirubin in vivo, term babies with clinical jaundice were grouped into four categories-serum total bilirubin (STB) <160 mg/l, 160-200 mg/l, >200 mg/l, and kernicterus. Serum bilirubin, serum albumin, plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), lipid peroxidation in blood cells, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in whole blood were investigated. We also measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in hemolysate and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in babies with STB <200 mg/l compared to controls. TAC had a positive and MDA had a negative correlation with STB till 200 mg/l. However, TAC had a negative and MDA had a positive correlation with bilirubin >200 mg/l and in babies with bilirubin encephalopathy. Elevated levels of MDA, SOD, and catalase and significantly decreased levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were observed in STB >200 mg/l group. Antioxidant enzymes were also significantly inhibited in bilirubin encephalopathy babies. Post phototherapy, MDA production and antioxidant levels were significantly increased whilst total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were significantly decreased compared to pre-phototherapy values. Exchange transfusion resulted in reduced oxidative stress in subjects with encephalopathy, whereas no significant difference was observed in other babies with STB >200 mg/l. Taken together, the present study propounds that bilirubin acts as a physiological antioxidant till 200 mg/l concentration in full-term normal neonates. It is conjectured that beyond 200 mg/l, it can no longer be considered physiologic. However, the cause of pathological jaundice needs to be identified and treated. The present data documents

  3. Cranial ultrasound abnormalities in full term infants in a postnatal ward: outcome at 12 and 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Haataja, L.; Mercuri, E.; Cowan, F.; Dubowitz, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether cranial ultrasound abnormalities found in low risk full term infants had any influence on neurodevelopmental outcome.
METHODS—For 103 infants who had a neurological assessment, a cranial ultrasound examination, and for whom antenatal and perinatal data were collected within 48 hours of delivery, neurodevelopmental status was evaluated at 12 and 18 months. The results of a scored neurological examination and the Griffiths mental developmental scale were correlated with the presence and type of ultrasound abnormality found in the neonatal period.
RESULTS—None of the infants with ultrasound abnormalities showed any signs of cerebral palsy or severe developmental delay. There was also no significant difference between the overall neurological and neurodevelopmental scores of the infants with normal and abnormal ultrasound findings. However, when the individual subscales of the Griffiths test were analysed, all infants with bulky choroid or intraventricular haemorrhage had normal scores in all subscales, four of eight with periventricular white matter lesions had low scores on the locomotor subscale, and three of five with asymmetrical ventricles had low scores on the performance subscale. The presence of adverse antenatal and perinatal factors did not affect the outcome in this group.
CONCLUSION—Incidental ultrasound abnormality in full term neonates, in particular intraventricular haemorrhage, although common, appear to have a good prognosis. Longer follow up studies are needed to see whether some of these infants, in particular those with white matter lesions, develop dyspraxia or other minor neurological impairments at school age.
 PMID:10685986

  4. Sequela of preterm versus term infants born to mothers on a methadone maintenance program: differential course of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dysart, Kevin; Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Kaltenbach, Karol; Greenspan, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    We determined the effect of preterm delivery on the course of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in infants born to mothers participating in a methadone maintenance program. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which infant and maternal data were collected from the medical records of 53 preterm and 66 term infants. Infants were selected from all infants admitted to Thomas Jefferson University hospital born between 1998 and 2002 whose mothers were enrolled in the methadone maintenance program. All infants were managed by a standard protocol utilizing the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System (NASS) and neonatal opiate solution (NOS). Preterm and term infants were compared. Preterm infants had shorter lengths of stay, treatment courses and required less medication than did term infants during the same time period. These data indicate that following exposure to maternal methadone, preterm infants have a different neonatal course than do infants born at term.

  5. Pharmacometric Approaches to Personalize Use of Primarily Renally Eliminated Antibiotics in Preterm and Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Wilbaux, Mélanie; Fuchs, Aline; Samardzic, Janko; Rodieux, Frédérique; Csajka, Chantal; Allegaert, Karel; van den Anker, Johannes N; Pfister, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and, as a consequence, antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed drugs in this vulnerable patient population. Growth and dynamic maturation processes during the first weeks of life result in large inter- and intrasubject variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antibiotics. In this review we (1) summarize the available population PK data and models for primarily renally eliminated antibiotics, (2) discuss quantitative approaches to account for effects of growth and maturation processes on drug exposure and response, (3) evaluate current dose recommendations, and (4) identify opportunities to further optimize and personalize dosing strategies of these antibiotics in preterm and term neonates. Although population PK models have been developed for several of these drugs, exposure-response relationships of primarily renally eliminated antibiotics in these fragile infants are not well understood, monitoring strategies remain inconsistent, and consensus on optimal, personalized dosing of these drugs in these patients is absent. Tailored PK/PD studies and models are useful to better understand relationships between drug exposures and microbiological or clinical outcomes. Pharmacometric modeling and simulation approaches facilitate quantitative evaluation and optimization of treatment strategies. National and international collaborations and platforms are essential to standardize and harmonize not only studies and models but also monitoring and dosing strategies. Simple bedside decision tools assist clinical pharmacologists and neonatologists in their efforts to fine-tune and personalize the use of primarily renally eliminated antibiotics in term and preterm neonates. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Sildenafil Improves Brain Injury Recovery following Term Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Male Rat Pups.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Armin; Khoja, Zehra; Johnstone, Aaron; Dale, Laura; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Wintermark, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control. Both groups were randomized to oral sildenafil or vehicle twice daily for 7 consecutive days. Gait analysis was performed on P27. At P30, the rats were sacrificed, and their brains were extracted. The surfaces of both hemispheres were measured on hematoxylin and eosin-stained brain sections. Mature neurons and endothelial cells were quantified near the infarct boundary zone using immunohistochemistry. HI caused significant gait impairment and a reduction in the size of the left hemisphere. Treatment with sildenafil led to an improvement in the neurological deficits as measured by gait analysis, as well as an improvement in the size of the left hemisphere. Sildenafil, especially at higher doses, also caused a significant increase in the number of neurons near the infarct boundary zone. In conclusion, sildenafil administered after neonatal HI may improve brain injury recovery by promoting neuronal populations.

  7. An automated system for grading EEG abnormality in term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, N J; Korotchikova, I; Temko, A; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P; Boylan, G B

    2013-04-01

    Automated analysis of the neonatal EEG has the potential to assist clinical decision making for neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This paper proposes a method of automatically grading the degree of abnormality in an hour long epoch of neonatal EEG. The automated grading system (AGS) was based on a multi-class linear classifier grading of short-term epochs of EEG which were converted into a long-term grading of EEG using a majority vote operation. The features used in the AGS were summary measurements of two sub-signals extracted from a quadratic time-frequency distribution: the amplitude modulation and instantaneous frequency. These sub-signals were based on a model of EEG as a multiplication of a coloured random process with a slowly varying pseudo-periodic waveform and may be related to macroscopic neurophysiological function. The 4 grade AGS had a classification accuracy of 83% compared to human annotation of the EEG (level of agreement, κ = 0.76). Features estimated on the developed sub-signals proved more effective at grading the EEG than measures based solely on the EEG and the incorporation of additional sub-grades based on EEG states into the AGS also improved performance.

  8. Histologic chorioamnionitis at term: implications for the progress of labor and neonatal wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Michela; Voltolini, Chiara; Conti, Nathalie; Vellucci, Francesca Letizia; Orlandini, Cinzia; Bocchi, Caterina; Severi, Filiberto Maria; Toti, Paolo; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Petraglia, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate: i) the rate of histologic chorioamnionitis in relation to the onset of labor and mode of delivery; ii) influence of clinical parameters on the risk of histologic chorioamnionitis in laboring women; iii) neonatal outcome in relation to histologic chorioamnionitis. A cohort study was conducted on 395 healthy women at term, with singleton uneventful pregnancy, of which 195 with spontaneous onset of labor and 200 with elective cesarean section. All placentas, collected after delivery, were examined for the diagnosis of histologic chorioamnionitis. Mode of delivery, presence of bacterial infection of placenta and membranes, maternal clinical parameters and neonatal outcome were recorded. The rate of histologic chorioamnionitis in women with spontaneous onset of labor was significantly higher than in those experiencing elective cesarean section (28.7% vs. 11.5%). Nulliparity and the duration of labor were independent variables associated with acute histologic chorioamnionitis. The presence of histologic chorioamnionitis did not affect neonatal outcome. The present study showed a highest rate of histological chorionamniositis in women delivering after spontaneous onset of term labor, although the mode of delivery either vaginally or by emergency cesarean section was not influenced by the presence of this pathological condition.

  9. Neutrophil Chemotaxis in Cord Blood of Term and Preterm Neonates Is Reduced in Preterm Neonates and Influenced by the Mode of Delivery and Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Birle, Alexandra; Nebe, C. Thomas; Hill, Sandra; Hartmann, Karin; Poeschl, Johannes; Koch, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections, even without any perinatal risk factors, are common in newborns, especially in preterm neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis in term and preterm neonates compared with adults as well as neonates with different modes of delivery and anaesthesia. We analysed the expression of the adhesion molecule L-Selectin as well as shape change, spontaneous and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced transmigration of neutrophils in a flow cytometric assay of chemotaxis after spontaneous delivery with Cesarian Section (CS) under spinal anaesthesia (mepivacaine, sufentanil), epidural anaesthesia (ropivacaine or bupivacaine, sufentanil) or general anaesthesia (ketamine, thiopental, succinylcholine). Chemokinesis was higher (p=0.008) in cord blood neutrophils than in the adult ones, whereas those could be more stimulated by fMLP (p=0.02). After vaginal delivery neutrophils showed a higher spontaneous and fMLP-stimulated chemotactic response compared to neonates after CS without labor. Comparing different types of anaesthesia for CS, spinal anaesthesia resulted in less impairment on chemotaxis than general anaesthesia or epidural anaesthesia. The new flow cytometric assay of neutrophil chemotaxis is an appropriate and objective method to analyse functional differences even in very small volumes of blood, essential in neonatology. Term neonates do not show reduced chemotaxis compared to adults. Preterm neonates present with reduced chemotaxis and chemokinesis, confirming the well known deficits in their neutrophil function. The side effects of maternal drugs on the neonatal immune system have to be considered especially when the immune response is already impaired, as in preterm infants. PMID:25867529

  10. Neutrophil chemotaxis in cord blood of term and preterm neonates is reduced in preterm neonates and influenced by the mode of delivery and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Birle, Alexandra; Nebe, C Thomas; Hill, Sandra; Hartmann, Karin; Poeschl, Johannes; Koch, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections, even without any perinatal risk factors, are common in newborns, especially in preterm neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis in term and preterm neonates compared with adults as well as neonates with different modes of delivery and anaesthesia. We analysed the expression of the adhesion molecule L-Selectin as well as shape change, spontaneous and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced transmigration of neutrophils in a flow cytometric assay of chemotaxis after spontaneous delivery with Cesarian Section (CS) under spinal anaesthesia (mepivacaine, sufentanil), epidural anaesthesia (ropivacaine or bupivacaine, sufentanil) or general anaesthesia (ketamine, thiopental, succinylcholine). Chemokinesis was higher (p=0.008) in cord blood neutrophils than in the adult ones, whereas those could be more stimulated by fMLP (p=0.02). After vaginal delivery neutrophils showed a higher spontaneous and fMLP-stimulated chemotactic response compared to neonates after CS without labor. Comparing different types of anaesthesia for CS, spinal anaesthesia resulted in less impairment on chemotaxis than general anaesthesia or epidural anaesthesia. The new flow cytometric assay of neutrophil chemotaxis is an appropriate and objective method to analyse functional differences even in very small volumes of blood, essential in neonatology. Term neonates do not show reduced chemotaxis compared to adults. Preterm neonates present with reduced chemotaxis and chemokinesis, confirming the well known deficits in their neutrophil function. The side effects of maternal drugs on the neonatal immune system have to be considered especially when the immune response is already impaired, as in preterm infants.

  11. Timing of Elective Repeat Cesarean Delivery at Term and Neonatal Outcomes: A Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    ROBINSON, Christopher J.; VILLERS, Margaret S.; JOHNSON, Donna D.; SIMPSON, Kit N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the economic impact of performing elective repeat cesarean during the 37th or 38th week of gestation relative to the ACOG recommendation of 39 week delivery. Methods Decision analysis modeling was used to estimate economic outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of neonates using data from the NICHD/MFMU study entitled “Timing of elective repeat cesarean delivery at term and neonatal outcomes.” Costs and charges were estimated using the Florida Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Results 82,541 deliveries occurring between 37–39 complete weeks gestation were analyzed for the incidence of adverse outcomes and their hospital costs and charges. The model demonstrated increased costs through increasing adverse outcomes among elective repeat cesarean deliveries performed prior to 39 weeks gestation. Conclusion Our findings suggest that there are benefits to waiting until 39 weeks of gestation to perform an elective repeat cesarean delivery. PMID:20435284

  12. Preventive induction of labor for non-urgent indications at term and maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Jin Wen; Ye, Jiang Feng; Branch, D Ware

    2016-04-21

    Induction of labor (IOL) is a common practice in many parts of the world. However, the benefits and risks of preventive IOL for the mother and baby have yet to be critically assessed. This study is to investigate the effects of preventive IOL for non-urgent indications at term on maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we applied a propensity score model to mimic a randomized clinical trial. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with preventive IOL at 37-39 weeks of gestation and women with ongoing pregnancy (expectant management). The subjects were from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a study of over 200,000 births from 19 hospitals across the US from 2002 to 2008. Both nulliparous and multiparous women induced preventively for non-urgent indications at 37-38 weeks' gestation had lower rates of cesarean delivery compared to those delivered at later gestational weeks. However, preventive IOL was associated with increased risks of adverse neonatal outcomes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.92 for nulliparas; aOR = 2.22, 1.32-3.74 for multiparas) and admission to NICU (aOR = 1.48, 0.99-2.20 for nulliparas; aOR = 2.08, 1.47-2.96 for multiparas) at 37 weeks' gestation. A longer maternal hospital stay was found among all women with preventive IOL. Preventive IOL for non-urgent indications may be associated with a decreased risk of cesarean delivery at early term but increased risks of adverse neonatal outcomes at 37 weeks. It also results in a longer hospital stay than expectant management.

  13. EEG background features that predict outcome in term neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: A structured review.

    PubMed

    Awal, Md Abdul; Lai, Melissa M; Azemi, Ghasem; Boashash, Boualem; Colditz, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the term infant. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a useful tool in the assessment of newborns with HIE. This systematic review of published literature identifies those background features of EEG in term neonates with HIE that best predict neurodevelopmental outcome. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases from January 1960 to April 2014. Studies included in the review described recorded EEG background features, neurodevelopmental outcomes at a minimum age of 12 months and were published in English. Pooled sensitivities and specificities of EEG background features were calculated and meta-analyses were performed for each background feature. Of the 860 articles generated by the initial search strategy, 52 studies were identified as potentially relevant. Twenty-one studies were excluded as they did not distinguish between different abnormal background features, leaving 31 studies from which data were extracted for the meta-analysis. The most promising neonatal EEG features are: burst suppression (sensitivity 0.87 [95% CI (0.78-0.92)]; specificity 0.82 [95% CI (0.72-0.88)]), low voltage (sensitivity 0.92 [95% CI (0.72-0.97)]; specificity 0.99 [95% CI (0.88-1.0)]), and flat trace (sensitivity 0.78 [95% CI (0.58-0.91)]; specificity 0.99 [95% CI (0.88-1.0)]). Burst suppression, low voltage and flat trace in the EEG of term neonates with HIE most accurately predict long term neurodevelopmental outcome. This structured review and meta-analysis provides quality evidence of the background EEG features that best predict neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long term motor function after neonatal stroke: Lesion localization above all.

    PubMed

    Dinomais, Mickael; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Groeschel, Samuel; Chabrier, Stéphane; Delion, Matthieu; Husson, Béatrice; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Renaud, Cyrille; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Motor outcome is variable following neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS). We analyzed the relationship between lesion characteristics on brain MRI and motor function in children who had suffered from NAIS. Thirty eight full term born children with unilateral NAIS were investigated at the age of seven. 3D T1- and 3D FLAIR-weighted MR images were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner. Lesion characteristics were compared between patients with and without cerebral palsy (CP) using the following approaches: lesion localization either using a category-based analysis, lesion mapping as well as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). Using diffusion-weighted imaging the microstructure of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) was related to the status of CP by measuring DTI parameters. Whereas children with lesions sparing the primary motor system did not develop CP, CP was always present when extensive lesions damaged at least two brain structures involving the motor system. The VLSM approach provided a statistical map that confirmed the cortical lesions in the primary motor system and revealed that CP was highly correlated with lesions in close proximity to the CST. In children with CP, diffusion parameters indicated microstructural changes in the CST at the level of internal capsule and the centrum semiovale. White matter damage of the CST in centrum semiovale was a highly reproducible marker of CP. This is the first description of the implication of this latter region in motor impairment after NAIS. In conclusion, CP in childhood was closely linked to the location of the infarct in the motor system.

  15. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters respiratory long term facilitation in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, DD; Dougherty, BJ; Sandhu, MS; Doperalski, NJ; Reynolds, CR; Hayward, LF

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia can evoke persistent increases in ventilation (ν̇ E) in neonates (i.e. long-term facilitation, LTF) (Julien et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294: R1356–R1366, 2008). Since prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure alters neonatal respiratory control (Fregosi & Pilarski. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 164: 80–86, 2008), we hypothesized that PN would influence LTF of ventilation (ν̇ E) in neonatal rats. An osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) or saline to pregnant dams. ν̇ E was assessed in unanesthetized pups via whole body plethysmography at post-natal (P) days 9–11 or 15–17 during baseline (BL, 21% O2), hypoxia (10 × 5 min, 5% O2) and 30 min post-hypoxia. PN pups had reduced BL ν̇ E (p<0.05) but greater increases in ν̇ E during hypoxia (p<0.05). Post-hypoxia ν̇ E (i.e. LTF) showed an age × treatment interaction (p<0.01) with similar values at P9-11 but enhanced LTF in saline (30±8 %BL) vs. PN pups (6±5 %BL; p=0.01) at P15-17. We conclude that the post-natal developmental time course of hypoxia-induced LTF is influenced by PN. PMID:19818419

  16. Hand movements at 3 months predict later hemiplegia in term infants with neonatal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Andrea; Pizzardi, Alessandra; Belmonti, Vittorio; Boldrini, Antonio; Carotenuto, Marco; D'Acunto, Giulia; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Fiori, Simona; Gallo, Claudio; Ghirri, Paolo; Mercuri, Eugenio; Romeo, Domenico; Roversi, Maria Federica; Cioni, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the predictive value of quantitative assessment of hand movements in 3-month-old infants after neonatal stroke. Thirteen infants born at term (five females, eight males; mean gestational age 39.4wks, SD 1.19, range 37-41wks; mean birthweight 3240g, SD 203, range 2900-3570g) with neonatal arterial ischaemic cerebral infarction, and 13 healthy infants (mean gestational age 39.1wks, range 37-41wks, SD 1.26; mean birthweight 3190g, SD 259, range 2680-3490g) were enrolled in the study. The absolute frequency and the asymmetry of global hand opening and closing, wrist segmental movements, and independent digit movements were assessed from videotapes recorded at around 12 weeks. Neurological outcome was assessed when the infants were at least 18 months old using Touwen's neurological examination. Five of the 13 infants with neonatal stroke had normal neurological development, and eight had hemiplegia. Asymmetry of wrist segmental movements and the absolute frequency of independent digit movements were significantly different between infants with and without hemiplegia (p=0.006 and p=0.008, respectively). No differences were found in global hand movements. We propose that the observed abnormalities of hand movements are the result of two different mechanisms: direct disruption of the corticospinal projection to the spinal cord, and altered modulation of the central pattern generators of general movements.

  17. Relationship between opioid therapy, tissue-damaging procedures, and brain metabolites as measured by proton MRS in asphyxiated term neonates.

    PubMed

    Angeles, Danilyn M; Ashwal, Stephen; Wycliffe, Nathaniel D; Ebner, Charlotte; Fayard, Elba; Sowers, Lawrence; Holshouser, Barbara A

    2007-05-01

    To examine the effects of opioid and tissue-damaging procedures (TDPs) [i.e. procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) known to result in pain, stress, and tissue damage] on brain metabolites, we reviewed the medical records of 28 asphyxiated term neonates (eight opioid-treated, 20 non-opioid treated) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within the first month of life as well as eight newborns with no clinical findings of asphyxial injury. We found that lower creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) (p < or = 0.03) and higher Cho/Cr and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) Cr (p < or = 0.02) correlated with increased TDP incidence in the first 2 d of life (DOL). We also found that occipital gray matter (OGM) NAA/Cr was decreased (p = 0.03) and lactate (Lac) was present in a significantly higher amount (40%; p = 0.03) in non-opioid-treated neonates compared with opioid-treated neonates. Compared with controls, untreated neonates showed larger changes in more metabolites in basal ganglia (BG), thalami (TH), and OGM with greater significance than treated neonates. Our data suggest that TDPs affect spectral metabolites and that opioids do not cause harm in asphyxiated term neonates exposed to repetitive TDPs in the first 2-4 DOL and may provide a degree of neuroprotection.

  18. Neonatal overfeeding disrupts pituitary ghrelin signalling in female rats long-term; Implications for the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Ziko, Ilvana; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress are exacerbated in adult female but not male rats made obese due to overfeeding in early life. Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in coordinating the HPA responses to stress, particularly by acting directly at the anterior pituitary where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), the receptor for acyl ghrelin, is abundantly expressed. We therefore hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding in female rats would compromise pituitary responsiveness to ghrelin, contributing to a hyperactive central stress responsiveness. Unlike in males where hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is compromised by neonatal overfeeding, there was no effect of early life diet on circulating ghrelin or hypothalamic ghrelin signalling in females, indicating hypothalamic feeding and metabolic ghrelin circuitry remains intact. However, neonatal overfeeding did lead to long-term alterations in the pituitary ghrelin system. The neonatally overfed females had increased neonatal and reduced adult expression of GHSR and ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT) in the pituitary as well as reduced pituitary responsiveness to exogenous acyl ghrelin-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in vitro. These data suggest that neonatal overfeeding dysregulates pituitary ghrelin signalling long-term in females, potentially accounting for the hyper-responsive HPA axis in these animals. These findings have implications for how females may respond to stress throughout life, suggesting the way ghrelin modifies the stress response at the level of the pituitary may be less efficient in the neonatally overfed. PMID:28282447

  19. Long-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaiarsa, J L

    1999-07-01

    1. The plasticity of GABAergic synapses was investigated in neonatal rat hippocampal slices obtained between postnatal days 3 and 6 using intracellular recording techniques. Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists were present throughout the experiments to isolate GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic potentials (GABAA PSPs) or currents (GABAA PSCs). 2. Repetitive depolarizing pulses (20 pulses, 0.5 s duration, at 0.1 Hz, each pulse generating 4-6 action potentials) induced a long-term potentiation in the slope and amplitude of the evoked GABAA PSPs and GABAA PSCs. 3. Long-term potentiation was prevented by intracellular injection of the calcium chelator BAPTA (50 mM), or when the voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers Ni2+ (50 microM) and nimodipine (10 microM) were bath applied. 4. Repetitive depolarizing pulses induced a persistent (over 1 h) increase in the frequency of spontaneous GABAA PSCs. 5. Repetitive depolarizing pulses induced a long-lasting increase in the frequency of miniature GABAA PSCs, without altering their amplitude or decay-time constant. 6. It is concluded that the postsynaptic activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels leads to a long-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus. This form of plasticity is expressed as an increase in the probability of GABA release or in the number of functional synapses, rather than as an upregulation of postsynaptic GABAA receptor numbers or conductance at functional synapses.

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and outcome in term neonates with chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C B; Jenkins, D D; Bentzley, J P; Lambert, D; Hope, K; Rollins, L G; Morgan, P S; Brown, T; Ramakrishnan, V; Mulvihill, D M; Katikaneni, L D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate brain metabolites, which reflect neuroinflammation, and relate to neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy term neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis. Study Design: Thirty-one healthy term neonates with documented fetal inflammatory response after maternal chorioamnionitis underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with voxels placed in basal ganglia (BG) and frontal white matter. Bayley III examinations were performed at 12 months of age. Result: Infants with below average outcomes did not show the same increase in NAA/Cho ratios postnatally as the group with normal outcomes. Decreased NAA/Cho and increased Lac/Cr in BG correlated with lower motor and cognitive composite scores, respectively, controlling for postnatal age. In males, increased lactate/NAA in BG were associated with lower motor scores. Funisitis severity was associated with decreased NAA/Cho and increased mI/NAA in males. Conclusion: In healthy term newborns with chorioamnionitis, MRS ratios shortly after birth may provide evidence of occult neuroinflammation, which may be associated with worse performance on 1-year neurodevelopmental tests. PMID:26426253

  1. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  2. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  3. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Boutry, Claire; El-Kadi, Samer W; Suryawan, Agus; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Stoll, Barbara; Orellana, Renán A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Kimball, Scot R; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2016-04-15

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have shown previously that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle compared with continuous feeding alone. To determine the long-term effects of leucine pulses, neonatal piglets (n = 11-12/group) were continuously fed formula via orogastric tube for 21 days, with an additional parenteral infusion of either leucine (CON + LEU; 800 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) or alanine (CON + ALA) for 1 h every 4 h. The results show that body and muscle weights and lean gain were ∼25% greater, and fat gain was 48% lower in CON + LEU than CON + ALA; weights of other tissues were unaffected by treatment. Fractional protein synthesis rates in longissimus dorsi, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were ∼30% higher in CON + LEU compared with CON + ALA and were associated with decreased Deptor abundance and increased mTORC1, mTORC2, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation, SNAT2 abundance, and association of eIF4E with eIF4G and RagC with mTOR. There were no treatment effects on PKB, eIF2α, eEF2, or PRAS40 phosphorylation, Rheb, SLC38A9, v-ATPase, LAMTOR1, LAMTOR2, RagA, RagC, and LAT1 abundance, the proportion of polysomes to nonpolysomes, or the proportion of mRNAs encoding rpS4 or rpS8 associated with polysomes. Our results demonstrate that pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during 21 days of continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth by stimulating the mTORC1-dependent translation initiation pathway, leading to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates.

  4. Association of UGT1A1 Variants and Hyperbilirubinemia in Breast-Fed Full-Term Chinese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Youyou; Wang, San-nan; Li, Hong; Zha, Weifeng; Wang, Xuli; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jian; Peng, Qianqian; Li, Shilin; Chen, Ying; Jin, Li

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective case control study of breast-fed full-term infants was carried out to determine whether variants in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Eight genetic variants of UGT1A1 and 3 genetic variants of HMOX1 were genotyped in 170 hyperbilirubinemic newborns and 779 controls. Five significant associations with breast-fed hyperbilirubinemia were detected after adjusting for gender, birth season, birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction: the dominant effect of rs887829 (c-364t) (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.55; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.89; p = 0.014), the additive effect of (TA)n repeat (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.38–0.91; p = 0.017), the dominant effect of rs4148323 (Gly71Arg, G211A) (OR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.44–2.85; p = 5.0×10−5), the recessive effect of rs6717546 (g+914a) (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.11–0.83; p = 0.021) and rs6719561 (t+2558c) (OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.20–0.75; p = 0.005). Neonates carrying the minor allele of rs887829 (TA)n repeat had significantly lower peak bilirubin than wild types, while the minor allele carriers of rs4148323 had significantly higher peak bilirubin than wild types. No association was found in HMOX1. Our findings added to the understanding of the significance of UGT1A1 in association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in East Asian population. Additional studies were required to investigate the mechanisms of the protective effects. PMID:25102181

  5. Additional value of two-channel amplitude integrated EEG recording in full-term infants with unilateral brain injury.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Linda G M; de Vries, Linda S; van Huffelen, Alexander C; Toet, Mona C

    2010-05-01

    Amplitude integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a valuable tool for evaluating neonatal encephalopathy and identifying electrographic seizures. To compare seizure activity and background pattern (BGP) between one-channel and two-channel aEEG recordings in full-term neonates. The two-channel aEEG recordings (F3-P3; F4-P4) of 34 neonates with seizures were compared with single-channel recordings (P3-P4). All 34 infants with unilateral (n=14), diffuse (n=18) or without (n=2) brain injury had seizure patterns on one-channel and two-channel recordings, with 18% more seizure patterns detected with two-channel recording. In 79% of infants with unilateral injury more seizures were noted on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral side. In 39% of the infants with diffuse brain damage more seizures were found with two-channel recordings. A sensitivity of 65% was found when using the automatic seizure detection algorithm. In 4/14 (29%) infants with unilateral injury a more severely affected BGP was seen on the ipsilateral side compared to the BGP on one-channel recording. In infants with diffuse injury differences in BGP pattern were seen in 6-17% of the infants depending on the system used for scoring. Although there were no major differences found between seizure detection with one-channel or two-channel aEEG, in a subgroup of infants with a predominantly unilateral brain lesion, two-channel recording did provide additional information with identification of more seizure patterns on the affected side, sometimes also associated with a difference in BGP. To improve early diagnosis of unilateral lesions and improve seizure detection in these infants, routine use of two-channel recordings is recommended.

  6. Treating perinatal asphyxia with theophylline at birth helps to reduce the severity of renal dysfunction in term neonates.

    PubMed

    Raina, Alok; Pandita, Aakash; Harish, Rekha; Yachha, Monika; Jamwal, Ashu

    2016-10-01

    Perinatal asphyxia is a common neonatal problem and contributes significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to determine whether theophylline could prevent or ameliorate renal dysfunction in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. We randomised 159 severely asphyxiated term newborns to receive a single dose of 5 mg/kg intravenous theophylline (n = 78) or a placebo (n = 81) during the first hour of life. The infant's 24-hour fluid intake, urine volume, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and sodium excretion were recorded during days one, three and five of life, starting 12 hours after the theophylline or placebo infusion. Neonates in the theophylline group had lower serum creatinine levels (0.83 ± 0.35 versus 1.47 ± 0.61; p = 0.00) and higher endogenous creatinine clearance (32.16 ± 16.34 versus 17.73 ± 7.92; p = 0.00) than the placebo group. Severe renal dysfunction, namely acute kidney injury, was present in 36 (15%) of the neonates in the theophylline group versus 117 (48%) in the placebo group (p < 0.01). A single dose of intravenous theophylline administered to term neonates with perinatal asphyxia within the first hour of life significantly decreased serum creatinine levels and significantly increased creatinine clearance. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Differential effects of long-term leucine infusion on tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fiona A.; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A.; Gazzaneo, María C.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Leucine is unique among the amino acids in its ability to promote protein synthesis by activating translation initiation via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Previously, we showed that leucine infusion acutely stimulates protein synthesis in fast-twitch glycolytic muscle of neonatal pigs but this response cannot be maintained unless the leucine-induced fall in amino acids is prevented. To determine whether leucine can stimulate protein synthesis in muscles of different fiber types and in visceral tissues of the neonate in the long-term if baseline amino acid concentrations are maintained, overnight fasted neonatal pigs were infused for 24 h with saline, leucine (400 μmol kg−1 h−1), or leucine with replacement amino acids to prevent the leucine-induced hypoaminoacidemia. Changes in the fractional rate of protein synthesis and activation of mTOR, as determined by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP1) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, in the gastrocnemius and masseter muscles, heart, liver, jejunum, kidney, and pancreas were measured. Leucine increased mTOR activation in the gastrocnemius and masseter muscles, liver, and pancreas, in both the absence and presence of amino acid replacement. However, protein synthesis in these tissues was increased only when amino acids were infused to maintain baseline levels. There were no changes in mTOR signaling or protein synthesis in the other tissues we examined. Thus, long-term infusion of leucine stimulates mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle and some visceral tissues but the leucine-induced stimulation of protein synthesis in these tissues requires sustained amino acid availability. PMID:20505962

  8. Rates of intrauterine fetal demise and neonatal morbidity at term: determining optimal timing of delivery.

    PubMed

    Alimena, Stephanie; Nold, Christopher; Herson, Victor; Fang, Yu Ming Victor

    2017-01-01

    To examine rates of unexplained intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) and neonatal morbidity in uncomplicated term pregnancies to identify the optimal gestational age for delivery. A retrospective case control study was performed with singleton pregnancies delivered between 37 0/7 weeks and 42 6/7 weeks. Exclusion criteria were "complicated pregnancies": emergency deliveries, maternal hypertension, diabetes, infection, fetal disease/malformations and placental abnormalities. Nineteen thousand two hundred and sixty-four maternal/infant pairs were examined. The overall rate of NICU admission was 2.7% and the rate of unexplained IUFD was 2.02 per 1000 births. The lowest rate of IUFD was found at 39 weeks (1.40 per 1000 births). Odds ratios adjusted for maternal smoking, ethnicity, age and mode of delivery showed 2.74 (95% CI 0.35-21.83) risk of IUFD at 42 versus 39 weeks, 2.09 (1.47-2.98) risk of NICU admission at 37 versus 38 weeks, 2.54 (1.62-3.97) risk of respiratory morbidity at 37 versus 38 weeks and 3.38 (1.84-6.18) risk of transient tachypnea of the newborn or respiratory distress syndrome at 37 versus 38 weeks. Neonatal respiratory morbidity was lowest for deliveries at 38-39 weeks. IUFD was 2.74 times more likely at 42 weeks versus 39 weeks. Our findings support current guidelines advising clinicians when to deliver term pregnancies.

  9. Term neonates with infection and shock display high cortisol precursors despite low levels of normal cortisol.

    PubMed

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Ojaniemi, Marja; Leskinen, Markku; Saarela, Timo; Hallman, Mikko

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal therapy-resistant septic shock is a common problem in middle and low-income countries. We investigated whether newborn infants with infection and therapy-resistant hypotension showed evidence of abnormal levels of cortisol or cortisol precursors. A total of 60 term or near term neonates with evidence of infection were enrolled after informed consent. Of these, 30 had an infection and refractory shock and 30 had an infection without shock. There were no detectable differences between the groups in the length of gestation, birth weight or gender distribution. Serum was obtained during days four and 14 after birth. Cortisol and cortisol precursor concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cortisol concentrations were low considering the expected responses to stress and they did not differ between the groups. The infants with infection and shock had higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels than those without shock (319.0 ± 110.3 μg/dL, versus 22.3 ± 18.3 μg/dL; p < 0.0001) and they also had higher 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone, pregnenolone and progesterone concentrations. There were no detectable differences in the levels of 17-hydroxy-progesterone, 11-deoxy-cortisol, cortisol or cortisone. Septic newborn infants with therapy-resistant hypotension had very high DHEA levels, suggesting that 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity limited the rate of cortisol synthesis. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of Umbilical Cord Milking and Delayed Cord Clamping on Cerebral Blood Flow in Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Prateek; Upadhyay, Amit; Gothwal, Sunil; Chaudhary, Hema; Tandon, Ashutosh

    2015-10-01

    To compare the effect of umbilical cord milking (UCM) and delayed cord clamping (DCC) on cerebral blood flow in term neonates. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a teaching hospital in India during 2012 to 2013. Two hundred newborns (>36wk) were randomized to UCM and DCC groups. UCM was done on 25cm of cord length. In DCC group, clamping was delayed by 60 to 90s. Resistive Index (RI), Pulsatility Index (PI) and cerebral blood flow velocities of middle cerebral artery (MCA) were measured at 24 to 48h of life. Baseline characteristics and hemodynamic parameters were comparable. Mean PI [1.18 (0.26)] and RI [0.65 (0.08)] in UCM group was comparable to mean PI [1.18 (0.25)] and RI [0.65 (0.08)] in DCC group. The peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity (cm/s) of blood flow in MCA for UCM group were 34.94 (11.82) and 11.71 (4.75) respectively, while in DCC group they were 37.24 (12.63) and 13.07 (4.78) (p 0.23 and 0.07) respectively. Indices among growth retarded babies were not different. DCC and UCM had similar effect on cerebral blood flow velocities and Doppler indices in MCA, in term neonates.

  11. Long-term and trans-generational effects of neonatal experience on sheep behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corinna; Murrell, Joanna; Fernyhough, Mia; O'Rourke, Treasa; Mendl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Early life experiences can have profound long-term, and sometimes transgenerational, effects on individual phenotypes. However, there is a relative paucity of knowledge about effects on pain sensitivity, even though these may impact on an individual's health and welfare, particularly in farm animals exposed to painful husbandry procedures. Here, we tested in sheep whether neonatal painful and non-painful challenges can alter pain sensitivity in adult life, and also in the next generation. Ewes exposed to tail-docking or a simulated mild infection (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) on days 3–4 of life showed higher levels of pain-related behaviour when giving birth as adults compared with control animals. LPS-treated ewes also gave birth to lambs who showed decreased pain sensitivity in standardized tests during days 2–3 of life. Our results demonstrate long-term and trans-generational effects of neonatal experience on pain responses in a commercially important species and suggest that variations in early life management can have important implications for animal health and welfare.

  12. [Anthropometric growth patterns of preterm and full-term newborns (24-42 weeks' gestational age) at the Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona)(1997-2002].

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, A; Yeste, D; Copil, A; Almar, J; Salcedo, S; Gussinyé, M

    2004-05-01

    Gestational age and neonatal anthropometric parameters are significant predictive factors of neonatal and adult morbidity. Our objective was to evaluate these parameters in a population of preterm and full-term newborns. We retrospectively analyzed neonatal anthropometric parameters (weight, vertex-heel length and head circumference) in 1470 live preterm neonates born at 24-36 weeks' gestation between 1997 and 2002. The same parameters were prospectively analyzed in 1786 live newborns born at 37-42 weeks after uncomplicated pregnancies between 2001 and 2002. All preterm and full-term neonates were the result of single pregnancies and were born at the Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona. Only Caucasian neonates whose parents were born in Spain were included. In the group of full-term neonates all measurements were made by the same researcher. The mean and standard deviation and percentile distribution values of weight, length and head circumference according to sex and gestational age are presented. These parameters progressively increased with gestational age and sexual dimorphism from the 30th week of gestation onwards, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) for all parameters at 38-42 weeks' gestational age. The mean gains in male full-term newborns compared with female full-term newborns were: 129.1 g of weight, 0.68 cm of length and 0.45 cm of head circumference (P < 0.05). In our population, 10th percentile values for weight and length were higher than those in other Spanish populations reported in 1988 and 1996. Sexual dimorphism was found in intrauterine anthropometric growth parameters. These parameters change over time and should be updated periodically.

  13. Necrotising enterocolitis in a full-term infant with reversed diastolic flow in the descending aorta: what is the diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Pais, Isabel; Teles, Andreia; Miranda, Nise; Pinto, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Vein of Galen malformations (VGM) are rare intracranial vascular anomalies that constitute 1% of all intracranial vascular malformations. Untreated VGM have a very poor prognosis. A high proportion of patients who present in the neonatal period rapidly deteriorate and succumb to congestive cardiac failure. The prenatal diagnosis and possible in utero referral to highly specialised centre of postnatal care have resulted in considerable improvement in prognosis. The authors present a case of a postnatally diagnosed VGM in a full-term infant presenting with progressive cardiac failure and necrotising enterocolitis secondary to gut hypoperfusion. They emphasise the importance of prenatal diagnosis by pulsed wave Doppler and colour-velocity imaging for subsequent referral to a centre of excellence in a multidisciplinary approach involving neonatologists, paediatric cardiologists and interventional radiologists in order to optimise the management and limit the neurological sequelae in children with this type of malformation. PMID:23213124

  14. Limited short-term prognostic utility of cerebral NIRS during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Thelen, Brian J.; Bapuraj, Jayapalli R.; Burns, Joseph W.; Swenson, Aaron W.; Christensen, Mary K.; Wiggins, Stephanie A.; Barks, John D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the utility of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for short-term outcome prediction in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Methods: Neonates with HIE were monitored with dual-channel aEEG, bilateral cerebral NIRS, and systemic NIRS throughout cooling and rewarming. The short-term outcome measure was a composite of neurologic examination and brain MRI scores at 7 to 10 days. Multiple regression models were developed to assess NIRS and aEEG recorded during the 6 hours before rewarming and the 6-hour rewarming period as predictors of short-term outcome. Results: Twenty-one infants, mean gestational age 38.8 ± 1.6 weeks, median 10-minute Apgar score 4 (range 0–8), and mean initial pH 6.92 ± 0.19, were enrolled. Before rewarming, the most parsimonious model included 4 parameters (adjusted R2 = 0.59; p = 0.006): lower values of systemic rSO2 variability (p = 0.004), aEEG bandwidth variability (p = 0.019), and mean aEEG upper margin (p = 0.006), combined with higher mean aEEG bandwidth (worse discontinuity; p = 0.013), predicted worse short-term outcome. During rewarming, lower systemic rSO2 variability (p = 0.007) and depressed aEEG lower margin (p = 0.034) were associated with worse outcome (model-adjusted R2 = 0.49; p = 0.005). Cerebral NIRS data did not contribute to either model. Conclusions: During day 3 of cooling and during rewarming, loss of physiologic variability (by systemic NIRS) and invariant, discontinuous aEEG patterns predict poor short-term outcome in neonates with HIE. These parameters, but not cerebral NIRS, may be useful to identify infants suitable for studies of adjuvant neuroprotective therapies or modification of the duration of cooling and/or rewarming. PMID:23771483

  15. [Neonatal gastroenteritis triggers long-term cardiomyocyte atrophy, remodeling and irreversible hyperpolyploidization].

    PubMed

    Anatskaia, O V; Sidorenko, N V; Beĭer, T V; Vinogradov, A E

    2010-01-01

    Growth retardation, inflammation and cardiac overload in early childhood are linked with hypertension and infarction in adults. This link was termed as developmental programming. Exact mechanisms and critical time frames for development of the heart are still unknown. To elucidate these questions, we developed a model of moderate cryptosporidial gastroenteritis triggering main programming factors. Sliding the time point of infection day by day (from day 4 to day 18), we tested complete rat neonatal period. Also, we repeated all experiments 30 days after infection. Using methods of cytometry, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, we compared sensitivity of ventricular cardiomyocyte shape, protein content and ploidy. Our data indicated that gastroenteritis lasting four days triggered cardiomyocyte atrophy, almost doubling cell length to width ratio, and premature and excessive polyploidization. Surprisingly, nucleus and cytoplasm reacted to the disease differently. Cardiomyocytes accumulated genomes only when the disease covered the time period between 6 and 14 days after birth, when cells substitute proliferative growth with hypertrophy. Contractile proteins and cell shape on the contrary, showed high sensitivity in the course of complete neonatal period. After restoration, ploidy did not regress, whereas cell shape and protein content revealed moderate restoration. Taking into account that somatic polyploidy is irreversible and that it alters global gene expression pattern, we may suggest that genome duplication is one of the instruments of developmental programming and that gastroenteritis is one if the triggers of this programming.

  16. Airway hyperreactivity produced by short-term exposure to hyperoxia in neonatal guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Schulman, S R; Canada, A T; Fryer, A D; Winsett, D W; Costa, D L

    1997-06-01

    Airway hyperreactivity is recognized as one of the long-term sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Due to the improved care and prognosis of very low-birth weight infants, the incidence of BPD is increasing. There are data that suggest the increased survival of premature infants may be associated with the observed increased incidence of childhood asthma. The hyperoxia received as part of the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome is believed to be partly if not completely responsible for BPD. To gain insight into the potential role that hyperoxia might play in producing airway hyperreactivity, 4-day-old guinea pig pups were exposed to 70% oxygen or air for 96 h, and airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed both 2 and 9 days after the completion of the hyperoxia exposures. Unlike ozone, the mechanism for the persistently increased airway reactivity is not related either to the inhibition of neuronal acetylcholinesterase or inhibition of the neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor. A difference in antioxidant protection did not account for the increased response of the neonatal guinea pigs compared with hyperoxia-exposed rat pups. These data support the usefulness of the neonatal guinea pig as a model to study the mechanism responsible for hyperoxia-induced airway hyperreactivity.

  17. Long-term outcome following selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor induced neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Frankenthal, D; Merlob, P; Diamond, G; Sirota, L; Levinson-Castiel, R; Linder, N; Stahl, B; Inbar, D

    2011-09-01

    To assess the long-term neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that developed a neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed at the age of 2 to 6 years. Children who developed NAS were compared with those who did not using univariate and logistic regression analyses. Thirty children with NAS and 52 without NAS participated in the study. Both groups were similar in mean cognitive ability (106.9±14.0 vs 100.5±14.6, P=0.12) and developmental scores (98.9±11.4 vs 95.7±9.9, P=0.21). However, there was a trend towards small head circumference in the NAS group (20 vs 6%, P=0.068). NAS was associated with an increased risk of social-behavior abnormalities (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 8.60, P=0.04) and advanced maternal age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.25, P=0.04). Infants who developed NAS had normal cognitive ability, but were at an increased risk for social-behavioral abnormalities. Follow-up evaluation of symptomatic neonates should be considered.

  18. Long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on cognitive function in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jessica A; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-05-16

    Exposure to methamphetamine during brain development impairs cognition in children and adult rodents. In mice, these impairments are greater in females than males. Adult female, but not male, mice show impairments in novel location recognition following methamphetamine exposure during brain development. In contrast to adulthood, little is known about the potential effects of methamphetamine exposure on cognition in adolescent mice. As adolescence is an important time of development and is relatively understudied, the aim of the current study was to examine potential long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on behavior and cognition during adolescence. Male and female mice were exposed to methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline once a day from postnatal days 11 to 20, the period of rodent hippocampal development. Behavioral and cognitive function was assessed during adolescence beginning on postnatal day 30. During the injection period, methamphetamine-exposed mice gained less weight on average compared to saline-exposed mice. In both male and female mice, methamphetamine exposure significantly impaired novel object recognition and there was a trend toward impaired novel location recognition. Anxiety-like behavior, sensorimotor gating, and contextual and cued fear conditioning were not affected by methamphetamine exposure. Thus, neonatal methamphetamine exposure affects cognition in adolescence and unlike in adulthood equally affects male and female mice.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Methamphetamine Exposure on Cognitive Function in Adolescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A.; Park, Byung S.; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to methamphetamine during brain development impairs cognition in children and adult rodents. In mice, these impairments are greater in females than males. Adult female, but not male, mice show impairments in novel location recognition following methamphetamine exposure during brain development. In contrast to adulthood, little is known about the potential effects of methamphetamine exposure on cognition in adolescent mice. As adolescence is an important time of development and is relatively understudied, the aim of the current study was to examine potential long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on behavior and cognition during adolescence. Male and female mice were exposed to methamphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline once a day from postnatal day 11-20, the period of rodent hippocampal development. Behavioral and cognitive function was assessed during adolescence beginning on postnatal day 30. During the injection period, methamphetamine-exposed mice gained less weight on average compared to saline-exposed mice. In both male and female mice, methamphetamine exposure significantly impaired novel object recognition and there was a trend towards impaired novel location recognition. Anxiety-like behavior, sensorimotor gating, and contextual and cued fear conditioning were not affected by methamphetamine exposure. Thus, neonatal methamphetamine exposure affects cognition in adolescence and unlike in adulthood equally affects male and female mice. PMID:21238498

  20. Analgesic effect of breast feeding in term neonates: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Veerapen, Soocramanien; Couderc, Sophie; Jugie, Myriam; Ville, Yves

    2003-01-04

    To investigate whether breast feeding is effective for pain relief during venepuncture in term neonates and compare any effect with that of oral glucose combined with a pacifier. Randomised controlled trial. 180 term newborn infants undergoing venepuncture; 45 in each group. During venepuncture infants were either breast fed (group 1), held in their mother's arms without breast feeding (group 2), given 1 ml of sterile water as placebo (group 3), or given 1 ml of 30% glucose followed by pacifier (group 4). Video recordings of the procedure were assessed by two observers blinded to the purpose of the study. Pain related behaviours evaluated with two acute pain rating scales: the Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né scale (range 0 to 10) and the premature infant pain profile scale (range 0 to 18). Median pain scores (interquartile range) for breast feeding, held in mother's arms, placebo, and 30% glucose plus pacifier groups were 1 (0-3), 10 (8.5-10), 10 (7.5-10), and 3 (0-5) with the Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né scale and 4.5 (2.25-8), 13 (10.5-15), 12 (9-13), and 4 (1-6) with the premature infant pain profile scale. Analysis of variance showed significantly different median pain scores (P<0.0001) among the groups. There were significant reductions in both scores for the breast feeding and glucose plus pacifier groups compared with the other two groups (P<0.0001, two tailed Mann-Whitney U tests between groups). The difference in Douleur Aiguë Nouveau-né scores between breast feeding and glucose plus pacifier groups was not significant (P=0.16). Breast feeding effectively reduces response to pain during minor invasive procedure in term neonates.

  1. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-09-29

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0-12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7-40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term.

  2. [Relationship between the level of sialic acid during perinatal period and early intelligence development of full term infants].

    PubMed

    Wu, Youjia; Shao, Zhili; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Haiying; Xu, Meiyu

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between the status of sialic acid (SA) during perinatal period and early intelligence development of healthy full term infant, and to explore the effect of SA on the early intelligence development. A total of 127 pairs of healthy mothers-neonates in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University were recruited randomly in this prospective cohort study. The levels of SA from body fluids of mothers-neonates were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, such as the full-term maternal and cord blood and the colostrum. The questionnaire surveys were carried out in mothers and mental development evaluation according to Children's Development Center of China (CDCC) were carried out in infants 3 to 4 months of age to obtain the mental development index (MDI) and psycho-motor development index (PDI). A total of 120 pairs of maternal-neonatal subjects with complete data were included into statistical analysis. The levels of SA of maternal and cord blood and colostrum were (2.25 ± 0.02), (1.21 ± 0.01), and (5.01 ± 0.06) mmol/L respectively. MDI and PDI of infants 3 to 4 months of age were (99.40 ± 1.87) and (98.53 ± 1.96). The analysis using multiple linear regression indicated that MDI was associated with SA levels of cord blood and colostrum (β = 0.636, 0.175, P < 0.05), and PDI was also associated with them (β = 0.502, 0.262, P < 0.05). The levels of SA of cord blood and colostrums were individually divided into high-level group and low-level one according to the median level. MDI and PDI in high-level group of cord blood were both significantly higher than that in low-level group (111.85 ± 2.79) vs. (108.88 ± 2.0) , (101.08 ± 4.44) vs. (98.88 ± 2.0) P < 0.01. So were MDI and PDI in high-level group of colostrum compared with those in low-level group (111.71 ± 3.07) vs. (108.81 ± 1.56), P < 0.01; (101.29 ± 4.23) vs.(98.56 ± 1.79), P < 0.05. The analysis on correlation between the levels of maternal-neonatal body fluids

  3. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Morphine Infusion on Pain Sensitivity: Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Abraham J; van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; de Graaf, Joke; van Lingen, Richard A; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; van Rosmalen, Joost; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Short-term and long-term effects of neonatal pain and its analgesic treatment have been topics of translational research over the years. This study aimed to identify the long-term effects of continuous morphine infusion in the neonatal period on thermal pain sensitivity, the incidence of chronic pain, and neurological functioning. Eighty-nine of the 150 participants of a neonatal randomized controlled trial on continuous morphine infusion versus placebo during mechanical ventilation underwent quantitative sensory testing and neurological examination at the age of 8 or 9 years. Forty-three children from the morphine group and 46 children from the placebo group participated in this follow-up study. Thermal detection and pain thresholds were compared with data from 28 healthy controls. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant differences in thermal detection thresholds and pain thresholds between the morphine and placebo groups. The incidence of chronic pain was comparable between both groups. The neurological examination was normal in 29 (76%) of the children in the morphine group and 25 (61%) of the children in the control group (P = .14). We found that neonatal continuous morphine infusion (10 μg/kg/h) has no adverse effects on thermal detection and pain thresholds, the incidence of chronic pain, or overall neurological functioning 8 to 9 years later. Perspective: This unique long-term follow-up study shows that neonatal continuous morphine infusion (10 μg/kg/h) has no long-term adverse effects on thermal detection and pain thresholds or overall neurological functioning. These findings will help clinicians to find the most adequate and safe analgesic dosing regimens for neonates and infants.

  4. [Clinical analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes in uncomplicated term nulliparous after different routes of delivery].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong; Bian, Xu-ming; Yang, Jian-qiu; Liu, Jun-tao; Gong, Xiao-ming; Teng, Li-rong

    2007-12-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes after induction, elective cesarean section and spontaneous onset of labor in uncomplicated term nulliparous women. A total of 3751 uncomplicated term nullipara who delivered in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Sept 2002 to April 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into three groups: the induction group, the elective cesarean section group, and the spontaneous onset of labor group. Their general conditions (such as age, weeks of pregnancy, hospital days and cost), postpartum complications (such as postpartum hemorrhage, puerperal morbidity, urinary retention, blood transfusion, delayed healing, and trauma), and Apgar score were compared by statistic methods. (1) Among 3751 women, 501 (13.3%) of them underwent induction( the induction group), 1634 (43.6%) delivered by cesarean section (cesarean section group), the other 1616 (43.1%) women underwent spontaneous onset of labor (the spontaneous onset of labor group). (2) Results of general conditions: the spontaneous onset of labor group had the shortest hospital days, which was longer in the induction group, and the longest in the selective cesarean section group (P < 0.01). The selective cesarean section group had the most cost during hospitalization, which was less in the induction group, and least in the spontaneous onset of labor group (P < 0.01). Women who undergwent emergent cesarean section after induction spent more money on hospitalization than those who were in the selective cesarean section group and the spontaneous onset of labor group (P < 0.01). (3) Puerperal complications: (1) postpartum hemorrhage: the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage was 3.0% (15/501) in the induction group, 0.6% (9/1634) in the selective cesarean section group and was 1.2% (19/1616) in the spontaneous onset of labor group (P < 0.01). (2 Urinary retention: the incidence of urinary retention was 4. 6% (23/501) in the induction group, 0 in the selective cesarean

  5. Investigation into the relationship between cord blood adiponectin levels and aortic intima media thickness in healthy, term neonates.

    PubMed

    Sarici, Dilek; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Kurtoglu, Selim; Yikilmaz, Ali; Muhtaroglu, Sabahattin; Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan; Gunes, Tamer; Sarici, S Umit

    2013-06-01

    Adiponectin has important anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. Although adiponectin and atherosclerosis correlate inversely in children and adults, we have little information regarding this relationship in neonates. We measured cord blood adiponectin levels and abdominal aortic intima media thickness (aIMT) in 80 healthy, term neonates and investigated the relationship between adiponectin and total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride, and their relationships to infant anthropometry and gender. Mean birth weight, length, head circumference and aIMT values for male neonates were statistically significantly higher than those for female neonates. Adiponectin levels were not significantly different with respect to gender. In correlation analysis, the mean adiponectin level correlated positively with TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels and birth weight, length and head circumference. There was no significant correlation between aIMT and any other parameters. The cord blood adiponectin and aIMT values reported here for the first time, represent reference values in the early neonatal period. The positive correlations between adiponectin levels and birth weight, length and head circumference, and TC, HDL-C and LDL-C indicate that further studies are required to demonstrate the exact relationship and clinical importance of adiponectin metabolism during the neonatal period.

  6. Neonatal morbidity associated with late preterm and early term birth: the roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hilary K; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Macnab, Jennifer; Natale, Renato; Campbell, M Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of gestational age in determining the risk of neonatal morbidity among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks) and early term (37–38 weeks) compared with those born full term (39–41 weeks) by examining the contribution of gestational age within the context of biological determinants of preterm birth. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. The sample included singleton live births with no major congenital anomalies, delivered at 34–41 weeks of gestation to London-Middlesex (Canada) mothers in 2002–11. Data from a city-wide perinatal database were linked with discharge abstract data. Multivariable models used modified Poisson regression to directly estimate adjusted relative risks (aRRs). The roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth were further examined using mediation and moderation analyses. Results Compared with infants born full term, infants born late preterm and early term were at increased risk for neonatal intensive care unit triage/admission [late preterm aRR = 6.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.63, 6.71; early term aRR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.41, 1.68] and neonatal respiratory morbidity (late preterm aRR = 6.16, 95% CI 5.39, 7.03; early term aRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.29, 1.65). The effect of gestational age was partially explained by biological determinants of preterm birth acting through gestational age. Moreover, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia exacerbated the effect of gestational age on poor outcomes. Conclusions Poor outcomes among infants born late preterm and early term are not only due to physiological immaturity but also to biological determinants of preterm birth acting through and with gestational age to produce poor outcomes. PMID:24374829

  7. Cord blood erythropoietin and cord blood nucleated red blood cells for prediction of adverse neonatal outcome associated with maternal obesity in term pregnancy: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud H; Moustafa, Asmaa N; Saedii, Ahmed A Fadil; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2017-09-01

    To determine the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and we measure cord blood erythropoietin and NRBC count as indices of hypoxia and predictors of neonatal outcome. This prospective cohort study was done in Minia University Hospital, carried out from May 2015 to April 2016. Two hundred and seventy full-term neonates born to mothers of various body mass indices were included. Excluded were neonates with major factors known to be associated with a potential increase in fetal erythropoiesis. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was calculated from maternally reported weight and height. Cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells were measured. There is a significant increase of various adverse pregnancy outcomes as cesarean section. Postpartum hemorrhage and macrosomia with the increase of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Significant positive correlations between cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells with maternal BMI. The increase in the maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells can predict the poor neonatal outcome.

  8. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  9. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  10. Effects of Neonatal C-Fiber Depletion on Interaction between Neocortical Short-Term and Long-Term Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Komaki, Alireza; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Hasanein, Parisa; Lashgari, Reza; Haghparast, Abbas; Salehi, Iraj; Arami, Masoomeh Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The primary somatosensory cortex has an important role in nociceptive sensory-discriminative processing. Altered peripheral inputs produced by deafferentation or by long-term changes in levels of afferent stimulation can result in plasticity of cortex. Capsaicin-induced depletion of C-fiber afferents results in plasticity of the somatosensory system. Plasticity includes short-term and long-term changes in synaptic strength. We studied the interaction between paired-pulse facilitation, as one form of short-term plasticity, with long-term potentiation (LTP) in the neocortex of normal and C-fiber depleted freely moving rat. Methods Neonatally capsaicin-treated rats and their controls were allowed to mature until they reached a weight between 250 and 300g. Then animals were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. For recording and stimulation, twisted teflon-coated stainless steel wires were implanted into somatosensory cortex or corpus callusom. In experiments for LTP induction, after two weeks of recovery period, 30 high frequency pulse trains were delivered once per day for 12 days. Paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was monitored before and after the induction of LTP in capsaicin-treated and control rats. Results Paired-pulse stimulation affected all field potential components at intervals < 200 ms. The largest changes occurred at intervals between 20-30 ms. C-fiber depletion postponed the development of LTP, whereas it had no effect on PPR. Discussion This finding provides further evidence that the expression of this form of LTP is postsynaptic. Furthermore, these results suggest that the effect of C-fiber depletion on cortical LTP is also postsynaptic and, therefore, is not caused by a decrease in neurotransmitter release. PMID:25337340

  11. Patterns of metabolic adaptation for preterm and term infants in the first neonatal week.

    PubMed Central

    Hawdon, J M; Ward Platt, M P; Aynsley-Green, A

    1992-01-01

    There have been few comprehensive accounts of the relationships between glucose and other metabolic fuels during the first postnatal week, especially in the context of modern feeding practises. A cross sectional study was performed of 156 term infants and 62 preterm infants to establish the normal ranges and interrelationships of blood glucose and intermediary metabolites in the first postnatal week, and to compare these with those of 52 older children. Blood glucose concentrations varied more for preterm than for term infants (1.5-12.2 mmol/l v 1.5-6.2 mmol/l), and preterm infants had low ketone body concentrations, even at low blood glucose concentrations. Breast feeding of term infants and enteral feeding of preterm infants appeared to enhance ketogenic ability. Term infants had lower prefeed blood glucose concentrations than children but, like children, appeared to be capable of producing ketone bodies. This study demonstrates that neonatal blood glucose concentrations should be considered in the context of availability of other metabolic fuels, and that the preterm infant has a limited ability to mobilise alternative fuels. PMID:1586171

  12. Clinical Factors Associated with Cerebral Metabolism in Term Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Anna Lonyai; Votava-Smith, Jodie K; Del Castillo, Sylvia; Kumar, S Ram; Lee, Vince; Schmithorst, Vincent; Lai, Hollie A; O'Neil, Sharon; Bluml, Stefan; Paquette, Lisa; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    To determine associations between patient and clinical factors with postnatal brain metabolism in term neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) via the use of quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neonates with CHD were enrolled prospectively to undergo pre- and postoperative 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging. Short-echo single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy of parietal white matter was used to quantify metabolites related to brain maturation (n-acetyl aspartate, choline, myo- inositol), neurotransmitters (glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid), energy metabolism (glutamine, citrate, glucose, and phosphocreatine), and injury/apoptosis (lactate and lipids). Multivariable regression was performed to search for associations between (1) patient-specific/prenatal/preoperative factors with concurrent brain metabolism and (2) intraoperative and postoperative factors with postoperative brain metabolism. A total of 83 magnetic resonance images were obtained on 55 subjects. No patient-specific, prenatal, or preoperative factors associated with concurrent metabolic brain dysmaturation or elevated lactate could be identified. Chromosome 22q11 microdeletion and age at surgery were predictive of altered concurrent white matter phosphocreatine (P < .0055). The only significant intraoperative association found was increased deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time with reduced postoperative white matter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (P < .0072). Multiple postoperative factors, including increased number of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation days (P < .0067), intensive care unit, length of stay (P < .0047), seizures in the intensive care unit (P < .0009), and home antiepileptic use (P < .0002), were associated with reduced postoperative white matter n-acetyl aspartate. Multiple postoperative factors were found to be associated with altered brain metabolism in term infants with CHD, but not patient-specific, preoperative, or

  13. Randomized, controlled trial evaluating a baby wash product on skin barrier function in healthy, term neonates.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Tina; Bedwell, Carol; Roberts, Stephen A; Hart, Anna; Turner, Mark A; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that the use of a wash product formulated for newborn (<1 month of age) bathing is not inferior (no worse) to bathing with water only. Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial. A teaching hospital in the Northwest of England and in participants' homes. Three-hundred-and-seven healthy, term infants recruited within 48 hours of birth. We compared bathing with a wash product (n = 159) to bathing with water alone (n = 148). The primary outcome was transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at 14 days postbirth; the predefined difference deemed to be unimportant was 1.2. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH, clinical observations of the skin, and maternal views. Complete TEWL data were obtained for 242 (78.8%) infants. Wash was noninferior to water alone in terms of TEWL (intention-to-treat analysis: 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference [wash-water, adjusted for family history of eczema, neonate state, and baseline] -1.24, 1.07; per protocol analysis: 95% CI -1.42, 1.09). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. We were unable to detect any differences between the newborn wash product and water. These findings provide reassurance to parents who choose to use the test newborn wash product or other technically equivalent cleansers and provide the evidence for health care professionals to support parental choice. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Repeated exposure to propofol potentiates neuroapoptosis and long-term behavioral deficits in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deshui; Jiang, Yan; Gao, Jin; Liu, Bin; Chen, Ping

    2013-02-08

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of the immature brain to drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or drugs that potentiate GABA(A) receptors can trigger widespread neuroapoptosis. Almost all currently used general anesthetics have either NMDA receptor blocking or GABA(A) receptor enhancing properties. Propofol, a new intravenous anesthetic, is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice whose neurotoxicity on brain development remains unknown. We investigated the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on neuroapoptosis and long-term spatial learning/memory functions. Propofol was administered to 7 day-old rats either as a single dose or in 7 doses at concentrations sufficient to maintain a surgical plane of anesthesia. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a significant increase in the levels of caspase-3 in the hippocampal CA1 region after propofol administration. At postnatal day 34, light microscopic observations revealed a significant reduction in neuronal density and apparent morphological changes in the pyramidal cells of rats that had received 7 doses of propofol. These rats showed a longer escape latency/path length, less time spent in the target quadrant and fewer original platform crossings in the Morris Water Maze test. This treatment also produced a remarkable reduction in the levels of excitatory neurotransmitters in the cortex and the hippocampus as measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Repeated exposure to propofol induced exposure-time dependent neuroapoptosis and long-term neurocognitive deficits in neonatal rats. The neurocognitive deficits may be attributed to neuronal loss and a reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release in the cortex and hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of whole blood and plasma viscosity in term neonates by flow curve analysis with the LS300 viscometer1.

    PubMed

    Kuss, N; Bauknecht, E; Felbinger, C; Gehm, J; Gehm, L; Pöschl, J; Ruef, P

    2015-10-06

    Determination of shear stresses at given shear rates allow approximation of flow curves by mathematical models and to calculate viscosities of non-Newtonian fluids. In term neonates, the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is markedly below that of adults, therefore rheological properties of blood play an important role in maintaining perfusion. Whole blood viscosity was measured in umbilical cord blood taken from 62 term neonates using the LS 300 viscometer. Individual parameters that influence the viscosity of whole blood were measured: red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and RBC deformability. The flow curve of whole blood of neonates was approximated by the method of Ostwald with the highest quality whereas in adults the best approximation was found by the method of Casson. With hematocrits of 0.40, the viscosity of whole blood in newborns approximated by Ostwald (9.84 ± 5.12 mPa·s) was significantly lower than that of adults (15.34 ± 3.01 mPa·s). The aggregation index of the blood of newborns was markedly lower (2.98 ± 2.12) than in adults (14.63 ± 3.50) whereas RBC deformability was higher in neonates. The viscosity of plasma determined by Ostwald revealed a lower exponent (n) in neonates (0.94 ± 022) compared to adults (1.01 ± 0.12) and the viscosity determined by Newton was lower in neonates (1.04 ± 0.16 mPa·s) than in adults (1.19 ± 0.07 mPa·s). The flow curve of neonatal blood which is best approximated by the model of Ostwald emphasizes its important viscous properties necessary for conditions with physiologically low blood pressure.

  16. Highly potent stem cells from full-term amniotic fluid: A realistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Adila A; Joharry, Muhammad Khair; Mun-Fun, Hoo; Hamzah, Siti Nurusaadah; Rejali, Zulida; Yazid, Mohd Nazri; Karuppiah, Thilakavathy; Nordin, Norshariza

    2017-03-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is now known to harbor highly potent stem cells, making it an excellent source for cell therapy. However, most of the stem cells isolated are from AF of mid-term pregnancies in which the collection procedure involves an invasive technique termed amniocentesis. This has limited the access in getting the fluid as the technique imposes certain level of risks to the mother as well as to the fetus. Alternatively, getting AF from full-term pregnancies or during deliveries would be a better resolution. Unfortunately, very few studies have isolated stem cells from AF at this stage of gestation, the fluid that is merely discarded. The question remains whether full-term AF harbors stem cells of similar potency as of the stem cells of mid-term AF. Here, we aim to review the prospect of having this type of stem cells by first looking at the origin and contents of AF particularly during different gestation period. We will then discuss the possibility that the AF, at full term, contains a population of highly potent stem cells. These stem cells are distinct from, and probably more potent than the AF mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) isolated from full-term AF. By comparing the studies on stem cells isolated from mid-term versus full-term AF from various species, we intend to address the prospect of having highly potent amniotic fluid stem cells from AF of full-term pregnancies in human and animals.

  17. Auditory Brainstem Response in Term and Preterm Infants with Neonatal Complications: The Importance of the Sequential Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela da; Lopez, Priscila; Mantovani, Jair Cortez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Literature data are not conclusive as to the influence of neonatal complications in the maturational process of the auditory system observed by auditory brainstem response (ABR) in infants at term and preterm. Objectives Check the real influence of the neonatal complications in infants by the sequential auditory evaluation. Methods Historical cohort study in a tertiary referral center. A total of 114 neonates met inclusion criteria: treatment at the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program of the local hospital; at least one risk indicator for hearing loss; presence in both evaluations (the first one after hospital discharge from the neonatal unit and the second one at 6 months old); all latencies in ABR and transient otoacoustic emissions present in both ears. Results The complications that most influenced the ABR findings were Apgar scores less than 6 at 5 minutes, gestational age, intensive care unit stay, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage, and mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Sequential auditory evaluation is necessary in premature and term newborns with risk indicators for hearing loss to correctly identify injuries in the auditory pathway. PMID:25992173

  18. Early Development of Preterm and Full-Term Infants: Exploratory Behavior in Eight-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marian

    1976-01-01

    Preference for novelty, as measured with an exploratory behavior paradigm, was compared in 8-month-old full-term and preterm infants of matched conceptional age. Subjects were 64 infants, 32 full term and 32 preterm, with 16 males and 16 females in each group. (Author/JH)

  19. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is...

  20. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is...

  1. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is...

  2. Neonatal thyroid function born to mothers living with long-term excessive iodine intake from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Sang, Zhongna; Tan, Long; Zhang, Shufen; Dong, Feng; Chu, Zanjun; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Guiqin; Yao, Zhaixiao; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Wanqi

    2015-09-01

    The effects of long-term excessive maternal iodine intake on neonatal thyroid function are less known. This study aimed to assess the effects of maternal excessive iodine intake from drinking water on thyroid functions of both mothers and their neonates. This observational study was performed in high iodine (HI) areas and adequate iodine (AI) intake areas, including 384 healthy pregnant women in late gestation (mean week 39·3 ± 1·6 weeks) and their newborns. Blood and urine samples were obtained from pregnant women, while cord blood samples were obtained from neonates. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid function were evaluated. The median maternal UIC was 1241 and 217 μg/l in HI and AI areas, respectively (P < 0·001). The concentrations of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) in neonates in HI areas were 7·33 mIU/l (range 5·47, 11·06 mIU/l), 2·93 ± 0·59 and 15·03 ± 1·92 pmol/l, respectively, while that were 4·71 mIU/l (range 3·96, 6·04 mIU/l), 2·31 ± 0·28 and 16·50 ± 1·35 pmol/l in AI neonates (P < 0·05). Similar changes were also observed in neonates in HI areas when excluding the effect of maternal thyroid autoimmunity. Cord blood TSH concentration (r = 0·31, P = 0·001) and FT3 concentration (r = 0·43, P = 0·001) were positively correlated with maternal UIC. Cord blood FT4 concentration was negatively correlated with maternal UIC (r = -0·25, P = 0·001). Mothers living in HI areas (β = 0·296, 95% CI: 0·163, 0·255) and with subclinical hypothyroidism (β = 0·360, 95% CI: 0·034, 0·175) contributed to elevated cord blood TSH concentration in neonates, while male neonates were more likely to present with higher TSH concentration compared with female infants (β = -0·760, 95% CI: -0·119, -0·033). Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy was associated with an increased rate of hyperthyrotropinaemia in neonates and their mothers, especially in male neonates.

  3. Customized versus population-based birth weight charts for the detection of neonatal growth and perinatal morbidity in a cross-sectional study of term neonates.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Angela E; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Jeffery, Heather E

    2013-10-15

    Customized birth weight charts that incorporate maternal characteristics are now being adopted into clinical practice. However, there is controversy surrounding the value of these charts in the prediction of growth and perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the use of customized charts in predicting growth, defined by body fat percentage, and perinatal morbidity. A total of 581 term (≥37 weeks' gestation) neonates born in Sydney, Australia, in 2010 were included. Body fat percentage measurements were taken by using air displacement plethysmography. Objective composite measurements of perinatal morbidity were used to identify neonates who had poor outcomes; these data were extracted from medical records. The value of customized charts was assessed by calculating positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Customized versus population-based charts did not improve the prediction of either low body fat percentage (59% vs. 66% positive predictive value and 87% vs. 89% negative predictive value, respectively) or high body fat percentage (48% vs. 53% positive predictive value and 90% vs. 89% negative predictive value, respectively). Customized charts were not better than population-based charts at predicting perinatal morbidity (for customized charts, odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.04; for population-based charts, odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.05) per percentile decrease in birth weight. Customized birth weight charts do not provide significant improvements over population-based charts in predicting neonatal growth and morbidity.

  4. Frequency and long-term follow-up of trapped fourth ventricle following neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Ksendzovsky, Alexander; Ellis, Scott; Roberts, Sarah E; Jane, John A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of premature neonates with small birth weight, which often leads to hydrocephalus and treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting procedures. Trapped fourth ventricle (TFV) can be a devastating consequence of the subsequent occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct and foramina of Luschka and Magendie. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 8 consecutive cases involving pediatric patients with TFV following VP shunting for IVH due to prematurity between 2003 and 2012. The patients ranged in gestational age from 23.0 to 32.0 weeks, with an average age at first shunting procedure of 6.1 weeks (range 3.1-12.7 weeks). Three patients were managed with surgery. Patients received long-term radiographic (mean 7.1 years; range 3.4-12.2 years) and clinical (mean 7.8 years; range 4.6-12.2 years) follow-up. RESULTS The frequency of TFV following VP shunting for neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus was found to be 15.4%. Three (37.5%) patients presented with symptoms of posterior fossa compression and were treated surgically. All of these patients showed signs of radiographic improvement with stable or improved clinical examinations during postoperative follow-up. Of the 5 patients treated conservatively, 80% experienced stable ventricular size and 1 patient experienced a slight increase (3 mm) on imaging. All of the nonsurgical patients showed stable to improved clinical examinations over the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of TFV among premature IVH patients is relatively high. Most patients with TFV are asymptomatic at presentation and can be managed without surgery. Symptomatic patients may be treated surgically for decompression of the fourth ventricle.

  5. Intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain damage: long-term cognitive and sensorimotor improvement.

    PubMed

    Donega, Vanessa; van Velthoven, Cindy T J; Nijboer, Cora H; van Bel, Frank; Kas, Martien J H; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration via the intranasal route could become an effective therapy to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. We analyzed long-term effects of intranasal MSC treatment on lesion size, sensorimotor and cognitive behavior, and determined the therapeutic window and dose response relationships. Furthermore, the appearance of MSCs at the lesion site in relation to the therapeutic window was examined. Nine-day-old mice were subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypoxia. MSCs were administered intranasally at 3, 10 or 17 days after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Motor, cognitive and histological outcome was investigated. PKH-26 labeled cells were used to localize MSCs in the brain. We identified 0.5 × 10(6) MSCs as the minimal effective dose with a therapeutic window of at least 10 days but less than 17 days post-HI. A single dose was sufficient for a marked beneficial effect. MSCs reach the lesion site within 24 h when given 3 or 10 days after injury. However, no MSCs were detected in the lesion when administered 17 days following HI. We also show for the first time that intranasal MSC treatment after HI improves cognitive function. Improvement of sensorimotor function and histological outcome was maintained until at least 9 weeks post-HI. The capacity of MSCs to reach the lesion site within 24 h after intranasal administration at 10 days but not at 17 days post-HI indicates a therapeutic window of at least 10 days. Our data strongly indicate that intranasal MSC treatment may become a promising non-invasive therapeutic tool to effectively reduce neonatal encephalopathy.

  6. Long Term Hippocampal and Cortical Changes Induced by Maternal Deprivation and Neonatal Leptin Treatment in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Borcel, Erika; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2015-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term behavioral effects and alters the development of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, with several of these effects being sexually dimorphic. MD animals show a marked reduction in their circulating leptin levels, not only during the MD period, but also several days later (PND 13). A neonatal leptin surge occurs in rodents (beginning around PND 5 and peaking between PND 9 and 10) that has an important neurotrophic role. We hypothesized that the deficient neonatal leptin signaling of MD rats could be involved in the altered development of their hippocampus and frontal cortex. Accordingly, a neonatal leptin treatment in MD rats would at least in part counteract their neurobehavioural alterations. MD was carried out in Wistar rats for 24 h on PND 9. Male and female MD and control rats were treated from PND 9 to 13 with rat leptin (3 mg/kg/day sc) or vehicle. In adulthood, the animals were submitted to the open field, novel object memory test and the elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Neuronal and glial population markers, components of the glutamatergic and cannabinoid systems and diverse synaptic plasticity markers were evaluated by PCR and/or western blotting. Main results include: 1) In some of the parameters analyzed, neonatal leptin treatment reversed the effects of MD (eg., mRNA expression of hippocampal IGF1 and protein expression of GFAP and vimentin) partially confirming our hypothesis; 2) The neonatal leptin treatment, per se, exerted a number of behavioral (increased anxiety) and neural effects (eg., expression of the following proteins: NG2, NeuN, PSD95, NCAM, synaptophysin). Most of these effects were sex dependent. An adequate neonatal leptin level (avoiding excess and deficiency) appears to be necessary for its correct neuro-programing effect. PMID:26382238

  7. Long Term Hippocampal and Cortical Changes Induced by Maternal Deprivation and Neonatal Leptin Treatment in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Borcel, Erika; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2015-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term behavioral effects and alters the development of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, with several of these effects being sexually dimorphic. MD animals show a marked reduction in their circulating leptin levels, not only during the MD period, but also several days later (PND 13). A neonatal leptin surge occurs in rodents (beginning around PND 5 and peaking between PND 9 and 10) that has an important neurotrophic role. We hypothesized that the deficient neonatal leptin signaling of MD rats could be involved in the altered development of their hippocampus and frontal cortex. Accordingly, a neonatal leptin treatment in MD rats would at least in part counteract their neurobehavioural alterations. MD was carried out in Wistar rats for 24 h on PND 9. Male and female MD and control rats were treated from PND 9 to 13 with rat leptin (3 mg/kg/day sc) or vehicle. In adulthood, the animals were submitted to the open field, novel object memory test and the elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Neuronal and glial population markers, components of the glutamatergic and cannabinoid systems and diverse synaptic plasticity markers were evaluated by PCR and/or western blotting. Main results include: 1) In some of the parameters analyzed, neonatal leptin treatment reversed the effects of MD (eg., mRNA expression of hippocampal IGF1 and protein expression of GFAP and vimentin) partially confirming our hypothesis; 2) The neonatal leptin treatment, per se, exerted a number of behavioral (increased anxiety) and neural effects (eg., expression of the following proteins: NG2, NeuN, PSD95, NCAM, synaptophysin). Most of these effects were sex dependent. An adequate neonatal leptin level (avoiding excess and deficiency) appears to be necessary for its correct neuro-programing effect.

  8. Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD34-Positive Cells as Predictors of the Incidence and Short-Term Outcome of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Eldin, Mohamed Hassan; Amer, Hanaa A.; Abdelhamid, Adel E.; El Houssinie, Moustafa; Ibrahim, Abir

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading causes of neurological handicap in developing countries. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34-positive (CD34+) stem cells exhibit the potential for neural repair. We tested the hypothesis that hUCB CD34+ stem cells and other cell types [leukocytes and nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs)] that are up-regulated during the acute stage of perinatal asphyxia (PA) could play a role in the early prediction of the occurrence, severity, and mortality of HIE. Methods This case-control pilot study investigated consecutive neonates exposed to PA. The hUCB CD34+ cell count in mononuclear layers was assayed using a flow cytometer. Twenty full-term neonates with PA and 25 healthy neonates were enrolled in the study. Results The absolute CD34+ cell count (p=0.02) and the relative CD34+ cell count (CD34+%) (p<0.001) in hUCB were higher in the HIE patients (n=20) than the healthy controls. The hUCB absolute CD34+ cell count (p=0.04), CD34+% (p<0.01), and Hobel risk scores (p=0.04) were higher in patients with moderate-to-severe HIE (n=9) than in those with mild HIE (n=11). The absolute CD34+ cell count was strongly correlated with CD34+% (p<0.001), Hobel risk score (p=0.04), total leukocyte count (TLC) (p<0.001), and NRBC count (p=0.01). CD34+% was correlated with TLC (p=0.02). Conclusions hUCB CD34+ cells can be used to predict the occurrence, severity, and mortality of neonatal HIE after PA. PMID:28079317

  9. Randomized, Controlled Trial Evaluating a Baby Wash Product on Skin Barrier Function in Healthy, Term Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Tina; Bedwell, Carol; Roberts, Stephen A; Hart, Anna; Turner, Mark A; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that the use of a wash product formulated for newborn (<1 month of age) bathing is not inferior (no worse) to bathing with water only. Design Assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial. Setting A teaching hospital in the Northwest of England and in participants’ homes. Participants Three-hundred-and-seven healthy, term infants recruited within 48 hours of birth. Method We compared bathing with a wash product (n = 159) to bathing with water alone (n = 148). The primary outcome was transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at 14 days postbirth; the predefined difference deemed to be unimportant was 1.2. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH, clinical observations of the skin, and maternal views. Results Complete TEWL data were obtained for 242 (78.8%) infants. Wash was noninferior to water alone in terms of TEWL (intention-to-treat analysis: 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference [wash–water, adjusted for family history of eczema, neonate state, and baseline] −1.24, 1.07; per protocol analysis: 95% CI −1.42, 1.09). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion We were unable to detect any differences between the newborn wash product and water. These findings provide reassurance to parents who choose to use the test newborn wash product or other technically equivalent cleansers and provide the evidence for health care professionals to support parental choice. PMID:23421327

  10. Central and peripheral alytesin cause short-term anorexigenic effects in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Cline, Mark A; Fouse, Dawn N; Prall, Brian C

    2008-06-01

    We studied the effects of alytesin, a natural analogue of bombesin, on appetite-related responses and behaviors in neonatal chicks. Chicks responded to both intracerebroventricular (ICV) and peripheral injections of alytesin with short-term reduced feed intake. ICV alytesin caused reduced short-term water intake when feed was present, but we determined this effect was secondary to feed intake since an effect on water intake was not detected in feed-restricted alytesin-treated chicks. The anorexigenic effect of both ICV and peripheral alytesin may be mediated at the hypothalamus, since all hypothalamic nuclei studied; regio lateralis hypothalami, nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami, nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus perventricularis hypothalami, nucleus infundibuli hypothalami and the nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami, were activated as evident by increased c-Fos immunoreactivity. Central alytesin did not cause increased behaviors that were unrelated to ingestion and did not cause anxiety-related behavior patterns. Additionally, central alytesin did not affect pecking efficacy. We conclude that both ICV and peripheral alytesin injections induce anorexigenic effects in chicks, and the hypothalamus is involved. While the anorexigenic effects of alytesin and bombesin appear to be conserved across species, the two peptides may differ in other behavioral responses and central mechanisms of action.

  11. Nurses Behave Differentially to Neonates in Terms of Their True Gender Compared to Their Ascribed Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Albert R.; And Others

    Response patterns of 24 female nurses to 2-day-old neonates who had been arbitrarily labeled male or female were studied. A total of 17 reliable behaviors of nurses were scored from videotapes of nurse-infant interaction. Nurses responded differentially to neonates based on true gender rather than ascribed gender. Nurses held boys more by their…

  12. A comparison of tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Duru, Chika O; Akinbami, Felix O; Orimadegun, Adebola E

    2012-06-25

    Tympanic thermometry has come as a suitable alternative to traditional thermometry because of its safety and ease of use. However, it is still yet to gain wide acceptance in African settings due to conflicting results on its accuracy, thus rectal thermometry remains the gold standard in the newborn. The aim of this study was to compare tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates. Rectal and tympanic temperatures were measured simultaneously in 300 consecutive term neonates between the ages of 37 and 42 weeks gestation using mercury-in-glass and the Infrared tympanic thermometers respectively. Paired t test, Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot were used to compute data. Using rectal thermometry as gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of tympanic thermometry at various rectal temperature cut-offs were determined. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were constructed and the Areas Under the Curves (AUC) were compared. The mean rectal temperature (37.34±0.55°C) was significantly higher than the mean tympanic temperature (37.25 ± 0.56°C) (p<0.001) with a mean difference of 0.09 °C±0.24 °C (95% CI: 0.06, 0.12). There was a strong positive correlation between the two measurements (r=0.9; p<0.001). Tympanic thermometry showed sensitivities ranging from 65% to 86% and specificities of 95% to 99% at rectal temperature cut-offs of 37.5°C to 38°C. The positive and negative predictive values of the tympanic temperatures at the various temperature cut-offs ranged from 82% to 93% and 80% to 98% respectively. Accuracy was noted to increase with higher temperatures as shown by the Receiver Operating Curves with the highest accuracy at the temperature cut-off of 38°C and AUC of 0.91. The sensitivity of tympanic thermometry was relatively low in detecting rectal temperatures despite the good correlation and agreement between them. The specificities and predictive values of tympanic temperatures in

  13. Outcome After Therapeutic Hypothermia in Term Neonates with Encephalopathy and a Syndromic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mrelashvili, Anna; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Shimotake, Thomas K.; Glass, Hannah C.

    2015-01-01

    The large randomized, controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) excluded neonates with congenital disorders. The objective of this study was to report our experience using hypothermia in neonates with signs of HIE and a syndromic disorder or brain anomaly. Subjects were identified from a database of neonates admitted to the Neuro-Intensive Care Nursery at University of California, San Francisco. Of 169 patients fulfilling criteria for hypothermia, eight (5%) had a syndromic disorder, and were cooled as per guidelines for non-syndromic neonates. Perinatal characteristics of infants with and without syndromic disorder were not significantly different. Overall outcome was poor: 38% had evidence of acute HI injury, 3 subjects died, two survivors had low developmental quotient (DQ 25). The risk versus benefit of therapeutic hypothermia for HIE among neonates with congenital brain malformations or syndromic diagnoses is uncertain. PMID:25762585

  14. Therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Cornette, L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a serious condition affecting newborn infants which can result in death and disability. There is now strong clinical evidence that moderate post-asphyxial total body cooling or hypothermia in full term neonates results in long-term neuroprotection, allowing us to proclaim this innovative therapy as “standard of care.” The treatment is a time-critical emergency and should be started within 6 hours after the insult. Such requires optimal collaboration among local hospitals, transport teams and the closest neonatal intensive care unit. The technique is only safe when applied according to published clinical trial protocols, and with admission of these patients to a neonatal intensive care unit. Future studies should be aimed at optimizing the onset, duration, and depth of hypothermia. Combination of hypothermia and drugs may further improve neuroprotection in asphyxiated full term neonates. PMID:24753900

  15. Neonatal Desensitization Supports Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rat Joint Cartilage Without Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Jiang, Yang Zi; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Longkun; Tong, Tong; Liu, Wanlu; Mu, Qin; Liu, Hua; Ji, Junfeng; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-01-01

    Immunological response hampers the investigation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or their derivates for tissue regeneration in vivo. Immunosuppression is often used after surgery, but exhibits side effects of significant weight loss and allows only short-term observation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neonatal desensitization supports relative long-term survival of hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs) and promotes cartilage regeneration. hESC-MSCs were injected on the day of birth in rats. Six weeks after neonatal injection, a full-thickness cylindrical cartilage defect was created and transplanted with a hESC-MSC-seeded collagen bilayer scaffold (group d+s+c) or a collagen bilayer scaffold (group d+s). Rats without neonatal injection were transplanted with the hESC-MSC-seeded collagen bilayer scaffold to serve as controls (group s+c). Cartilage regeneration was evaluated by histological analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and biomechanical test. The role of hESC-MSCs in cartilage regeneration was analyzed by CD4 immunostaining, cell death detection, and visualization of human cells in regenerated tissues. hESC-MSCs expressed CD105, CD73, CD90, CD29, and CD44, but not CD45 and CD34, and possessed trilineage differentiation potential. Group d+s+c exhibited greater International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scores than group d+s or group s+c. Abundant collagen type II and improved mechanical properties were detected in group d+s+c. There were less CD4+ inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death at week 1, and hESC-MSCs were found to survive as long as 8 weeks after transplantation in group d+s+c. Our study suggests that neonatal desensitization before transplantation may be an efficient way to develop a powerful tool for preclinical study of human cell-based therapies in animal models. PMID:22788986

  16. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Susan J; Middleton, Philippa; Dowswell, Therese; Morris, Peter S

    2014-06-01

    neonatal morbidity outcomes, such as Apgar score less than seven at five minutes or admission to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. Mean birthweight was significantly higher in the late, compared with early, cord clamping (101 g increase 95% CI 45 to 157, random-effects model, 12 trials, 3139 infants, I(2) 62%). Fewer infants in the early cord clamping group required phototherapy for jaundice than in the late cord clamping group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96, data from seven trials, 2324 infants with a LCER of 4.36%, I(2) 0%). Haemoglobin concentration in infants at 24 to 48 hours was significantly lower in the early cord clamping group (MD -1.49 g/dL, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.21; 884 infants, I(2) 59%). This difference in haemoglobin concentration was not seen at subsequent assessments. However, improvement in iron stores appeared to persist, with infants in the early cord clamping over twice as likely to be iron deficient at three to six months compared with infants whose cord clamping was delayed (RR 2.65 95% CI 1.04 to 6.73, five trials, 1152 infants, I(2) 82%). In the only trial to report longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes so far, no overall differences between early and late clamping were seen for Ages and Stages Questionnaire scores. A more liberal approach to delaying clamping of the umbilical cord in healthy term infants appears to be warranted, particularly in light of growing evidence that delayed cord clamping increases early haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores in infants. Delayed cord clamping is likely to be beneficial as long as access to treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Susan J; Middleton, Philippa; Dowswell, Therese; Morris, Peter S

    2013-07-11

    neonatal morbidity outcomes, such as Apgar score less than seven at five minutes or admission to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. Mean birthweight was significantly higher in the late, compared with early, cord clamping (101 g increase 95% CI 45 to 157, random-effects model, 12 trials, 3139 infants, I(2) 62%). Fewer infants in the early cord clamping group required phototherapy for jaundice than in the late cord clamping group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96, data from seven trials, 2324 infants with a LCER of 4.36%, I(2) 0%). Haemoglobin concentration in infants at 24 to 48 hours was significantly lower in the early cord clamping group (MD -1.49 g/dL, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.21; 884 infants, I(2) 59%). This difference in haemoglobin concentration was not seen at subsequent assessments. However, improvement in iron stores appeared to persist, with infants in the early cord clamping over twice as likely to be iron deficient at three to six months compared with infants whose cord clamping was delayed (RR 2.65 95% CI 1.04 to 6.73, five trials, 1152 infants, I(2) 82%). In the only trial to report longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes so far, no overall differences between early and late clamping were seen for Ages and Stages Questionnaire scores. A more liberal approach to delaying clamping of the umbilical cord in healthy term infants appears to be warranted, particularly in light of growing evidence that delayed cord clamping increases early haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores in infants. Delayed cord clamping is likely to be beneficial as long as access to treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available.

  18. Treatment of neonatal withdrawal with clonidine after long-term, high-dose maternal use of tramadol.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, Keliana; Gal, Peter; Davanzo, Christie

    2010-01-01

    To describe a case of tramadol withdrawal in a neonate and treatment with clonidine after exposure to long-term maternal use of high-dose tramadol. A 34-week gestational age neonate displayed symptoms of tramadol withdrawal within 48 hours of delivery. Due to a confusing initial clinical picture, including presumed congenital Chlamydia, questionable seizures, and an original report of maternal use of ketorolac (Toradol), diagnosis was delayed until day of life 5. Symptoms included jitteriness, myoclonic movements, and irritability. Upon further questioning of the mother, it was revealed that she was actually taking tramadol 600-800 mg daily. The infant was placed on maintenance therapy with oral clonidine (from 1 to 3 microg/kg orally every 3 hours) until discontinuation on day of life 11. After 3 days off treatment, he began to display symptoms of withdrawal again. Clonidine was restarted at 1 microg/kg orally every 8 hours and he was discharged home on maintenance clonidine therapy at 18 days postnatal age. A 7-day tapering regimen was initiated 2 weeks after discharge, and no further withdrawal symptoms occurred. Few published articles are available to guide clinicians on the clinical course and treatment strategies for tramadol dependence and withdrawal. In neonates, the reports are particularly sparse. Traditional agents used in neonatal opioid withdrawal are narcotics (morphine, tincture of opium, methadone), benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam), and phenobarbital. Clonidine use for neonatal abstinence syndrome from narcotics has been shown to be effective alone or in combination with agents such as other opiates and chloral hydrate. Potential benefits of clonidine therapy include shorter duration of therapy, reduced withdrawal symptoms, and decreased length of hospital stay. Withdrawal can be prolonged in infants exposed to maternal tramadol use. Clonidine may be a safe and effective option for managing symptoms of neonatal tramadol abstinence.

  19. Longer Gestation among Children Born Full Term Influences Cognitive and Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Espel, Emma V.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-01-01

    Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37–41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development. PMID:25423150

  20. Longer gestation among children born full term influences cognitive and motor development.

    PubMed

    Espel, Emma V; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-01-01

    Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37-41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development.

  1. Long-Term Catheterization of the Intestinal Lymph Trunk and Collection of Lymph in Neonatal Pigs.

    PubMed

    Uwiera, Richard R; Mangat, Rabban; Kelly, Sandra; Uwiera, Trina C; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-03-05

    Catheterization of the intestinal lymph trunk in neonatal pigs is a technique allowing for the long-term collection of large quantities of intestinal (central) efferent lymph. Importantly, the collection of central lymph from the intestine enables researchers to study both the mechanisms and lipid constitutes associated with lipid metabolism, intestinal inflammation and cancer metastasis, as well as cells involved in immune function and immunosurveillance. A ventral mid-line surgical approach permits excellent surgical exposure to the cranial abdomen and relatively easy access to the intestinal lymph trunk vessel that lies near the pancreas and the right ventral segment of the portal vein underneath the visceral aspect of the right liver lobe. The vessel is meticulously dissected and released from the surrounding fascia and then dilated with sutures allowing for insertion and subsequent securing of the catheter into the vessel. The catheter is exteriorized and approximately 1 L/24 hr of lymph is collected over a 7 day period. While this technique enables the collection of large quantities of central lymph over an extended period of time, the success depends on careful surgical dissection, tissue handling and close attention to proper surgical technique. This is particularly important with surgeries in young animals as the lymph vessels can easily tear, potentially leading to surgical and experimental failure. The video demonstrates an excellent surgical technique for the collection of intestinal lymph.

  2. Contralateral Suppression of Linear and Nonlinear Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Neonates at Risk for Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durante, Alessandra Spada; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) contralateral suppression in neonates at risk for hearing loss, 55 neonates at risk for hearing loss (risk group) and 72 full-term neonates not at such risk (control group) were bilaterally tested. In all neonates, the TEOAE were recorded in two stimulation modes (linear and…

  3. Using Eye Movements to Assess Language Comprehension in Toddlers Born Preterm and Full Term.

    PubMed

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2017-01-01

    To assess language skills in children born preterm and full term by the use of a standardized language test and eye-tracking methods. Children born ≤32 weeks' gestation (n = 44) were matched on sex and socioeconomic status to children born full term (n = 44) and studied longitudinally. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) were administered at 18 months (corrected for prematurity as applicable). The Looking-While-Listening Task (LWL) simultaneously presents 2 pictures and an auditory stimulus that directs the child's attention to one image. The pattern of eye movements reflects visual processing and the efficiency of language comprehension. Children born preterm were evaluated on LWL 3 times between 18 and 24 months. Children born full term were evaluated at ages corresponding to chronological and corrected ages of their preterm match. Results were compared between groups for the BSID-III and 2 LWL measures: accuracy (proportion of time looking at target) and reaction time (latency to shift gaze from distracter to target). Children born preterm had lower BSID-III scores than children born full term. Children born preterm had poorer performance than children born full term on LWL measures for chronological age but similar performance for corrected age. Accuracy and reaction time at 18 months' corrected age displaced preterm-full term group membership as significant predictors of BSID-III scores. Performance and rate of change on language comprehension measures were similar in children born preterm and full term compared at corrected age. Individual variation in language comprehension efficiency was a robust predictor of scores on a standardized language assessment in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential associations between maternal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Duvall, Susanne W; Fuller, Janell; Schrader, Ron; MacLean, Peggy; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-09-01

    Parental "scaffolding" behavior has been associated with developmental outcomes in at-risk children. Because there are limited empirical data regarding how scaffolding is associated with emotion-based developmental skills, the purpose of this study was to compare associations between maternal verbal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation, including fewer displays of negative affect and increased contentment and enjoyment during play, in toddlers born preterm and full term. This study was a cross-sectional cohort design. Maternal and toddler behavior was assessed during 5 min of videotaped free play with standardized toys. 131 toddlers (18-22 months) and their mothers were included (77 born preterm; 54 born full term). Toddler emotion regulation, negative affect, and dyadic mutual enjoyment were coded from videotaped play. The association between maternal scaffolding and emotion regulation was different for dyads with a toddler born preterm versus full term, wherein the association was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Similarly, the association between maternal scaffolding and negative affect was different for the two groups: negative for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Finally, the association between maternal scaffolding and mutual enjoyment was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive style correlates of children born preterm compared to those born full term. Maternal scaffolding behavior may be uniquely associated with emotion regulation and a positive dyadic encounter for toddlers born preterm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of labor at full term in uncomplicated singleton gestations: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cesarean and any maternal and perinatal effects of a policy induction of labor in uncomplicated full-term singleton gestations. Searches were performed in an electronic database with the use of a combination of text words related to "induction" and "cesarean section" from inception of each database through December 2014. We included all randomized controlled trials of uncomplicated singleton gestations at full term (ie, between 39 weeks 0/7 days and 40 weeks 6/7 days) with intact membranes randomized to induction of labor or control (ie, expectant management). The primary outcome was the incidence of cesarean delivery. The summary measures were reported as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Five randomized controlled trials, including 844 women, were analyzed. Full-term vertex singleton gestations receiving induction of labor had similar incidence of cesarean delivery compared to controls (9.7% vs 7.5%; RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.75-2.08). Rates of spontaneous (75.9% vs 80.2%; RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.87-1.02) and operative (13.1% vs 10.6%; RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.83-1.81) vaginal delivery were also similar. Induction was associated with similar rates of chorioamnionitis (9.6% vs 8.0%; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.38-3.39), but statistically significantly less blood loss (mean difference -57.59 mL; 95% CI, -83.96 to -31.21) compared to controls. Regarding neonatal outcomes, induction was associated with a significantly lower rate of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (4.0% vs 13.5%; RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.18-0.57) and significantly lower mean birthweight (mean difference -135.51 g; 95% CI, -205.24 to -65.77) compared to control group. Induction of labor at full term in uncomplicated singleton gestations is not associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery and has overall similar outcomes compared to expectant management.

  6. Umbilical Cord Blood Levels of Maternal Antibodies Reactive with p200 and Full Length Ro52 in the Assessment of Risk for Cardiac Manifestations of Neonatal Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Joanne H.; Clancy, Robert M.; Lee, Kristen H.; Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M.; Buyon, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Maternal anti-Ro autoantibodies associate with cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac NL), yet only 2% of women with this reactivity have an affected child. Identification of a more specific marker would channel intense monitoring to fetuses at greater risk. This study aims to determine whether autoantibodies against Ro52 amino acids 200–239 (p200) confer added risk over autoantibodies to full length Ro52, Ro60 or La. Methods/Results Anti-Ro-exposed pregnancies resulting in cardiac NL or no cardiac manifestations were identified from the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus and PR Interval and Dexamethasone Evaluation. Umbilical cord (n=123) and maternal (n=115) samples were evaluated by ELISA. The frequencies of p200, Ro52, Ro60 and La autoantibodies were not significantly different between affected and unaffected children. However, neonatal anti-Ro52 and Ro60 titers were highest in cardiac NL and their unaffected siblings compared to unaffected neonates without a cardiac NL sibling. Although both maternal anti-Ro52 and p200 autoantibodies were less than 50% specific for cardiac NL, anti-p200 was the least likely of the Ro autoantibodies to be false positive in mothers who have never had an affected child. Titers of anti-Ro52 and p200 did not differ during a cardiac NL or unaffected pregnancy from the same mother. Conclusion Maternal reactivity to p200 does not confer an added risk to fetal conduction defects over full length Ro52 or Ro60 autoantibodies. Mothers who may never be at risk for having an affected child have lower anti-Ro60 titers and may require less stringent echocardiographic monitoring compared to women with high titer autoantibodies. PMID:22511615

  7. Clinical Value of Plasma Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Term Neonates with Infection or Sepsis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Siahanidou, Tania; Margeli, Alexandra; Charoni, Stavroula; Giannaki, Maria; Vavourakis, Eustathios; Charisiadou, Athina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Background. suPAR, the soluble form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, has been identified as a biomarker of infection in adults but its properties in neonatal infection are not known. Methods. Plasma suPAR levels were determined by ELISA in 47 term neonates with infection (19 bacterial and 28 viral) and in 18 healthy neonates as controls. Thirteen out of 47 infected neonates were septic. In all infected neonates, suPAR levels were repeated at 24 hours, 48 hours, 3–5 days, and 7–10 days following admission. Results. Plasma suPAR levels were significantly increased in infected neonates upon admission, whereas they were highest in septic neonates, in comparison with controls (P < 0.001) and correlated positively with serum CRP levels (P = 0.001). At infection subsidence, suPAR concentrations decreased significantly in comparison with baseline (P < 0.001) but remained higher than in controls (P = 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic analysis resulted in significant areas under the curve for detecting either infected or septic neonates, but not for discriminating between bacterial and viral cause of infection. Conclusions. suPAR is a diagnostic biomarker of infection or sepsis in term neonates; however, it cannot discriminate bacterial from viral infections and also its utility for monitoring the response to treatment is questioned. PMID:24882949

  8. Long-term dexmedetomidine use and safety profile among critically ill children and neonates.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Lesta D; Di Gennaro, Jane L; Irby, Gretchen A; Yanay, Ofer; Zimmerman, Jerry J

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether long-term dexmedetomidine dosing is associated with lower opioid and benzodiazepine use without risk of significant hemodynamic changes and/or withdrawal. Retrospective, observational study. PICU, cardiovascular ICU, and neonatal ICU in a single, tertiary care, academic children's hospital. We included all patients less than or equal to 21 years old, who received dexmedetomidine for greater than or equal to 72 hours from December 2008 to December 2010 resulting in a 98-subject cohort. None. The median duration of dexmedetomidine use was 141 hours. A decrease in systolic blood pressure and heart rate was seen after initiation of dexmedetomidine. After dexmedetomidine was discontinued, systolic blood pressure was statistically significantly higher than baseline. Similarly, heart rate showed a significant increase from baseline following discontinuation of dexmedetomidine. Starting dexmedetomidine was not associated with a significant difference in the dosing of opiates or benzodiazepines. Comfort scores were significantly lower at 2 and 72 hours of dexmedetomidine infusion. After stopping dexmedetomidine, the comfort score for patients at 1 hour was statistically higher than for patients at cessation of the infusion. Thirty percent of patients who were taken off dexmedetomidine, whether weaned or abruptly stopped, had withdrawal symptoms and scores recorded with agitation, tremor, and decreased sleep being most prominent. Hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine did not limit long-term use in this diverse population. After the addition of dexmedetomidine, opioid and benzodiazepine doses did not significantly escalate, and patients were more comfortable as evidenced by decreasing comfort scores. Withdrawal from dexmedetomidine may be an issue and manifests as agitation, tremors, and decreased sleep.

  9. Agreement between long-term neonatal background classification by conventional and amplitude-integrated EEG.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Robert R; Dicker, Lee; Cho, Sandy; Cook, Noah; Nicolson, Susan C; Wernovsky, Gil; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William

    2011-02-01

    Conventional EEG (CEEG) in neonates is considered the gold standard for evaluating EEG background and detecting electrographic seizures. However, CEEG is expensive and cumbersome for long-term monitoring. A simplified method, amplitude-integrated EEG (AEEG) has been rapidly adopted to accomplish the same goals. The purpose of this study was to measure the agreement between the methods of classification in long-term EEG background assessments by CEEG and AEEG. Infants underwent CEEG monitoring after cardiac surgery and the background during four 12-hour epochs classified as "normal" or "mildly," "moderately," or "markedly" abnormal. CEEGs were converted to a single-channel AEEG and independently interpreted as "normal," "moderately abnormal," or "markedly abnormal" by standard amplitude criteria. The distributions of CEEG and AEEG interpretations were statistically compared, and the associations between CEEG and AEEG interpretations were measured. Generalized estimating equations were used to measure the effects of seizures and patient age on the agreement between AEEG and CEEG scores. Paired CEEGs and AEEGs were available for 637 epochs recorded from 179 infants. The distribution of CEEG backgrounds included 60% normal, 22% mildly abnormal, 13% moderately abnormal, and 5% markedly abnormal. The distribution of AEEG backgrounds was significantly different from CEEG and included 22% normal, 73% moderately abnormal, and 5% markedly abnormal. Nevertheless, the two techniques exhibited a significant, moderate positive association. Generalized estimating equations focusing on those with moderately abnormal AEEGs showed that younger patients with seizures were significantly more likely to have moderately or markedly abnormal CEEGs than older patients without seizures. Although there was overall significant moderate agreement between the two techniques, the distribution of backgrounds assigned by AEEG was significantly different from CEEG. Most moderately abnormal AEEGs

  10. Postural Complexity Differs Between Infant Born Full Term and Preterm During the Development of Early Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa A.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Galloway, James C

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Postural control differs between infants born preterm and full term at 1–3 weeks of age. It is unclear if differences persist or alter the development of early behaviors. The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare changes in postural control variability during development of head control and reaching in infants born preterm and full term. Methods Eighteen infants born preterm (mean gestational age 28.3±3.1 weeks) were included in this study and compared to existing data from 22 infants born full term. Postural variability was assessed longitudinally using root mean squared displacement and approximate entropy of the center of pressure displacement from birth to 6 months as measures of the magnitude of the variability and complexity of postural control. Behavioral coding was used to quantify development of head control and reaching. Results Group differences were identified in postural complexity during the development of head control and reaching. Infants born preterm used more repetitive and less adaptive postural control strategies than infants born full term. Both groups changed their postural complexity utilized during the development of head control and reaching. Discussion Early postural complexity was decreased in infants born preterm, compared to infants born full term. Commonly used clinical assessments did not identify these early differences in postural control. Altered postural control in infants born preterm influenced ongoing skill development in the first six months of life. PMID:24485170

  11. The Prevalence of Urogenital Infections in Pregnant Women Experiencing Preterm and Full-Term Labor

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Paulo César; Araújo, Edilson D.; Junior, José Eleutério; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Passos, Mauro R. L.; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Urogenital infections are extremely prevalent during pregnancy and are an important cause of premature labor. However, the prevalence of urogenital infections during childbirth is not well known. Objective. Identify urogenital infections present at the beginning of labor in both full-term and preterm pregnancies. Study Design. Ninety-four women were admitted to the inpatient maternity clinic of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). In total, 49 women in preterm labor and 45 women in full-term labor were included in the study, and samples of urinary, vaginal, and perianal material were collected for microbiological analysis. Results. The prevalences of general infections in the preterm labor group and the full-term labor group were 49.0% and 53.3% (P = 0.8300), respectively. Urogenital infections in the preterm and full-term labor groups included urinary tract infection in 36.7% and 22.2% of women, vaginal candidiasis in 20.4% and 28.9% of women, bacterial vaginosis in 34.7% and 28.9% of women, and group B streptococcus in 6.1% and 15.6% of women, respectively. Conclusions. Urogenital infections were prevalent in women in preterm labor and full-term labor; however, significant differences between the groups were not observed. PMID:22505801

  12. Term infants born at home in Peru are less likely to be hospitalised in the neonatal period than those born in hospital.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Tina; Preen, David B

    2017-08-01

    More than 50% of women worldwide give birth at home, but little is known about home birth and subsequent neonatal hospitalisation. The objective of the study was to investigate home birth and neonatal hospitalisation of term neonates in Peru. The relationship between birth setting [home - with or without skilled birth attendant (SBA), health centre, hospital] and neonatal hospitalisation (n = 1656) and incubator care (n = 1651) was investigated using data from the 2002 Young Lives Study. Infants were sampled from 20 sentinel sites across Peru. At each sentinel site 100 households with children aged 6-18 months were randomly sampled (therefore the sample only captured children surviving to 6 months of age). Multivariate regression modelling was used with models adjusted for a range of demographic and clinical factors. After adjustment, the odds of hospitalisation were lower in neonates born at home (with SBA OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.0-0.8, p = 0.021; without SBA OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p = 0.002) than in those born in hospital. Socio-demographic factors such as ethnicity, rural living, education, socio-economic status and access to transport did not influence neonatal hospitalisation, time in hospital, incubator care or time under incubator care. Neonates born at home were less likely to be hospitalised after birth owing to neonatal morbidity than neonates born in hospital. It is unclear whether this finding reflects poorer accessibility to hospital care for neonates born at home, or if neonates born at home required hospitalisation less frequently than neonates born in hospital owing to lower neonatal morbidity or other factors such as lower rates of medical intervention for home births. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of these findings.

  13. Sevoflurane exposure during the neonatal period induces long-term memory impairment but not autism-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woosuk; Park, Saegeun; Hong, Jiso; Park, Sangil; Lee, Soomin; Heo, Junyoung; Kim, Daesoo; Ko, Youngkwon

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces autism-like behaviors in mice. There are continuing reports regarding the potential negative effects of anesthesia on the developing brain. Recently, several studies suggest that neurotoxicity caused by anesthesia may lead to neurodevelopmental impairments. However, unlike reports focusing on learning and memory, there are only a few animal studies focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders after general anesthesia. Therefore, we have focused on autism, a representative neurodevelopmental disorder. Neonatal mice (P6-7) were exposed to a titrated dose of sevoflurane for 6 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by assessing the expression level of cleaved (activated) caspase-3. Autism-like behaviors, general activity, anxiety level, and long-term memory were evaluated with multiple behavioral assays. Western blotting confirmed that neonatal exposure to sevoflurane increased the expression level of activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. Mice exposed to sevoflurane also showed impaired long-term memory in fear tests. However, sevoflurane-exposed mice did not exhibit autism-like features in all of the following assays: social interaction (three-chamber test, caged social interaction), social communication (ultrasonic vocalization test), or repetitive behavior (self-grooming test, digging). There were also no differences in general activity (open field test, home cage activity) and anxiety (open field test, light-dark box) after sevoflurane exposure. Our results confirm previous studies that neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes neurodegeneration and long-term memory impairment in mice. However, sevoflurane did not induce autism-like features. Our study suggests that mice are more vulnerable to long-term memory deficits than autism-like behaviors after exposure to sevoflurane. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Term Neonate With Liver Laceration, Obstructive Uropathy, and Ascites—Secondary to Extravasation of Total Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Adesanya, Olubukunola; Naqvi, Mubariz

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare, but serious, complication of a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter in a term male infant who developed laceration, hematoma, and necrosis of liver, ascites, and left-sided obstructive uropathy secondary to extravasation of total parenteral nutrition. Abdominal paracentesis confirmed the presence of parenteral nutrition in the peritoneal cavity. Although, the umbilical venous catheterization is a common intravenous access used in neonatal intensive care units, judicious continued monitoring of its use should be practiced to avoid serious complications. PMID:27766283

  15. Fetal and neonatal outcomes after term and preterm delivery following betamethasone administration in twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Weichert, Alexander; Gil, Hannah C; Sloboda, Deborah M; Tutschek, Boris; Harder, Thomas; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Plagemann, Andreas; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    To investigate effects of betamethasone on fetal growth and neonatal outcomes in twins. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of twins delivered at one center in Berlin, Germany, between 1993 and 2011. The betamethasone group included twin pregnancies with preterm labor, cervical shortening, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or vaginal bleeding, and exposure to betamethasone between 23(+5) and 33(+6) weeks. The control group included twin pregnancies with no betamethasone exposure matched for length at delivery. Fetal growth and neonatal anthropometric data were analyzed by twin-pair structure, dose, and gestational age (linear mixed model). Overall, 1922 live-born twin pairs (653 betamethasone group, 1269 controls) were included. Compared with controls, late-preterm twins exposed to betamethasone were lighter (mean difference -126g), had a smaller head circumference (-0.4cm), and a shorter body length (-0.8cm) after adjustment for confounders (P<0.05). Female neonates from mixed or same-sex twin pairs had a lower birth weight than controls (betamethasone ≤16mg: -114g; betamethasone 24mg: -124g; betamethasone >24mg: -187g), with no detectable improvement in neonatal morbidity (hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress, asphyxia) or mortality. Betamethasone reduced birth weight, head circumference, and length of female preterm neonates in twin pairs in a dose-dependent manner. The neonatal mortality and morbidity were not improved by betamethasone. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ramadan and birth weight at full term in Asian Moslem pregnant women in Birmingham.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J H; Eminson, J; Wharton, B A

    1990-01-01

    The birth weights of 13,351 babies born at full term from 1964-84 to Asian Moslem mothers in Birmingham were analysed to see if the effect of the Ramadan fast on maternal biochemical profiles was of any clinical relevance. These were compared with two age matched control groups comprising white and non-Moslem Asian babies. Ramadan had no effect on mean birth weight at whatever stage of pregnancy it occurred. There was an increase in the prevalence of low birth weights (4.5% to 8%) among babies who were born at full term when Ramadan had occurred during the second trimester, but this was not significant. We conclude that the Ramadan fast has no effect on the birth weights of babies born at full term. PMID:2241226

  17. Electroencephalography in premature and full-term infants. Developmental features and glossary.

    PubMed

    André, M; Lamblin, M-D; d'Allest, A M; Curzi-Dascalova, L; Moussalli-Salefranque, F; S Nguyen The, Tich; Vecchierini-Blineau, M-F; Wallois, F; Walls-Esquivel, E; Plouin, P

    2010-05-01

    Following the pioneering work of C. Dreyfus-Brisac and N. Monod, research into neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) has developed tremendously in France. French neurophysiologists who had been trained in Paris (France) collaborated on a joint project on the introduction, development, and currently available neonatal EEG recording techniques. They assessed the analytical criteria for the different maturational stages and standardized neonatal EEG terminology on the basis of the large amount of data available in the French and the English literature. The results of their work were presented in 1999. Since the first edition, technology has moved towards the widespread use of digitized recordings. Although the data obtained with analog recordings can be applied to digitized EEG tracings, the present edition, including new published data, is illustrated with digitized recordings. Herein, the reader can find a comprehensive description of EEG features and neonatal behavioural states at different gestational ages, and also a definition of the main aspects and patterns of both pathological and normal EEGs, presented in glossary form. In both sections, numerous illustrations have been provided. This precise neonatal EEG terminology should improve homogeneity in the analysis of neonatal EEG recordings, and facilitate the setting up of multicentric studies on certain aspects of normal EEG recordings and various pathological patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Differences in Neonatal Stress Reactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maryann; Emory, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Examined the sex differences in physiological and behavioral stress reactivity among 36 healthy, full-term neonates after a mildly stressful behavioral assessment procedure. Salivary cortisol, heart rate change, Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) cluster scores, and behavioral states after the NBAS provided 100% discrimination between male…

  19. Sex Differences in Neonatal Stress Reactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Maryann; Emory, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Examined the sex differences in physiological and behavioral stress reactivity among 36 healthy, full-term neonates after a mildly stressful behavioral assessment procedure. Salivary cortisol, heart rate change, Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) cluster scores, and behavioral states after the NBAS provided 100% discrimination between male…

  20. The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not

  1. Effects of employment and education on preterm and full-term infant mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y-J; Shin, S-H; Park, S M; Kim, H-S; Lee, J-Y; Kim, K H; Cho, B

    2014-03-01

    The infant mortality rate is a sensitive and commonly used indicator of the socio-economic status of a population. Generally, studies investigating the relationship between infant mortality and socio-economic status have focused on full-term infants in Western populations. This study examined the effects of education level and employment status on full-term and preterm infant mortality in Korea. Data were collected from the National Birth Registration Database and merged with data from the National Death Certification Database. Prospective cohort study. In total, 1,316,184 singleton births registered in Korea's National Birth Registration Database between January 2004 and December 2006 were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Paternal and maternal education levels were inversely related to infant mortality in preterm and full-term infants following multivariate adjusted logistic models. Parental employment status was not associated with infant mortality in full-term infants, but was associated with infant mortality in preterm infants, after adjusting for place of birth, gender, marital status, paternal age, maternal age and parity. Low paternal and maternal education levels were found to be associated with infant mortality in both full-term and preterm infants. Low parental employment status was found to be associated with infant mortality in preterm infants but not in full-term infants. In order to reduce inequalities in infant mortality, public health interventions should focus on providing equal access to education. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. C reactive protein and procalcitonin: reference intervals for preterm and term newborns during the early neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Claudio; Natale, Fabio; Pascone, Roberto; Osborn, John F; Pacifico, Lucia; Bonci, Enea; De Curtis, Mario

    2011-05-12

    There is still no study evaluating the influence of gestational age (GA) per se on C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) reference intervals. We therefore investigated how length of gestation, age (hours), and prenatal and perinatal variables might influence the levels of CRP and PCT. We also determined 95% age-specific reference intervals for CRP and PCT in healthy preterm and term babies during the early neonatal period. One blood sample (one observation per neonate) was taken for CRP and PCT from each newborn between birth and the first 4 (for term), or 5 days (for preterm newborns) of life by using a high-sensitive CRP and PCT assays. Independently of gender and sampling time, GA had a significantly positive effect on CRP, and a significantly negative effect on PCT. Compared with healthy term babies, healthy preterm babies had a lower and shorter CRP response, and, conversely, an earlier, higher, and longer PCT response. CRP reference intervals were affected by a number of pro-inflammatory risk factors. Age- and GA-specific reference ranges for both CRP and PCT should be taken into account to optimize their use in the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotics for pre-term pre-labour rupture of membranes: prevention of neonatal deaths due to complications of pre-term birth and infection.

    PubMed

    Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Gravett, Michael; Lawn, Joy E

    2010-04-01

    In high-income countries, it is standard practice to give antibiotics to women with pre-term, pre-labour rupture of membranes (pPROM) to delay birth and reduce the risk of infection. In low and middle-income settings, where some 2 million neonatal deaths occur annually due to complications of pre-term birth or infection, many women do not receive antibiotic therapy for pPROM. To review the evidence for and estimate the effect on neonatal mortality due to pre-term birth complications or infection, of administration of antibiotics to women with pPROM, in low and middle-income countries. We performed a systematic review to update a Cochrane review. Standardized abstraction forms were used. The quality of the evidence provided by individual studies and overall was assessed using an adapted GRADE approach. Eighteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Most were from high-income countries and provide strong evidence that antibiotics for pPROM reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome [risk ratio (RR) = 0.88; confidence interval (CI) 0.80, 0.97], and early onset postnatal infection (RR = 0.61; CI 0.48, 0.77). The data are consistent with a reduction in neonatal mortality (RR = 0.90; CI 0.72, 1.12). Antibiotics for pPROM reduce complications due to pre-term delivery and post-natal infection in high-income settings. There is moderate quality evidence that, in low-income settings, where access to other interventions (antenatal steroids, surfactant therapy, ventilation, antibiotic therapy) may be low, antibiotics for pPROM could prevent 4% of neonatal deaths due to complications of prematurity and 8% of those due to infection.

  4. An hour-specific nomogram for transcutaneous bilirubin values in term and late preterm Hispanic neonates.

    PubMed

    Engle, William D; Lai, Susanna; Ahmad, Naveed; Manning, M Denise; Jackson, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine percentile values for hour-specific transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements in Hispanic neonates during the first 72 hours of age. Neonates with gestational age >or= 35 weeks and body weight >or= 2100 g were included. All neonates were screened with JM-103 TcB measurements at a minimum of every 24 hours by nursing personnel, and only TcB values obtained in Hispanic neonates with postnatal ages of 10 to 74 hours were analyzed. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile curves were determined. These data were compared with a previously published TcB nomogram predominantly composed of white, non-Hispanic neonates. A total of 3284 TcB values were measured in 2005 neonates. A nomogram was constructed for this exclusively Hispanic population, identifying the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile curves. The 95th percentile values at 24, 48, and 72 hours were 7.6, 11.0, and 12.4 mg/dL, respectively. The comparison between our results and those of the previously published study indicated that small but consistent differences between the two study populations were apparent, with the Hispanic neonates having significantly higher TcB values at the majority of time points analyzed. These observations were made despite a higher proportion of neonates >or= 40 weeks' gestation ( p < 0.001) and a lower proportion exclusively breast-fed ( p < 0.001) in the Hispanic population versus those in the previous study. Although higher bilirubin levels for certain populations are well documented, such differences in Hispanic neonates have not been confirmed. A TcB nomogram for Hispanic neonates is presented as a tool that will aid the clinician in the management of jaundice for this population. Compared with the previous study, this report indicates that although differences were relatively small, significantly higher TcB values were observed in the Hispanic population.

  5. Soluble CD14 subtype (sCD14-ST) presepsin in premature and full term critically ill newborns with sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Mussap, Michele; Puxeddu, Elisabetta; Puddu, Melania; Ottonello, Giovanni; Coghe, Ferdinando; Comite, Paola; Cibecchini, Francesco; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-12-07

    Neonatal sepsis still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Recently, soluble CD14 subtype (sDC14-ST) also named presepsin, was proposed as an effective biomarker for diagnosing, monitoring, and assessing the risk of neonatal sepsis and septic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of sCD14-ST presepsin in diagnosing neonatal bacterial sepsis and in discriminating non-bacterial systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from bacterial sepsis. This study involved 65 critically ill full-term and preterm newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), divided into three groups: 25 newborns with bacterial neonatal sepsis (group A); 15 newborns with a diagnosis of non-bacterial SIRS and with no localizing source of bacterial infection (group B); and 25 babies with no clinical or bacteriological signs of systemic or local infection receiving routine NICU care, most of them treated with phototherapy for neonatal jaundice (group C). A total of 102 whole blood samples were collected, 40 in group A, 30 in group B and 32 in group C. In 10 babies included in group A, sCD14-ST presepsin was also measured in an additional second blood sample collected 3 days after the start of antibiotic treatment. sCD14-ST presepsin was measured by a commercially available chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) optimized on an automated immunoassay analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed by means of MedCalc® statistical package; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was computed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the ability of sCD14-ST to discriminate neonatal bacterial sepsis from non-bacterial SIRS. Blood sCD14-ST presepsin levels were found significantly higher in bacterial sepsis when compared with controls (p<0.0001); similarly, they were higher in non-bacterial SIRS when compared with controls (p<0.0001). However, no statistically

  6. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of labor and delivery on maternal and neonatal outcomes in term twins: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wenckus, D J; Gao, W; Kominiarek, M A; Wilkins, I

    2014-08-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in twins undergoing a trial of labor versus pre-labor caesarean. Retrospective cohort study. 19 US hospitals from the Consortium on Safe Labor. Of 2225 twin sets ≥36 weeks' gestation. Maternal (abruption, estimated blood loss, postpartum haemorrhage, transfusion, chorioamnionitis, hysterectomy, ICU admission, death) and neonatal outcomes (birth injury, 5-minute Apgar <7, NICU admission, RDS, TTN, sepsis, asphyxia, NICU length of stay, death) were compared between the trial of labour and pre-labour caesarean groups with univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses. Similar analyses were performed for actual delivery modes. Maternal and neonatal outcomes. Among the 2225 twin sets, 1078 had a trial of labour, and 65.9% of those delivered vaginally. There was an increased risk for postpartum haemorrhage [OR 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.5] and blood transfusion (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.2-3.2) for the trial of labour compared with pre-labour caesarean groups. Birth injury only occurred in the trial of labour group, 1% Twin A, 0.4% Twin B. Both twins had a higher risk of 5-minute Apgar <7 with trial of labour compared to pre-labour caesarean (A: OR 3.9, 95%CI 1.05-14.5; B: OR 3.9, 95%CI 1.3-12.3). Term twins undergoing a trial of labour have increased maternal haemorrhage and transfusions along with neonatal birth trauma and lower Apgar scores, but these absolute neonatal occurrences were rare. Trial of labour in twins remains a safe and reasonable option in appropriately selected cases. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  9. Arousal Effects on Visual Preferences in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the influence of arousal level on visual preferences by observing the looking preferences of 12 full-term neonates twice; once before feeding while unswaddled and once after feeding while swaddled. (Author/RH)

  10. Hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR Polymorphisms as Antenatal Risk Factors of White Matter Abnormalities in Two Cohorts of Late Preterm and Full Term Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Lucia M.; Nicotera, Antonio; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Giaimo, Elisa; Cardile, Giovanna; Bonsignore, Maria; Alibrandi, Angela; Caccamo, Daniela; Manti, Sara; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Mamì, Carmelo; Di Rosa, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Higher total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, and C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) polymorphisms, have been reported in preterm or full term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult. This study investigated the causal role of tHcy and MTHFR polymorphisms together with other acquired risk factors on the occurrence of brain white matter abnormalities (WMA) detected by cranial ultrasound scans (cUS) in a population of late preterm and full term infants. A total of 171 newborns (81 M, 47.4%), 45 (26.3%) born <37 wks, and 126 (73.7%) born ≥37 wks were recruited in the study. cUS detected predominant WMA pattern in 36/171 newborns (21.1%) mainly characterized by abnormal periventricular white matter signal and mild-to-moderate periventricular white matter volume loss with ventricular dilatation (6/36, 16.6%). WMA resulted in being depending on tHcy levels (P < 0.014), lower GA (P < 0.000), lower Apgar score at 1 minutes (P < 0.000) and 5 minutes (P < 0.000), and 1298AC and 677CT/1298AC genotypes (P < 0.000 and P < 0.000). In conclusion, both acquired and genetic predisposing antenatal factors were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcome and WMA. The role of A1298C polymorphism may be taken into account for prenatal assessment and treatment counseling. PMID:25829992

  11. Neurological assessment of preterm infants at term conceptional age in comparison with normal full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Forslund, M; Bjerre, I

    1983-10-01

    In a long-term prospective study 46 unselected infants born before 35 weeks of gestational age were followed up, which included repeated neurological and psychological examination. 40 of them were neurologically evaluated at term conceptional age and compared with 26 full-term newborns, all the infants being considered healthy. There was no difference in mean weight or length between the two groups, but mean head circumference was greater in the preterm group. The preterm infants had lower muscle tone as judged by spontaneous posture of arms and legs, and poor resistance to passive movements and slow arm recoil. In the traction test they had more head lag. The withdrawal and Moro reflexes were weaker, while asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) was easier to elicit. Head control in the sitting position was better. All infants were evaluated with a prenatal and perinatal optimality score, which was not however significantly correlated with the neurological findings. The preterm infants with only slightly reduced optimality score (low risk group) had approximately the same birth weight and gestational age as the other preterms. They more resembled the full-term infants with good resistance to passive movements, fast arm recoil and good responses concerning the withdrawal and Moro reflexes. However, they had a semiflexed position in supine and thus in this respect were more like the other preterms.

  12. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants. A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases. A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171–11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365–27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors

  13. Contingency Learning and Reactivity in Preterm and Full-Term Infants at 3 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, David W.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Learning difficulties in preterm infants are thought to reflect impairment in arousal regulation. We examined relationships among gestational age, learning speed, and behavioral and physiological reactivity in 55 preterm and 49 full-term infants during baseline, contingency, and nonreinforcement phases of a conjugate mobile paradigm at 3 months…

  14. Maternal Drug Use during Pregnancy: Are Preterm and Full-Term Infants Affected Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Sexson, William R.; Demi, Alice S.

    1998-01-01

    Examined effects of prenatal drug exposure on infants born preterm and full-term to African American mothers. Found more extreme fetal growth deficits in later-born infants, and more extreme irritability increases in earlier-born infants. Gestation length did not moderate cardiorespiratory reactivity effects. Exposure effects occurred for…

  15. Contingency Learning and Reactivity in Preterm and Full-Term Infants at 3 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, David W.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Learning difficulties in preterm infants are thought to reflect impairment in arousal regulation. We examined relationships among gestational age, learning speed, and behavioral and physiological reactivity in 55 preterm and 49 full-term infants during baseline, contingency, and nonreinforcement phases of a conjugate mobile paradigm at 3 months…

  16. Predicting Individual Differences in Recall by Infants Born Preterm and Full Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Carol L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2006-01-01

    A heterogeneous sample of infants with preterm histories and infants born full term participated in a study of declarative memory and rate of encoding, as measured in an imitation task and an examining task, respectively. Here we report the comparisons of the performances of infants born very preterm (27-34 weeks gestation) and moderately preterm…

  17. Cardiac and Behavioral Responsivity to Tactile Stimulation in Premature and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to determine whether psychophysiological differences existed between 20 prematurely born and 20 full-term infants in their responsiveness to tactile stimulation and in their ability to discriminate among different intensities of such stimulation. (Author/SB)

  18. Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Myall, Nathaniel J; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9-17 years, included 26 preterms (born < 36 weeks' gestation) and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA) profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), arcuate fasciculus (Arc), corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers.

  19. Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Myall, Nathaniel J.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9–17 years, included 26 preterms (born < 36 weeks' gestation) and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA) profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), arcuate fasciculus (Arc), corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers. PMID:27158588

  20. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copyright deposits. 202.23 Section 202.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... Full term retention of copyright deposits. (a) General. (1) This section prescribes conditions under... deposits (copies, phonorecords, or identifying material) of published works may be made and granted or...

  1. Visual Preferences of Students with Profound Mental Retardation and Healthy, Full-Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhrow, Melissa; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Thirty students (ages 3-20) with profound mental retardation and 30 healthy, full-term infants (5-8 months) were shown 12 patterned stimuli, three times each. Both groups looked significantly longer at face patterns than other patterns. However, the students with mental retardation looked longer at black and white patterns than colored patterns,…

  2. Contingency Learning and Reactivity in Preterm and Full-Term Infants at 3 Months

    PubMed Central

    Haley, David W.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Learning difficulties in preterm infants are thought to reflect impairment in arousal regulation. We examined relationships among gestational age, learning speed, and behavioral and physiological reactivity in 55 preterm and 49 full-term infants during baseline, contingency, and nonreinforcement phases of a conjugate mobile paradigm at 3 months corrected age. For all infants, negative affect, looking duration, and heart rate levels increased during contingency and nonreinforcement phases, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, an index of parasympathetic activity) decreased and cortisol did not change. Learners showed greater RSA suppression and less negative affect than nonlearners. This pattern was particularly evident in the preterm group. Overall, preterm infants showed less learning, spent less time looking at the mobile, and had lower cortisol levels than full-term infants. Preterm infants also showed greater heart rate responses to contingency and dampened heart rate responses to nonreinforcement compared to full-term infants. Findings underscore differences in basal and reactivity measures in preterm compared to full-term infants and suggest that the capacity to regulate parasympathetic activity during a challenge enhances learning in preterm infants. PMID:20717491

  3. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones

    Treesearch

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  4. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Full term retention of copyright deposits. 202.23 Section 202.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT §...

  5. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Full term retention of copyright deposits. 202.23 Section 202.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT §...

  6. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Full term retention of copyright deposits. 202.23 Section 202.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT §...

  7. 37 CFR 202.23 - Full term retention of copyright deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Full term retention of copyright deposits. 202.23 Section 202.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO...

  8. Gender specific differences in oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling in healthy term neonates and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Kajarabille, Naroa; de Paco, Catalina; Garrido-Sanchez, Maria; Prados, Sonia; Ochoa, Julio J

    2016-10-01

    Gender is a crucial determinant of life span, but little is known about gender differences in free radical homeostasis and inflammatory signaling. The aim of the study was to determine gender-related differences concerning oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling of healthy neonates and mothers. Fifty-six mothers with normal gestational course and spontaneous delivery were selected. Blood samples were collected from the mother (at the beginning of delivery and start of expulsive period) and from neonate (from umbilical cord vein and artery). The mothers of girls featured a higher total antioxidant status and lower plasma hydroperoxides than the mother of boys. Regarding the neonates, the girls featured a higher total antioxidant status and lower plasma membrane hydroperoxides in umbilical cord artery together with higher catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities. Lower levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and prostaglandin E2 were observed in the mothers of girls and higher level of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II. In the neonates, lower levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were observed in umbilical artery and higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II in umbilical cord vein and artery of girls. An association between gender, oxidative stress, and inflammation signaling exists, leading to a renewed interest in the neonate's sex as a potential risk factor to several alterations.

  9. Early childhood development of visual texture segregation in full-term and preterm children.

    PubMed

    Sayeur, Mélissa Sue; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Lefrançois, Mélanie; Tremblay, Emmanuel; Lepore, Franco; Lassonde, Maryse; McKerral, Michelle; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-07-01

    To date, very little is known about the normal development trajectory of visual texture segregation, or how it is affected by preterm birth. The goal of this study was to characterize the development of visual texture segregation using texture segregation visual evoked potentials (tsVEPs) in children born full-term and children born preterm without major neurological impairment. Forty-five full-term and 43 preterm children were tested at either 12, 24 or 36 months of age (corrected age for prematurity at 12 and 24 months old). VEPs were obtained using two lower-level stimuli defined by orientation (oriVEP) and two higher-level stimuli defined by texture (texVEP). TsVEP was obtained by dividing by two the subtraction of oriVEP from texVEP. Results show a clear maturation of the processes underlying visual texture segregation in the full-term group, with a significant N2 latency reduction between 12 and 36 months of age for all conditions. Significant N2 amplitude reduction was observed for oriVEP between 12 and 24 months, as well as for texVEP between 12 and 24 months, and 12 and 36 months. Comparison between full-term and preterm children indicated significantly lower N2 amplitude for the preterm group at 12 months for oriVEP and texVEP. These differences were no longer apparent at 24 months of age, suggesting that children born preterm catch up with their full-term counterparts somewhere between 12 and 24 months of age. Our results appear to reflect a maturational delay in preterm children in both lower-level and higher-level visual processing during, at least, early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AAV-based neonatal gene therapy for hemophilia A: long-term correction and avoidance of immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, C; Lipshutz, G S

    2012-12-01

    Hemophilia A gene therapy has been hampered by immune responses to vector-associated antigens and by neutralizing antibodies or inhibitors against the factor VIII (FVIII) protein; these 'inhibitors' more commonly affect hemophilia A patients than those with hemophilia B. A gene replacement strategy beginning in the neonatal period may avoid the development of these immune responses and lead to prolonged expression with correction of phenotype, thereby avoiding long-term consequences. A serotype rh10 adeno-associated virus (AAV) was developed splitting the FVIII coding sequence into heavy and light chains with the chicken β-actin promoter/CMV enhancer for dual recombinant adeno-associated viral vector delivery. Virions of each FVIII chain were co-injected intravenously into mice on the second day of life. Mice express sustained levels of FVIII antigen ≥5% up to 22 months of life without development of antibodies against FVIII. Phenotypic correction was manifest in all AAV-FVIII-treated mice as demonstrated by functional assay and reduction in bleeding time. This study demonstrates the use of AAV in a gene replacement strategy in neonatal mice that establishes both long-term phenotypic correction of hemophilia A and lack of antibody development against FVIII in this disease model where AAV is administered shortly after birth. These studies support the consideration of gene replacement therapy for diseases that are diagnosed in utero or in the early neonatal period.

  11. Risk factors and placental histopathological findings of term born low birth weight neonates.

    PubMed

    Nkwabong, E; Kamgnia Nounemi, N; Sando, Z; Mbu, R E; Mbede, J

    2015-02-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this condition should be well studied. The aims of this study were to identify the risk factors for term born LBW, as well as the placental histopathological lesions observed. This case control study was carried out in the University Teaching Hospital and the Central Maternity, both of Yaoundé, Cameroon, from November 1st, 2013 to April 30th, 2014. Maternal medical records and placentas of term born (≥37 completed weeks) LBW (<2500 g at birth) or normal weight (3000-3500 g) were compared. The main variables recorded included maternal age and parity, maternal height, complications that occurred during pregnancy, maternal pre-gestational body mass index, the number of antenatal visits, the sex and birth weight of the newborn, the umbilical cord length, the placental weight and placental histology. Data were analyzed using Epi info 3.5.4. Fisher exact test, t-test and logistic regression were used for comparison. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. and A total of 30 cases of LBW and the same number of controls were examined. Significant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (aOR 14.0, 95%CI 2.1-92.7), hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (aOR 18.1, 95%CI 1.02-322.5) and <4 antenatal visits (aOR 9.5, 95%CI 1.3-67.5). Significant placental lesions were placental infarction (aOR 19.5, 95%CI 2.9-130.1) and chronic villitis (aOR 35.9, 95%CI 1.2-1034.3). Our study showed that primiparous women, those with pregnancy-induced hypertensive diseases and those with <4 antenatal visits were more at risk for LBW. Significant placental lesions observed among LBW were placental infarcts and chronic villitis. Since LBW has the tendency to recur, and given that some causes such as placental infarcts are preventable, we recommend that a histological examination of the placenta should always be carried out in cases of LBW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ketamine analgesia for inflammatory pain in neonatal rats: a factorial randomized trial examining long-term effects

    PubMed Central

    Rovnaghi, Cynthia R; Garg, Sarita; Hall, Richard W; Bhutta, Adnan T; Anand, K JS

    2008-01-01

    Background Neonatal rats exposed to repetitive inflammatory pain have altered behaviors in young adulthood, partly ameliorated by Ketamine analgesia. We examined the relationships between protein expression, neuronal survival and plasticity in the neonatal rat brain, and correlated these changes with adult cognitive behavior. Methods Using Western immunoblot techniques, homogenates of cortical tissue were analyzed from neonatal rats 18–20 hours following repeated exposure to 4% formalin injections (F, N = 9), Ketamine (K, 2.5 mg/kg × 2, N = 9), Ketamine prior to formalin (KF, N = 9), or undisturbed controls (C, N = 9). Brain tissues from another cohort of rat pups (F = 11, K = 12, KF = 10, C = 15) were used for cellular staining with Fos immunohistochemistry or FluoroJade-B (FJB), followed by cell counting in eleven cortical and three hippocampal areas. Long-term cognitive testing using a delayed non-match to sample (DNMS) paradigm in the 8-arm radial maze was performed in adult rats receiving the same treatments (F = 20, K = 24, KF = 21, C = 27) in the neonatal period. Results Greater cell death occurred in F vs. C, K, KF in parietal and retrosplenial areas, vs. K, KF in piriform, temporal, and occipital areas, vs. C, K in frontal and hindlimb areas. In retrosplenial cortex, less Fos expression occurred in F vs. C, KF. Cell death correlated inversely with Fos expression in piriform, retrosplenial, and occipital areas, but only in F. Cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was elevated in F, K and KF vs. C. No significant differences occurred in Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression between groups, but cellular changes in cortical areas were significantly correlated with protein expression patterns. Cluster analysis of the frequencies and durations of behaviors grouped them as exploratory, learning, preparatory, consumptive, and foraging behaviors. Neonatal inflammatory pain exposure reduced exploratory behaviors in adult males, learning and

  13. Continuous long-term electroencephalography: the gold standard for neonatal seizure diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A

    2015-06-01

    Newborn infants at risk for cerebral dysfunction, such as those with acute brain injury or with disorders of brain development, often have encephalopathy and seizures. Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring can enhance the care of these highly vulnerable patients, through identification of prognostically significant EEG background patterns and accurate diagnosis of seizures and non-seizure paroxysmal events. Neonatal seizures are usually subclinical, and abnormal neonatal movements are often not the result of seizures. Judicious use of conventional EEG monitoring can provide precise diagnosis, quantify seizures, and guide treatment--neonates with EEG-proven seizures should receive appropriate medications and those whose events are not seizures may be spared unnecessary exposure to medications that have potentially important side-effects.

  14. Assessment of thymus size in healthy term neonates using sonography - A study from tertiary care hospital of Central India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was done to assess the size of thymus in term healthy infants using sonography and to assess its variation in size, shape, location, echogenicity and echotexture for both male and female reference population. A total of 250 term healthy neonates of either sex were subjected to thymic sonography. The shape, size in maximal anteroposterior, longitudinal, and transverse dimensions of both right and left lobes of thymus was evaluated. Their echotexture and echogenicity were determined and standards for reference population were calculated. The results were statistically evaluated. According to the shape; the thymus was quadrilateral in 156 neonates (62%), round in 37 (15%), bilobate in 32 (13%), and crescent shaped in 25 (10%) in transverse scan. According to the echo texture, the thymus echogenicity was homogeneous and almost similar or slightly less to that of the liver and spleen in most cases 200 [80%] and was coarse in 50 (20%). In all subjects, the echogenicity of the thymus was less than that of the thyroid gland. Variations in location of the thymus were found in 70 (28%) neonates. The range of mean AP diameter was 0.39-2.36 cm (mean 1.43 ± 0.3), that of transverse 1.4 - 4.3 cm (mean 2.16 ± 0.54) and that of thymic index 1.2-5.1 cm2 (mean 2.98 ± 0.64). A normative range was calculated for standard population, which can be used as a reference for comparing thymus size for both normal and diseased neonates for various immunological diseases.

  15. Social reasoning abilities in preterm and full-term children aged 5-7years.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Fleur; Réveillon, Morgane; Monnier, Maryline; Hüppi, Petra S; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-12-01

    Literature has evidenced behavioral and socio-emotional problems in preterm children, as well as long-term difficulties to establish and maintain social relationships in preterm population. Several studies have shown relations between behavior and social reasoning abilities in typically developing children and adults. The present study aimed to investigate the social understanding and social reasoning abilities in preterm children aged between 5 and 7years in comparison to their full-term peers. A social resolution task (SRT) was used to assess abilities to judge, identify and reason about others' behavior in relation to conventional and moral rules knowledge. 102 preterm children and 88 full-term children were included in the study. Compared with their full-term peers, preterm children exhibited difficulties to understand and reason about inappropriate social behavior, particularly for situations related to the transgression of conventional rules. They used more irrelevant information and exhibited less social awareness when reasoning about the transgression of social rules. The only significant predictor for global SRT and social reasoning scores was the mental processing composite of the K-ABC, but the part of the variance of the SRT that could be explained by the general cognitive abilities was relatively small. Preterm children demonstrated poorer social knowledge and social reasoning abilities compared with full-term children at early school age. Improving such abilities may reduce behavioral difficulties and peer relationship problems often described in the preterm population. These findings emphasize the need to early identify children at risk for impaired social development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. The neonatal tear film.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, John G; Murphy, Paul J; Esmaeelpour, Marieh

    2003-12-01

    The importance of the tear film for the integrity of the ocular surface is well established. Full-term neonates produce tears normally, but low spontaneous blink rates during early life raises important questions regarding tear dynamics and stability. Although an afferent neural pathway that could potentially detect tear break-up is in place at birth, there is indirect evidence that the neonatal tear film is adapted to resist evaporation-mediated tear thinning. This adaptation presumably prevents drying of the ocular surface during long inter-blink periods. However, low rates of tear turnover may have important implications for the defence of the eye against potential pathogens.

  17. Long-term outcome of full plastic jacket treatment for bare metal in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Richard J; Tanaka, Akihito; Mangieri, Antonio; Regazzoli, Damiano; Ancona, Marco; Pagnesi, Matteo; Giannini, Francesco; Latib, Azeem; Colombo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    We report the long-term outcome of a case of "full plastic jacket" treatment consisting of three bioresorbable scaffolds to manage a subtotally occluded left anterior descending artery with associated severe bare metal in-stent restenosis. Angiography 36months' post procedure revealed an excellent result with negative fractional flow reserve result. Bioresorbable scaffolds may be an attractive option for in-stent restenosis due to the avoidance of an additional metallic layer, and this case is unusual regarding the total scaffold length used and long term angiographic follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Robles, R; Palomino, N; Robles, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the oxidative state of term and preterm neonates at the moment of birth and during the first days of life, and the influence of exposure to oxygen on the premature neonates.A total of 20 neonates were selected. Group A: 10 healthy full-term neonates, and Group B: 10 preterm neonates with no other pathology associated, requiring oxygen therapy. Venous samples were taken in cord at 3 and 72 h in Group A, and in cord at 3, 24 and 72 h and 7 days in Group B.Hydroperoxides, Q10 coenzyme (Co Q10) and alpha-tocopherol were measured within the erythrocyte membrane. Levels of hydroperoxides present in erythrocyte membrane were higher than normal both in Group A and in Group B at birth. This increase was greater in the group of premature neonates. Levels of alpha-tocopherol at birth increase significantly at 72 h in term neonates. Among the premature newborns, alpha-tocopherol levels are two to three times lower at birth and do not rise to higher levels as in the term neonate group. Fall in levels of Co Q10 in erythrocyte membranes is observed, and perhaps is due to the role of Co Q10 in maintaining the pool of reduced tocopherol. At birth, the neonate presents an increase of markers of oxidative stress and a decrease of their antioxidant defenses. This difference is greater as gestational age decreases. The application of oxygen therapy resulted in these levels which remain low throughout the study period.

  19. [Ability of neonatal head circumference to predict long-term neurodevelopmental outcome].

    PubMed

    García-Alix, A; Sáenz-de Pipaón, M; Martínez, M; Salas-Hernández, S; Quero, J

    We review the ability of head circumference (HC) at birth and head growth during the neonatal period to predict neurodevelopmental outcome, putting emphasis on new knowledge in this area. During infancy HC correlates closely with intracranial volume and constitutes an accurate predictor of cerebral volume. Both an abnormal head size at birth and an abnormal head growth during the neonatal period, can express brain damage or the presence of entities that involve varied degrees of neurological dysfunction in childhood. In general, the influence of head size or growth abnormalities on neurodevelopment is more related to the underlying etiology and/or the presence of structural diseases of the brain than with the HC alteration itself. HC evaluation is of particular interest in sick neonates, specially very low birth weight infants, regardless of whether they are normal or small for gestational age, and both during admission an during the first months of life. In these patients, HC catch-up within the first months of life represents a favorable neurodevelopmental prognostic factor. HC measuring and head growth evaluation constitute the most simple, inexpensive and quick available tools to assess the development of the central nervous system and identify neonates at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Fetal and neonatal outcomes after term and preterm delivery following betamethasone administration.

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Sloboda, Deborah M; Tutschek, Boris; Harder, Thomas; Challis, John R G; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Plagemann, Andreas; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    To determine the effects of betamethasone on fetal growth and neonatal outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was performed of deliveries that occurred at Charité University Hospital Berlin, Germany, between January 1996 and December 2008. The betamethasone group included women with preterm labor and symptomatic contractions, cervical insufficiency, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or vaginal bleeding. Women in the control group were matched for gestational age at time of delivery and had not received betamethasone. Fetal growth changes and neonatal anthropometry were compared. Among 1799 newborns in the betamethasone group and 42 240 in the control group, betamethasone was associated with significantly lower birth weight (154 g lower on average) after adjusting for confounders (e.g. hypertension, smoking, and maternal weight), sex, and gestational age at delivery (P<0.05). The higher the dose, the greater the difference in mean birth weight versus controls in births before 34(+0)weeks (≤16 mg -444 g; 24 mg -523 g; >24 mg -811 g), without a detectable improvement in neonatal morbidity or mortality. There was a dose-dependent decline in expected fetal weight gain as estimated by serial ultrasonography examinations 6-8 weeks after betamethasone administration (P<0.05). Betamethasone exposure reduces fetal weight gain in a dose-dependent manner without improving neonatal morbidity or mortality. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential effects of long-term leucine infusion on tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leucine is unique among the amino acids in its ability to promote protein synthesis by activating translation initiation via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Previously, we showed that leucine infusion acutely stimulates protein synthesis in fast-twitch glycolytic muscle of neonatal...

  2. Long-term consequences of maternal and neonatal nutrition for pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional environment during fetal and neonatal life is a key determinant affecting the risk for adult-onset diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Studies show that preterm infants experience increased risk for glucose intolerance as adolescents and young adults. Preterm infants often receiv...

  3. Long-term benefits of full-day kindergarten: a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Brownell, M D; Nickel, N C; Chateau, D; Martens, P J; Taylor, C; Crockett, L; Katz, A; Sarkar, J; Burland, E; Goh, C Y

    2015-02-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were compared between FDK and half-day kindergarten (HDK) students in both targeted and universal FDK programmes. Propensity score matched cohort and stepped-wedge designs allowed for stronger causal inferences than previous research on FDK. We found limited long-term benefits of FDK, specific to the type of programme, outcomes examined, and subpopulations. FDK programmes targeted at low-income areas showed long-term improvements in numeracy for lower income girls. Our results suggest that expectations for wide-ranging long-term academic benefits of FDK are unwarranted.

  4. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Campagne, Fabien

    2005-04-07

    The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM) to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt.

  5. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Campagne, Fabien

    2005-01-01

    Background The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. Results We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM) to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. Conclusion This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt. PMID:15817129

  6. Diagnostic Efficacy of a Single Progesterone Determination to Assess Full-Term Pregnancy in the Bitch.

    PubMed

    Rota, A; Charles, C; Starvaggi Cucuzza, A; Pregel, P

    2015-12-01

    In clinical settings, when the reproductive history of a near-term bitch is limited to mating dates, the possibility to accurately assess whether pregnancy is at term could be very useful in order to be able to plan a correct management of parturition or to safely perform an elective Caesarean section. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a single progesterone determination, measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), in predicting the occurrence of parturition on the following day. At least one blood sample was collected from 51 pre-partum bitches during the 3 days before parturition and on day of parturition. The efficacy of progesterone as a marker of the end of pregnancy was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Youden's index was calculated to select the optimal cut-off value (with 95% confidence interval), aiming at maximizing the correct identification of negative events, so not to risk to diagnose as full term a bitch which is not. Progesterone concentration lower than 3.4 ng/ml correctly identified the bitches whelping the following day; however, because of the obliged prudential approach, sensitivity was low (46.88%), and 17 of 32 full-term bitches were missed. Due to a very large individual variation, a single progesterone determination has low diagnostic efficacy, although it can represent a useful first screening. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Comparative Network Analysis of Preterm vs. Full-Term Infant-Mother Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Magda; Tóth, Ildikó; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported that interactions of mothers with preterm infants show differential characteristics compared to that of mothers with full-term infants. Interaction of preterm dyads is often reported as less harmonious. However, observations and explanations concerning the underlying mechanisms are inconsistent. In this work 30 preterm and 42 full-term mother-infant dyads were observed at one year of age. Free play interactions were videotaped and coded using a micro-analytic coding system. The video records were coded at one second resolution and studied by a novel approach using network analysis tools. The advantage of our approach is that it reveals the patterns of behavioral transitions in the interactions. We found that the most frequent behavioral transitions are the same in the two groups. However, we have identified several high and lower frequency transitions which occur significantly more often in the preterm or full-term group. Our analysis also suggests that the variability of behavioral transitions is significantly higher in the preterm group. This higher variability is mostly resulted from the diversity of transitions involving non-harmonious behaviors. We have identified a maladaptive pattern in the maternal behavior in the preterm group, involving intrusiveness and disengagement. Application of the approach reported in this paper to longitudinal data could elucidate whether these maladaptive maternal behavioral changes place the infant at risk for later emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbance. PMID:23805298

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization outcomes and costs of full-term and preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    McLaurin, K K; Farr, A M; Wade, S W; Diakun, D R; Stewart, D L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes lower respiratory tract infections, is the leading cause of hospitalization among children <1 year old in the United States. Risk factors for RSV hospitalization include premature birth and younger chronologic age, along with several comorbid conditions. However, in terms of RSV hospitalization costs, premature infants are rarely studied separately from full-term infants. The objective of this study is to describe the cost and severity of RSV hospitalizations among preterm and full-term infants without chronic lung disease or other high-risk conditions. Study Design: This analysis used Truven Health Market Scan Multi-State Medicaid and Commercial Claims and Encounters databases, which contain a combined 4 million births from 2003 to 2013. Infants with comorbid conditions associated with increased risk for RSV infection were excluded. Infants were classified as preterm (<29, 29−30, 31−32, 33−34 and 35−36 weeks' gestational age (wGA)) or full term based on diagnostic coding. Health-care claims during the first year of life were evaluated for RSV hospitalizations, defined as inpatient claims with a diagnosis code for RSV in any position. Costs of RSV hospitalizations were captured and reported in 2014 USD. Inpatient claims for RSV hospitalizations were evaluated for the presence of codes indicating admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation (MV) and length of stay. These three measures were used to describe hospital severity. Chronologic age at the time of RSV hospitalization was also captured. Data were summarized and no statistical comparisons were conducted. Results: There were 1 683 188 infants insured through Medicaid and 1 663 832 infants insured through commercial plans born from 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2013. Of those, 10.8 and 8.8% in each database, respectively, were born prematurely. There were 29 967 Medicaid-insured infants and 16 310

  9. The relative kicking frequency of infants born full-term and preterm during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm.

    PubMed

    Heathcock, Jill C; Bhat, Anjana N; Lobo, Michele A; Galloway, James C

    2005-01-01

    Infants born preterm differ in their spontaneous kicking, as well as their learning and memory abilities in the mobile paradigm, compared with infants born full-term. In the mobile paradigm, a supine infant's ankle is tethered to a mobile so that leg kicks cause a proportional amount of mobile movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative kicking frequency of the tethered (right) and nontethered (left) legs in these 2 groups of infants. Ten infants born full-term and 10 infants born preterm (<33 weeks gestational age, <2,500 g) and 10 comparison infants participated in the study. The relative kicking frequencies of the tethered and nontethered legs were analyzed during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm. Infants born full-term showed an increase in the relative kicking frequency of the tethered leg during the learning period and the short-term memory period but not for the long-term memory period. Infants born preterm did not show a change in kicking pattern for learning or memory periods, and consistently kicked both legs in relatively equal amounts. Infants born full-term adapted their baseline kicking frequencies in a task-specific manner to move the mobile and then retained this adaptation for the short-term memory period. In contrast, infants born preterm showed no adaptation, suggesting a lack of purposeful leg control. This lack of control may reflect a general decrease in the ability of infants born preterm to use their limb movements to interact with their environment. As such, the mobile paradigm may be clinically useful in the early assessment and intervention of infants born preterm and at risk for future impairment.

  10. Molecular tracking of Candida albicans in a neonatal intensive care unit: long-term colonizations versus catheter-related infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Diez, B; Martinez, V; Alvarez, M; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Martinez-Suarez, J V

    1997-01-01

    Nosocomial neonatal candidiasis is a major problem in infants requiring intensive therapy. The subjects of this retrospective study were nine preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Hospital Central de Asturias between March 1993 and August 1994. The infants were infected with or colonized by Candida albicans. Five patients developed C. albicans bloodstream infections. A total of 36 isolates (including isolates from catheters and parenteral nutrition) were examined for molecular relatedness by PCR fingerprinting and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The core sequence of phage M13 was used as a single primer in the PCR-based fingerprinting procedure, and RFLP analysis was performed with C. albicans-specific DNA probe 27A. Both techniques were evaluated with a panel of eight C. albicans reference strains, and each technique showed eight different patterns. With the 36 isolates from neonates, each technique enabled us to identify by PCR and RFLP analysis seven and six different patterns, respectively. The combination of these two methods (composite DNA type) identified eight different profiles. A strain with one of these profiles was present in three patients and in their respective catheters. Patients infected with or colonized by this isolate profile were clustered in time. Among the other patients, each patient was infected over time and at multiple anatomic sites with a C. albicans strain with a distinct DNA type. We conclude that C. albicans was most commonly producing long-term colonizations, although horizontal transmission probably due to catheters also occurred. PMID:9399489

  11. Long-Term Correction of Sandhoff Disease Following Intravenous Delivery of rAAV9 to Mouse Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Jagdeep S; Altaleb, Naderah; Bello, Alexander; Kruck, Christa; LaFave, Matthew C; Varshney, Gaurav K; Burgess, Shawn M; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Hurlbut, David; Hemming, Richard; Kobinger, Gary P; Triggs-Raine, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidoses are severe neurodegenerative disorders resulting from a deficiency in β-hexosaminidase A activity and lacking effective therapies. Using a Sandhoff disease (SD) mouse model (Hexb−/−) of the GM2 gangliosidoses, we tested the potential of systemically delivered adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) expressing Hexb cDNA to correct the neurological phenotype. Neonatal or adult SD and normal mice were intravenously injected with AAV9-HexB or –LacZ and monitored for serum β-hexosaminidase activity, motor function, and survival. Brain GM2 ganglioside, β-hexosaminidase activity, and inflammation were assessed at experimental week 43, or an earlier humane end point. SD mice injected with AAV9-LacZ died by 17 weeks of age, whereas all neonatal AAV9-HexB–treated SD mice survived until 43 weeks (P < 0.0001) with only three exhibiting neurological dysfunction. SD mice treated as adults with AAV9-HexB died between 17 and 35 weeks. Neonatal SD-HexB–treated mice had a significant increase in brain β-hexosaminidase activity, and a reduction in GM2 ganglioside storage and neuroinflammation compared to adult SD-HexB– and SD-LacZ–treated groups. However, at 43 weeks, 8 of 10 neonatal-HexB injected control and SD mice exhibited liver or lung tumors. This study demonstrates the potential for long-term correction of SD and other GM2 gangliosidoses through early rAAV9 based systemic gene therapy. PMID:25515709

  12. Neonatal Immune Tolerance Induction to Allow Long-Term Studies With an Immunogenic Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody in Mice.

    PubMed

    Piccand, Matthieu; Bessa, Juliana; Schick, Eginhard; Senn, Claudia; Bourquin, Carole; Richter, Wolfgang F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of neonatal immune tolerance induction in mice to enable long-term pharmacokinetic studies with immunogenic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Neonatal immune tolerance was induced by transfer of a mAb to neonatal mice via colostrum from nursing mother mice treated with two subcutaneous doses of a tolerogen starting within the first 24 h after delivery. Adalimumab and efalizumab were administered as tolerogens at various dose levels. Tolerance induction was evaluated in the offspring after reaching adulthood at 8 weeks of age. After a single intravenous injection of the same mAb as used for tolerance induction, the pharmacokinetics of the mAb and formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) in plasma were assessed using ELISA. Tolerance induction to adalimumab was achieved in a maternal dose-dependent manner. Adalimumab immune-tolerant offspring showed a slower adalimumab clearance (4.24 ± 0.32 mL/day/kg) as compared to the control group (12.09 ± 3.81 mL/day/kg). In the control group, accelerated clearance started 7 days after adalimumab dosing, whereas immune-tolerant offspring showed a log-linear terminal concentration-time course. In the offspring, the absence of predose ADA levels was indicative of successful tolerance induction. The second test compound efalizumab was not immunogenic in mice under our experimental conditions. Overall, the present study demonstrated the suitability of neonatal immune tolerance induction for a 4-week single dose study in adult mice with a human therapeutic mAb that is otherwise immunogenic in laboratory animals.

  13. Neonatal Tissue Damage Promotes Spike Timing-Dependent Synaptic Long-Term Potentiation in Adult Spinal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence from both humans and rodents suggests that tissue damage during the neonatal period can “prime” developing nociceptive pathways such that a subsequent injury during adulthood causes an exacerbated degree of pain hypersensitivity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this priming effect remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury relaxes the timing rules governing long-term potentiation (LTP) at mouse primary afferent synapses onto mature lamina I projection neurons, which serve as a major output of the spinal nociceptive network and are essential for pain perception. In addition, whereas LTP in naive mice was only observed if the presynaptic input preceded postsynaptic firing, early tissue injury removed this temporal requirement and LTP was observed regardless of the order in which the inputs were activated. Neonatal tissue damage also reduced the dependence of spike-timing-dependent LTP on NMDAR activation and unmasked a novel contribution of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs. These results suggest for the first time that transient tissue damage during early life creates a more permissive environment for the production of LTP within adult spinal nociceptive circuits. This persistent metaplasticity may promote the excessive amplification of ascending nociceptive transmission to the mature brain and thereby facilitate the generation of chronic pain after injury, thus representing a novel potential mechanism by which early trauma can prime adult pain pathways in the CNS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tissue damage during early life can “prime” developing nociceptive pathways in the CNS, leading to greater pain severity after repeat injury via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury widens the timing window during which correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity can evoke long-term potentiation (LTP) at sensory synapses onto adult lamina I

  14. Development of Emotional Face Processing in Premature and Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Valenzuela, Cintli Carolina; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Quirarte, Gina L; Harmony, Thalía

    2017-03-01

    The rate of premature births has increased in the past 2 decades. Ten percent of premature birth survivors develop motor impairment, but almost half exhibit later sensorial, cognitive, and emotional disabilities attributed to white matter injury and decreased volume of neuronal structures. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that premature and full-term infants differ in their development of emotional face processing. A comparative longitudinal study was conducted in premature and full-term infants at 4 and 8 months of age. The absolute power of the electroencephalogram was analyzed in both groups during 5 conditions of an emotional face processing task: positive, negative, neutral faces, non-face, and rest. Differences between the conditions of the task at 4 months were limited to rest versus non-rest comparisons in both groups. Eight-month-old term infants had increases ( P ≤ .05) in absolute power in the left occipital region at the frequency of 10.1 Hz and in the right occipital region at 3.5, 12.8, and 16.0 Hz when shown a positive face in comparison with a neutral face. They also showed increases in absolute power in the left occipital region at 1.9 Hz and in the right occipital region at 2.3 and 3.5 Hz with positive compared to non-face stimuli. In contrast, positive, negative, and neutral faces elicited the same responses in premature infants. In conclusion, our study provides electrophysiological evidence that emotional face processing develops differently in premature than in full-term infants, suggesting that premature birth alters mechanisms of brain development, such as the myelination process, and consequently affects complex cognitive functions.

  15. Repeated Neonatal Propofol Administration Induces Sex-Dependent Long-Term Impairments on Spatial and Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Choi, Chang Soon; Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25995824

  16. Differential effects of parenting in preterm and full-term children on developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maupin, Angela N; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between preterm birth, parenting behavior during early childhood, cognitive development, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and to determine whether parenting behavior differentially influences this developing system in children born preterm compared to children born full-term. The nationally representative sample comprised 3600 full-term and 1300 preterm children born in the US in the year 2001. All children who entered Kindergarten and who participated in data collection at 9 months, 24 months, and Kindergarten entry were included in the study. Measures of parenting behavior were collected at 9 and 24 months and cognitive development at 24 months via home visits. Social-emotional outcomes were assessed at Kindergarten entry via parent and teacher report. Multiple-sample Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze group differences in a model whereby early childhood parenting behavior predicted cognitive outcomes, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and indirectly predicted social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive processes. The full sample developmental model indicated excellent fit to the data. Preterm birth status indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry via its effect on early childhood parenting behavior and cognitive development. The multi-sample model revealed significant differences in the way in which early parenting behavior exerted its influence on outcomes at Kindergarten entry in preterm children compared to full-term children. For preterm children, parenting indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive functioning. Findings highlight the importance of early identification and targeted parenting programs to support early cognitive development in preterm children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoglycaemia and hypocalcaemia as determinants of admission birth weight criteria for term stable low risk macrosomic neonates.

    PubMed

    Bandika, Victor L; Were, Fred N; Simiyu, Eseli D; Oyatsi, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Large for gestational age (LGA) accounts for about 6.3% of admissions in kenyatta national hospital, newborn unit. As a policy all IGA's, defined by birth weight of 4000 g and above are admitted for 24 hours to monitor blood glucose levels. The rational for this policy is questionable and contributes to unnecessary burden on resources needed for new born care. To study birth weight related incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in stable low risk lgas in knh and use it to establish a new admission weight based criteria. prospective cohort study done in new born-unit, post natal and labour wards of knh. Term lga neonates (birth weight = 4000 g) were recruited as subjects and controlled against term appropriate weight (aga) neonates. the incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in lgas was 21% and 9% respectively. Hypoglycemia was rarely encountered after 12 hours of life in lgas. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia showed a direct upward relationship with weight beyond 4250 g. No significant difference in incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia between controls and 4000-4249 g category to justify their routine admission to newborn unit. the study identified 4275 g as new admission birth weight criteria for stable term low risk IGA's admission.

  18. Hypoxia-Induced neonatal seizures diminish silent synapses and long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengwen; Bell, Jocelyn J. Lippman; Sun, Hongyu; Jensen, Frances E.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal seizures can lead to epilepsy and long-term cognitive deficits in adulthood. Using a rodent model of the most common form of human neonatal seizures, hypoxia-induced seizures (HS), we aimed to determine whether these seizures modify long-term potentiation (LTP) and “silent” N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-only synapses in hippocampal CA1. At 48-72 hours (hrs) post-HS, electrophysiology and immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed a significant decrease in the incidence of silent synapses, and an increase in amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) at the synapses. Coincident with this decrease in silent synapses, there was an attenuation of LTP elicited by either tetanic stimulation of Schaffer collaterals or a pairing protocol, and persistent attenuation of LTP in slices removed in later adulthood after P10 HS. Furthermore, post-seizure treatment in vivo with the AMPAR antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) protected against the HS-induced depletion of silent synapses and preserved LTP. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which early-life seizures could impair synaptic plasticity, suggesting a potential target for therapeutic strategies to prevent long-term cognitive deficits. PMID:22171027

  19. Hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures diminish silent synapses and long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengwen; Lippman, Jocelyn J Bell; Sun, Hongyu; Jensen, Frances E

    2011-12-14

    Neonatal seizures can lead to epilepsy and long-term cognitive deficits into adulthood. Using a rodent model of the most common form of human neonatal seizures, hypoxia-induced seizures (HS), we aimed to determine whether these seizures modify long-term potentiation (LTP) and silent NMDAR-only synapses in hippocampal CA1. At 48-72 h after HS, electrophysiology and immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed a significant decrease in the incidence of silent synapses, and an increase in AMPARs at the synapses. Coincident with this decrease in silent synapses, there was an attenuation of LTP elicited by either tetanic stimulation of Schaffer collaterals or a pairing protocol, and persistent attenuation of LTP in slices removed in later adulthood after P10 HS. Furthermore, postseizure treatment in vivo with the AMPAR antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) protected against the HS-induced depletion of silent synapses and preserved LTP. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which early life seizures could impair synaptic plasticity, suggesting a potential target for therapeutic strategies to prevent long-term cognitive deficits.

  20. Long-term cost-effectiveness of providing full coverage for preventive medications after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kouta; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H; Toscano, Michele; Spettel, Claire; Brennan, Troyen; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2015-05-01

    Adherence to drugs that are prescribed after myocardial infarction remains suboptimal. Although eliminating patient cost sharing for secondary prevention increases adherence and reduces rates of major cardiovascular events, the long-term clinical and economic implications of this approach have not been adequately evaluated. We developed a Markov model simulating a hypothetical cohort of commercially insured patients who were discharged from the hospital after myocardial infarction. Patients received β-blockers, renin-angiotensin system antagonists, and statins without cost sharing (full coverage) or at the current level of insurance coverage (usual coverage). Model inputs were extracted from the Post Myocardial Infarction Free Rx Event and Economic Evaluation trial and other published literature. The main outcome was an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as measured by cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Patients receiving usual coverage lived an average of 9.46 quality-adjusted life years after their event and incurred costs of $171,412. Patients receiving full coverage lived an average of 9.60 quality-adjusted life years and incurred costs of $167,401. Compared with usual coverage, full coverage would result in greater quality-adjusted survival (0.14 quality-adjusted life years) and less resource use ($4011) per patient. Our results were sensitive to alterations in the risk reduction for post-myocardial infarction events from full coverage. Providing full prescription drug coverage for evidence-based pharmacotherapy to commercially insured post-myocardial infarction patients has the potential to improve health outcomes and save money from the societal perspective over the long-term. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00566774. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe with full collision terms

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-08-11

    Sterile neutrinos are thermalised in the early Universe via oscillations with the active neutrinos for certain mixing parameters. The most detailed calculation of this thermalisation process involves the solution of the momentum-dependent quantum kinetic equations, which track the evolution of the neutrino phase space distributions. Until now the collision terms in the quantum kinetic equations have always been approximated using equilibrium distributions, but this approximation has never been checked numerically. In this work we revisit the sterile neutrino thermalisation calculation using the full collision term, and compare the results with various existing approximations in the literature. We find a better agreement than would naively be expected, but also identify some issues with these approximations that have not been appreciated previously. These include an unphysical production of neutrinos via scattering and the importance of redistributing momentum through scattering, as well as details of Pauli blocking. Finally, we devise a new approximation scheme, which improves upon some of the shortcomings of previous schemes.

  2. Active-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe with full collision terms

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: rshansen@phys.au.dk E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au

    2015-08-01

    Sterile neutrinos are thermalised in the early Universe via oscillations with the active neutrinos for certain mixing parameters. The most detailed calculation of this thermalisation process involves the solution of the momentum-dependent quantum kinetic equations, which track the evolution of the neutrino phase space distributions. Until now the collision terms in the quantum kinetic equations have always been approximated using equilibrium distributions, but this approximation has never been checked numerically. In this work we revisit the sterile neutrino thermalisation calculation using the full collision term, and compare the results with various existing approximations in the literature. We find a better agreement than would naively be expected, but also identify some issues with these approximations that have not been appreciated previously. These include an unphysical production of neutrinos via scattering and the importance of redistributing momentum through scattering, as well as details of Pauli blocking. Finally, we devise a new approximation scheme, which improves upon some of the shortcomings of previous schemes.

  3. Lateral ventricle segmentation of 3D pre-term neonates US using convex optimization.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Kishimoto, Jessica; Ukwatta, Eranga; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disease among preterm infants with an occurrence of 12-20% in those born at less than 35 weeks gestational age. Neonates at risk of IVH are monitored by conventional 2D ultrasound (US) for hemorrhage and potential ventricular dilation. Compared to 2D US relying on linear measurements from a single slice and visually estimates to determine ventricular dilation, 3D US can provide volumetric ventricle measurements, more sensitive to longitudinal changes in ventricular volume. In this work, we propose a global optimization-based surface evolution approach to the segmentation of the lateral ventricles in preterm neonates with IVH. The proposed segmentation approach makes use of convex optimization technique in combination with a subject-specific shape model. We show that the introduced challenging combinatorial optimization problem can be solved globally by means of convex relaxation. In this regard, we propose a coupled continuous max-flow model, which derives a new and efficient dual based algorithm, that can be implemented on GPUs to achieve a high-performance in numerics. Experiments demonstrate the advantages of our approach in both accuracy and efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this paper reports the first study on semi-automatic segmentation of lateral ventricles in neonates with IVH from 3D US images.

  4. Neonatal short-term outcomes in infants with intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hasmasanu, Monica G.; Bolboaca, Sorana D.; Baizat, Melinda I.; Drugan, Tudor C.; Zaharie, Gabriela C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the neonatal outcomes in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a Romanian population in a 3 level maternity unit. Methods: A matched case-control design, with one control for each patient was used. The case group comprised neonates with birth weight and birth length below the 10th percentile for the gestational age. Individual matching by gender and age of gestation was used to identify the control group. Both cases and controls were selected from the infants admitted to and discharged from the Neonatal Ward, at the First Gynecology Clinic, of the County Emergency Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and June 2014. Results: One hundred and forty-two subjects were included in each group. The cesarean delivery was significantly more frequent in the IUGR group (66.9%) compared with controls (46.5%; p=0.0006). The Apgar score at one minute was ≥7 for most infants in both groups (77.9% IUGR group versus 77.5% control group), with no significant differences between the groups. A significantly higher percentage of infants in the IUGR group had hypoglycemia or intraventricular hemorrhage compared with the controls (p<0.05). Hypoglycemia proved a significant factor for IUGR (odds ratio = 4.763, 95% confidence interval: 1.711-13.255). Conclusion: Hypoglycemia and intraventricular hemorrhage characterized the IUGR newborns. PMID:26219445

  5. A comparison between preterm and full-term infants' preference for faces.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Silvana A; Pereira Junior, Antônio; Costa, Marcelo F da; Monteiro, Margareth de V; Almeida, Valéria A de; Fonseca Filho, Gentil G da; Arrais, Nívia; Simion, Francesca

    Visual preference for faces at birth is the product of a multimodal sensory experience experienced by the fetus even during the gestational period. The ability to recognize faces allows an ecologically advantageous interaction with the social environment. However, perinatal events such as premature birth, may adversely affect the adequate development of this capacity. In this study, we evaluated the preference for facial stimuli in preterm infants within the first few hours after birth. This is a cross-sectional observational study of 59 newborns, 28 preterm and 31 full-term infants. The babies were assessed in the first hours of life, with two white boards in the shape of a head and neck: one with the drawing of a face similar to the human face (natural face), and one with the drawing of misaligned eyes, mouth and nose (distorted face). After the newborn fixated the eyes on the presented stimulus, it was slowly moved along the visual field. The recognition of the stimulus was considered present when the baby had eye or head movements toward the stimulus. The preterm infants, in addition to showing a lower occurrence of orientation movements for both stimuli, on average (1.8±1.1 to natural faces and 2.0±1.2 for distorted ones) also showed no preference for any of them (p=0.35). Full-term newborns showed a different behavior, in which they showed a preference for natural faces (p=0.002) and a higher number of orientations for the stimulus, for both natural (3.2±0.8) and distorted faces (2.5±0.9). Preterm newborns recognize facial stimuli and disclose no preference for natural faces, different from full-term newborns. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact on parents of bronchiolitis hospitalization of full-term, preterm and congenital heart disease infants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to explore the impact on parents of the bronchiolitis hospitalization of their infant using the Impact of Bronchiolitis Hospitalization Questionnaire (IBHQ©). Methods Four hundred sixty-three infants aged less than 1 year and hospitalized for bronchiolitis were included in a French observational study during the 2008–2009 season. Parents were asked to complete the IBHQ at hospital discharge and 3 months later. IBHQ scores, ranging from 0 (no impact) to 100 (highest impact), were compared according to gestational age (full-term, 33–36 wGA, ≤ 32 wGA) and the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD). The potential drivers of impact were explored using multivariate linear regressions. Results The study included 332 full-terms, 71 infants born at 33–36 wGA, and 60 at ≤ 32 wGA; 28 infants had a CHD. At hospital discharge, 9 of the 12 IBHQ mean scores were above 40, indicating a marked impact on parents. Three months later, all mean scores were lower but 5 were still greater than 40. At discharge, the length of hospitalization had a significant effect on IBHQ worries and distress, fear for future, guilt and impact on daily organization scores (p<0.01); the parents’ educational level had a significant effect on IBHQ worries and distress, fear for future, impact on daily organization and financial impact scores (p<0.05). The only statistically significant difference found between the parents of preterm and full-term infants was for the physical impact score at discharge (p=0.004). Conclusions Bronchiolitis hospitalization has conspicuous emotional, physical and organizational consequences on parents and siblings, which persist 3 months after hospital discharge. The main drivers of the impact were length of hospital stay and parents’ educational level, while infants’ gestational age or the presence of a CHD had little influence. PMID:23114197

  7. Severe acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a full-term, formula-fed infant: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cases of cytomegalovirus colitis are exceptionally reported in immuno-competent infant. The pathogenesis is uncertain but breast-feeding is considered as a main source of postnatal infection. Case Presentation Here we report a full-term, formula-fed infant who developed a severe cytomegalovirus anaemia and colitis when aged 2 months. Conclusion Even if the molecular identity between the cytomegalovirus-isolate of the infant and the maternal virus could not be demonstrated, we confirmed through laboratory investigation that cytomegalovirus infection was acquired postnatally. However, the source of cytomegalovirus infection remained unclear. Alternative modes of cytomegalovirus transmission are discussed. PMID:21645352

  8. Long-term Cognitive and Health Outcomes of School-Aged Children Who Were Born Late-Term vs Full-Term.

    PubMed

    Figlio, David N; Guryan, Jonathan; Karbownik, Krzysztof; Roth, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Late-term gestation (defined as the 41st week of pregnancy) is associated with increased risk of perinatal health complications. It is not known to what extent late-term gestation is associated with long-term cognitive and physical outcomes. Information about long-term outcomes may influence physician and patient decisions regarding optimal pregnancy length. To compare the cognitive and physical outcomes of school-aged children who were born full term or late term. We analyzed Florida birth certificates from 1994 to 2002 linked to Florida public school records from 1998 to 2013 and found 1 442 590 singleton births with 37 to 41 weeks' gestation in the Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics. Of these, 1 153 716 children (80.0%) were subsequently located in Florida public schools. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association of gestational age with cognitive and physical outcomes at school age. Data analysis took place between April 2013 and January 2016. Late-term (born at 41 weeks) vs full-term (born at 39 or 40 weeks) gestation. There were a number of measures used, including the average Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test mathematics and reading scores at ages 8 through 15 years; whether a child was classified as gifted, defined as a student with superior intellectual development and capable of high performance; poor cognitive outcome, defined as a child scoring in the fifth percentile of test takers or having a disability that exempted him or her from taking the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test; and Exceptional Student Education placement owing to orthopedic, speech, or sensory impairment or being hospitalbound or homebound. Of 1 536 482 children born in Florida from singleton births from 1994 to 2002 with complete demographic information, 787 105 (51.2%) were male; 338 894 (22.1%) of mothers were black and 999 684 (65.1%) were married at time of birth, and the mean (SD) age for mothers at time of birth was 27

  9. Oxidative Stress as a Physiological Pain Response in Full-Term Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Bellieni, C. V.; Negro, S.; Longini, M.; Santacroce, A.; Tataranno, M. L.; Bazzini, F.; Picardi, A.; Proietti, F.; Iantorno, L.; Buonocore, G.

    2017-01-01

    This research paper aims to investigate if oxidative stress biomarkers increase after a painful procedure in term newborns and if nonpharmacological approaches, or sex, influence pain degree, and the subsequent OS. 83 healthy term newborns were enrolled to receive 10% oral glucose or sensorial saturation (SS) for analgesia during heel prick (HP). The ABC scale was used to score the pain. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and total hydroperoxides (TH) as biomarkers of OS were measured at the beginning (early-sample) and at the end (late-sample) of HP. The early-sample/late-sample ratio for AOPP and TH was used to evaluate the increase in OS biomarkers after HP. Higher levels of both AOPP and TH ratio were observed in high degree pain (4–6) compared with low degree pain score (0–3) (AOPP: p = 0.049; TH: p = 0.001). Newborns receiving SS showed a significantly lower pain score (p = 0.000) and AOPP ratio levels (p = 0.021) than those without. Males showed higher TH levels at the end of HP (p = 0.005) compared to females. The current study demonstrates that a relationship between pain degree and OS exists in healthy full-term newborns. The amount of OS is gender related, being higher in males. SS reduces pain score together with pain-related OS in the newborns. PMID:28133505

  10. [ECG monitoring in full-term infants. Analysis of the rhythm and variability of heart rate].

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, M; Falsini, G; Lazzerini, S; Giani, I; Rosati, C; Mantini, G; Grazzini, M

    1993-01-01

    Heart Rate (HR) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) depend on the neural control to the heart. HRV can be measured from 24-hours function. Little information is available on cardiac rhythm and on autonomic nervous control to the heart at birth. The aims of the study weew: 1) to study the cardiac rhythm in healthy newborn babies; 2) to asses the normal values for HRV at birth. We studied 20 full term healthy newborn babies. Newborns underwent 24-hours ECG-Holter monitoring. Analysis was performed by a 750 A Del Mar Avionics Analyzer. We determined: Heart Rate (HR), number of extrasystoles, Standard Deviation of all R-R intervals over 24 hours (SDNN) and mean hourly HRV (HRVM). Results about HRV were matched with those of 50 healthy adults. 1) Average HR in the newborn babies was 108 (range: 55-198); we found high prevalence of supraventricular extrasystoles. 2) We determined reference value for HRV. SDNN was 55 +/- 17 ms in newborns. SDNN of adults was 132 +/- 25 ms (44% higher than in newborns; p < 0.001). HRVM was 46 +/- 14 ms in newborns and 76 +/- 14 ms (p < 0.001). 1) Larger intervals of HR in newborn babies compared to literature data and an high prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias in full term healthy newborn babies. 2) Reference values for HRV in newborn babies. The low values of HRV confirm the immaturity of autonomic cardiac control.

  11. [Meta-analysis on partial risk factors of full-term infants with low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Cao, M K; Yang, L P; Jiang, B F

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the risk factors of full-term infants with low birth weight. Methods: All related Chinese and English literatures published from 1980 to February 25, 2016 were collected from CBM, CNKI, Wang Fang Data, Medline and Embase databases, and screened with inclusion and exclusion criteria and Stata13.0 software was used in this Meta-analysis. Results: Twenty three studies were included and there were 278 020 subjects. Female infants (pooled OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.49-1.72), less antenatal care visits (pooled OR=1.81, 95%CI: 1.54-2.11), maternal passive smoking (pooled OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.06), pregnancy-induced hypertension (pooled OR=2.96, 95% CI: 1.85-4.74) and hypamnion (pooled OR=2.71, 95%CI: 1.87-3.93) were the risk factors for full-term infants with low birth weight. Conclusion: Departments of maternal and health care should encourage pregnant women to have antenatal care visits to find and treat their pregnancy complications, and avoid passive smoking actively through health education for the purpose to prompt the birth quality of infants.

  12. The Effect of Bilingual Exposure on Executive Function Skills in Preterm and Full-Term Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Loe, Irene M; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of bilingual exposure on executive function (EF) skills, measured by parent-rating and performance-based instruments, in preterm and full-term preschoolers. Children age 3 to 5 years (mean 4.4) born preterm (PT; n = 82) and full term (FT; n = 79) had monolingual (PT-M, n = 51; FT-M, n = 53) or bilingual (PT-B, n = 31; FT-B, n = 26) language exposure. Groups were similar in age, gender and race, but PT children had lower socioeconomic status (SES) than FT children. Parents completed a language questionnaire and diary and a standardized parent rating of EF skills. Children completed EF tasks that tap response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. ANCOVA and logistic regression examined effects on EF of birth group (PT/FT), language status (M/B), and birth group by language status interaction, controlling for age and SES. Compared to children born FT, children born PT had significantly higher parent-rated EF scores and poorer performance on all but one EF task, both indicating more EF problems. No main effects of language status and no birth group by language status interactions were significant. PT status was clearly associated with poorer EF skills, similar to many other studies. In this sample, bilingual exposure conferred neither an advantage nor disadvantage in the FT and PT group. This information may prove useful in counseling families of both PT and FT children about the impact of bilingual exposure on their children's cognitive skills.

  13. Evidence for clock genes circadian rhythms in human full-term placenta.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Silvia; Murias, Lucía; Fernández-Plaza, Catalina; Díaz, Irene; González, Celestino; Otero, Jesús; Díaz, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biological rhythms are driven by endogenous biological clocks; in mammals, the master clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This master pacemaker can synchronize other peripheral oscillators in several tissues such as some involved in endocrine or reproductive functions. The presence of an endogenous placental clock has received little attention. In fact, there are no studies in human full-term placentas. To test the existence of an endogenous pacemaker in this tissue we have studied the expression of circadian locomoter output cycles kaput (Clock), brain and muscle arnt-like (Bmal)1, period (Per)2, and cryptochrome (Cry)1 mRNAs at 00, 04, 08, 12, 16, and 20 hours by qPCR. The four clock genes studied are expressed in full-term human placenta. The results obtained allow us to suggest that a peripheral oscillator exists in human placenta. Data were analyzed using Fourier series where only the Clock and Bmal1 expression shows a circadian rhythm.

  14. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-10-04

    Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was

  15. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The

  16. Full-term newborn after repeated ovarian tissue transplants in a patient treated for Ewing sarcoma by sterilizing pelvic irradiation and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Karlström, Per-Olof; Rezapour, Masoumeh; Castellanos, Enrique; Hreinsson, Julius; Rasmussen, Carsten; Sheikhi, Mona; Ouvrier, Bettina; Bozóky, Béla; Olofsson, Jan I; Lundqvist, Monalill; Hovatta, Outi

    2015-01-01

    We report the first successful transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue into heavily irradiated tissues in a patient who had received sterilizing pelvic radiotherapy (54 Gy) and 40 weeks of intensive high-dose chemotherapy for the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma 14 years earlier. Repeated transplantation procedures were required to obtain fully functional follicular development. Enlargement of the transplants over time and increase of the size of the uterus were demonstrated on sequential ultrasonographic examinations. Eggs of good quality that could be fertilized in vitro were obtained only after a substantial incremental increase of the amount of ovarian tissue transplanted. Single embryo replacement resulted in a normal pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child by cesarean section at full-term. No neonatal or maternal postoperative complications occurred. Women facing high-dose pelvic radiotherapy should not be systematically excluded from fertility preservation options, as is currently the trend. PMID:25545009

  17. Behavioral and histological outcomes following neonatal HI injury in a preterm (P3) and term (P7) rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, M.; Garbus, H.; Smith, A.L.; Rosenkrantz, T. S.; Fitch, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) occurs when blood and/or oxygen delivery to the brain is compromised. HI injuries can occur in infants born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age) or at very low birth weight (<1500 grams), as well as in term infants with birth complications. In both preterm and term HI populations, brain injury is associated with subsequent behavioral deficits. Neonatal HI injury can be modeled in rodents (e.g., the Rice-Vannucci method, via cautery of right carotid followed by hypoxia). When this injury is induced early in life (between postnatal day (P)1–5), neuropathologies typical of human preterm HI are modeled. When injury is induced later (P7–12), neuropathologies typical of those seen in HI term infants are modeled. The current study sought to characterize the similarities/differences between outcomes following early (P3) and late (P7) HI injury in rats. Male rats with HI injury on P3 or P7, as well as sham controls, were tested on a variety of behavioral tasks in both juvenile and adult periods. Results showed that P7 HI rats displayed deficits on motor learning, rapid auditory processing (RAP), and other learning/memory tasks, as well as a reduction in volume in various neuroanatomical structures. P3 HI animals showed only transient deficits on RAP tasks in the juvenile period (but not in adulthood), yet robust deficits on a visual attention task in adulthood. P3 HI animals did not show any significant reductions in brain volume that we could detect. These data suggest that: 1) behavioral deficits following neonatal HI are task-specific depending on timing of injury; 2) P3 HI rats showed transient deficits on RAP tasks; 3) the more pervasive behavioral deficits seen following P7 HI injury were associated with substantial global tissue loss; and 4) persistent deficits in attention in P3 HI subjects might be linked to neural connectivity disturbances rather than a global loss of brain volume, given that no such pathology was found. These combined

  18. Behavioral and histological outcomes following neonatal HI injury in a preterm (P3) and term (P7) rodent model.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M; Garbus, H; Smith, A L; Rosenkrantz, T S; Fitch, R H

    2014-02-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) occurs when blood and/or oxygen delivery to the brain is compromised. HI injuries can occur in infants born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age) or at very low birth weight (<1500 g), as well as in term infants with birth complications. In both preterm and term HI populations, brain injury is associated with subsequent behavioral deficits. Neonatal HI injury can be modeled in rodents (e.g., the Rice-Vannucci method, via cautery of right carotid followed by hypoxia). When this injury is induced early in life (between postnatal day (P)1-5), neuropathologies typical of human preterm HI are modeled. When injury is induced later (P7-12), neuropathologies typical of those seen in HI term infants are modeled. The current study sought to characterize the similarities/differences between outcomes following early (P3) and late (P7) HI injury in rats. Male rats with HI injury on P3 or P7, as well as sham controls, were tested on a variety of behavioral tasks in both juvenile and adult periods. Results showed that P7 HI rats displayed deficits on motor learning, rapid auditory processing (RAP), and other learning/memory tasks, as well as a reduction in volume in various neuroanatomical structures. P3 HI animals showed only transient deficits on RAP tasks in the juvenile period (but not in adulthood), yet robust deficits on a visual attention task in adulthood. P3 HI animals did not show any significant reductions in brain volume that we could detect. These data suggest that: (1) behavioral deficits following neonatal HI are task-specific depending on timing of injury; (2) P3 HI rats showed transient deficits on RAP tasks; (3) the more pervasive behavioral deficits seen following P7 HI injury were associated with substantial global tissue loss; and (4) persistent deficits in attention in P3 HI subjects might be linked to neural connectivity disturbances rather than a global loss of brain volume, given that no such pathology was found. These combined

  19. Fingolimod protects against neonatal white matter damage and long-term cognitive deficits caused by hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; Kempe, Karina; Lumpe, Katharina; Reinboth, Barbara S; Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Hou, Xinlin; Herrmann, Ralf; Hadamitzky, Martin; Heumann, Rolf; Hansen, Wiebke; Sifringer, Marco; van de Looij, Yohan; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Bendix, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral white matter injury is a leading cause of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants involving cognitive deficits in later life. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury, therapeutic options are limited. In the adult demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulating substance fingolimod (FTY720) has beneficial effects. Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a neonatal model of oxygen-toxicity, which is associated with hypomyelination and impaired neuro-cognitive outcome. A single dose of FTY720 (1mg/kg) at the onset of neonatal hyperoxia (24h 80% oxygen on postnatal day 6) resulted in improvement of neuro-cognitive development persisting into adulthood. This was associated with reduced microstructural white matter abnormalities 4 months after the insult. In search of the underlying mechanisms potential non-classical (i.e. lymphocyte-independent) pathways were analysed shortly after the insult, comprising modulation of oxidative stress and local inflammatory responses as well as myelination, oligodendrocyte degeneration and maturation. Treatment with FTY720 reduced hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, microglia activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In vivo and in vitro analyses further revealed that oxygen-induced hypomyelination is restored to control levels, which was accompanied by reduced oligodendrocyte degeneration and enhanced maturation. Furthermore, hyperoxia-induced elevation of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) protein expression on in vitro cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells was reduced by activated FTY720 and protection from degeneration is abrogated after selective S1P1 blockade. Finally, FTY720s' classical mode of action (i.e. retention of immune cells within peripheral lymphoid organs) was analysed demonstrating that FTY720 diminished circulating lymphocyte counts independent from hyperoxia

  20. Effect of neonatal resuscitation courses on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ridvan; Görker, Işik; Küçükuğurluoğlu, Yasemin; Çiftdemir, Nükhet Aladağ; Vatansever Özbek, Ulfet; Acunaş, Betül

    2012-02-01

    In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) courses improve the early outcomes of infants with perinatal asphyxia, but there has been no evidence to demonstrate the effect of NRP on long-term outcomes of perinatal asphyxia. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of NRP courses on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of perinatal asphyxia. This prospective study included infants referred to the Neonatal Unit during the years 2003-2005. Those patients who were referred before NRP courses (pretraining period) were designated as group 1, those who were referred after the first NRP course (transition period) as group 2, and those who were referred after the second NRP course (post-training period) as group 3. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed and compared at 4-6 years of age. The study involved 40 patients: 23 in group 1, nine in group 2 and eight in group 3. The number of patients who had been diagnosed with cerebral palsy was 13 in group 1, two in group 2, and one in group 3, which was a significant decrease. The number of patients with seizures and electroencephalography abnormality was 12 and 14 in group 1, three and two in group 2, and one and one in group 3, respectively, which was also a significant decrease. NRP courses have positive effects on short-term as well as long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with perinatal asphyxia. Further studies are required to determine the effects of NRP courses on minor deficits, such as cognitive and behavioral disturbances. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Long-term effects of neonatal bone and joint infection on adjacent growth plates.

    PubMed

    Peters, W; Irving, J; Letts, M

    1992-01-01

    Review of children with physeal damage from neonatal infection other than the hip at Winnipeg Children's Hospital showed that six patients had residual growth interference from adjacent infection in the bone or joint. Several of the infections involved multiple joints, with growth plate arrest occurring in the distal femoral growth plate in four, in the proximal humerus in four, in the proximal femur in two, in the distal radius in one, and in the distal humerus in one. Although the initial infection was frequently believed to be successfully treated in the neonate, the clinical effect of these infections on the growth plate was not fully appreciated in five of the infants until the children reached a mean age of 9 years. Because growth abnormalities in physeal bars may not be clinically evident for several years after the initial infection has been treated, we recommend that children with bone and joint infections occurring in the first month of life be followed to skeletal maturity, observing the adjacent physis for late tethering.

  2. Towards a computational reconstruction of the electrodynamics of premature and full term human labour.

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, O; Atia, J; Benson, A P; van den Berg, H A; Blanks, A M; Choi, C; Gilbert, S H; Goryanin, I; Hayes-Gill, B R; Holden, A V; Li, P; Norman, J E; Shmygol, A; Simpson, N A B; Taggart, M J; Tong, W C; Zhang, H

    2011-10-01

    We apply virtual tissue engineering to the full term human uterus with a view to reconstruction of the spatiotemporal patterns of electrical activity of the myometrium that control mechanical activity via intracellular calcium. The three-dimensional geometry of the gravid uterus has been reconstructed from segmented in vivo magnetic resonance imaging as well as ex vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to resolve fine scale tissue architecture. A late-pregnancy uterine smooth muscle cell model is constructed and bursting analysed using continuation algorithms. These cell models are incorporated into partial differential equation models for tissue synchronisation and propagation. The ultimate objective is to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of the mechanisms that initiate and regulate labour.

  3. The analgesic effect of sucrose in full term infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Haouari, N.; Wood, C.; Griffiths, G.; Levene, M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effects of different sucrose concentrations on measures of neonatal pain. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of sterile water (control) or one of three solutions of sucrose--namely, 12.5%, 25%, and 50% wt/vol. SETTING--Postnatal ward. PATIENTS--60 healthy infants of gestational age 37-42 weeks and postnatal age 1-6 days randomised to receive 2 ml of one of the four solutions on to the tongue two minutes before heel prick sampling for serum bilirubin concentrations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Duration of crying over the first three minutes after heel prick. RESULTS--There was a significant reduction in overall crying time and heart rate after three minutes in the babies given 50% sucrose as compared with controls. This was maximal one minute after heel prick in the 50% sucrose group and became statistically significant in the 25% sucrose group at two minutes. There was a significant trend for a reduction in crying time with increasing concentrations of sucrose over the first three minutes. CONCLUSION--Concentrated sucrose solution seems to reduce crying and the autonomic effects of a painful procedure in healthy normal babies. Sucrose may be a useful and safe analgesic for minor procedures in neonates. PMID:7787595

  4. Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Ivars, Katrin; Nelson, Nina; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Ström, Jakob O; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life. 130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30), noon (10:00-12:00) and evening (19:30-21:30), each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life. Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  5. Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra M; Meeker, John D; Huang, Tianyi; Hauser, Russ; Seely, Ellen W; Ferguson, Kelly K; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; McElrath, Thomas F

    2017-03-01

    Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (P<0.05). When evaluating patterns by race/ethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications

  6. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J.; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2011-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and 2004 in five central counties of metropolitan Atlanta. Methods We assessed relationships between birth weight and pollutant concentrations during each infant’s first month of gestation and third trimester, as well as in each month of pregnancy using distributed lag models. We also conducted capture-area analyses limited to mothers residing within 4 miles (6.4 km) of each air quality monitoring station. Results In the five-county analysis, ambient levels of NO2, SO2, PM2.5 elemental carbon, and PM2.5 water-soluble metals during the third trimester were significantly associated with small reductions in birth weight (−4 to −16 g per interquartile range increase in pollutant concentrations). Third-trimester estimates were generally higher in Hispanic and non-Hispanic black infants relative to non-Hispanic white infants. Distributed lag models were also suggestive of associations between air pollutant concentrations in late pregnancy and reduced birth weight. The capture-area analyses provided little support for the associations observed in the five-county analysis. Conclusions Results provide some support for an effect of ambient air pollution in late pregnancy on birth weight in full-term infants. PMID:21156397

  7. Object engagement and manipulation in extremely preterm and full term infants at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana

    2016-08-01

    Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Propess outcomes for cervical ripening and induction of labour in full-term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhou, Y; Pu, X; Xiao, C

    2014-04-01

    This study was to investigate the efficiency and safety of vaginal Propess as a methodology for cervical ripening and labour induction in full-term pregnant patients. Women at term with a Bishop's score of < 6 and without any contraindications, to vaginal delivery, or the use of prostaglandin or oxytocin in induction of labour, were divided into three groups: oxytocin group (n = 59), intact membranes (Propess I group; n = 58) and natural rupture (Propess R group; n = 52) groups. The main outcome measures, including change in Bishop's score, induction to delivery interval, total delivery time, rate of vaginal delivery, fetal outcome and maternal complications during induction, were recorded. In the Propess groups, the Bishop's score and rate of vaginal delivery were significantly higher while the induction to delivery interval and total delivery time were much shorter, as compared with oxytocin patients (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in fetal and maternal outcome during induction between the Propess groups and oxytocin group (p > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences of Bishop's score, rate of vaginal delivery, induction to delivery interval and total delivery time between the Propess I group and Propess R group (p > 0.05). Propess is an effective and safe approach to promote cervical ripening and be successfully used in induction of labour.

  9. Research for full-term forecasting model of production rate with multiple life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wende, Yan; Yingzhong, Yuan; Jun, Liu; Zhilin, Qi; Jiqiang, Li; Qianhua, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Based on generalized production forecasting model, in the case of oil production with multiple production peak value and multiple life cycle, a multi-peak forecasting model is proposed, which can describe full course of rise, growth, maturity and decline for every life cycle. Linear trial-and-error method, binary regression method and ternary regression method are used to resolve the parameters of production forecasting model. The results indicate that parameters in linear trial-and-error method are not resolved simultaneously and the solutions are usually not the best matching. Parameters in multi-variant regression method are resolved simultaneously with the best correlation factor, and the solution is more accurate than linear trial-and-error method. Growth factor including cumulative production rate term and exponential function term of time are considered simultaneously in ternary regression method, and the solution is more accurate than binary regression method. For actual example with three-peak production, ternary regression method are used to resolve the parameters of multi-peak production forecasting model, and matching accuracy is greatly improved.

  10. Insulin resistance markers in term, normoweight neonates. The Mérida cohort.

    PubMed

    Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2009-03-01

    Several endocrine regulators are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to assess normal ranges for glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), cortisol, insulin and the yet-to-be-published quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) for newborns and a number of homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-related equations that have been proposed as indicators of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) and insulin resistance (HOMA-R). The study included 115 (54 males, 61 females) singleton, normoweight, Spanish Caucasian neonates delivered without foetal distress from mothers of the Mérida (Spain) Birth Cohort who tested negative in the O'Sullivan screen. Neonatal normal values given as the mean (95% confidence interval) were: glucose, 75.3 mg/dL (68.29-82.29); cortisol, 7.4 microg/dL (6.85-7.97); GH, 16.7 ng/mL (14.87-18.60); insulin, 5.5 microUI/mL (4.12-6.88), IGF-155.2 ng/mL (50.82-59.53); QUICKI, 0.45 (0.43-0.48); HOMA-R, 1.36 (0.84-1.88); HOMA-S, 4.07 (2.66-5.49), the glucose/insulin ratio, 33.6 (24.58-42.67); the insulin/cortisol ratio, 0.8 (0.61-1.05). Hormone ranges (except for cortisol, whose values were lower) were equivalent to those of other studies. Cortisolaemia values cannot be associated with the type of delivery, as only three births (2.6%) were by caesarean section, while 20 (17.4%) were instrumental deliveries. Neonates from the lowest quartile of the insulin/cortisol ratio presented higher (p < 0.001) HOMA-S and QUICKI and lower (p < 0.01) HOMA-R values. The results of our study indicate normal ranges for insulin resistance and sensitivity at birth. The insulin/cortisol ratio at birth appears to be a good early indicator of insulin resistance.

  11. Short-term dose-response characteristics of 2-iminobiotin immediately postinsult in the neonatal piglet after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, S Tracey; Ireland, Zoe; Fan, Xiyong; van der Wal, Willem M; Roes, Kit C B; Colditz, Paul B; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha M P C D

    2013-03-01

    To determine the optimal dose of 2-iminobiotin (2-IB) for the treatment of moderate to severe asphyxia in a neonatal piglet model of hypoxia-ischemia. Newborn piglets were subjected to a 30-minute hypoxia-ischemia insult and randomly treated with vehicle or 2-IB (0.1 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg, or 1.0 mg/kg). aEEG background and seizure activity were scored after hypoxia-ischemia every 4 h until 24 h and at 48 h and neurobehavioral scores were obtained. Brain tissue was collected and processed for analysis of caspase-3 activity, histology, and tyrosine nitration. A dose range of 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg/dose of 2-IB improved short-term outcome as demonstrated by an increased survival with a normal aEEG and decreased nitrotyrosine staining in the 2-IB-treated animals, indicating decreased cellular damage. Neurobehavior, caspase-3 activity in thalamus, and histology scores were not significantly different. Based on survival with a normal aEEG, 0.2 mg/kg 2-IB is likely to be the most appropriate dose for use in future clinical trials in neonates with perinatal hypoxia-ischemia.

  12. General versus spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean sections: effects on neonatal short-term outcome. A prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Alfredo; De Vivo, Antonio; Giacobbe, Annamaria; Priola, Valentina; Maggio Savasta, Laura; Guzzo, Marianna; De Vivo, Dominique; Mancuso, Alba

    2010-10-01

    To compare neonatal short-term outcome in patients who underwent spinal, general anaesthesia and conversion from spinal to general anaesthesia. One hundred seventy-nine pregnant women undergoing elective caesarean section were allocated randomly to general (n=89) or spinal anaesthesia (n=90) and compared with 63 patients who required conversion to general anaesthesia. Umbilical cord artery pH, Apgar score as well as its individual parameter and need for assisted ventilation were evaluated. No differences were found in pH values (p=0.35), while the need for assisted ventilation differed significantly (p=0.001). The rate of depressed newborns was 1.1% in the spinal group, 25.9% in the general group and 12.7% in the conversion group with a significant difference for all comparisons. At 5-min, all newborns were vigorous. At 1 min, a higher score for each parameter was found in spinal group with respect to general group, while 'activity', 'grimace' and 'respiration' showed a higher score in conversion group than in general group. At 5 min, a difference was found only for 'activity'. All kinds of anaesthesia seem to be safe, but loco-regional blockade shows more advantages on the neonatal outcome also when a conversion is necessary.

  13. Systemic inflammation combined with neonatal cerebellar haemorrhage aggravates long-term structural and functional outcomes in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sophie; Pai, Alex; Richter, Lindsay; Vafaei, Rod; Potluri, Praneetha; Ellegood, Jacob; Lerch, Jason P; Goldowitz, Daniel

    2017-07-27

    Despite the increased recognition of cerebellar injury in survivors of preterm birth, the neurodevelopmental consequences of isolated cerebellar injury have been largely unexplored and our current understanding of the functional deficits requires further attention in order to translate knowledge to best practices. Preterm infants are exposed to multiple stressors during their postnatal development including perinatal cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) and postnatal infection, two major risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairments. We developed a translational mouse model of CBH and/or inflammation to measure the short- and long-term outcomes in cerebellar structure and function. Mice exposed to early combined insults of CBH and early inflammatory state (EIS) have a delay in grasping acquisition, neonatal motor deficits and deficient long-term memory. CBH combined with late inflammatory state (LIS) does not induce neonatal motor problems but leads to poor fine motor function and long-term memory deficits at adulthood. Early combined insults result in poor cerebellar growth from postnatal day 15 until adulthood shown by MRI, which are reflected in diminished volumes of cerebellar structures. There are also decreases in volumes of gray matter and hippocampus. Cerebellar microgliosis appears 24h after the combined insults and persists until postnatal day 15 in the cerebellar molecular layer and cerebellar nuclei in association with a disrupted patterning of myelin deposition, a delay of oligodendrocyte maturation and reduced white matter cerebellar volume. Together, these findings reveal poor outcomes in developing brains exposed to combined cerebellar perinatal insults in association with cerebellar hypoplasia, persistence of microgliosis and alterations of cerebellar white matter maturation and growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peroneal nerve palsy: a complication of umbilical artery catheterization in the full-term newborn of a mother with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Christina; Korakaki, Eftichia; Hatzidaki, Eleftheria; Manoura, Antonia; Aligizakis, Agisilaos; Velivasakis, Emmanuel

    2002-04-01

    Umbilical artery catheters are an essential aid in the treatment of newborn infants who have cardiopulmonary disease. However, it is well-known that umbilical artery catheterization is associated with complications. The most frequent visible problem in an umbilical line is blanching or cyanosis of part or all of a distal extremity or the buttock area resulting from either vasospasm or a thrombotic or embolic incidence. Ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region is a rare complication of umbilical artery catheterization. We report the case of a full-term infant of an insulin-dependent diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control who developed a left peroneal nerve palsy after ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region after umbilical artery catheterization. The infant was born weighing 5050 g. The mother of the infant had preexisting diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin from the age of 14 years. The metabolic control of the mother had been unstable both before and during the pregnancy. The neonate developed respiratory distress syndrome soon after birth and was immediately transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube was quickly considered necessary after rapid pulmonary deterioration. Her blood glucose levels were 13 mg/dL. A 3.5-gauge umbilical catheter was inserted into the left umbilical artery for blood sampling without difficulty when the infant required 100% oxygen to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen pressure. Femoral pulses and circulation in the lower limbs were normal immediately before and after catheterization. A radiograph, which was taken immediately, showed the tip of the catheter to be at a level between the fourth and fifth sacral vertebrae. The catheter was removed immediately. Circulation and femoral pulses were normal and no blanching of the skin was observed. Another catheter was repositioned and the tip was confirmed radiologically to be in the thoracic aorta between the sixth and

  15. Short-term acoustic forecasting via artificial neural networks for neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Young, Jason; Macke, Christopher J; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2012-11-01

    Noise levels in hospitals, especially neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), have become of great concern for hospital designers. This paper details an artificial neural network (ANN) approach to forecasting the sound loads in NICUs. The ANN is used to learn the relationship between past, present, and future noise levels. By training the ANN with data specific to the location and device used to measure the sound, the ANN is able to produce reasonable predictions of noise levels in the NICU. Best case results show average absolute errors of 5.06 ± 4.04% when used to predict the noise levels one hour ahead, which correspond to 2.53 dBA ± 2.02 dBA. The ANN has the tendency to overpredict during periods of stability and underpredict during large transients. This forecasting algorithm could be of use in any application where prediction and prevention of harmful noise levels are of the utmost concern.

  16. Early skin-to-skin contact for healthy full-term infants after vaginal and caesarean delivery: a qualitative study on clinician perspectives.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Inez; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Alaofin, Oluwatope; Argani, Cynthia H; Farzin, Azadeh

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to provide insight into key factors from a clinician's perspective that influence uninterrupted early skin-to-skin contact after vaginal and caesarean delivery of healthy full-term infants. Early skin-to-skin contact of healthy full-term infants ideally begins immediately after birth and continues for the first hour or the first breastfeed as recommended by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. However, adoption of early skin-to-skin contact is low in many settings and the barriers that hinder its universal use are not well understood. An exploratory qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews. Eleven clinicians were interviewed, including five registered nurses and one medical doctor from the obstetrics and gynaecology unit as well as four registered nurses and one medical doctor from the neonatal intensive care unit. Core topics that were discussed included perceptions on early skin-to-skin contact and facilitating factors and barriers to early skin-to-skin contact after vaginal and caesarean delivery. Interview sessions were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. A coding framework was developed from which subthemes emerged. The overall themes were adopted from Lee et al.'s thematic framework to categorise factors into institutional, familial-level and implementation factors. Critical institutional factors included inadequate staffing and education of clinicians on early skin-to-skin contact. On a familial level, parental education and motivation were identified as important factors. Barriers to implementation included the absence of a clinical algorithm and unclear definitions for eligible mothers and infants. Various facilitating factors and barriers to early skin-to-skin contact of healthy full-term infants born via vaginal and caesarean delivery were identified. Addressing these factors can help to provide a better understanding of clinician perspectives on early skin-to-skin contact and help

  17. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-12-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including decreased social interactions and increased self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in Group AH (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As adults (Experiment 1), the monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation were also assessed. Group TE now showed only few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed in infancy. In contrast, Group AH continued to display decreased social interactions and increased self-directed activity and showed also increased submission and reduced responses to separation, but normal reactivity to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those in Experiment 1 and then given the AH ablations (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. No other socioemotional effects, except for an increase in food/water consumption, were observed. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage.

  18. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Málková, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including low levels of social interaction and high levels of self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in the AH group (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As they reached adulthood (Experiment 1), the same monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation from age-matched peers were also assessed. Group TE now showed few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed when they were infants. By contrast, Group AH continued to display low levels of social interaction, high levels of self-directed activity and submissive behavior, and reduced responses to separation, although they reacted normally to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those of the earlier groups and then given the AH ablation (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these adult-lesioned monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. Also, except for an increase in food and water consumption throughout this 6-month period, they showed no other socioemotional effects. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  19. Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Selewski, David T; Charlton, Jennifer R; Jetton, Jennifer G; Guillet, Ronnie; Mhanna, Maroun J; Askenazi, David J; Kent, Alison L

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advancements in our understanding of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its impact on outcomes across medicine. Research based on single-center cohorts suggests that neonatal AKI is very common and associated with poor outcomes. In this state-of-the-art review on neonatal AKI, we highlight the unique aspects of neonatal renal physiology, definition, risk factors, epidemiology, outcomes, evaluation, and management of AKI in neonates. The changes in renal function with gestational and chronologic age are described. We put forth and describe the neonatal modified Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes AKI criteria and provide the rationale for its use as the standardized definition of neonatal AKI. We discuss risk factors for neonatal AKI and suggest which patient populations may warrant closer surveillance, including neonates <1500 g, infants who experience perinatal asphyxia, near term/ term infants with low Apgar scores, those treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and those requiring cardiac surgery. We provide recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of these patients, including medications and renal replacement therapies. We discuss the need for long-term follow-up of neonates with AKI to identify those children who will go on to develop chronic kidney disease. This review highlights the deficits in our understanding of neonatal AKI that require further investigation. In an effort to begin to address these needs, the Neonatal Kidney Collaborative was formed in 2014 with the goal of better understanding neonatal AKI, beginning to answer critical questions, and improving outcomes in these vulnerable populations.

  20. Molecular studies of an impetigo bullosa epidemic in full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Jursa-Kulesza, Joanna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Kopron, Katarzyna; Wojciuk, Bartosz; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus strains can be the source of epidemic infection for patients. A molecular epidemiological analysis of an impetigo bullosa outbreak in a neonatal ward was performed in order to determine a potential source of the infection and possible routes of subsequent spreading of the epidemic strain. The genetic relatedness of S. aureus strains isolated from 6 neonates with epidermal lesions and from 21 staff members was verified by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Additionally, detection of eta and etb genes of S. aureus strains using PCR was performed. None of the infected newborns' mothers was a carrier. Seven strains, 6 isolated from the newborns and 1 taken from a midwife, showed the same restriction pattern, i.e. type A. In the other 20 health care workers colonized with S. aureus, 3 genetic types could be distinguished, i.e. B (2), C (7) and D (2), as well as 9 strains with unique PFGE patterns. The eta gene detected in 7 strains belonged to the genetic type A; there was no etb gene in any of the 27 S. aureus isolates. The presence of the same genetic type A of S. aureus in the infected newborns is a factor which indicates that the impetigo bullosa was a hospital infection. A probable source of the infection was a midwife who was colonized with the same S. aureus type. She was present at the birth of the first infected newborn. Today, molecular methods are essential for prompt recognition of an epidemic and implementation of appropriate infection control strategies. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Practices, predictors and consequences of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Tarrant, Marie

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and predictors of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants and its association with total duration of breast-milk feeding. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. A total of 2450 mother-infant pairs were recruited in 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 and followed up prospectively for 12 months or until breast-milk feeding had stopped. Across the first 6 months postpartum, the rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding ranged from 5·1 to 8·0 % in 2006-2007 and from 18·0 to 19·8 % in 2011-2012. Factors associated with higher rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding included supplementation with infant formula, lack of previous breast-milk feeding experience, having a planned caesarean section delivery and returning to work postpartum. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding was associated with an increased risk of early breast-milk feeding cessation when compared with direct feeding at the breast. The hazard ratio (95 % CI) ranged from 1·25 (1·04, 1·51) to 1·91 (1·34, 2·73) across the first 6 months. Mothers of healthy term infants should be encouraged and supported to feed directly at the breast. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding should be recommended only when medically necessary and not as a substitute for feeding directly at the breast. Further research is required to explore mothers' reasons for exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding and to identify the health outcomes associated with this practice.

  2. Sucrose and naltrexone prevent increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by repetitive neonatal noxious stimulation: Role of BDNF and β-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California.

    PubMed

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M; Sadd, James L; Pastor, Manuel

    2010-07-28

    Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g) per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g) per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g) per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g) per 10 microg/m3 particulate matter under 10 microm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g) per 10 microg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 microm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g) per 10 microg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether a small shift in the population distribution of

  4. Timing of clamping and factors associated with iron stores in full-term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Martins, Mariana Campos; do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Sant’Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of timing of clamping and obstetric, biological and socioeconomic factors on the iron stores of full-term newborns. METHODS Cross-sectional study between October 2011 and July 2012 in which hematological parameters were evaluated for newborns in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. It involved collecting 7 mL of umbilical cord blood from 144 full-term not underweight newborns. The parameters investigated were complete blood count, serum iron, ferritin and C-reactive protein. The time of umbilical cord clamping was measured using a digital timer without interfering in the procedures of childbirth. The birth data were collected from Live Birth Certificates and other information was obtained from the mother through a questionnaire applied in the first month postpartum. Analysis of multiple linear regression was then used to estimate the influence of biological, obstetrics and socioeconomic factors on the ferritin levels at birth. RESULTS The median ferritin was 130.3 µg/L (n = 129, minimum = 16.4; maximum = 420.5 µg/L), the mean serum iron was 137.9 μg/dL (n = 144, SD = 39.29) and mean hemoglobin was 14.7 g/dL (n = 144, SD = 1.47). The median time of cord clamping was 36 seconds, ranging between 7 and 100. The bivariate analysis detected an association between ferritin levels and color of the child, timing clamping of 60 seconds, type of delivery, the presence of gestational diabetes and per capita family income. In multivariate analysis, the variables per capita income, number of antenatal visits and length at birth accounted for 22.0% of variation in ferritin levels. CONCLUSIONS Iron stores at birth were influenced by biological, obstetric and social characteristics. Tackling anemia should involve creating policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, improving the quality of antenatal care, as well as implementing a criterion of delayed clamping of the umbilical cord within the guidelines of labor. PMID:24789632

  5. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g) per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g) per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g) per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g) per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g) per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g) per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether a small shift in the

  6. n-6 and n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane of Brazilian preterm and term neonates and their mothers at delivery.

    PubMed

    Pontes, P V; Torres, A G; Trugo, N M F; Fonseca, V M; Sichieri, R

    2006-02-01

    Placental transfer of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids is selectively high to maintain accretion to fetal tissues, especially the brain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the essential fatty acid (EFA) and LCPUFA status at birth of preterm and term Brazilian infants and their mothers, from a population of characteristically low intake of n-3 LCPUFA, and to evaluate the association between fetal and maternal status, by the determination of the fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane. Blood samples from umbilical cord of preterm (26-36 weeks of gestation; n = 30) and term (37-42 weeks of gestation; n = 30) infants and the corresponding maternal venous blood were collected at delivery. The LCPUFA composition of the erythrocyte membrane and DHA status were similar for mothers of preterm and term infants. Neonatal AA was higher (P < 0.01) whereas its precursor 18:2n-6 was lower (P < 0.01) than maternal levels, as expected. There was no difference in LCPUFA erythrocyte composition between preterm and term infants, except for DHA. Term infants presented a worse DHA status than preterm infants (P < 0.01) and than their mothers (P < 0.01) at delivery. There was a negative correlation of neonatal DHA with maternal AA and a positive correlation between neonatal AA and maternal AA and 18:2n-6 only at term. These results suggest that the persistent low DHA maternal status, together with the comparatively better AA and 18:2n-6 status, might have affected maternal-fetal transfer of DHA when gestation was completed up to term, and possibly contributed to the worse DHA status of term neonates compared with the preterm neonates.

  7. Mechanisms of induction and expression of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    1999-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity at excitatory glutamatergic synapses is believed to be instrumental in the maturation of neuronal networks. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we have studied the mechanisms of induction and expression of long-term depression at excitatory GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus (LTD(GABA-A)). We report that the induction of LTD(GABA-A) requires a GABA(A) receptor-mediated membrane depolarization, which is necessary to remove the Mg(2+) block from postsynaptic NMDA receptors. LTD(GABA-A) is associated with an increase in the coefficient of variation of evoked GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents and a decrease in the frequency, but not amplitude, of Sr(2+)-induced asynchronous GABA(A) quantal events. We conclude that LTD(GABA-A) induction requires the activation of both GABA(A) and NMDA postsynaptic receptors and that its expression is likely presynaptic.

  8. Long Term Impact of Neonatal Injury in Male and Female Rats: Sex Differences, Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    LaPrairie, Jamie L.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the relative contribution of early life events to individual disease susceptibility has been explored extensively. Only fairly recently, however, has it become evident that abnormal or excessive nociceptive activity experienced during the perinatal period may permanently alter the normal development of the CNS and influence future responses to somatosensory input. Given the significant rise in the number of premature infants receiving high-technology intensive care over the last twenty years, ex-preterm neonates may be exceedingly vulnerable to the long-term effects of repeated invasive interventions. The present review summarizes available clinical and laboratory findings on the lasting impact of exposure to noxious stimulation during early development, with a focus on the structural and functional alterations in nociceptive circuits, and its sexually dimorphic impact. PMID:20144647

  9. Mitochondrial content, oxidative, and nitrosative stress in human full-term placentas with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Fajardo-Araujo, Martha E; Zúñiga-Trujillo, Ismael; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano; Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtémoc; Órnelas-Vázquez, Jessica K

    2017-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mitochondrial content, and the oxidative and nitrosative stress of the placenta in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Full-term placentas from GDM and healthy pregnancies were collected following informed consent. The lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and oxidized protein (carbonyls) levels were determined by spectrophotometry, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), subunit IV of cytochrome oxidase (COX4), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and actin were determined by western blot, whereas ATPase activity was performed by determining the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption using a High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. TBARS and carbonyls levels were lower in the placentas of women with GDM compared with the normal placentas (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Also, 3-NT/actin and AMPK/actin ratios were higher in GDM placentas than in the normal placentas (p = 0.03 and p = 0.012, respectively). Whereas COX4/actin ratio and ATPase activity were similar between GDM placentas and those controls. These data suggest that placentas with GDM are more protected against oxidative damage, but are more susceptible to nitrosative damage as compared to normal placentas. Moreover, the increased expression levels of AMPK in GDM placentas suggest that AMPK might have a role in maintaining the mitochondrial biogenesis at normal levels. HGRL28072011 . Registered 28 July 2011.

  10. Palmar grasp behavior in full-term newborns in the first 72 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, Jadiane; de Moraes, Marcus Vinicius Marques; Tudella, Eloisa; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Krebs, Vera Lúcia Jornada

    2015-02-01

    The palmar grasp behavior is one of the items of an infant's routine neurological tests. Its exacerbated presence after the fifth month of age or absence in the first day after birth is an important sign of neuro-sensorimotor disorders. This study aimed to describe the palmar grasp behavior of full-term newborns in the first 72 h of life. This nonrandomized cross-sectional developmental study included 219 typical newborns aged 12-2 4h, 25-48 h and 49-72 h. Three measurements were performed with newborns in the supine position, recording the palmar grasp time and strength. Statistical analysis was applied with significant level of p<0.05. Higher palmar grasp strength was observed in newborns aged 49-72 h compared to newborns aged 12-24 h and 25-48 h (F=7.42, p=0.01). There was significant difference in palmar grasp strength between hands (F=6.55, p=0.01), only in 12-24h, with greater strength in the left hand (t=-2.43, p=0.01), and difference in palmar grasp between strength (F=18.7, p=0.01) with greater strength in females (t=-5.40, p=0.01) only at the age 48-72 h. It was concluded that the palmar grasp behavior modifies in the first 72 h of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Freeze-dried sperm fertilization leads to full-term development in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Kusakabe, Hirokazu; Chang, Ching-Chien; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Schmidt, David W; Julian, Marina; Pfeffer, Robert; Bormann, Charles L; Tian, X Cindy; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2004-06-01

    To date, the laboratory mouse is the only mammal in which freeze-dried spermatozoa have been shown to support full-term development after microinjection into oocytes. Because spermatozoa in mice, unlike in most other mammals, do not contribute centrosomes to zygotes, it is still unknown whether freeze-dried spermatozoa in other mammals are fertile. Rabbit sperm was selected as a model because of its similarity to human sperm (considering the centrosome inheritance pattern). Freeze- drying induces rabbit spermatozoa to undergo dramatic changes, such as immobilization, membrane breaking, and tail fragmentation. Even when considered to be "dead" in the conventional sense, rabbit spermatozoa freeze-dried and stored at ambient temperature for more than 2 yr still have capability comparable to that of fresh spermatozoa to support preimplantation development after injection into oocytes followed by activation. A rabbit kit derived from a freeze-dried spermatozoon was born after transferring 230 sperm-injected oocytes into eight recipients. The results suggest that freeze-drying could be applied to preserve the spermatozoa from most other species, including human. The present study also raises the question of whether rabbit sperm centrosomes survive freeze-drying or are not essential for embryonic development.

  12. Endothelial expression of Fc gamma receptor IIb in the full-term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Mishima, T; Kurasawa, G; Ishikawa, G; Mori, M; Kawahigashi, Y; Ishikawa, T; Luo, S-S; Takizawa, T; Goto, T; Matsubara, S; Takeshita, T; Robinson, J M; Takizawa, T

    2007-01-01

    In the third trimester, human placental endothelial cells express Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb). This expression is unique because FcgammaRIIb is generally expressed on immune cells and is typically undetectable in adult endothelial cells. Recently, we found a novel FcgammaRIIb-defined, IgG-containing organelle in placental endothelial cells; this organelle may be a key structure for the transcytosis of IgG across the endothelial layer. In this study, we verify the expression of FcgammaRIIb in endothelial placenta cells and use reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing analyses to define the expressed FCGR2B mRNA transcript variant. We also investigated the distribution of FCGR2B mRNA and protein within the vascular tree of the full-term human placenta by RT-PCR and quantitative microscopy. The mRNA sequence of FCGR2B expressed specifically in placental endothelial cells is that of transcript variant 2. FcgammaRIIb expression and synthesis occur throughout the placental vascular tree but do not extend into the umbilical cord. This study provides additional information on FcgammaRIIb expression in the human placenta.

  13. FRAP analysis of chromatin looseness in mouse zygotes that allows full-term development.

    PubMed

    Ooga, Masatoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin looseness, which can be analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) using eGFP-tagged core histone proteins, is an important index of the differentiation potential of blastomere cells and embryonic stem cells. Whether chromatin looseness is a reliable index of the developmental potential of embryos during ontogenesis is not known. As a necessary first step toward answering this question, we investigated whether FRAP-analyzed embryos are capable of normal preimplantation and full-term development. All tested concentrations (50, 100, and 250 ng/μL) of microinjected eGFP-H2B mRNA were sufficient for detecting differences in chromatin looseness between male and female pronuclei. After FRAP analysis, most of the zygotes developed into blastocysts. Importantly, a considerable number of offspring developed from the FRAP analyzed zygotes (32/78; 41.0%) and grew into healthy adults. The offspring of zygotes injected with 250 ng/μL of eGFP-H2B mRNA and bleached using 110 μW laser power for 5 s were not genetically modified. Interestingly, bleaching using a 3-fold stronger laser intensity for a 6-fold longer time did not cause toxicity during preimplantation development, indicating that bleaching did not critically affect preimplantation development. Finally, we confirmed that similar results were obtained using two different types of confocal laser-scanning microscopes. This FRAP protocol would be useful for investigating the association between chromatin looseness and development.

  14. Complementary assessments of executive function in preterm and full-term preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Loe, Irene M; Chatav, Maya; Alduncin, Nidia

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are interrelated cognitive processes that have been studied in relation to behavior, attention, academic achievement, and developmental disorders. Studies of EF skills assessed through parent report and performance-based measures show correlations between them ranging from none to modest. Few studies have examined the relationship between EF skills measured through parent report and performance-based measures in relation to adaptive function. The present study included preschool children born preterm as a population at high risk for EF impairments. Preschool children (N = 149) completed a battery of EF tasks that assess working memory, response inhibition, idea generation, and attention shifting or cognitive flexibility. Parents reported on children's EF and adaptive skills. Preterm children showed more parent-rated and performance-based EF impairments than did full-term children. The combined use of either parent report or performance-based measures resulted in the identification of a large number of children at risk for EF impairment, especially in the preterm group. Both parent report and performance-based EF measures were associated with children's adaptive function. EF skills are measurable in young child'ren, and we suggest that EF skills may serve as targets for intervention to improve functional outcomes. We recommend the use of both parent report and performance-based measures to characterize children's EF profiles and to customize treatment.

  15. Effect of Sucrose Analgesia, for Repeated Painful Procedures, on Short-term Neurobehavioral Outcome of Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Banga, Shreshtha; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Bhakhri, Bhanu Kiran

    2016-04-01

    Safety of oral sucrose, commonly used procedural analgesic in neonates, is questioned. To evaluate the effect of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures, on short-term neurobehavioral outcome of preterm neonates. Stable preterm neonates were randomized to receive either sucrose or distilled water orally, for every potentially painful procedure during the first 7 days after enrollment. Neurodevelopmental status at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) measured using the domains of Neurobehavioral Assessment of Preterm Infants scale. A total of 93 newborns were analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the groups were comparable. No statistically significant difference was observed in the assessment at 40 weeks PCA, among the groups. Use of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures on newborns, does not lead to any significant difference in the short-term neurobehavioral outcome. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of Sucrose Analgesia, for Repeated Painful Procedures, on Short-term Neurobehavioral Outcome of Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Shreshtha; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Safety of oral sucrose, commonly used procedural analgesic in neonates, is questioned. Aim: To evaluate the effect of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures, on short-term neurobehavioral outcome of preterm neonates. Methods: Stable preterm neonates were randomized to receive either sucrose or distilled water orally, for every potentially painful procedure during the first 7 days after enrollment. Neurodevelopmental status at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) measured using the domains of Neurobehavioral Assessment of Preterm Infants scale. Results: A total of 93 newborns were analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the groups were comparable. No statistically significant difference was observed in the assessment at 40 weeks PCA, among the groups. Use of sucrose analgesia, for repeated painful procedures on newborns, does not lead to any significant difference in the short-term neurobehavioral outcome. PMID:26615181

  17. The combined use of sucrose and nonnutritive sucking for procedural pain in both term and preterm neonates: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Kelli Ann

    2013-02-01

    Many agents, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, have been studied to alleviate neonatal pain, and the research is extensive. The 2 most commonly studied nonpharmacologic agents studied have been sucrose and nonnutritive sucking (NNS). There is increasing evidence that the synergistic effect of sucrose and NNS is more effective than the effect of sucrose or NNS alone. The purpose of this integrative review of the literature was to determine whether there is a relationship between the synergistic effect of combining sucrose and NNS administered before and during painful procedures, and reducing procedural pain in both preterm and term neonates. This integrative review indicates that the combination of sucrose and NNS is a safe, effective, and clinically significant means of providing procedural pain relief in neonates, both term and preterm.

  18. Long-term T-cell-mediated immunologic memory to hepatitis B vaccine in young adults following neonatal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Ajami, Abolghasem; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Shams-Esfandabad, Kian; Mirabi, Araz Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    The long-term duration of cell-mediated immunity induced by neonatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. Study was designed to determine the cellular immunity memory status among young adults twenty years after infantile HB immunization. Study subjects were party selected from a recent seroepidemiologic study in young adults, who had been vaccinated against HBV twenty years earlier. Just before and ten to 14 days after one dose of HBV vaccine booster injection, blood samples were obtained and sera concentration of cytokines (interleukin 2 and interferon) was measured. More than twofold increase after boosting was considered positive immune response. With regard to the serum level of antibody against HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) before boosting, the subjects were divided into four groups as follow: GI, HBsAb titer < 2; GII, titer 2 to 9.9; GIII, titer 10 to 99; and GIV, titers ≥ 100 IU/L. Mean concentration level (MCL) of each cytokines for each group at preboosting and postboosting and the proportion of responders in each groups were determined. Paired descriptive statistical analysis method (t test) was used to compare the MCL of each cytokines in each and between groups and the frequency of responders in each group. Before boosting, among 176 boosted individuals, 75 (42.6%) had HBsAb 10 IU/L and were considered seroprotected. Among 101 serosusceptible persons, more than 80% of boosted individuals showed more than twofold increase in cytokines concentration, which meant positive HBsAg-specific cell-mediated immunity. MCL of both cytokines after boosting in GIV were decreased more than twofold, possibly because of recent natural boosting. Findings showed that neonatal HBV immunization was efficacious in inducing long-term immunity and cell-mediated immune memory for up to two decades, and booster vaccination are not required. Further monitoring of vaccinated subjects for HBV infections are recommended.

  19. Long-Term T-Cell-Mediated Immunologic Memory to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Adults Following Neonatal Vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Ajami, Abolghasem; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Shams-Esfandabad, Kian; Mirabi, Araz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term duration of cell-mediated immunity induced by neonatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. Objectives: Study was designed to determine the cellular immunity memory status among young adults twenty years after infantile HB immunization. Patients and Methods: Study subjects were party selected from a recent seroepidemiologic study in young adults, who had been vaccinated against HBV twenty years earlier. Just before and ten to 14 days after one dose of HBV vaccine booster injection, blood samples were obtained and sera concentration of cytokines (interleukin 2 and interferon) was measured. More than twofold increase after boosting was considered positive immune response. With regard to the serum level of antibody against HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) before boosting, the subjects were divided into four groups as follow: GI, HBsAb titer < 2; GII, titer 2 to 9.9; GIII, titer 10 to 99; and GIV, titers ≥ 100 IU/L. Mean concentration level (MCL) of each cytokines for each group at preboosting and postboosting and the proportion of responders in each groups were determined. Paired descriptive statistical analysis method (t test) was used to compare the MCL of each cytokines in each and between groups and the frequency of responders in each group. Results: Before boosting, among 176 boosted individuals, 75 (42.6%) had HBsAb 10 IU/L and were considered seroprotected. Among 101 serosusceptible persons, more than 80% of boosted individuals showed more than twofold increase in cytokines concentration, which meant positive HBsAg-specific cell-mediated immunity. MCL of both cytokines after boosting in GIV were decreased more than twofold, possibly because of recent natural boosting. Conclusions: Findings showed that neonatal HBV immunization was efficacious in inducing long-term immunity and cell-mediated immune memory for up to two decades, and booster vaccination are not required. Further monitoring of vaccinated subjects for HBV infections

  20. Evaluation of spinal toxicity and long-term spinal reflex function following intrathecal levobupivacaine in the neonatal rat

    PubMed Central

    Hamurtekin, Emre; Fitzsimmons, Bethany L.; Shubayev, Veronica I.; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Deumens, Ronald; Yaksh, Tony L.; Walker, Suellen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuraxial anesthesia is utilized in children of all ages. Local anesthetics produce dose-dependent toxicity in certain adult models, but the developing spinal cord may also be susceptible to drug-induced apoptosis. In postnatal rodents, we examined effects of intrathecal levobupivacaine on neuropathology and long-term sensorimotor outcomes. Methods Postnatal day 3 (P3) or P7 rat pups received intrathecal levobupivacaine 2.5mg/kg (0.5%) or saline. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds and motor block were assessed. Spinal cord tissue analysis included: apoptosis counts (activated-caspase-3, Fluoro-Jade C) at 24 h; glial reactivity at 7 days; and histopathology in cord and cauda equina at 24 h and 7 days. Long-term spinal function in young adults (P35) was assessed by hindlimb withdrawal thresholds, electromyography responses to suprathreshold stimuli, and gait analysis. Results Intrathecal levobupivacaine produced spinal anesthesia at P3 and P7. No increase in apoptosis or histopathological change was seen in the cord or cauda equina. In the P3 saline group, activated-caspase-3 (mean±SEM per lumbar cord section 6.1±0.3) and Fluoro-Jade C (12.1±1.2) counts were higher than at P7, but were not altered by levobupivacaine (P=0.62 and P=0.11, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test). At P35, mechanical withdrawal thresholds, thermal withdrawal latency and electromyographic reflex responses did not differ across P3 or P7 levobupivacaine or saline groups (one way ANOVA with Bonferroni comparisons). Intrathecal bupivacaine at P3 did not alter gait. Conclusion Single dose intrathecal levobupivacaine 0.5% did not increase apoptosis or produce spinal toxicity in neonatal rat pups. This study provides preclinical safety data relevant to neonatal use of neuraxial local anesthesia. PMID:23514721

  1. Prediction of Nine Month Performance from Neonatal and Developmental Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, John F., Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated the ability of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), in combination with neonatal histories and developmental assessments, to predict mental and motor performance of 9-month-old infants on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Fourteen normal, full-term infants and 10 average-for-gestational-age,…

  2. Habituation-Dishabituation to Speech in the Neonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates that both male and female neonates habituate and dishabituate to repeated and novel speech sounds. Results of a head-turning sound-localization task with 24 full-term neonates showed two basic processes: spatial orientation to sounds and response decrement to repeated speech sounds followed by response increment to novel speech…

  3. Prediction of Nine Month Performance from Neonatal and Developmental Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, John F., Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated the ability of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), in combination with neonatal histories and developmental assessments, to predict mental and motor performance of 9-month-old infants on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Fourteen normal, full-term infants and 10 average-for-gestational-age,…

  4. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Susan J; Middleton, Philippa

    2008-04-16

    Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord greater than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased. To determine the effects of different policies of timing of cord clamping at delivery of the placenta on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (December 2007). Randomised controlled trials comparing early and late cord clamping. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. We included 11 trials of 2989 mothers and their babies. No significant differences between early and late cord clamping were seen for postpartum haemorrhage or severe postpartum haemorrhage in any of the five trials (2236 women) which measured this outcome (relative risk (RR) for postpartum haemorrhage 500 mls or more 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.55). For neonatal outcomes, our review showed both benefits and harms for late cord clamping. Following birth, there was a significant increase in infants needing phototherapy for jaundice (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.92; five trials of 1762 infants) in the late compared with early clamping group. This was accompanied by significant increases in newborn haemoglobin levels in the late cord clamping group compared with early cord clamping (weighted mean difference 2.17 g/dL; 95% CI 0.28 to 4.06; three trials of 671 infants), although this effect did not persist past six months. Infant ferritin levels remained higher in the late clamping group than the early clamping group at six months. One definition of active management includes directions to administer an uterotonic with birth of the anterior shoulder of the baby and to clamp the umbilical cord within 30-60 seconds of birth of the baby (which is not always feasible in practice). In this review delaying

  5. Differences in the Clinical Characteristics of Early- and Late-Onset Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Full-Term Infants: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiu-Yu; An, Yao; Liu, Li; Wang, Xue-Qiu; Chen, Shi; Wang, Zheng-Li; Li, Lu-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding the influence of age at onset on prognosis in full-term infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited, and identifying differences between the clinical characteristics of early-onset NEC (EO-NEC) and late-onset NEC (LO-NEC) may be helpful in the determination of effective management strategies. In the present study, the medical records of 253 full-term infants with NEC were reviewed, and the clinical characteristics of the EO-NEC group (n = 150) and the LO-NEC group (n = 103) were compared. Infants in the EO-NEC group were characterized by increased gestational age and higher rates of stage III NEC and peritonitis when compared with LO-NEC infants (P  < 0.05). Mortality was significantly associated with stage III NEC, peritonitis, sepsis, respiratory failure and shock in univariate analysis (P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, peritonitis and renal failure were identified as independent risk factors for mortality in infants with EO-NEC, and peritonitis and respiratory failure were significant predictors of mortality in neonates with LO-NEC. Our finding indicated that the characteristics of the severe medical conditions identified in infants with EO-NEC were distinct from those observed in infants with LO-NEC. Peritonitis and kidney failure and peritonitis and respiratory failure were identified as risk factors for mortality in EO-NEC and LO-NEC infants, respectively. PMID:28211488

  6. Short-term exposure and long-term consequences of neonatal exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ibuprofen in mice.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Gaëtan; Nyberg, Fred; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Both Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ibuprofen have analgesic properties by interacting with the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) systems, respectively. Evaluation of these analgesics is important not only clinically, since they are commonly used during pregnancy and lactation, but also to compare them with acetaminophen, with a known interaction with both CB1R and the COX systems. Short-term exposure of neonatal rodents to acetaminophen during the first weeks of postnatal life, which is comparable with a period from the third trimester of pregnancy to the first years of postnatal life in humans, induces long-term behavioral disturbances. This period, called the brain growth spurt (BGS) and is characterized by series of rapid and fundamental changes and increased vulnerability, peaks around postnatal day (PND) 10 in mice. We therefore exposed male NMRI mice to either THC or ibuprofen on PND 10. At 2 months of age, the mice were subjected to a spontaneous behavior test, consisting of a 60min recording of the variables locomotion, rearing and total activity. Mice exposed to THC, but not ibuprofen, exhibited altered adult spontaneous behavior and habituation capability in a dose-dependent manner. This highlights the potency of THC as a developmental neurotoxicant, since a single neonatal dose of THC was enough to affect adult cognitive function. The lack of effect from ibuprofen also indicates that the previously seen developmental neurotoxicity of acetaminophen is non-COX-mediated. These results might be of importance in future research as well as in the ongoing risk/benefit assessment of THC.

  7. Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) Performance of Greek Preterm Infants: Comparisons With Full-Term Infants of the Same Nationality and Impact of Prematurity-Related Morbidity Factors.

    PubMed

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Manta, Vassiliki; Mellos, Stavros; Pons, Roser; Chrousos, George P; Siahanidou, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Only a few studies have been conducted with the objective of creating norms of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) for the assessment of gross motor development of preterm infants. The AIMS performance of preterm infants has been compared with that of the Canadian norms of full-term infants, but not with that of full-term infants of the same nationality. Moreover, the possible impact of prematurity-related morbidity factors on AIMS performance is unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate AIMS trajectory in a large population of Greek preterm infants and create norms, (2) to compare it with the AIMS trajectory of Greek full-term infants, and (3) to examine the possible influence of neonatal morbidity on AIMS scores in the preterm sample. This was a cross-sectional study. Mean AIMS scores were compared, per month (1-19), between 403 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of age, corrected for prematurity) and 1,038 full-term infants. In preterm infants, the association of AIMS scores with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade ≤III, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis was assessed by hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores were significantly lower in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Mean AIMS scores in preterm infants were significantly associated with RDS (b=-1.93; 95% CI=-2.70, -1.16), IVH (b=-0.97; 95% CI=-1.69, -0.25), and ROP (b=-1.12; 95% CI=-1.99, -0.24) but not with BPD or sepsis in hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale norms were created for Greek preterm infants. This study confirms that AIMS trajectories of preterm infants are below those of full-term infants of the same nationality. The influence of morbidity factors, including RDS, IVH, and ROP, should be taken into account when administering the AIMS in preterm infants. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Long-term gender behavioral vulnerability after nociceptive neonatal formalin stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Negrigo, Aline; Medeiros, Magda; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2011-03-03

    The role of sex and gender in accounting for individual pain behaviors is poorly understood. The present study was conducted to determine whether neonatal nociceptive stimuli at postnatal day 1 (PD1) in rats would lead to a differential behavioral impact based on gender. Animals were divided in 4 groups according to treatment (two injections of 4% formalin into the pad of right paws at PD1 or control) and gender. The sensory threshold and cognition tests were performed in adult rats using the hot plate, open field, elevated plus maze and forced swim tests. The number of paw licks was higher in females and in formalin-treated rats (P=0.02), but without interaction between gender and treatment. Exploratory activity was reduced in males (P<0.01), especially in the nociceptive group (P<0.01). Anxiety levels were higher in the female-nociceptive group (P<0.05). Depression-like behavior was more evident among females, independent of treatment. We concluded that a single acute nociceptive stimulation early in development does not affect nociception and depressive behaviors, but is able to alter the exploratory behavior and anxiety levels in adulthood in a gender specific manner.

  9. Safe Sleep and Skin-to-Skin Care in the Neonatal Period for Healthy Term Newborns.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Winter, Lori; Goldsmith, Jay P

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin care (SSC) and rooming-in have become common practice in the newborn period for healthy newborns with the implementation of maternity care practices that support breastfeeding as delineated in the World Health Organization's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." SSC and rooming-in are supported by evidence that indicates that the implementation of these practices increases overall and exclusive breastfeeding, safer and healthier transitions, and improved maternal-infant bonding. In some cases, however, the practice of SSC and rooming-in may pose safety concerns, particularly with regard to sleep. There have been several recent case reports and case series of severe and sudden unexpected postnatal collapse in the neonatal period among otherwise healthy newborns and near fatal or fatal events related to sleep, suffocation, and falls from adult hospital beds. Although these are largely case reports, there are potential dangers of unobserved SSC immediately after birth and throughout the postpartum hospital period as well as with unobserved rooming-in for at-risk situations. Moreover, behaviors that are modeled in the hospital after birth, such as sleep position, are likely to influence sleeping practices after discharge. Hospitals and birthing centers have found it difficult to develop policies that will allow SSC and rooming-in to continue in a safe manner. This clinical report is intended for birthing centers and delivery hospitals caring for healthy newborns to assist in the establishment of appropriate SSC and safe sleep policies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Long-term consequences of neonatal fluoxetine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Meng-Ching; Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Li, Yang; Lee, Li-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays important roles during neural development. Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-type medication during gestation may influence the maturation of the fetal brain and subsequent brain functions. To mimic the condition of late-gestation SSRI exposure, we administered fluoxetine (FLX) in neonatal rats during the first postnatal week, which roughly corresponds to the third trimester period of human gestation. FLX-exposed adult male rats exhibited reduced locomotor activity and depression-like behaviors. Furthermore, sensorimotor gating capacity was also impaired. Interestingly, increased social interaction was noticed in FLX-exposed rats. When the levels of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase were examined, no significant changes were found in FLX rats compared to control (CON) rats. The behavioral phenotypes of FLX rats suggested malfunction of the limbic system. Dendritic architectures of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) were examined. Layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons in FLX rats had exuberant dendritic branches with elongated terminal segments compared to those in CON rats. In BLA pyramidal neurons, the dendritic profiles were comparable between the two groups. However, in FLX rats, the density of dendritic spines was reduced in both mPFC and BLA. Together, our results demonstrated the long-lasting effects of early FLX treatment on emotional and social behaviors in adult rats in which impaired neuronal structure in the limbic system was also noticed. The risk of taking SSRI-type antidepressants during pregnancy should be considered.

  11. Impairment of the liver insulin receptor autoactivation cascade at full-term pregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, C; Molero, J C; Ruiz, P; Del Arco, A; Andres, A; Carrascosa, J M

    1995-01-01

    Partially purified liver insulin receptors from full-term pregnant rats show decreased autophosphorylation rates if compared with receptors from virgins. We studied the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, looking at possible structural and functional changes of several domains. The ATP-binding domain seems to be unaltered in receptors from pregnant rats since Km for ATP was similar to that observed in virgins. In contrast, the Vmax. is decreased some 45%, suggesting changes in the kinase domain. Truncation of a fragment of 10 kDa from the C-terminal tail does not normalize the kinase activity in receptors from pregnant rats, suggesting that this domain is not involved in the inhibitory regulation. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase increases the [32P]Pi incorporation into receptors from pregnant rats; however, the autophosphorylation remains lower than that observed in virgin rats. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps of phosphorylated receptors show that the same phosphopeptides are present in receptors from virgin and pregnant rats. However, the progression through the autoactivation cascade in the kinase domain is impaired in receptors from pregnant rats. Differences in the cleavage by trypsin at the two alternative sites in the kinase domain were observed, indicating possible structural changes in receptors from pregnant rats that could be related to the impairment of the autoactivation cascade. Integrity of the alpha- and beta-subunits, as well as differential expression of the two receptor isotypes, were shown to be unaltered. We conclude that (1) the decreased autophosphorylation rate of the liver insulin receptor from pregnant rats is associated with the impairment of its autoactivation cascade, probably as a consequence of the basal Ser/Thr phosphorylation; and (2) the inhibition of the autoactivation cascade does not account for the overall inhibition of autophosphorylation observed in receptors from pregnant rats. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

  12. [Blood ammonia and transaminases in full term infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia].

    PubMed

    Esqué-Ruiz, M T; Figueras-Aloy, J; Salvia-Roigés, M D; Carbonell-Estrany, X

    To find hepatic markers of perinatal asphyxia. Variations in blood ammonia during the first week of life and in transaminase in serum during the first 48 hours were analysed in four groups of newly born infants (NBI): Group I or control, in which 65 NBI were included, with suspected unconfirmed infection and no other pathologies; Group II, made up of 15 NBI with loss of foetal well being (LFW) with no posterior neurological clinical features; Group III, consisting of 27 NBI with LFW criteria and mild hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE); and Group IV, with 25 NBI with LFW criteria and mild HIE according to Amiel s criteria. The average blood ammonia values in full term infants remain steady during the first week of life (87.66 21.69 mg/dL), as occurs in infants with LFW but without HIE (89.08 24.69 mg/dL) and in those with mild HIE (89.08 20.75 mg/dL). In moderate HIE, the blood ammonia level rises until the third day (108.55 7.04 mg/dL) and then drops back to the initial values (p= 0.0045). When grouped by days, these values show significant differences (p= 0.04), with higher values in Group IV. The NBI with HIE presented higher levels of transaminases, especially of AST (GOT) (p= 0.000001), and this increase is proportional to its gravity. No relation was found between values of blood ammonia and transaminases. Both blood ammonia and transaminases can be considered to be perinatal asphyxia markers.

  13. Full-term pregnancy induces a specific genomic signature in the human breast.

    PubMed

    Russo, Jose; Balogh, Gabriela A; Russo, Irma H

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has traditionally been linked to nulliparity or late first full-term pregnancy, whereas young age at first childbirth, multiparity, and breast-feeding are associated with a reduced risk. Early pregnancy confers protection by inducing breast differentiation, which imprints a specific and permanent genomic signature in experimental rodent models. For testing whether the same phenomenon was detectable in the atrophic breast of postmenopausal parous women, we designed a case-control study for the analysis of the gene expression profile of RNA extracted from epithelial cells microdissected from normal breast tissues obtained from 18 parous and 7 nulliparous women free of breast pathology (controls), and 41 parous and 8 nulliparous women with history of breast cancer (cases). RNA was hybridized to cDNA glass microarrays containing 40,000 genes; arrays were scanned and the images were analyzed using ImaGene software version 4.2. Normalization and statistical analysis were carried out using Linear Models for Microarrays and GeneSight software for hierarchical clustering. The parous control group contained 2,541 gene sequences representing 18 biological processes that were differentially expressed in comparison with the other three groups. Hierarchical clustering of these genes revealed that the combined parity/absence of breast cancer data generated a distinct genomic profile that differed from those of the breast cancer groups, irrespective of parity history, and from the nulliparous cancer-free group, which has been traditionally identified as a high-risk group. The signature that identifies those women in whom parity has been protective will serve as a molecular biomarker of differentiation for evaluating the potential use of preventive agents.

  14. Does temperament influence language development? Evidence from preterm and full-term children.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Fernández, Pilar; Resches, Mariela; Gómez-Taibo, María Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to describe language and temperament characteristics of one group of low risk preterm (PR) children and a group of full-term (FT) children and (2) to identify those factors which can predict language outcomes at 30 months of age, with special attention on temperament. There is evidence of differences between very or extremely PR and FT children in relation to characteristics of temperament and language development. However, not many studies have been carried out with healthy PR children. The participants were 142 low risk PR children (mean gestational age (GA): 32.60 weeks) and 49 FT children (mean GA 39.84 weeks). The temperament of the children was assessed at 10 months of age through the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). At 22 months of age the cognitive development of the children was assessed through the Spanish adaptation of the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). In order to assess the children's language development the Galician adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was applied at 30 months of age. In addition, socio-demographic information about the children and their families was gathered at birth. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the language measures of interest (word production, MLU3, and sentence complexity) between groups. The only differences found between the PR and the FT children in the IBQ-R were restricted to the smiling and laughter and the fear subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses performed indicate that GA did not have any predictive effect on language measures taken at 30 months. Cognitive scores were an important predictor of language measures, although certain temperament subscales contributed in a significant way to the variance of language measures, particularly low intensity pleasure, approach, high intensity pleasure, sadness, and vocal reactivity. Therefore, extroverted (positive affectivity) temperament seems to be beneficial for language

  15. Is breast cancer risk associated with alcohol intake before first full-term pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Hodge, Allison M; Room, Robin; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R

    2016-09-01

    It is plausible that breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens, including ethanol, between menarche and the first full-term pregnancy ("first pregnancy"). There is some epidemiological evidence that intake before the first pregnancy is more closely associated with risk of breast cancer than is intake thereafter. We examined this association using lifetime alcohol consumption data from a prospective cohort study. We calculated usual alcohol intake for age periods 15-19 years and for 10-year period from age 20 to current age (in grams per day) using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 13,630 parous women who had their first pregnancy at age 20 years or later, had no cancer history and were aged 40-69 years at enrollment. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 651 incident invasive adenocarcinomas of the breast were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 16.1 years. Alcohol consumption was low overall with only a few drinking ≥40 g/day. Intake before the first pregnancy was markedly lower (mean intake: 2.5 g/day; abstention: 58.8 %) than intake thereafter (mean intake: 6.0 g/day; abstention: 33.6 %). Any alcohol intake before the first pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.10-1.66 for drinking compared with abstention), whereas any intake after the first pregnancy was not (HR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.72-1.09). Limiting alcohol intake before the first pregnancy might reduce women's risk of breast cancer.

  16. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both). In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment). In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. PMID:24523593

  17. Impairment of the liver insulin receptor autoactivation cascade at full-term pregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Martinez, C; Molero, J C; Ruiz, P; Del Arco, A; Andres, A; Carrascosa, J M

    1995-10-15

    Partially purified liver insulin receptors from full-term pregnant rats show decreased autophosphorylation rates if compared with receptors from virgins. We studied the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, looking at possible structural and functional changes of several domains. The ATP-binding domain seems to be unaltered in receptors from pregnant rats since Km for ATP was similar to that observed in virgins. In contrast, the Vmax. is decreased some 45%, suggesting changes in the kinase domain. Truncation of a fragment of 10 kDa from the C-terminal tail does not normalize the kinase activity in receptors from pregnant rats, suggesting that this domain is not involved in the inhibitory regulation. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase increases the [32P]Pi incorporation into receptors from pregnant rats; however, the autophosphorylation remains lower than that observed in virgin rats. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps of phosphorylated receptors show that the same phosphopeptides are present in receptors from virgin and pregnant rats. However, the progression through the autoactivation cascade in the kinase domain is impaired in receptors from pregnant rats. Differences in the cleavage by trypsin at the two alternative sites in the kinase domain were observed, indicating possible structural changes in receptors from pregnant rats that could be related to the impairment of the autoactivation cascade. Integrity of the alpha- and beta-subunits, as well as differential expression of the two receptor isotypes, were shown to be unaltered. We conclude that (1) the decreased autophosphorylation rate of the liver insulin receptor from pregnant rats is associated with the impairment of its autoactivation cascade, probably as a consequence of the basal Ser/Thr phosphorylation; and (2) the inhibition of the autoactivation cascade does not account for the overall inhibition of autophosphorylation observed in receptors from pregnant rats.

  18. Timing of emergence of the first primary tooth in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Pavičin, Ivana Savić; Dumančić, Jelena; Badel, Tomislav; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the timing of emergence of primary teeth are under strong genetic control, but there is also a significant contribution from external factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of preterm birth, birth weight and length, and feeding practices during the first 6 months of life on the timing of emergence of the first primary tooth. Data on pregnancy duration, birth weight and length, feeding practice, time of emergence and first emerged primary tooth were collected by electronic questionnaires. The study included 409 parents and 592 children of both genders. The sample was divided into two groups according to pregnancy duration (<37 weeks and ≥37 weeks), three groups according to feeding practice (exclusively breastfed, exclusively bottle fed, and a combination of breast feeding and bottle feeding), three groups by birth length (<50, 50-53, >53cm), and four groups by birth weight (<1500, 1500-2500, 2501-3500, >3500g). Data were analyzed considering chronological and postmenstrual age-which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of emergence of the first primary tooth. The mean time of first primary tooth emergence was 7.55±2.67 months when chronological age was considered. The first emerged tooth in most cases was a lower incisor (82.33%). There was a statistically significant difference in the timing of the first tooth emergence between preterm and full-term groups when chronological age was considered (p<0.005). However, no difference was found when age was adjusted. The age of emergence of the first tooth differed significantly when feeding, weight, and length groups (p<0. 05) were taken into account. In conclusion, the study indicates that shortened gestational age and very low birth weight are predictors for later ages of emergence of the first primary tooth.

  19. Neural conduction impairment in the auditory brainstem and the prevalence in term babies in neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze D

    2015-07-01

    To detect neural conduction abnormality in the auditory brainstem in term babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), determine prevalence of the abnormality, and assess if maximum length sequence (MLS) technique improves early detection of the abnormality. One hundred and six term babies were recruited, and studied by recording and analysing MLS brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). Interpeak intervals were analysed in detail, which were then compared with those in normal term babies. Wave V latency and I-V and III-V intervals in MLS BAER were increased in the NICU term babies at all click rates 91-910/s, particularly at 455 and 910/s (p<0.05-0.001). No major abnormalities were found in wave I and III latencies and I-III interval. The abnormal increase in I-V and III-V intervals were seen in significantly more cases at 455 and 910/s in MLS BAER than at 21/s in conventional BAER (X(2)=10.92-13.88, all p<0.01). As a whole, 38 (35.8%) of the NICU babies had abnormal III-V and/or I-V intervals in MLS BAER, which was significantly more than 13 (12.2%) in conventional BAER (X(2)=16.14, p<0.01). There is neural conduction impairment in the auditory brainstem in NICU term babies, which occurs in one-third of these babies. Term babies in NICU are at risk of neural conduction impairment in the auditory brainstem. High click rates in MLS BAER enhance early detection of the impairment. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonatal pain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  1. Neonatal pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback.

  2. Relationship of neonatal cerebral blood flow velocity asymmetry with early motor, cognitive and language development in term infants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Chin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Yi; Peng, Shinn-Forng; Hung, Han-Yang; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Wei J; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) asymmetry measures with developmental outcomes in term infants. Doppler CBFV parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and mean velocity [MV]) of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 52 healthy term infants were prospectively examined on postnatal days 1-5, and then their motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The left CBFV asymmetry measure (PSV or MV) was calculated by subtracting the right-side value from the left-side value. Left CBFV asymmetry measures were significantly positively related to motor scores at 6 (r = 0.3-0.32, p < 0.05) and 12 (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) months of age, but were not related to cognitive or language outcome. Thus, the leftward hemodynamic status of the middle cerebral arteries, as measured by cranial Doppler ultrasound in the neonatal period, predicts early motor outcome in term infants.

  3. Taste-Mediated Calming in Premature, Preterm, and Full-Term Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.

    1996-01-01

    Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…

  4. Taste-Mediated Calming in Premature, Preterm, and Full-Term Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.

    1996-01-01

    Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…

  5. Anatomical examination of the great inguinal blood vessels in preterm and term neonates.

    PubMed

    Eifinger, Frank; Lazaridis, Elpida Chochliourou; Roth, Bernhard; Koebke, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    It is generally accepted that vessel cannulation is technically more difficult and results in more complications in neonates. A sound anatomical knowledge of the inguinal area is therefore important in the selection of appropriately sized central line catheters as well as the approach to central vessel access. Eleven stillborns were investigated. Birth weight (mean: 2,414 g, 900-4,100 g) and gestational age (mean 34 1/7 weeks', 27 6/7-42 1/7) varied within normal range. The outer diameters of the femoral artery (FA), femoral vein (FV), and great saphenous vein (GSV) were determined. The distance between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle was set as 100% and the vessel intersection points were calculated as percentage values of the inguinal ligament length, starting at the iliac spine. The FA has a diameter of 1.9 ± 0.5 mm without correlation to gestational age. The FA crosses the inguinal ligament centrally. The FV has a diameter of 3.1 ± 1.0 mm and does have correlation to gestational age. The FV crosses the inguinal ligament at 63-64%. The GSV has a diameter of 1.4 ± 0.7 mm. Its point of intersection at the level of the inguinal ligament is 68-70%. We conclude that cannulation of the femoral artery or vein should not be performed too far (<1 cm) from the inguinal ligament. The course of the GSV is not suitable for catheter insertion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Systemic G-CSF treatment does not improve long-term outcomes after neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Schlager, G W; Griesmaier, E; Wegleiter, K; Neubauer, V; Urbanek, M; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U; Felderhoff-Mueser, U; Keller, M

    2011-07-01

    Hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is a major factor in the pathogenesis of developmental brain injury, leading to cognitive deficits and motor disabilities in preterm infants. The haematopoietic growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to exert a neuroprotective activity in rodent models of ischaemic stroke and is currently subject to phase I/II clinical trials in adults. Results of studies examining the effect of G-CSF in perinatal brain damage have been contradictory. We have previously shown that G-CSF increases NMDAR-mediated excitotoxic brain injury in the neonatal mouse brain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of G-CSF on long-term outcomes after HI. On postnatal day 5, mice pubs were first randomly assigned to a sham operation or HI and then divided into four treatment groups: i) G-CSF; ii) phosphate buffered saline (PBS) 1h after injury; iii) G-CSF and iv) PBS 60 h after injury. G-CSF (200 μg/kg BW) was administered five times within a 24h interval. Neuromotor and cognitive outcomes were assessed by open-field, novel object recognition tests and rotarod tests starting on P90, with subsequent histological analyses of brain injury. G-CSF treatment did not improve either neurobehavioural outcomes or brain injuries. Interestingly, the application of PBS and G-CSF in the acute phase increased brain damage in the hippocampus. We could not confirm the neuroprotective properties of G-CSF in neonatal HI brain damage. The exacerbation of injury by the administration of substances in the acute phase might indicate a heightened state of neurological sensitivity that is specific to mechanisms of secondary neurodegeneration and influenced by unidentified external factors possibly associated with the treatment protocol during the acute phase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Interaction between repair, disease, & inflammation."

  7. Considerations in the management of hypoxemic respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension in term and late preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Lakshminrusimha, S; Konduri, G G; Steinhorn, R H

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of neonatal pulmonary circulation and the underlying pathophysiology of hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF)/persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have resulted in more effective management strategies. Results from animal studies demonstrate that low alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) causes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas an increase in oxygen tension to normoxic levels (preductal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) between 60 and 80 mm Hg and/or preductal peripheral capillary oxygen saturation between 90% and 97%) results in effective pulmonary vasodilation. Hyperoxia (preductal PaO2 >80 mm Hg) does not cause further pulmonary vasodilation, and oxygen toxicity may occur when high concentrations of inspired oxygen are used. It is therefore important to avoid both hypoxemia and hyperoxemia in the management of PPHN. In addition to oxygen supplementation, therapeutic strategies used to manage HRF/PPHN in term and late preterm neonates may include lung recruitment with optimal mean airway pressure and surfactant, inhaled and intravenous vasodilators and 'inodilators'. Clinical evidence suggests that administration of surfactant or inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy at a lower acuity of illness can decrease the risk of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/death, progression of HRF and duration of hospital stay. Milrinone may be beneficial as an inodilator and may have specific benefits following prolonged exposure to iNO plus oxygen owing to inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE)-3A. Additionally, sildenafil, and, in selected cases, hydrocortisone may be appropriate options after hyperoxia and oxidative stress owing to their effects on PDE-5 activity and expression. Continued investigation into these and other interventions is needed to optimize treatment and improve outcomes.

  8. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  9. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Prest, E. I.; Weissbrodt, D. G.; Hammes, F.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  10. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  11. ERas is constitutively expressed in full term placenta of pregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Urraro, Chiara; Restucci, Brunella; Corrado, Federica; De Falco, Francesca; Roperto, Franco

    2017-11-01

    ERas is a new gene recently found in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and localized on the X chromosome. It plays a role in mouse ES cell survival and is constitutively active without any mutations. It was also found to be responsible for the maintenance of quiescence of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), liver-resident mesenchymal stem cells, the activation of which results in liver fibrosis. This gene was not present in human ES cells. ERas was found to be activated in a significant population of human gastric cancer, where ERAS may play a crucial role in gastric cancer cell survival and metastases to liver via down-regulation of E-cadherin. ERas gene has been found to be expressed both in ES cells and adult tissues of cynomolgus monkey. Cynomolgus ERAS did not promote cell proliferation or induce tumor formation. ERAS was also detected in normal and neoplastic urothelium of the urinary bladder in cattle, where bovine ERAS formed a constitutive complex with platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) resulting in the activation of AKT signaling. Here, molecular and morphological findings of ERAS in the full term placenta of pregnant cows have been investigated for the first time. ERAS was studied by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Alignment of the sequence detects a 100% identity with all transcript variant bovine ERas mRNAs, present in the GenBank database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Furthermore, ERAS was detected by Western blot and investigated by real time PCR that revealed an amount of ERAS more than ERAS found in normal bovine urothelium but less than ERAS present in the liver. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of ERAS protein both at the level of plasma membrane and in cytoplasm of epithelial cells lining caruncular crypts and in trophoblasts of villi. An evident ERAS immunoreactivity was also seen throughout the chorionic and uterine gland epithelium. Although this is not a functional study and further investigations

  12. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    PubMed

    Prest, E I; Weissbrodt, D G; Hammes, F; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1-3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson's correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  13. NAP prevents acute cerebral oxidative stress and protects against long-term brain injury and cognitive impairment in a model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Samuel; de Paula, Simone; de Oliveira, Iuri M; Trindade, Cristiano; Rosa, Renato M; Henriques, João A P; DaCosta, Jaderson C

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common cause of neonatal brain damage with lifelong morbidities in which current therapies are limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of neuropeptide NAP (NAPVSIPQ) on early cerebral oxidative stress, long-term neurological function and brain injury after neonatal HI. Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to an HI model by applying a unilateral carotid artery occlusion and systemic hypoxia. The animals were randomly assigned to groups receiving an intraperitoneal injection of NAP (3 μg/g) or vehicle immediately (0 h) and 24 h after HI. Brain DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined 24 h after the last NAP injection. Cognitive impairment was assessed on postnatal day 60 using the spatial version of the Morris water maze learning task. Next, the animals were euthanized to assess the cerebral hemispheric volume using the Cavalieri principle associated with the counting point method. We observed that NAP prevented the acute HI-induced DNA and lipid membrane damage and also recovered the GSH levels in the injured hemisphere of the HI rat pups. Further, NAP was able to prevent impairments in learning and long-term spatial memory and to significantly reduce brain damage up to 7 weeks following the neonatal HI injury. Our findings demonstrate that NAP confers potent neuroprotection from acute brain oxidative stress, long-term cognitive impairment and brain lesions induced by neonatal HI through, at least in part, the modulation of the glutathione-mediated antioxidant system.

  14. Assessment of long-term safety and efficacy of intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H; van Velthoven, Cindy T J; Youssef, Sameh A; de Bruin, Alain; van Bel, Frank; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2015-11-01

    For clinical translation, we assessed whether intranasal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induces neoplasia in the brain or periphery at 14 mo. Furthermore, the long-term effects of MSCs on behavior and lesion size were determined. HI was induced in 9-d-old mice. Pups received an intranasal administration of 0.5 × 10(6) MSCs or vehicle at 10 d post-HI. Full macroscopical and microscopical pathological analysis of 39 organs per mouse was performed. Sensorimotor behavior was assessed in the cylinder-rearing test at 10 d, 28 d, 6 mo, and 9 mo. Cognition was measured with the novel object recognition test at 3 and 14 mo post-HI. Lesion size was determined by analyzing mouse-anti-microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and mouse-anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) staining at 5 wk and 14 mo. At 14 mo post-HI, we did not observe any neoplasia in the nasal turbinates, brain, or other organs of HI mice treated with MSCs. Furthermore, our results show that MSC-induced improvement of sensorimotor and cognitive function is long lasting. In contrast, HI-vehicle mice showed severe behavioral impairment. Recovery of MAP2- and MBP-positive area lasted up to 14 mo following MSC treatment. Our results provide strong evidence of the long-term safety and positive effects of MSC treatment following neonatal HI in mice.

  15. Clinical prediction score for nasal CPAP failure in pre-term VLBW neonates with early onset respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Mrinal S; Sankar, Mari J; Mani, Kalaivani; Agarwal, Ramesh; Paul, Vinod K; Deorari, Ashok K

    2011-08-01

    We prospectively observed 62 pre-term very low birth weight neonates initiated on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for respiratory distress in the first 24 h of life to devise a clinical score for predicting its failure. CPAP was administered using short binasal prongs with conventional ventilators. On multivariate analysis, we found three variables-gestation <28 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 6.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-28.3], pre-term premature rupture of membranes [adjusted OR 5.3; CI 1.2-24.5], and product of CPAP pressure and fraction of inspired oxygen ≥1.28 at initiation to maintain saturation between 88% and 93% [adjusted OR 3.9; CI 1.0-15.5] to be independently predictive of failure. A prediction model was devised using weighted scores of these three variables and lack of exposure to antenatal steroids. The clinical scoring system thus developed had 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity for prediction of CPAP failure (area under curve: 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.94).

  16. Long-term Adverse Effects of Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Murine Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Banks, Elizabeth Padilla

    2007-01-01

    The developing fetus is uniquely sensitive to perturbation by chemicals with hormone-like activity. The adverse effects of prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure are a classic example. Since concern has been mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical with estrogenic activity used in the synthesis of plastics, we investigated its long-term effects in an experimental animal model that was previously shown useful in studying the adverse effects of developmental exposure to DES. Outbred female CD-1 mice were treated on days 1-5 with subcutaneous injections of BPA (10, 100 or 1000 μg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil or corn oil alone (Control). At 18 months, ovaries and reproductive tract tissues were examined. There was a statistically significant increase in cystic ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the BPA-100 group as compared to Controls. Progressive proliferative lesion (PPL) of the oviduct and cystic mesonephric (Wolffian) duct remnants were also seen in all of the BPA groups. More severe pathologies of the uterus following neonatal BPA treatment included adenomyosis, leiomyomas, atypical hyperplasia, and stromal polyps. These data suggest that BPA causes long-term adverse effects if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation. PMID:17804194

  17. Long-term effects of acute low-dose ionizing radiation on the neonatal mouse heart: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Mayur V; Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Azimzadeh, Omid; Kempf, Stefan J; Merl, Juliane; Hauck, Stefanie M; Eriksson, Per; Buratovic, Sonja; Atkinson, Michael J; Tapio, Soile

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiological studies establish that children and young adults are especially susceptible to radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD). The biological mechanisms behind the elevated CVD risk following exposure at young age remain unknown. The present study aims to elucidate the long-term effects of ionizing radiation by studying the murine cardiac proteome after exposure to low and moderate radiation doses. NMRI mice received single doses of total body (60)Co gamma-irradiation on postnatal day 10 and were sacrificed 7 months later. Changes in cardiac protein expression were quantified using isotope-coded protein label and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 32, 31, 66, and 34 significantly deregulated proteins after doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Gy, respectively. The four doses shared 9 deregulated proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that most of the deregulated proteins belonged to a limited set of biological categories, including metabolic processes, inflammatory response, and cytoskeletal structure. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha was predicted as a common upstream regulator of several deregulated proteins. This study indicates that both adaptive and maladaptive responses to the initial radiation damage persist well into adulthood. It will contribute to the understanding of the long-term consequences of radiation-induced injury and developmental alterations in the neonatal heart.

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid Reduces Cerebral Damage and Ameliorates Long-Term Cognitive Impairments Caused by Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, M; Urigüen, L; Martínez-Millán, L; Hilario, E; Álvarez, A

    2016-10-29

    As the interest in the neuroprotective possibilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for brain injury has grown in the recent years, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of this fatty acid in an experimental model of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. To this end, motor activity, aspects of learning, and memory function and anxiety, as well as corticofugal connections visualized by using tracer injections, were evaluated at adulthood. We found that in the hours immediately following the insult, DHA maintained mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and transmembrane potential, as well as the integrity of synaptic processes. Seven days later, morphological damage at the level of the middle hippocampus was reduced, since neurons and myelin were preserved and the astroglial reactive response and microglial activation were seen to be diminished. At adulthood, the behavioral tests revealed that treated animals presented better long-term working memory and less anxiety than non-treated hypoxic-ischemic animals, while no difference was found in the spontaneous locomotor activity. Interestingly, hypoxic-ischemic injury caused alterations in the anterograde corticofugal neuronal connections which were not so evident in rats treated with DHA. Thus, our results indicate that DHA treatment can lead to long-lasting neuroprotective effects in this experimental model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemic brain injury, not only by mitigating axonal changes but also by enhancing cognitive performance at adulthood.

  19. Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-04-07

    Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult.

  20. When is birthweight at term abnormally low? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association and predictive ability of current birthweight standards for neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Malin, G L; Morris, R K; Riley, R; Teune, M J; Khan, K S

    2014-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. A variety of definitions of low birthweight are used in clinical practice, with a lack of consensus regarding which definitions best predict adverse outcomes. To evaluate the relationship between birthweight standards and neonatal outcome in term-born infants (at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation). MEDLINE (1966-January 2011), EMBASE (1980-January 2011), and the Cochrane Library (2011:1) and MEDION were included in our search. Studies comprising live term-born infants (gestation ≥ 37 completed weeks), with weight or other anthropometric measurements recorded at birth along with neonatal outcomes. Data were extracted to populate 2 × 2 tables relating birthweight standard with outcome, and meta-analysis was performed where possible. Twenty-nine studies including 21 034 114 neonates were selected. Absolute birthweight was strongly associated with mortality, with birthweight < 1.5 kg giving the largest association (OR 48.6, 95% CI 28.62-82.53). When using centile charts, regardless of threshold, the summary odds ratios were significant but closer to 1 than when using absolute birthweight. For all tests, summary predictive ability comprised high specificity and positive likelihood ratio for neonatal death, but low sensitivity and a negative likelihood ratio close to 1. Absolute birthweight is a prognostic factor for neonatal mortality. The indirect evidence suggests that centile charts or other definitions of low birthweight are not as strongly associated with mortality as the absolute birthweight. Further research is required to improve predictive accuracy. © 2014 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. When is birthweight at term abnormally low? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association and predictive ability of current birthweight standards for neonatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Malin, GL; Morris, RK; Riley, R; Teune, MJ; Khan, KS

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction is a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. A variety of definitions of low birthweight are used in clinical practice, with a lack of consensus regarding which definitions best predict adverse outcomes. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between birthweight standards and neonatal outcome in term-born infants (at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation). Search strategy MEDLINE (1966–January 2011), EMBASE (1980–January 2011), and the Cochrane Library (2011:1) and MEDION were included in our search. Selection criteria Studies comprising live term-born infants (gestation ≥ 37 completed weeks), with weight or other anthropometric measurements recorded at birth along with neonatal outcomes. Data collection and analysis Data were extracted to populate 2 × 2 tables relating birthweight standard with outcome, and meta-analysis was performed where possible. Main results Twenty-nine studies including 21 034 114 neonates were selected. Absolute birthweight was strongly associated with mortality, with birthweight < 1.5 kg giving the largest association (OR 48.6, 95% CI 28.62–82.53). When using centile charts, regardless of threshold, the summary odds ratios were significant but closer to 1 than when using absolute birthweight. For all tests, summary predictive ability comprised high specificity and positive likelihood ratio for neonatal death, but low sensitivity and a negative likelihood ratio close to 1. Author's conclusions Absolute birthweight is a prognostic factor for neonatal mortality. The indirect evidence suggests that centile charts or other definitions of low birthweight are not as strongly associated with mortality as the absolute birthweight. Further research is required to improve predictive accuracy. PMID:24397731

  2. A comparison of dyadic interactions and coping with still-face in healthy pre-term and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Borgatti, Renato; Trojan, Sabina; Zanini, Rinaldo; Tronick, Ed

    2010-06-01

    Pre-term birth has a significant impact on infants' social and emotional competence, however, little is known about regulatory processes in pre-term mother-infant dyads during normal or stressful interactions. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the differences in infant and caregiver interactive behaviour and dyadic coordination of clinically healthy pre-term compared to full-term infant-mother dyads and to examine pre-term infants' capacity for coping with stress using the face-to-face still-face paradigm (FFSF). Fifty mother-infant dyads, including 25 pre-term infants and 25 full-term infants were videotaped during the FFSF. All infants were 6-9 months of age (corrected for gestational age in the pre-term group). Infant and maternal socio-emotional expressivity and self-regulatory behaviours were coded and measures of dyadic coordination (Matching, Reparation Rate, and Synchrony) were calculated. There were no significant differences in infant and caregiver socio-emotional behaviours between the two groups and both groups demonstrated the still-face (SF) effect and the reunion effect. There was a difference in self-regulatory behaviour. Pre-term infants were more likely than full-term infants to use distancing (e.g., by turning away, twisting, or arching) from their mothers during the FFSF. Additionally, during the Reunion episode of the FFSF pre-term infants showed more social monitoring compared to full-term infants. Regardless of the birth status, the dyads showed less coordination and a slower rate of reparation during the Reunion episode than during the Play episode. The higher proportion of distancing in the pre-term group and the increase in social monitoring suggest that even in normal interactions pre-term infants may experience a higher level of stress and have less capacity for self-regulation compared to the full-terms and that pre-term infants appear to use a compensatory strategy of increased social monitoring to cope with the

  3. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Becker, Genevieve E; Remmington, Tracey

    2014-11-25

    Widespread recommendations from health organisations encourage exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries and communities. This practice suggests perceived benefits of early supplementation or lack of awareness of the possible risks. To assess the benefits and harms of supplementation for full-term healthy breastfed infants and to examine the timing and type of supplementation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2014) and reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in infants under six months of age comparing exclusive breastfeeding versus breastfeeding with any additional food or fluids. Two review authors independently selected the trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included eight trials (984 randomised infants/mothers). Six trials (n = 613 analysed) provided data on outcomes of interest to this review. The variation in outcome measures and time points made it difficult to pool results from trials. Data could only be combined in a meta-analysis for one secondary outcome (weight change). The trials that provided outcome data compared exclusively breastfed infants with breastfed infants who were allowed additional nutrients in the form of artificial milk, glucose, water or solid foods.In relation to the majority of the older trials, the description of study methods was inadequate to assess the risk of bias. The two more recent trials, were found to be at low risk of bias for selection and detection bias. The overall quality of the evidence for the main comparison was low.In one trial (170 infants) comparing exclusively breastfeeding infants with infants who were allowed additional glucose water, there was a significant difference favouring exclusive breastfeeding up to and including week 20 (risk ratio (RR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 1

  4. Visual-motor function of very low birth weight and full-term children at 3 1/2 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Liebhardt, G; Sontheimer, D; Linderkamp, O

    2000-01-01

    Improvements in perinatal and neonatal management have not only led to a higher survival rate of very low birth weight infants (VLBW; < or = 1,500 g or < 32 weeks gestational age), but also to a better outcome of these children. However the percentage of VLBW children who need special education because of later school problems remains high even in children considered neurologically normal during infancy. We assessed 40 VLBW children and 83 healthy full-term children at age 3 to 4 years by means of a simple and short test for visual-motor deficits. The test included the copying and cutting-out of geometric shapes, the building of models, the recognition of colours and the observation of the concentration and cooperation during the test. All VLBW children had had a good perinatal outcome and had been considered neurologically normal at one year of age. Most VLBW children scored within 1 standard deviation (S.D.) of the test mean, but on average the VLBW children scored significantly lower than the full-term infants in the copying of figures, the cutting-out of geometric forms, the building of models and in the overall concentration and cooperation during the test. Children who attended a nursery school achieved significantly better test results. Girls tended to have better results, but this was not statistically significant. Social factors and age had a significantly greater impact on results than perinatal factors. In summary, VLBW children scored significantly less in almost every test item compared to their term peers. Our test battery could serve as a short introductory test to screen for deficits in visual-motor skills, especially in VLBW children.

  5. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants.A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases.A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171-11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365-27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors for stage II NEC progressing to

  6. Prenatal Choline Supplementation Ameliorates the Long-Term Neurobehavioral Effects of Fetal-Neonatal Iron Deficiency in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Bruce C.; Dimova, Jiva G.; Siddappa, Asha J. M.; Tran, Phu V.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational iron deficiency in humans and rodents produces long-term deficits in cognitive and socioemotional function and alters expression of plasticity genes in the hippocampus that persist despite iron treatment. Prenatal choline supplementation improves cognitive function in other rodent models of developmental insults. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether prenatal choline supplementation prevents the long-term effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on cognitive and social behaviors and hippocampal gene expression. Methods: Pregnant rat dams were administered an iron-deficient (2–6 g/kg iron) or iron-sufficient (IS) (200 g/kg iron) diet from embryonic day (E) 3 to postnatal day (P) 7 with or without choline supplementation (5 g/kg choline chloride, E11–18). Novel object recognition (NOR) in the test vs. acquisition phase, social approach (SA), and hippocampal mRNA expression were compared at P65 in 4 male adult offspring groups: formerly iron deficient (FID), FID with choline supplementation (FID-C), IS, and IS with choline supplementation. Results: Relative to the intact NOR in IS rats (acquisition: 47.9%, test: 60.2%, P < 0.005), FID adult rats had impaired recognition memory at the 6-h delay (acquisition: 51.4%, test: 55.1%, NS), accompanied by a 15% reduction in hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) (P < 0.05) and myelin basic protein (Mbp) (P < 0.05). Prenatal choline supplementation in FID rats restored NOR (acquisition: 48.8%, test: 64.4%, P < 0.0005) and increased hippocampal gene expression (FID-C vs. FID group: Bdnf, Mbp, P < 0.01). SA was also reduced in FID rats (P < 0.05 vs. IS rats) but was only marginally improved by prenatal choline supplementation. Conclusions: Deficits in recognition memory, but not social behavior, resulting from gestational iron deficiency are attenuated by prenatal choline supplementation, potentially through preservation of hippocampal Bdnf and Mbp

  7. Neonatal anesthetic neurotoxicity: Insight into the molecular mechanisms of long-term neurocognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deshui; Li, Linji; Yuan, Weiguo

    2017-03-01

    Mounting animal studies have demonstrated that almost all the clinically used general anesthetics could induce widespread neuroapoptosis in the immature brain. Alarmingly, some published findings have reported long-term neurocognitive deficits in response to early anesthesia exposure which deeply stresses the potential seriousness of developmental anesthetic neurotoxicity. However, the connection between anesthesia induced neuroapoptosis and subsequent neurocognitive deficits remains controversial. It should be noted that developmental anesthesia related neurotoxicity is not limited to neuroapoptosis. Early anesthesia exposure caused transient suppression of neurogenesis, ultrastructural abnormalities in synapse and alteration in the development of neuronal networks also could contribute to the long-term neurocognitive dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms of developmental anesthetic neurotoxicity, especially by which anesthesia impairs brain function months after exposure, may lead to development of rational preventive and therapeutic strategies. The focus of present review is on some of those potential mechanisms that have been proposed for anesthesia induced cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant Levels in Cord Blood of Term Neonates and Its Association with Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    MIRZARAHIMI, Mehrdad; AHADI, Adel; BOHLOOLI, Shahab; NAMAKIKHALAJAN, Esmaeil; BARAK, Manouchehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to excessive production of free radicals and antioxidants evolved mechanisms against oxidative stress, infants are very vulnerable. As there was a significant relation between antioxidant levels and birth weight, we aimed verify this relationship. Materials & Methods In this descriptive analytical study we evaluated the antioxidant status of 40 healthy term newborns (gestation age 38-42 wk) with weight >2500 g (AGA) and 40 healthy term newborns (gestation age 38-42 wk) with LBW babies (weight < 2500 g) (SGA) in Ardabil Buali Hospital, Ardabil, northwest Iran in 2014. About 15 Ml of cord blood was collected after the second stage of labor. The levels of vitamin A, E, and C, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), bilirubin and serum uric acid were measured by standard methods. Informed consent was obtained from newborn mothers and study protocol was approved by university Ethics Committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS.19. Results The mean levels of bilirubin, vitamin C, E, catalase and GPX in AGA group were significantly higher than SGA group but the mean of serum uric acid in SGA group was more than AGA. In addition, the mean of vitamin A was similar in two groups. There was a significant relation between antioxidant levels and birth weight in term newborns. Conclusion In line with other studies the amounts of antioxidant levels except serum uric acid in AGA group was significantly more than SGA group. PMID:27057185

  9. Multi-modal assessment of long-term erythropoietin treatment after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury in rat brain.

    PubMed

    van de Looij, Yohan; Chatagner, Alexandra; Quairiaux, Charles; Gruetter, Rolf; Hüppi, Petra S; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. In animal models of neonatal brain injury, exogenous EPO has been shown to reduce lesion size, improve structure and function. Experimental studies have focused on short course treatment after injury. Timing, dose and length of treatment in preterm brain damage remain to be defined. We have evaluated the effects of high dose and long-term EPO treatment in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in 3 days old (P3) rat pups using histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) as well as functional assessment with somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP). After HI, rat pups were assessed by MRI for initial damage and were randomized to receive EPO or vehicle. At the end of treatment period (P25) the size of resulting cortical damage and white matter (WM) microstructure integrity were assessed by MRI and cortical metabolism by MRS. Whisker elicited SEP were recorded to evaluate somatosensory function. Brains were collected for neuropathological assessment. The EPO treated animals did not show significant decrease of the HI induced cortical loss at P25. WM microstructure measured by diffusion tensor imaging was improved and SEP response in the injured cortex was recovered in the EPO treated animals compared to vehicle treated animals. In addition, the metabolic profile was less altered in the EPO group. Long-term treatment with high dose EPO after HI injury in the very immature rat brain induced recovery of WM microstructure and connectivity as well as somatosensory cortical function despite no effects on volume of cortical damage. This indicates that long-term high-dose EPO induces recovery of structural and functional connectivity despite persisting gross anatomical cortical alteration resulting from HI.

  10. Developmental transition of pectoralis muscle from atrophy in late-term duck embryos to hypertrophy in neonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tangara, Moussa; Xu, Jia; Peng, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Unlike the mammalian fetus, whose growth is supported by the sustained provision of maternal nutrients, poultry embryos undergo development in a relatively closed space, and the yolk sac serves as the sole nutrient supply for embryonic development throughout the whole incubation period. To increase our understanding of the muscle developmental patterns in the final stage of incubation and early days posthatching, we used late-term duck embryos and newly hatched ducklings as animal models. Pectoralis muscle samples were collected at 22 days (22E) of incubation, 25 days (25E) of incubation, hatching and day 7 posthatching. The pectoralis muscle mass, muscle fibre bundles and myofibre cross-sectional area showed a marked reduction from 22E to hatching, but they increased dramatically by day 7 posthatching. The mRNA expression of Atrogin-1, a key mediator of the ubiquitin system responsible for protein degradation, increased dramatically with the age of late-term duck embryos, but it decreased by day 7 and reached a very low level. The extent of mRNA expression of FoxO1, one of the transcription factors of the Atrogin-1 gene, exhibited a transient increase at 25E and then decreased from hatching to day 7. The phosphorylated p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)/S6K1 ratio exhibited a dramatic reduction from 22E to hatching (P < 0.05) and then increased by day 7. The results of the present study indicated that there was a developmental transition of pectoralis muscle from atrophy in late-term duck embryos to hypertrophy in neonates.

  11. Multi-Modal Assessment of Long-Term Erythropoietin Treatment after Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Quairiaux, Charles; Gruetter, Rolf; Hüppi, Petra S.; Sizonenko, Stéphane V.

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. In animal models of neonatal brain injury, exogenous EPO has been shown to reduce lesion size, improve structure and function. Experimental studies have focused on short course treatment after injury. Timing, dose and length of treatment in preterm brain damage remain to be defined. We have evaluated the effects of high dose and long-term EPO treatment in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in 3 days old (P3) rat pups using histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) as well as functional assessment with somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP). After HI, rat pups were assessed by MRI for initial damage and were randomized to receive EPO or vehicle. At the end of treatment period (P25) the size of resulting cortical damage and white matter (WM) microstructure integrity were assessed by MRI and cortical metabolism by MRS. Whisker elicited SEP were recorded to evaluate somatosensory function. Brains were collected for neuropathological assessment. The EPO treated animals did not show significant decrease of the HI induced cortical loss at P25. WM microstructure measured by diffusion tensor imaging was improved and SEP response in the injured cortex was recovered in the EPO treated animals compared to vehicle treated animals. In addition, the metabolic profile was less altered in the EPO group. Long-term treatment with high dose EPO after HI injury in the very immature rat brain induced recovery of WM microstructure and connectivity as well as somatosensory cortical function despite no effects on volume of cortical damage. This indicates that long-term high-dose EPO induces recovery of structural and functional connectivity despite persisting gross anatomical cortical alteration resulting from HI. PMID:24755676

  12. Early Onset of Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Disease after Full-Term Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Fatemeh; Zarchi, Mojgan Karimi

    2008-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a curable malignancy that occurred approximately 50% after term pregnancies, and prognosis in this form of gestational trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is Poor. The earliest onset choriocarcinoma after term pregnancy in one study was reported 3 weeks after delivery, but in current study, choriocarcinoma was diagnosed 2 weeks after delivery. 28 years-old women gravidity 2, parity 2 delivered a healthy infant at term. Frequent episodes of vaginal bleeding occurred after 10 days of delivery. On admission to hospital, she had lesions in the lungs. The pretreatment human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level was 84,000 mIU/ml and her FIGO risk factor score was 8 (high risk group). The EMA/CO regimen was administered as first line chemotherapy and the patient achieved complete remission after 7 courses. Although early onset postpartum hemorrhage is due to complication of delivery, but gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be occurred and assessment of human chorionic gonadotropin could be help to early diagnose of GTD. PMID:23675070

  13. [Neonatal intussusception].

    PubMed

    Cuervo, J L

    2015-01-13

    Intussusception in infants and young children is a relatively common entity with a well defined clinical picture and a favorable outcome in most cases.The neonatal intussusceptions is extremely rare and does not have a well-defined clinical picture since its clinical manifestations vary according to the gestational time it occurs, the response of the injured intestine and the gestational age of the child concerned. Two new cases of neonatal intussusceptions are presented and a review of the world literature is performed. Given the stage of intussusceptions (pre- or postnatal) occurs and gestational age of the affected infant (preterm or term), there are three entities with clinical characteristics, topography and evolution rather different: prenatal or intrauterine intussusception, postnatal intussusception in the preterm and postnatal intussusception in the term infant.

  14. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  15. Correlation among Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters of Brain in Preterm Neonates at Term Equivalent Age.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Umamaheswari; Amboiram, Prakash; Ninan, Binu; Chandrasekar, Anupama; Rangasami, Rajeswaran

    2017-01-01

    To assess the spectrum of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities among preterm babies at term equivalent age using objective scoring and to study the association among MRI variables. Ninety-four preterm babies born at ≤32 wk of gestation and / or birth weight ≤ 1500 g at term equivalent age who underwent cranial MRI between April 2011 and August 2012 and the MRI interpreted by experienced radiologists were studied. In 2014, the MRI was retrospectively re-interpreted by the same radiologists using an objective scoring system described by Kidokoro. Spectrum of MRI abnormalities, their association with perinatal variables and correlation among white matter (WM), grey matter and cerebellar scores were analyzed. MRI abnormalities observed were WM signal abnormality (24 %), lateral ventricular dilatation (16 %), WM cystic abnormality (13 %), deep grey matter signal abnormality (9 %), cerebellar volume reduction (9 %) and deep grey matter volume reduction (8 %). Sepsis was significantly associated with occurrence of WM and cerebellar abnormalities (p < 0.05). WM scores did not show significant correlation with cortical grey matter and deep grey matter scores while cerebellar scores showed a weak positive correlation with WM (r = 0.33), cortical grey matter (r = 0.27) and deep grey matter scores (r = 0.22). MRI abnormalities are common in preterm infants, with 60 % showing some abnormality at term equivalent age. Among perinatal characteristics, sepsis was identified as risk factor for WM and cerebellar injury. Grey matter abnormality occurs independent of WM abnormality. Cerebellar abnormalities appear to coexist with either WM or grey matter changes.

  16. 29 CFR 519.16 - Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary authorization. 519.16 Section 519.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT OF FULL-TIME STUDENTS AT SUBMINIMUM WAGES Institutions of Higher...

  17. 29 CFR 519.16 - Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary authorization. 519.16 Section 519.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT OF FULL-TIME STUDENTS AT SUBMINIMUM WAGES Institutions of Higher...

  18. 29 CFR 519.16 - Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary authorization. 519.16 Section 519.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT OF FULL-TIME STUDENTS AT SUBMINIMUM WAGES Institutions of Higher...

  19. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hazel A; Becker, Genevieve E

    2016-08-30

    Health organisations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries. Recently, research has suggested that introducing solid food at around four months of age while the baby continues to breastfeed is more protective against developing food allergies compared to exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Other studies have shown that the risks associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding are dependent on the type of additional food or fluid given. Given this background we felt it was important to update the previous version of this review to incorporate the latest findings from studies examining exclusive compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding. To assess the benefits and harms of additional food or fluid for full-term healthy breastfeeding infants and to examine the timing and type of additional food or fluid. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 March 2016) and reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in infants under six months of age comparing exclusive breastfeeding versus breastfeeding with any additional food or fluids. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two review authors assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 11 trials (2542 randomised infants/mothers). Nine trials (2226 analysed) provided data on outcomes of interest to this review. The variation in outcome measures and time points made it difficult to pool results from trials. Data could only be combined in a meta-analysis for one primary (breastfeeding duration) and one secondary (weight change) outcome. None of the trials reported on physiological jaundice. Infant mortality was only reported in one trial.For the majority of older trials, the description of study methods was inadequate to

  20. Long-Term Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…

  1. Full-Time Students? Term-Time Employment among Higher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    A good deal of research has focused on part-time employment among full-time students in higher education. However, little attention has been paid to the way in which these patterns may reflect societally specific processes rather than universal trends. This paper examines ways in which the higher education system itself can influence variation in…

  2. Full-Time Students? Term-Time Employment among Higher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    A good deal of research has focused on part-time employment among full-time students in higher education. However, little attention has been paid to the way in which these patterns may reflect societally specific processes rather than universal trends. This paper examines ways in which the higher education system itself can influence variation in…

  3. Full term delivery following cryopreservation of human embryos for 7. 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ozer, S; Vermesh, M

    1999-06-01

    Successful pregnancy in a 44 year old woman is described following the transfer of embryos which were cryopreserved for 7.5 years. The embryos were obtained during a gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) procedure in 1989. To our knowledge this is one of the longest published periods of cryopreservation of embryos which has resulted in a healthy baby. This report illustrates the previously presumed viability and normality of human embryos undergoing long-term cryopreservation. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance for advanced reproductive technique programmes and patients to review and update their embryo status.

  4. [Estimation of potentially available protein in infant starting formulas for term and preterm neonates].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, María J; Baroni, Andrea; Greco, Carola; Ronayne de Ferrer, Patricia A; Valencia, Mirta

    2002-03-01

    Sixteen milk-based starting formulas were analyzed with the aim of calculating their "true protein" content and assessing "in vitro" protein digestibility, in order to estimate levels of potentially available protein. Ten of them were designed for term infants: 7 had a casein:whey protein ratio 40:60 (adapted formulas) and 3 a ratio 80:20 (non-adapted); the 6 remaining formulas (all adapted) were for preterm infants. Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method. True protein was calculated as (total N--non-protein N) x 6.25. NPN was determined in the soluble fraction, after protein precipitation with 24% trichloroacetic acid and centrifugation. Digestibility was assessed by digestion with pepsin and pancreatin, and defined as the increase in non-protein N after enzymatic digestion. Values for true protein were from 1.3 to 2.3 g/dL and for non protein N, from 4.5 to 13.7%. Digestibility values varied between 59.0 and 92.5%; an inverse trend was observed between protein digestibility and protein content. Considering both the "true protein" levels and their digested proportions, all preterm and 60% of the term formulas would present potentially available amounts below those recommended. These observations constitute an alert, even though this method of assessing "in vitro" protein digestibility represents only an approximation to physiological processes; however, it could be useful in order to evaluate the intensity of the heat treatments to which these formulas were subjected. On the other hand, since NPN allows the estimation of the true protein provided by the formulas, either its percentage or the true protein content could be included on the label.

  5. Effects of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Pain in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Sun; Lee, Joohyun; Ahn, Hye Young

    2016-06-01

    Blood sampling for a newborn screening test is necessary for all neonates in South Korea. During the heel stick, an appropriate intervention should be implemented to reduce neonatal pain. This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of kangaroo care (KC), skin contact with the mother, on pain relief during the neonatal heel stick. Twenty-six neonates undergoing KC and 30 control neonates at a university hospital participated in this study. Physiological responses of neonates, including heart rate, oxygen saturation, duration of crying and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores were measured and compared before, during and 1 min and 2 min after heel sticks. The heart rate of KC neonates was lower at both 1 and 2 min after sampling than those of the control group. Also, PIPP scores of KC neonates were significantly lower both during and after sampling. The duration of crying for KC neonates was around 10% of the duration of the control group. In conclusion, KC might be an effective intervention in a full-term nursery for neonatal pain management.

  6. Understanding Long-Term Outcomes and Patient Expectations Among Adolescents with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Squitieri, Lee; Larson, Bradley P.; Chang, Kate W-C.; Yang, Lynda J-S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quality of life (QOL) among adolescents with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) is an important but unexplored topic. To date, few NBPP studies use comprehensive patient-reported outcome measures, and none specifically address the adolescent population. This study explores the long-term QOL and patient expectations among adolescents with NBPP using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methods Eighteen adolescents with residual NBPP impairment between the ages of 10 to 17 years along with their parents were included in our study. Adolescents and their parents underwent separate one hour tape-recorded semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded and transcribed. We also collected quantitative patient outcome measures to quantify the degree of each adolescent’s functional impairment and to increase our understanding of long-term quality of life and patient expectations. Results Thirteen females and five males with a mean age of 11.6 years participated in our study. Through qualitative analysis we identified the following factors contributing to overall QOL from the patient and parent perspective: social impact and peer acceptance, emotional adjustment, aesthetic concerns and body image, functional limitations, physical and occupational therapy, finances, pain, and family dynamics. Despite residual impairment, most adolescents and their parents reported a good overall QOL according to quantitative outcome measures, with adolescents reporting slightly higher QOL than their parents. However, both adolescents and their parents report relatively modest satisfaction with their current condition and express expectations for improvement in multiple areas. Discussion Understanding patient expectations and QOL in NBPP adolescents are essential for medical decision-making and advancing care. Our study results showed that functional and aesthetic factors were responsible for the majority of observed differences in QOL among NBPP adolescents. We also

  7. A study of primary dental enamel from preterm and full-term children using light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Seow, W Kim; Young, W G; Tsang, Annetta K L; Daley, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the enamel thickness of the maxillary primary incisors of preterm children with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) compared to full-term children with normal birth weight. A total of 90 exfoliated maxillary primary central incisors were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three serial buccolingual ground sections of each tooth were examined under light microscopy, and maximum dimensions of the prenatally and postnatally formed enamel were measured. The enamel of preterm teeth was approximately 20% thinner than that for full-term teeth. Most of the reduction was observed in the prenatally formed enamel. This was 5 to 13 times thinner than that for full-term children (P<.001). The "catch-up" thickness of postnatally formed enamel did not compensate fully for the decrease in prenatal enamel (P<.001). Although none of the teeth used in this study had enamel defects visible to the naked eye, 52% of preterm teeth showed enamel hypoplasia under SEM, compared with only 16% found on full-term teeth (P<.001). These defects were present as pits or irregular, shallow areas of missing enamel. Preterm primary dental enamel is abnormal in surface quality, and is significantly thinner compared to full-term enamel. The thinner enamel is due mainly to reduced prenatal growth and results in smaller dimensions of the primary dentition.

  8. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in serum from cord blood and the blood of healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days.

    PubMed

    Jedeikin, R; Makela, S K; Shennan, A T; Rowe, R D; Ellis, G

    1982-02-01

    Isoenzymes of creatine kinase (ATP:creatine phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.3.2; CK) were measured by electrophoresis in serum from cord blood and skin-puncture blood taken from 45 healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days. Mean total CK activities (in U/L at 30 degrees C) were 185 in cord samples, 536 in samples taken between 5--8 h postnatally, 494 between 24--33 h, and 288 in the 72-100 h samples. Values for all three isoenzymes increased to a peak over this period, with the highest values generally being found in the samples taken 5--33 h after birth; the subsequent decline was most rapid for CK-BB. Serum CK isoenzymes in cord samples and those taken at 72--100 h in the 11 babies delivered by cesarian section did not differ significantly from those of babies delivered vaginally. However the postnatal increases in total CK, CK-MM, and CK-MB (but not in CK-BB) were significantly greater in those patients born by vaginal delivery. The reasons for the increases in CK isoenzymes after birth are not clear, but our results and reported studies on the ontogeny of CK suggest that CK-MB cannot be regarded as a "cardiac-specific" isoenzyme in the neonatal period.

  9. Effect of combining anesthetics in neonates on long-term cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bradley H.; Hazarika, Obhi D.; Quitoriano, Gabe R.; Lin, Nan; Leong, Jason; Brosnan, Heather; Chan, John T.; May, Laura D. V.; Yu, Damon; Alkhamisi, Ashkan; Stratmann, Greg; Sall, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Background With growing evidence that anesthesia exposure in infancy affects cognitive development, it is important to understand how distinct anesthetic agents and combinations can alter long-term memory. Investigations of neuronal death suggest that combining anesthetic agents increases the extent of neuronal injury. However, it is unclear how the use of simultaneously combined anesthetics affects cognitive outcome relative to the use of a single agent. Methods Postnatal day (P)7 male rats were administered either sevoflurane as a single agent or the combined delivery of sevoflurane with nitrous oxide at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Behavior was assessed in adulthood using the forced alternating T-maze, social recognition, and context-specific object recognition tasks. Results Animals exposed to either anesthetic were unimpaired in the forced alternating T-maze test and had intact social recognition. Subjects treated with the combined anesthetic displayed a deficit, however, in the object recognition task, while those treated with sevoflurane alone were unaffected. Conclusion A combined sevoflurane and nitrous oxide anesthetic led to a distinct behavioral outcome compared with sevoflurane alone, suggesting that the simultaneous use of multiple agents may uniquely influence early neural and cognitive development and potentially impacts associative memory. PMID:25003987

  10. Different characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different layers of full term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chul-Won; Kim, Jin A; Heo, Jin-Chul; Han, Woo-Jung; Oh, Soo-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background The placenta is a very attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine due to readily availability, non-invasive acquisition, and avoidance of ethical issues. Isolating MSCs from parts of placenta tissue has obtained growing interest because they are assumed to exhibit different proliferation and differentiation potentials due to complex structures and functions of the placenta. The objective of this study was to isolate MSCs from different parts of the placenta and compare their characteristics. Methods Placenta was divided into amniotic epithelium (AE), amniotic membrane (AM), chorionic membrane (CM), chorionic villi (CV), chorionic trophoblast without villi (CT-V), decidua (DC), and whole placenta (Pla). Cells isolated from each layer were subjected to analyses for their morphology, proliferation ability, surface markers, and multi-lineage differentiation potential. MSCs were isolated from all placental layers and their characteristics were compared. Findings Surface antigen phenotype, morphology, and differentiation characteristics of cells from all layers indicated that they exhibited properties of MSCs. MSCs from different placental layers had different proliferation rates and differentiation potentials. MSCs from CM, CT-V, CV, and DC had better population doubling time and multi-lineage differentiation potentials compared to those from other layers. Conclusions Our results indicate that MSCs with different characteristics can be isolated from all layers of term placenta. These finding suggest that it is necessary to appropriately select MSCs from different placental layers for successful and consistent outcomes in clinical applications. PMID:28225815

  11. Are late preterm infants as susceptible to RSV infection as full term infants?

    PubMed

    Resch, Bernhard; Paes, Bosco

    2011-03-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk of being rehospitalised during the first few months of life with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) that usually manifests as apnea and hypoxemia. This occurs more commonly in preterm infants < 33 weeks gestational age (GA), but recent studies demonstrate that late preterm infants (those born between 34 weeks and 0 days to 36 weeks and 6 days GA) are equally susceptible to RSV LRTI as those with lower GA. Factors associated with severe LRTI include immaturity of both the humoral and cell-mediated immune system and interrupted lung development prior to 36 weeks GA which results in lower functional residual capacity, reduced compliance, diminished forced expiratory air flow and impaired gas exchange. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased in late preterms compared to their term counterparts. Prophylaxis with palivizumab against RSV infection seems to be crucial. Due to the large number of infants in this age group, additional risk factors have been identified in order to tailor palivizumab prophylaxis effectively to those at highest risk for severe RSV LRTI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The postnatal decline of hemoglobin F synthesis in normal full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Bard, H

    1975-02-01

    Studies were carried out during the 1st yr of life in normal infants born at term to determine the proportions of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) and adult hemoglobin (Hb A) being synthesized, in order to describe the complete switchover from Hb F to Hb A synthesis during postnatal life. 53 blood samples from 37 infants were incubated in an amino acid mixture containing [14C]leucine and chromatographed on DEAE-Sephadex for separation of Hb F and Hb A fractions. The completeness of the CEAE-Sephadex separation of Hb A and Hb F at an age when the major portion of synthesis was of the adult type of hemoglobin was confirmed by globin chain chromatography with the use of carboxylmethyl cellulose. There was a rapid decline in Hb F synthesis postnatally until 16-20 wk of age when levels of 3.2% plus or minus SD 2.1% were reached. By combining this data with that previously published, the complete switchover from Hb F to Hb A synthesis can be described in humans in relation to postconceptional age. It follows a sigmoid curve; the steep portion, which lies between the 30th and 52nd postconceptional week, is preceded and follwoed by plateaus averaging 95% and 7% Hb F synthesis, respectively.

  13. Mid-Term Outcomes of a Modification of Extended Aortic Arch Anastomosis with Pulmonary Artery Banding in Single Ventricle Neonates with Hypoplastic Transverse Arch

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Bui Quoc; Furugaki, Tatsuya; Osaka, Motoo; Watanabe, Yutaka; Kanemoto, Shinya; Suetsugu, Fuminaga

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is less certainty regarding the best strategy for treating neonates with functional single ventricle (SV) and hypoplastic aortic arch. We have applied a modified extended aortic arch anastomosis (EAAA) and main pulmonary artery banding (PAB) as an initial palliation in neonates with transverse arch hypoplasia and assessed the mid-term outcomes. Methods: In total, 10 neonates with functional SV and extensive hypoplasia or interruption of the arch underwent a modified EAAA (extended arch anastomosis with a subclavian flap) concomitant with main PAB through a thoracotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. Patient age and weight ranged from 4 to 14 days and 2.3 to 3.8 kg, respectively. Results: There were no hospital deaths although there were two late deaths. Gradients across the arch were 0 to 7 mmHg at postoperative day 1 and no arch reoperations were required. Two patients required balloon aortoplasty. Nine underwent bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and two of them needed concomitant Damus–Kaye–Stansel (DKS) anastomosis. Six have completed Fontan. Conclusion: Our modification of EAAA with main PAB for SV neonates may benefit a certain population with transverse arch hypoplasia as an option to be considered. Patients with the potential for developing outflow obstruction may be best managed with an initial DKS-type palliation. PMID:27725352

  14. Long-term consequences of the early treatment of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening in Nanjing, China: a 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing; Chen, Yu-Lin; Yu, Zhang-Bin; Han, Shu-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Yue; Qiu, Yu-Fang; Sha, Li; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in neonates in Nanjing, China and the long-term consequences of early treatment. A total of 442 454 neonates were screened for CH and 183 neonates were confirmed, with a prevalence of 1 in 2418. Of these, 163 neonates completed the follow-up process and 163 healthy children were recruited as the control group. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of the children with CH from 0.5 to 6 years were not significantly different from the control group (p > 0.05). The children with CH had a significantly increased risk for being overweight or obese between 0.5 and 6 years (p < 0.05). The children with CH showed a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) than the control group in all four areas of the Gesell test (p < 0.05). The results suggest that children with CH that has been identified by newborn screening and early treatment have normal growth and neuromotor development.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Irina P.; Mikhailenko, Viktor A.; Vershinina, Elena A.; Aloisi, Anna M.; Barr, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1–2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period. PMID:28184190

  16. How long should umbilical venous catheters remain in place in neonates who require long-term (≥5-7 days) central venous access?

    PubMed

    Keir, Amy; Giesinger, Regan; Dunn, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In this evidenced-based review, we examine the current available literature to help answer the question 'In neonates requiring long-term central access [patient], does removal of the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) on days 5-7 and replacement with a peripherally inserted central catheter line [intervention] compared with leaving the UVC in situ [comparison] reduce rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections [outcome]?'

  17. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Aloisi, Anna M; Barr, Gordon A

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1-2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period.

  18. RECURRENT NEONATAL SEIZURES RESULT IN LONG-TERM INCREASE OF NEURONAL NETWORK EXCITABILITY IN THE RAT NEOCORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Isaeva, Elena; Isaev, Dmytro; Savrasova, Alina; Khazipov, Rustem; Holmes, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are associated with a high likelihood of adverse neurological outcomes, including mental retardation, behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Early seizures typically involve the neocortex, and post-neonatal epilepsy is often of neocortical origin. However, our understanding of the consequences of neonatal seizures for neocortical function is limited. In the present study, we show that neonatal seizures induced by flurothyl result in markedly enhanced susceptibility of the neocortex to seizure-like activity. This change occurs in young rats studied weeks after the last induced seizure and in adult rats studied months after the initial seizures. Neonatal seizures resulted in reductions in the amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, and significant increases in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in pyramidal cells of layer 2/3 of the somatosensory cortex. The selective N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphon-ovalerate eliminated the differences in amplitude and frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs in the control and flurothyl groups, suggesting that NMDA receptors contribute significantly to the enhanced excitability seen in slices from rats that experienced recurrent neonatal seizures. Taken together, our results suggest that recurrent seizures in infancy result in a persistent enhancement of neocortical excitability. PMID:20384780

  19. [Ultrasonic study of deep-vein diameter and blood flow spectrum changes in full-term pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-wen; Chen, Cui-hua; Wang, Li-ping; Sun, Gui-qin; Su, Gui-dong; Song, Tian-rong; Li, Jing; Li, Ying-jia; Wang, Chen; Zhong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    To explore the changes in lower limb deep vein diameters, blood flow velocity and blood biochemistry in full-term pregnant women for early diagnosis and treatment of prothrombotic state. One hundred and twenty-eight full-term pregnant women at high risk of thrombosis (Group A), 61 healthy full-term pregnant women (Group B), and 42 healthy non-pregnant women (Group C) underwent high-resolution color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) for examining the deep veins of the lower limbs. The hematological indexes such as D-D, PLT, HGB, HCT, TT, APTT, PT, and FbgC were also observed in these 3 groups. Compared to Group B, the women in group A showed significantly increased diameters of the common femoral veins (CFV) and left superficial femoral vein (SFV), HCT and DD, but with significantly decreased peak blood flow in the bilateral popliteal veins (POPV) (P<0.01) and increased left POPV diameter (P=0.034). Compared to those in group C, the diameters of the bilateral CFVs, SFVs, POPV, and posterior tibial veins (PTVs) were significantly increased, but the peak blood flow in the bilateral CFVs and POPVs were significantly reduced in groups A and B; the PLT, HGB, HCT, DD, TT, APTT, PT, and FbgC also showed significant changes in groups A and B (P<0.01). The full-term pregnant women are at higher risk of prothrombotic state than non-pregnant women, and the full-term pregnant women with the high risk factors for thrombosis are more likely to have prothrombotic state than healthy full-term pregnant women. CDU examination of the lower limb deep veins can be of value in the diagnosis of prothrombotic state.

  20. Exposure Assessment for Carbon Dioxide Gas: Full Shift Average and Short-Term Measurement Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hill, R Jedd; Smith, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up a relatively small percentage of atmospheric gases, yet when used or produced in large quantities as a gas, a liquid, or a solid (dry ice), substantial airborne exposures may occur. Exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations may elicit toxicity, even with oxygen concentrations that are not considered dangerous per se. Full-shift sampling approaches to measure 8-hr time weighted average (TWA) CO2 exposures are used in many facilities where CO2 gas may be present. The need to assess rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels that may approach immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) conditions should also be a concern, and several methods for doing so using fast responding measurement tools are discussed in this paper. Colorimetric detector tubes, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector, and a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy instrument were evaluated in a laboratory environment using a flow-through standard generation system and were found to provide suitable accuracy and precision for assessing rapid fluctuations in CO2 concentration, with a possible effect related to humidity noted only for the detector tubes. These tools were used in the field to select locations and times for grab sampling and personal full-shift sampling, which provided laboratory analysis data to confirm IDLH conditions and 8-hr TWA exposure information. Fluctuating CO2 exposures are exemplified through field work results from several workplaces. In a brewery, brief CO2 exposures above the IDLH value occurred when large volumes of CO2-containing liquid were released for disposal, but 8-hr TWA exposures were not found to exceed the permissible level. In a frozen food production facility nearly constant exposure to CO2 concentrations above the permissible 8-hr TWA value were seen, as well as brief exposures above the IDLH concentration which were associated with specific tasks where liquid CO2 was used. In a poultry processing facility the use of dry

  1. Internal and external contributors to maternal mental health and marital adaptation one year after birth: comparisons of mothers of pre-term and full-term twins.

    PubMed

    Findler, Liora; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Jacob, Kuint

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of infants' temperament, mother's attachment style, and perceived grandmother's support following delivery, to the psychological mental health and marital adaptation of first time and non-first time Israeli mothers of pre-term (n = 70) and full-term (n = 78) twins, a year later. We collected data for the current study over 2 years (2003-2004). The findings suggested that the extent of mothers' personal and familial stress and their internal resource of attachment style played a crucial role in their mental health and marital adaptation. The external resource of grandmother's support contributed directly to the mothers' marital adaptation, whereas it contributed to their mental health only when infant's temperament was perceived to be difficult. Interes