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Sample records for full text pdf

  1. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc

    2012-05-28

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for

  2. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the ‘Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction’ (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Results Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss

  3. PDF text classification to leverage information extraction from publication reports.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-06-01

    Data extraction from original study reports is a time-consuming, error-prone process in systematic review development. Information extraction (IE) systems have the potential to assist humans in the extraction task, however majority of IE systems were not designed to work on Portable Document Format (PDF) document, an important and common extraction source for systematic review. In a PDF document, narrative content is often mixed with publication metadata or semi-structured text, which add challenges to the underlining natural language processing algorithm. Our goal is to categorize PDF texts for strategic use by IE systems. We used an open-source tool to extract raw texts from a PDF document and developed a text classification algorithm that follows a multi-pass sieve framework to automatically classify PDF text snippets (for brevity, texts) into TITLE, ABSTRACT, BODYTEXT, SEMISTRUCTURE, and METADATA categories. To validate the algorithm, we developed a gold standard of PDF reports that were included in the development of previous systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration. In a two-step procedure, we evaluated (1) classification performance, and compared it with machine learning classifier, and (2) the effects of the algorithm on an IE system that extracts clinical outcome mentions. The multi-pass sieve algorithm achieved an accuracy of 92.6%, which was 9.7% (p<0.001) higher than the best performing machine learning classifier that used a logistic regression algorithm. F-measure improvements were observed in the classification of TITLE (+15.6%), ABSTRACT (+54.2%), BODYTEXT (+3.7%), SEMISTRUCTURE (+34%), and MEDADATA (+14.2%). In addition, use of the algorithm to filter semi-structured texts and publication metadata improved performance of the outcome extraction system (F-measure +4.1%, p=0.002). It also reduced of number of sentences to be processed by 44.9% (p<0.001), which corresponds to a processing time reduction of 50% (p=0.005). The rule-based multi

  4. The impact of the photon PDF and electroweak corrections on [Formula: see text] distributions.

    PubMed

    Pagani, D; Tsinikos, I; Zaro, M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the impact of EW corrections on differential distributions in top-quark pair production at the LHC and future hadron colliders, focussing on the effects of initial-state photons. Performing a calculation at Next-to-Leading Order QCD+EW accuracy, we investigate in detail the impact of photon-initiated channels on central values as well as PDF and scale uncertainties, both at order [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. We present predictions at 13 and 100 TeV, and provide results for the 8 TeV differential measurements performed by ATLAS and CMS. A thorough comparison of results obtained with the NNPDF2.3QED and CT14QED PDF sets is performed. While contributions due to the photon PDF are negligible with CT14QED, this is not the case for NNPDF2.3QED, where such contributions are sizeable and show large PDF uncertainties. On the one hand, we show that differential observables in top-pair production, in particular top-quark and [Formula: see text] rapidities, can be used to improve the determination of the photon PDF within the NNPDF approach. On the other hand, with current PDF sets, we demonstrate the necessity of including EW corrections and photon-induced contributions for a correct determination of both the central value and the uncertainties of theoretical predictions.

  5. Full-Text Databases in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievert, MaryEllen C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes types of full-text databases in medicine; discusses features for searching full-text journal databases available through online vendors; reviews research on full-text databases in medicine; and describes the MEDLINE/Full-Text Research Project at the University of Missouri (Columbia) which investigated precision, recall, and relevancy.…

  6. Desktop Access to Full-Text NACA and NASA Reports: Systems Developed by NASA Langley Technical Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Adams, David L.; Trinidad, P. Paul

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Technical Library has been involved in developing systems for full-text information delivery of NACA/NASA technical reports since 1991. This paper will describe the two prototypes it has developed and the present production system configuration. The prototype systems are a NACA CD-ROM of thirty-three classic paper NACA reports and a network-based Full-text Electronic Reports Documents System (FEDS) constructed from both paper and electronic formats of NACA and NASA reports. The production system is the DigiDoc System (DIGItal Documents) presently being developed based on the experiences gained from the two prototypes. DigiDoc configuration integrates the on-line catalog database World Wide Web interface and PDF technology to provide a powerful and flexible search and retrieval system. It describes in detail significant achievements and lessons learned in terms of data conversion, storage technologies, full-text searching and retrieval, and image databases. The conclusions from the experiences of digitization and full- text access and future plans for DigiDoc system implementation are discussed.

  7. Where Full-Text Is Viable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Defines two types of online databases: source, referring to those intended to be complete in themselves, whether full-text or abstracts; and bibliographic, meaning those that are not complete. Predictions are made about the future growth rate of these two types of databases, as well as full-text versus abstract databases. (EM)

  8. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  9. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  10. Data Compression in Full-Text Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Timothy C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes compression methods for components of full-text systems such as text databases on CD-ROM. Topics discussed include storage media; structures for full-text retrieval, including indexes, inverted files, and bitmaps; compression tools; memory requirements during retrieval; and ranking and information retrieval. (Contains 53 references.)…

  11. Full-text, Downloading, & Other Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Issues having a possible impact on online search services in libraries are discussed including full text databases, front-end processors which translate user's input into the command language of an appropriate system, downloading to create personal files from commercial databases, and pricing. (EJS)

  12. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs) within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations. PMID:19192280

  13. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  14. Development of a full-text information retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    Keizo Oyama; AKira Miyazawa, Atsuhiro Takasu; Kouji Shibano

    The authors have executed a project to realize a full-text information retrieval system. The system is designed to deal with a document database comprising full text of a large number of documents such as academic papers. The document structures are utilized in searching and extracting appropriate information. The concept of structure handling and the configuration of the system are described in this paper.

  15. An Expert System for Searching in Full-Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    2 An Expert System for Searching in Full-Text 00~ TR89-043 -December, 1989 cc D IF L, ~r." T M~ EA 13~ 1991ON- The University of North Carolina at...Full-Text by Susan Evalyn Gauch A dissertation submitted to the faculty of The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of...MICROARRAS, the retrieval software. MICROARRAS developed at the University of North Carolina under the direction of John B. Smith and Stephen Weiss [Smith et

  16. Challenges for automatically extracting molecular interactions from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Tara; Curran, James R

    2009-09-24

    The increasing availability of full-text biomedical articles will allow more biomedical knowledge to be extracted automatically with greater reliability. However, most Information Retrieval (IR) and Extraction (IE) tools currently process only abstracts. The lack of corpora has limited the development of tools that are capable of exploiting the knowledge in full-text articles. As a result, there has been little investigation into the advantages of full-text document structure, and the challenges developers will face in processing full-text articles. We manually annotated passages from full-text articles that describe interactions summarised in a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our corpus tracks the process of identifying facts to form the MIM summaries and captures any factual dependencies that must be resolved to extract the fact completely. For example, a fact in the results section may require a synonym defined in the introduction. The passages are also annotated with negated and coreference expressions that must be resolved.We describe the guidelines for identifying relevant passages and possible dependencies. The corpus includes 2162 sentences from 78 full-text articles. Our corpus analysis demonstrates the necessity of full-text processing; identifies the article sections where interactions are most commonly stated; and quantifies the proportion of interaction statements requiring coherent dependencies. Further, it allows us to report on the relative importance of identifying synonyms and resolving negated expressions. We also experiment with an oracle sentence retrieval system using the corpus as a gold-standard evaluation set. We introduce the MIM corpus, a unique resource that maps interaction facts in a MIM to annotated passages within full-text articles. It is an invaluable case study providing guidance to developers of biomedical IR and IE systems, and can be used as a gold-standard evaluation set for full-text IR tasks.

  17. Full Text Psychology Journals Available from Popular Library Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joswick, Kathleen E.

    2006-01-01

    The author identified 433 core journals in psychology and investigated their full text availability in popular databases. While 62 percent of the studied journals were available in at least one database, access from individual databases ranged from 1.4 percent to 38.1 percent of the titles. The full text of influential psychology journals is not…

  18. Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

  19. Graph-based layout analysis for PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Li, Yun; Shi, Cao

    2013-03-01

    To increase the flexibility and enrich the reading experience of e-book on small portable screens, a graph based method is proposed to perform layout analysis on Portable Document Format (PDF) documents. Digital born document has its inherent advantages like representing texts and fractional images in explicit form, which can be straightforwardly exploited. To integrate traditional image-based document analysis and the inherent meta-data provided by PDF parser, the page primitives including text, image and path elements are processed to produce text and non text layer for respective analysis. Graph-based method is developed in superpixel representation level, and page text elements corresponding to vertices are used to construct an undirected graph. Euclidean distance between adjacent vertices is applied in a top-down manner to cut the graph tree formed by Kruskal's algorithm. And edge orientation is then used in a bottom-up manner to extract text lines from each sub tree. On the other hand, non-textual objects are segmented by connected component analysis. For each segmented text and non-text composite, a 13-dimensional feature vector is extracted for labelling purpose. The experimental results on selected pages from PDF books are presented.

  20. Application and Effects of Linguistic Functions on Information Retrieval in a German Language Full-Text Database: Comparison between Retrieval in Abstract and Full Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauchert, Wolfgang; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the PADOK-II project in Germany, which was designed to give information on the effects of linguistic algorithms on retrieval in a full-text database, the German Patent Information System (GPI). Relevance assessments are discussed, statistical evaluations are described, and searches are compared for the full-text section versus the…

  1. Database citation in full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services.

  2. Database Citation in Full Text Biomedical Articles

    PubMed Central

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services. PMID:23734176

  3. Searching for Bill and Jane: Electronic Full-Text Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1998-01-01

    Examines electronic full-text literature available on the World Wide Web and on CD-ROM. Discusses authors and genres, electronic texts, and fees. Highlights Shakespeare, Jane Austen, and nature writing. Provides a bibliography of Web guides, specialized Shakespeare pages, and pages dealing with the Shakespeare authorship debate and secondary…

  4. Extracting Characteristics of the Study Subjects from Full-Text Articles

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of the subjects of biomedical research are important in determining if a publication describing the research is relevant to a search. To facilitate finding relevant publications, MEDLINE citations provide Medical Subject Headings that describe the subjects’ characteristics, such as their species, gender, and age. We seek to improve the recommendation of these headings by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) that supports manual indexing of MEDLINE. To that end, we explore the potential of the full text of the publications. Using simple recall-oriented rule-based methods we determined that adding sentences extracted from the methods sections and captions to the abstracts prior to MTI processing significantly improved recall and F1 score with only a slight drop in precision. Improvements were also achieved in directly assigning several headings extracted from the full text. These results indicate the need for further development of automated methods capable of leveraging the full text for indexing. PMID:26958181

  5. “Free Full Text Articles”: Where to Search for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashish; Singh, Manish; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Deepti; Singh, Pratibha; Sharma, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    References form the backbone of any medical literature. Presently, because of high inflation, it is very difficult for any library/organization/college to purchase all journals. The condition is even worse for an individual person, such as private practitioners. The solution lies in the free availability of full-text articles. Here, the authors share their experiences about the accessibility of free full-text articles. PMID:22223965

  6. Full-text publication of abstract-presented work in sport and exercise psychology

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Meetings promote information sharing, but do not enable full dissemination of details. A systematic search was conducted for abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2011 Association of Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conferences to determine the full-text dissemination rate of work presented in abstract form and investigate factors influencing this rate. Methods Systematic searches were sequentially conducted to determine whether the abstract-presented work had been published in full-text format in the 5 years following presentation. If a potential full-text publication was identified, information from the conference abstract (eg, results, number of participants in the sample(s), measurement tools used and so on) was compared with the full text to ensure the two entities represented the same body of work. Abstract factors of interest were assessed using logistic regression. Results Ninety-four out of 423 presented abstracts (22.2%) were published in full text. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract was from an international institution, presented in certain conference sections or presented as a lecture. Conclusion Those attending professional conferences should be cautious when translating data presented at conferences into their applied work because of the low rate of peer-reviewed and full-text publication of the information. PMID:29629187

  7. Full Text and Figure Display Improves Bioscience Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A.; Hearst, Marti A.

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine [1], a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  8. Full-Text Linking: Affiliated versus Nonaffiliated Access in a Free Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.; Andreadis, Debra K.; Kirk, Rachel A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comparison of access to full-text articles from a free bibliographic database (PubSCIENCE) for affiliated and unaffiliated users. Found that affiliated users had access to more full-text articles than unaffiliated users had, and that both types of users could increase their level of access through additional searching and greater…

  9. FTP: Full-Text Publishing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jul, Erik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of file transfer protocol (FTP) on the INTERNET computer network and considers its use as an electronic publishing system. The differing electronic formats of text files are discussed; the preparation and access of documents are described; and problems are addressed, including a lack of consistency. (LRW)

  10. The Flip Sides of Full-Text: Superindex and the Harvard Business Review/Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, Eva M.

    1984-01-01

    This article illustrates similarities between two different types of full-text databases--Superindex, Harvard Business Review/Online--and uses them as arena to demonstrate search and display applications of full-text. The selection of logical operators, full-text search strategies, and keywords and Bibliographic Retrieval Service's Occurrence…

  11. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik; Tønsberg, Christian; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren

    2018-02-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15 million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823-2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein-protein, disease-gene, and protein subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full-text articles consistently outperforms using abstracts only.

  12. Subject Retrieval from Full-Text Databases in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the problems involved in subject retrieval from full-text databases of secondary materials in the humanities. Ten such databases were studied and their search functionality evaluated, focusing on factors such as Boolean operators, document surrogates, limiting by subject area, proximity operators, phrase searching, wildcards,…

  13. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15 million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823–2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein–protein, disease–gene, and protein subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full-text articles consistently outperforms using abstracts only. PMID:29447159

  14. Searching Harvard Business Review Online. . . Lessons in Searching a Full Text Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the Harvard Business Review Online (HBRO) database (bibliographic description fields, abstracts, extracted information, full text, subject descriptors) and reports on 31 sample HBRO searches conducted in Bibliographic Retrieval Services to test differences between searching full text and searching bibliographic record. Sample…

  15. Access to Full-Text Journal Articles: Some Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Drew

    1992-01-01

    Discusses some of the issues and problems involved in using electronic full-text journals in the University of Texas at Austin libraries. Issues addressed include different standards; subjects represented and the time period covered; hardware considerations; software; printing; skills and training needed for library staff and for users; and costs.…

  16. Full-Text Searching on Major Supermarket Systems: Dialog, Data-Star, and Nexis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Berglund, Sharon

    1993-01-01

    Examines the similarities, differences, and full-text features of the three most-used online systems for full-text searching in general libraries: DIALOG, Data-Star, and NEXIS. Overlapping databases, unique sources, search features, proximity operators, set building, language enhancement and word equivalencies, and display features are discussed.…

  17. Web Standard: PDF - When to Use, Document Metadata, PDF Sections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PDF files provide some benefits when used appropriately. PDF files should not be used for short documents ( 5 pages) unless retaining the format for printing is important. PDFs should have internal file metadata and meet section 508 standards.

  18. Semi-Automatic Indexing of Full Text Biomedical Articles

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Clifford W.; Kayaalp, Mehmet; Aronson, Alan R.

    2005-01-01

    The main application of U.S. National Library of Medicine’s Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is to provide indexing recommendations to the Library’s indexing staff. The current input to MTI consists of the titles and abstracts of articles to be indexed. This study reports on an extension of MTI to the full text of articles appearing in online medical journals that are indexed for Medline®. Using a collection of 17 journal issues containing 500 articles, we report on the effectiveness of the contribution of terms by the whole article and also by each section. We obtain the best results using a model consisting of the sections Results, Results and Discussion, and Conclusions together with the article’s title and abstract, the captions of tables and figures, and sections that have no titles. The resulting model provides indexing significantly better (7.4%) than what is currently achieved using only titles and abstracts. PMID:16779044

  19. Conservational PDF Equations of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have revisited the traditional probability density function (PDF) equations for the velocity and species in turbulent incompressible flows. They are all unclosed due to the appearance of various conditional means which are modeled empirically. However, we have observed that it is possible to establish a closed velocity PDF equation and a closed joint velocity and species PDF equation through conditions derived from the integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Although, in theory, the resulted PDF equations are neither general nor unique, they nevertheless lead to the exact transport equations for the first moment as well as all higher order moments. We refer these PDF equations as the conservational PDF equations. This observation is worth further exploration for its validity and CFD application

  20. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    PubMed

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems.

  1. A G protein-coupled receptor, groom-of-PDF, is required for PDF neuron action in circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Lear, Bridget C; Merrill, C Elaine; Lin, Jui-Ming; Schroeder, Analyne; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2005-10-20

    The neuropeptide Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) plays a critical role in mediating circadian control of behavior in Drosophila. Here we identify mutants (groom-of-PDF; gop) that display phase-advanced evening activity and poor free-running rhythmicity, phenocopying pdf mutants. In gop mutants, a spontaneous retrotransposon disrupts a coding exon of a G protein-coupled receptor, CG13758. Disruption of the receptor is accompanied by phase-advanced oscillations of the core clock protein PERIOD. Moreover, effects on circadian timing induced by perturbation of PDF neurons require gop. Yet PDF oscillations themselves remain robust in gop mutants, suggesting that GOP acts downstream of PDF. gop is expressed most strongly in the dorsal brain in regions that lie in proximity to PDF-containing nerve terminals. Taken together, these studies implicate GOP as a PDF receptor in Drosophila.

  2. Document Delivery from Full-Text Online Files: A Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillikin, David P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Electronic Journal Retrieval Project (EJRP) developed at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville Libraries, to provide full-text journal articles from online systems. Highlights include costs of various search strategies; implications for library services; collection development and interlibrary loan considerations; and suggestions…

  3. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benignmore » and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features

  4. Improving e-book access via a library-developed full-text search tool.

    PubMed

    Foust, Jill E; Bergen, Phillip; Maxeiner, Gretchen L; Pawlowski, Peter N

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a tool for searching the contents of licensed full-text electronic book (e-book) collections. The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) provides services to the University of Pittsburgh's medical programs and large academic health system. The HSLS has developed an innovative tool for federated searching of its e-book collections. Built using the XML-based Vivísimo development environment, the tool enables a user to perform a full-text search of over 2,500 titles from the library's seven most highly used e-book collections. From a single "Google-style" query, results are returned as an integrated set of links pointing directly to relevant sections of the full text. Results are also grouped into categories that enable more precise retrieval without reformulation of the search. A heuristic evaluation demonstrated the usability of the tool and a web server log analysis indicated an acceptable level of usage. Based on its success, there are plans to increase the number of online book collections searched. This library's first foray into federated searching has produced an effective tool for searching across large collections of full-text e-books and has provided a good foundation for the development of other library-based federated searching products.

  5. MSL: Facilitating automatic and physical analysis of published scientific literature in PDF format.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Published scientific literature contains millions of figures, including information about the results obtained from different scientific experiments e.g. PCR-ELISA data, microarray analysis, gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry data, DNA/RNA sequencing, diagnostic imaging (CT/MRI and ultrasound scans), and medicinal imaging like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), echocardiography  (ECG), positron-emission tomography (PET) images. The importance of biomedical figures has been widely recognized in scientific and medicine communities, as they play a vital role in providing major original data, experimental and computational results in concise form. One major challenge for implementing a system for scientific literature analysis is extracting and analyzing text and figures from published PDF files by physical and logical document analysis. Here we present a product line architecture based bioinformatics tool 'Mining Scientific Literature (MSL)', which supports the extraction of text and images by interpreting all kinds of published PDF files using advanced data mining and image processing techniques. It provides modules for the marginalization of extracted text based on different coordinates and keywords, visualization of extracted figures and extraction of embedded text from all kinds of biological and biomedical figures using applied Optimal Character Recognition (OCR). Moreover, for further analysis and usage, it generates the system's output in different formats including text, PDF, XML and images files. Hence, MSL is an easy to install and use analysis tool to interpret published scientific literature in PDF format.

  6. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    McEntyre, Johanna R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C J; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first 'mirror' site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains 'Cited By' information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched.

  7. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    McEntyre, Johanna R.; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J.; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J.; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C. J.; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first ‘mirror’ site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains ‘Cited By’ information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched. PMID:21062818

  8. Improving e-book access via a library-developed full-text search tool*

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Jill E.; Bergen, Phillip; Maxeiner, Gretchen L.; Pawlowski, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool for searching the contents of licensed full-text electronic book (e-book) collections. Setting: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) provides services to the University of Pittsburgh's medical programs and large academic health system. Brief Description: The HSLS has developed an innovative tool for federated searching of its e-book collections. Built using the XML-based Vivísimo development environment, the tool enables a user to perform a full-text search of over 2,500 titles from the library's seven most highly used e-book collections. From a single “Google-style” query, results are returned as an integrated set of links pointing directly to relevant sections of the full text. Results are also grouped into categories that enable more precise retrieval without reformulation of the search. Results/Evaluation: A heuristic evaluation demonstrated the usability of the tool and a web server log analysis indicated an acceptable level of usage. Based on its success, there are plans to increase the number of online book collections searched. Conclusion: This library's first foray into federated searching has produced an effective tool for searching across large collections of full-text e-books and has provided a good foundation for the development of other library-based federated searching products. PMID:17252065

  9. SU-F-T-94: Plan2pdf - a Software Tool for Automatic Plan Report for Philips Pinnacle TPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C

    Purpose: To implement an automatic electronic PDF plan reporting tool for Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An electronic treatment plan reporting software is developed by us to enable fully automatic PDF report from Pinnacle TPS to external EMR programs such as MOSAIQ. The tool is named “plan2pdf”. plan2pdf is implemented using Pinnacle scripts, Java and UNIX shell scripts, without any external program needed. plan2pdf supports full auto-mode and manual mode reporting. In full auto-mode, with a single mouse click, plan2pdf will generate a detailed Pinnacle plan report in PDF format, which includes customizable cover page, Pinnacle plan summary,more » orthogonal views through each plan POI and maximum dose point, DRR for each beam, serial transverse views captured throughout the dose grid at a user specified interval, DVH and scorecard windows. The final PDF report is also automatically bookmarked for each section above for convenient plan review. The final PDF report can either be saved on a user specified folder on Pinnacle, or it can be automatically exported to an EMR import folder via a user configured FTP service. In manual capture mode, plan2pdf allows users to capture any Pinnacle plan by full screen, individual window or rectangular ROI drawn on screen. Furthermore, to avoid possible patients’ plan mix-up during auto-mode reporting, a user conflict check feature is included in plan2pdf: it prompts user to wait if another patient is being exported by plan2pdf by another user. Results: plan2pdf is tested extensively and successfully at our institution consists of 5 centers, 15 dosimetrists and 10 physicists, running Pinnacle version 9.10 on Enterprise servers. Conclusion: plan2pdf provides a highly efficient, user friendly and clinical proven platform for all Philips Pinnacle users, to generate a detailed plan report in PDF format for external EMR systems.« less

  10. MSL: Facilitating automatic and physical analysis of published scientific literature in PDF format

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Published scientific literature contains millions of figures, including information about the results obtained from different scientific experiments e.g. PCR-ELISA data, microarray analysis, gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry data, DNA/RNA sequencing, diagnostic imaging (CT/MRI and ultrasound scans), and medicinal imaging like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), echocardiography  (ECG), positron-emission tomography (PET) images. The importance of biomedical figures has been widely recognized in scientific and medicine communities, as they play a vital role in providing major original data, experimental and computational results in concise form. One major challenge for implementing a system for scientific literature analysis is extracting and analyzing text and figures from published PDF files by physical and logical document analysis. Here we present a product line architecture based bioinformatics tool ‘Mining Scientific Literature (MSL)’, which supports the extraction of text and images by interpreting all kinds of published PDF files using advanced data mining and image processing techniques. It provides modules for the marginalization of extracted text based on different coordinates and keywords, visualization of extracted figures and extraction of embedded text from all kinds of biological and biomedical figures using applied Optimal Character Recognition (OCR). Moreover, for further analysis and usage, it generates the system’s output in different formats including text, PDF, XML and images files. Hence, MSL is an easy to install and use analysis tool to interpret published scientific literature in PDF format. PMID:29721305

  11. Information extraction from full text scientific articles: where are the keywords?

    PubMed

    Shah, Parantu K; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Bork, Peer; Andrade, Miguel A

    2003-05-29

    To date, many of the methods for information extraction of biological information from scientific articles are restricted to the abstract of the article. However, full text articles in electronic version, which offer larger sources of data, are currently available. Several questions arise as to whether the effort of scanning full text articles is worthy, or whether the information that can be extracted from the different sections of an article can be relevant. In this work we addressed those questions showing that the keyword content of the different sections of a standard scientific article (abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion) is very heterogeneous. Although the abstract contains the best ratio of keywords per total of words, other sections of the article may be a better source of biologically relevant data.

  12. Sensitivity to Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) Is Cell-Type Specific among PDF-Expressing Circadian Clock Neurons in the Madeira Cockroach.

    PubMed

    Gestrich, Julia; Giese, Maria; Shen, Wen; Zhang, Yi; Voss, Alexandra; Popov, Cyril; Stengl, Monika; Wei, HongYing

    2018-02-01

    Transplantation studies have pinpointed the circadian clock of the Madeira cockroach to the accessory medulla (AME) of the brain's optic lobes. The AME is innervated by approximately 240 adjacent neuropeptidergic neurons, including 12 pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing neurons anterior to the AME (aPDFMEs). Four of the aPDFMEs project contralaterally, controlling locomotor activity rhythms of the night-active cockroach. The present in vitro Ca 2+ imaging analysis focuses on contralaterally projecting AME neurons and their responses to PDF, GABA, and acetylcholine (ACh). First, rhodamine-dextran backfills from the contralateral optic stalk identified contralaterally projecting AME neurons, which were then dispersed in primary cell cultures. After characterization of PDF, GABA, and ACh responses, PDF immunocytochemistry identified ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting PDFMEs. All PDF-sensitive clock neurons, PDF-immunoreactive clock neurons, and the majority of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting cells were excited by ACh. GABA inhibited all PDF-expressing clock neurons, and about half of other ipsilaterally projecting and most contralaterally projecting clock neurons. For the first time, we identified PDF autoreceptors in PDF-secreting cockroach circadian pacemakers. The medium-sized aPDFMEs and all other contralaterally projecting PDF-sensitive clock cells were inhibited by PDF. The ipsilaterally remaining small PDF-sensitive clock cells were activated by PDF. Only the largest aPDFME did not express PDF autoreceptors. We hypothesize that opposing PDF signaling generates 2 different ensembles of clock cells with antiphasic activity, regulating and maintaining a constant phase relationship between rest and activity cycles of the night-active cockroach.

  13. Comments on the present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The one point probability density function (PDF) method is examined in light of its use in actual engineering problems. The PDF method, although relatively complicated, appears to be the only format available to handle the nonlinear stochastic difficulties caused by typical reaction kinetics. Turbulence modeling, if it is to play a central role in combustion modeling, has to be integrated with the chemistry in a way which produces accurate numerical solutions to combustion problems. It is questionable whether the development of turbulent models in isolation from the peculiar statistics of reactant concentrations is a fruitful line of development as far as propulsion is concerned. There are three issues for which additional viewgraphs are prepared: the one point pdf method; the amplitude mapping closure; and a hybrid strategy for replacing a full two point pdf treatment of reacting flows by a single point pdf and correlation functions. An appeal is made for the establishment of an adequate data base for compressible flow with reactions for Mach numbers of unity or higher.

  14. Foundations of Full Text Electronic Information Delivery Systems. Implications for Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.

    Information has become an increasingly valuable commodity. Access to full-text information, containing text, images, and in some cases, sound, is becoming vital to decision-making for organizations as well as individuals. The book covers the following topics: (1) the information marketplace in a cyberculture; (2) the telecommunications foundation…

  15. Constraints on the gluon PDF from top quark pair production at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Michal; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mitov, Alexander; Rojo, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Using the recently derived NNLO cross sections [1], we provide NNLO+NNLL theoretical predictions for top quark pair production based on all the available NNLO PDF sets, and compare them with the most precise LHC and Tevatron data. In this comparison we study in detail the PDF uncertainty and the scale, m t and α s dependence of the theoretical predictions for each PDF set. Next, we observe that top quark pair production provides a powerful direct constraint on the gluon PDF at large x, and include Tevatron and LHC top pair data consistently into a global NNLO PDF fit. We then explore the phenomenological consequences of the reduced gluon PDF uncertainties, by showing how they can improve predictions for Beyond the Standard Model processes at the LHC. Finally, we update to full NNLO+NNLL the theoretical predictions for the ratio of top quark cross sections between different LHC center of mass energies, as well as the cross sections for hypothetical heavy fourth-generation quark production at the LHC.

  16. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Campagne, Fabien

    2005-04-07

    The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM) to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt.

  17. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Campagne, Fabien

    2005-01-01

    Background The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. Results We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM) to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. Conclusion This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt. PMID:15817129

  18. Electrical silencing of PDF neurons advances the phase of non-PDF clock neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Cao, Guan; Nitabach, Michael N

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila clock neurons exhibit self-sustaining cellular oscillations that rely in part on rhythmic transcriptional feedback loops. We have previously determined that electrical silencing of the pigment dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing lateral-ventral (LN(V)) pacemaker subset of fly clock neurons via expression of an inward-rectifier K(+) channel (Kir2.1) severely disrupts free-running rhythms of locomotor activity-most flies are arrhythmic and those that are not exhibit weak short-period rhythms-and abolishes LN(V) molecular oscillation in constant darkness. PDF is known to be an important LN(V) output signal. Here we examine the effects of electrical silencing of the LN(V) pacemakers on molecular rhythms in other, nonsilenced, subsets of clock neurons. In contrast to previously described cell-autonomous abolition of free-running molecular rhythms, we find that electrical silencing of the LN(V) pacemakers via Kir2.1 expression does not impair molecular rhythms in LN(D), DN1, and DN2 subsets of clock neurons. However, free-running molecular rhythms in these non-LN(V) clock neurons occur with advanced phase. Electrical silencing of LN(V)s phenocopies PDF null mutation (pdf (01) ) at both behavioral and molecular levels except for the complete abolition of free-running cellular oscillation in the LN(V)s themselves. LN(V) electrically silenced or pdf 01 flies exhibit weak free-running behavioral rhythms with short period, and the molecular oscillation in non-LN(V) neurons phase advances in constant darkness. That LN( V) electrical silencing leads to the same behavioral and non-LN( V) molecular phenotypes as pdf 01 suggests that persistence of LN(V) molecular oscillation in pdf 01 flies has no functional effect, either on behavioral rhythms or on non-LN(V) molecular rhythms. We thus conclude that functionally relevant signals from LN(V)s to non-LN(V) clock neurons and other downstream targets rely both on PDF signaling and LN(V) electrical activity, and that LN( V

  19. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis.

    PubMed

    Harland-Lang, L A; Martin, A D; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the [Formula: see text] definition.

  20. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  1. Enriching a document collection by integrating information extraction and PDF annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powley, Brett; Dale, Robert; Anisimoff, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Modern digital libraries offer all the hyperlinking possibilities of the World Wide Web: when a reader finds a citation of interest, in many cases she can now click on a link to be taken to the cited work. This paper presents work aimed at providing the same ease of navigation for legacy PDF document collections that were created before the possibility of integrating hyperlinks into documents was ever considered. To achieve our goal, we need to carry out two tasks: first, we need to identify and link citations and references in the text with high reliability; and second, we need the ability to determine physical PDF page locations for these elements. We demonstrate the use of a high-accuracy citation extraction algorithm which significantly improves on earlier reported techniques, and a technique for integrating PDF processing with a conventional text-stream based information extraction pipeline. We demonstrate these techniques in the context of a particular document collection, this being the ACL Anthology; but the same approach can be applied to other document sets.

  2. Full-Text Publication of Abstract-Presented Work in Physical Therapy: Do Therapists Publish What They Preach?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather D.; Bogenschutz, Elizabeth D.; Bayliss, Amy J.; Altenburger, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional meetings, such as the American Physical Therapy Association's (APTA's) Combined Sections Meeting (CSM), provide forums for sharing information relevant to physical therapy. An indicator of whether therapists fully disseminate their work is the number of full-text peer-reviewed publications that result. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the full-text publication rate of work presented in abstract form at CSM and (2) to investigate factors influencing this rate. Methods A systematic search was undertaken to locate full-text publications of work presented in abstract form within the Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy sections at CSM between 2000 and 2004. Eligible publications were published within 5 years following abstract presentation. The influences of APTA section, year of abstract presentation, institution of origin, study design, sample size, study significance, reporting of a funding source, and presentation type on full-text publication rate were assessed. Characteristics of full-text publications were explored. Results Work presented in 1 out of 4 abstracts (25.4%) progressed to full-text publication. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract originated from a doctorate-granting or “other” institution, reported findings of an experimental study, reported a statistically significant finding, included a larger sample size, disclosed a funding source, or was presented as a platform presentation. More than one third (37.8%) of full-text publications were published in the Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy or Physical Therapy, and 4 out of 10 full-text publications (39.2%) contained at least one major change from information presented in abstract form. Conclusions The full-text publication rate for information presented in abstract form within the Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy sections at CSM is low relative to comparative disciplines. Caution should be

  3. PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

  4. A Comparative Study of PDF Generation Methods: Measuring Loss of Fidelity When Converting Arabic and Persian MS Word Files to PDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-17

    document objects, on one or more electronic document pages. These commands have their roots in typography , so, to understand the PDF Language, one...must have at least a rudimentary understanding of typography . Only a few of the typographic commands, called text showing operators, can hold strings

  5. Preparing College Students To Search Full-Text Databases: Is Instruction Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Cheryl; Wales, Barbara

    Full-text databases allow Central Missouri State University's clients to access some of the serials that libraries have had to cancel due to escalating subscription costs; EbscoHost, the subject of this study, is one such database. The database is available free to all Missouri residents. A survey was designed consisting of 21 questions intended…

  6. Testing of a Natural Language Retrieval System for a Full Text Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lionel M.; Williamson, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Hepatitis Knowledge Base (text of prototype information system) was used for modifying and testing "A Navigator of Natural Language Organized (Textual) Data" (ANNOD), a retrieval system which combines probabilistic, linguistic, and empirical means to rank individual paragraphs of full text for similarity to natural language queries…

  7. New Tools to Convert PDF Math Contents into Accessible e-Books Efficiently.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakazu; Terada, Yugo; Kanahori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito

    2015-01-01

    New features in our math-OCR software to convert PDF math contents into accessible e-books are shown. A method for recognizing PDF is thoroughly improved. In addition, contents in any selected area including math formulas in a PDF file can be cut and pasted into a document in various accessible formats, which is automatically recognized and converted into texts and accessible math formulas through this process. Combining it with our authoring tool for a technical document, one can easily produce accessible e-books in various formats such as DAISY, accessible EPUB3, DAISY-like HTML5, Microsoft Word with math objects and so on. Those contents are useful for various print-disabled students ranging from the blind to the dyslexic.

  8. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  9. Reported estimates of diagnostic accuracy in ophthalmology conference abstracts were not associated with full-text publication

    PubMed Central

    Korevaar, Daniël A.; Cohen, Jérémie F.; Spijker, René; Saldanha, Ian J.; Dickersin, Kay; Virgili, Gianni; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether conference abstracts that report higher estimates of diagnostic accuracy are more likely to reach full-text publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Study Design and Setting We identified abstracts describing diagnostic accuracy studies, presented between 2007 and 2010 at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting. We extracted reported estimates of sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Between May and July 2015, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify corresponding full-text publications; if needed, we contacted abstract authors. Cox regression was performed to estimate associations with full-text publication, where sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were logit transformed, and DOR was log transformed. Results A full-text publication was found for 226/399 (57%) included abstracts. There was no association between reported estimates of sensitivity and full-text publication (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.98, 1.22]). The same applied to specificity (HR 1.00 [95% CI 0.88, 1.14]), AUC (HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.75, 1.09]), and DOR (HR 1.01 [95% CI 0.94, 1.09]). Conclusion Almost half of the ARVO conference abstracts describing diagnostic accuracy studies did not reach full-text publication. Studies in abstracts that mentioned higher accuracy estimates were not more likely to be reported in a full-text publication. PMID:27312228

  10. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  11. Full-text automated detection of surgical site infections secondary to neurosurgery in Rennes, France.

    PubMed

    Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garcelon, Nicolas; Jarno, Pascal; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Cuggia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The surveillance of Surgical Site Infections (SSI) contributes to the management of risk in French hospitals. Manual identification of infections is costly, time-consuming and limits the promotion of preventive procedures by the dedicated teams. The introduction of alternative methods using automated detection strategies is promising to improve this surveillance. The present study describes an automated detection strategy for SSI in neurosurgery, based on textual analysis of medical reports stored in a clinical data warehouse. The method consists firstly, of enrichment and concept extraction from full-text reports using NOMINDEX, and secondly, text similarity measurement using a vector space model. The text detection was compared to the conventional strategy based on self-declaration and to the automated detection using the diagnosis-related group database. The text-mining approach showed the best detection accuracy, with recall and precision equal to 92% and 40% respectively, and confirmed the interest of reusing full-text medical reports to perform automated detection of SSI.

  12. Abstracts versus Full Texts and Patents: A Quantitative Analysis of Biomedical Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bernd; Klinger, Roman; Gurulingappa, Harsha; Mevissen, Heinz-Theodor; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Friedrich, Christoph M.

    In information retrieval, named entity recognition gives the opportunity to apply semantic search in domain specific corpora. Recently, more full text patents and journal articles became freely available. As the information distribution amongst the different sections is unknown, an analysis of the diversity is of interest.

  13. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Erjia; Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.

  14. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies. PMID:29186141

  15. Recent progress in the joint velocity-scalar PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses joint velocity-scalar PDF method; turbulent combustion modeling issues for gas turbine combustors; PDF calculations for a recirculating flow; stochastic dissipation model; joint PDF calculations for swirling flows; spray calculations; reduced kinetics/manifold methods; parallel processing; and joint PDF focus areas.

  16. A computer simulated phantom study of tomotherapy dose optimization based on probability density functions (PDF) and potential errors caused by low reproducibility of PDF.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ke; Cai, Jing; Brookeman, James; Molloy, Janelle; Christopher, John; Read, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Lung tumor motion trajectories measured by four-dimensional CT or dynamic MRI can be converted to a probability density function (PDF), which describes the probability of the tumor at a certain position, for PDF based treatment planning. Using this method in simulated sequential tomotherapy, we study the dose reduction of normal tissues and more important, the effect of PDF reproducibility on the accuracy of dosimetry. For these purposes, realistic PDFs were obtained from two dynamic MRI scans of a healthy volunteer within a 2 week interval. The first PDF was accumulated from a 300 s scan and the second PDF was calculated from variable scan times from 5 s (one breathing cycle) to 300 s. Optimized beam fluences based on the second PDF were delivered to the hypothetical gross target volume (GTV) of a lung phantom that moved following the first PDF The reproducibility between two PDFs varied from low (78%) to high (94.8%) when the second scan time increased from 5 s to 300 s. When a highly reproducible PDF was used in optimization, the dose coverage of GTV was maintained; phantom lung receiving 10%-20% prescription dose was reduced by 40%-50% and the mean phantom lung dose was reduced by 9.6%. However, optimization based on PDF with low reproducibility resulted in a 50% underdosed GTV. The dosimetric error increased nearly exponentially as the PDF error increased. Therefore, although the dose of the tumor surrounding tissue can be theoretically reduced by PDF based treatment planning, the reliability and applicability of this method highly depend on if a reproducible PDF exists and is measurable. By correlating the dosimetric error and PDF error together, a useful guideline for PDF data acquisition and patient qualification for PDF based planning can be derived.

  17. A computer simulated phantom study of tomotherapy dose optimization based on probability density functions (PDF) and potential errors caused by low reproducibility of PDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Ke; Cai Jing; Brookeman, James

    2006-09-15

    Lung tumor motion trajectories measured by four-dimensional CT or dynamic MRI can be converted to a probability density function (PDF), which describes the probability of the tumor at a certain position, for PDF based treatment planning. Using this method in simulated sequential tomotherapy, we study the dose reduction of normal tissues and more important, the effect of PDF reproducibility on the accuracy of dosimetry. For these purposes, realistic PDFs were obtained from two dynamic MRI scans of a healthy volunteer within a 2 week interval. The first PDF was accumulated from a 300 s scan and the second PDF wasmore » calculated from variable scan times from 5 s (one breathing cycle) to 300 s. Optimized beam fluences based on the second PDF were delivered to the hypothetical gross target volume (GTV) of a lung phantom that moved following the first PDF. The reproducibility between two PDFs varied from low (78%) to high (94.8%) when the second scan time increased from 5 s to 300 s. When a highly reproducible PDF was used in optimization, the dose coverage of GTV was maintained; phantom lung receiving 10%-20% prescription dose was reduced by 40%-50% and the mean phantom lung dose was reduced by 9.6%. However, optimization based on PDF with low reproducibility resulted in a 50% underdosed GTV. The dosimetric error increased nearly exponentially as the PDF error increased. Therefore, although the dose of the tumor surrounding tissue can be theoretically reduced by PDF based treatment planning, the reliability and applicability of this method highly depend on if a reproducible PDF exists and is measurable. By correlating the dosimetric error and PDF error together, a useful guideline for PDF data acquisition and patient qualification for PDF based planning can be derived.« less

  18. Retrieval of publications addressing shared decision making: an evaluation of full-text searches on medical journal websites.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-04-07

    Full-text searches of articles increase the recall, defined by the proportion of relevant publications that are retrieved. However, this method is rarely used in medical research due to resource constraints. For the purpose of a systematic review of publications addressing shared decision making, a full-text search method was required to retrieve publications where shared decision making does not appear in the title or abstract. The objective of our study was to assess the efficiency and reliability of full-text searches in major medical journals for identifying shared decision making publications. A full-text search was performed on the websites of 15 high-impact journals in general internal medicine to look up publications of any type from 1996-2011 containing the phrase "shared decision making". The search method was compared with a PubMed search of titles and abstracts only. The full-text search was further validated by requesting all publications from the same time period from the individual journal publishers and searching through the collected dataset. The full-text search for "shared decision making" on journal websites identified 1286 publications in 15 journals compared to 119 through the PubMed search. The search within the publisher-provided publications of 6 journals identified 613 publications compared to 646 with the full-text search on the respective journal websites. The concordance rate was 94.3% between both full-text searches. Full-text searching on medical journal websites is an efficient and reliable way to identify relevant articles in the field of shared decision making for review or other purposes. It may be more widely used in biomedical research in other fields in the future, with the collaboration of publishers and journals toward open-access data.

  19. Daily rhythms in locomotor circuits in Drosophila involve PDF

    PubMed Central

    Pírez, Nicolás; Christmann, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, and its role in circadian time-keeping has been firmly established. The role of PDF outside of the clock circuit, however, is poorly understood. A recent study suggested that PDF may act on the ellipsoid body (EB) to link the clock and sleep/activity circuits. We performed whole brain optical imaging with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps expressed under control of the pdfR promoter to address how the clock and sleep deprivation affect the physiology of these cells. Basal cAMP levels in EB were regulated both by PDF and synaptic inputs that are controlled by the circadian clock. Acute application of PDF to the brain caused a significant, and PDF-receptor-dependent, increase in cAMP in EB cells. Application of TTX to block circuit-mediated effects of PDF increased the morning response but not the response at night, implying the existence of a temporally regulated, PDF-stimulated input that blocks cAMP generation. ACh produced both direct (TTX-insensitive) and indirect (TTX-sensitive) increases in cAMP during the day but was totally TTX-insensitive at night, indicating that ACh-stimulated inputs to the EB are suppressed at night. Sleep deprivation did not affect the cAMP responses of these cells to either PDF or ACh. These results suggest a novel role for PDF as a modulator of activity outside of the clock circuit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide PDF act on its target cells, our work contributes to our understating of how the central clock coordinates activity and sleep. PMID:23678016

  20. Daily rhythms in locomotor circuits in Drosophila involve PDF.

    PubMed

    Pírez, Nicolás; Christmann, Bethany L; Griffith, Leslie C

    2013-08-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, and its role in circadian time-keeping has been firmly established. The role of PDF outside of the clock circuit, however, is poorly understood. A recent study suggested that PDF may act on the ellipsoid body (EB) to link the clock and sleep/activity circuits. We performed whole brain optical imaging with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps expressed under control of the pdfR promoter to address how the clock and sleep deprivation affect the physiology of these cells. Basal cAMP levels in EB were regulated both by PDF and synaptic inputs that are controlled by the circadian clock. Acute application of PDF to the brain caused a significant, and PDF-receptor-dependent, increase in cAMP in EB cells. Application of TTX to block circuit-mediated effects of PDF increased the morning response but not the response at night, implying the existence of a temporally regulated, PDF-stimulated input that blocks cAMP generation. ACh produced both direct (TTX-insensitive) and indirect (TTX-sensitive) increases in cAMP during the day but was totally TTX-insensitive at night, indicating that ACh-stimulated inputs to the EB are suppressed at night. Sleep deprivation did not affect the cAMP responses of these cells to either PDF or ACh. These results suggest a novel role for PDF as a modulator of activity outside of the clock circuit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide PDF act on its target cells, our work contributes to our understating of how the central clock coordinates activity and sleep.

  1. Design of an On-Line Query Language for Full Text Patent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glantz, Richard S.

    The design of an English-like query language and an interactive computer environment for searching the full text of the U.S. patent collection are discussed. Special attention is paid to achieving a transparent user interface, to providing extremely broad search capabilities (including nested substitution classes, Kleene star events, and domain…

  2. @Note: a workbench for biomedical text mining.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Anália; Carreira, Rafael; Carneiro, Sónia; Maia, Paulo; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Rocha, Isabel; Rocha, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Biomedical Text Mining (BioTM) is providing valuable approaches to the automated curation of scientific literature. However, most efforts have addressed the benchmarking of new algorithms rather than user operational needs. Bridging the gap between BioTM researchers and biologists' needs is crucial to solve real-world problems and promote further research. We present @Note, a platform for BioTM that aims at the effective translation of the advances between three distinct classes of users: biologists, text miners and software developers. Its main functional contributions are the ability to process abstracts and full-texts; an information retrieval module enabling PubMed search and journal crawling; a pre-processing module with PDF-to-text conversion, tokenisation and stopword removal; a semantic annotation schema; a lexicon-based annotator; a user-friendly annotation view that allows to correct annotations and a Text Mining Module supporting dataset preparation and algorithm evaluation. @Note improves the interoperability, modularity and flexibility when integrating in-home and open-source third-party components. Its component-based architecture allows the rapid development of new applications, emphasizing the principles of transparency and simplicity of use. Although it is still on-going, it has already allowed the development of applications that are currently being used.

  3. PDF receptor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans modulates locomotion and egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Meelkop, Ellen; Temmerman, Liesbet; Janssen, Tom; Suetens, Nick; Beets, Isabel; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Husson, Steven J; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-09-25

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, pdfr-1 encodes three receptors of the secretin receptor family. These G protein-coupled receptors are activated by three neuropeptides, pigment dispersing factors 1a, 1b and 2, which are encoded by pdf-1 and pdf-2. We isolated a PDF receptor loss-of-function allele (lst34) by means of a mutagenesis screen and show that the PDF signaling system is involved in locomotion and egg-laying. We demonstrate that the pdfr-1 mutant phenocopies the defective locomotor behavior of the pdf-1 mutant and that pdf-1 and pdf-2 behave antagonistically. All three PDF receptor splice variants are involved in the regulation of locomotor behavior. Cell specific rescue experiments show that this pdf mediated behavior is regulated by neurons rather than body wall muscles. We also show that egg-laying patterns of pdf-1 and pdf-2 mutants are affected, but not those of pdfr-1 mutants, pointing to a novel role for the PDF-system in the regulation of egg-laying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A compression algorithm for the combination of PDF sets.

    PubMed

    Carrazza, Stefano; Latorre, José I; Rojo, Juan; Watt, Graeme

    The current PDF4LHC recommendation to estimate uncertainties due to parton distribution functions (PDFs) in theoretical predictions for LHC processes involves the combination of separate predictions computed using PDF sets from different groups, each of which comprises a relatively large number of either Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo (MC) replicas. While many fixed-order and parton shower programs allow the evaluation of PDF uncertainties for a single PDF set at no additional CPU cost, this feature is not universal, and, moreover, the a posteriori combination of the predictions using at least three different PDF sets is still required. In this work, we present a strategy for the statistical combination of individual PDF sets, based on the MC representation of Hessian sets, followed by a compression algorithm for the reduction of the number of MC replicas. We illustrate our strategy with the combination and compression of the recent NNPDF3.0, CT14 and MMHT14 NNLO PDF sets. The resulting compressed Monte Carlo PDF sets are validated at the level of parton luminosities and LHC inclusive cross sections and differential distributions. We determine that around 100 replicas provide an adequate representation of the probability distribution for the original combined PDF set, suitable for general applications to LHC phenomenology.

  5. The pdf approach to turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed discussion of the theory and application of probability density function (pdf) methods, which provide a complete statistical description of turbulent flow fields at a single point or a finite number of points. The basic laws governing the flow of Newtonian fluids are set up in the Eulerian and the Lagrangian frame, and the exact and linear equations for the characteristic functionals in those frames are discussed. Pdf equations in both frames are derived as Fourier transforms of the equations of the characteristic functions. Possible formulations for the nonclosed terms in the pdf equation are discussed, their properties are assessed, and closure modes for the molecular-transport and the fluctuating pressure-gradient terms are reviewed. The application of pdf methods to turbulent combustion flows, supersonic flows, and the interaction of turbulence with shock waves is discussed.

  6. Comments on PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  7. PDF for Healthcare and Child Health Data Forms.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan E; Schneider, Joseph H; Miller, Ken

    2008-11-06

    PDF-H is a new best practices standard that uses XFA forms and embedded JavaScript to combine PDF forms with XML data. Preliminary experience with AAP child health forms shows that the combination of PDF with XML is a more effective method to visualize familiar data on paper and the web than the traditional use of XML and XSLT. Both PDF-H and HL7 Clinical Document Architecture can co-exist using the same data for different display formats.

  8. Prototype of Multifunctional Full-text Library in the Architecture Web-browser / Web-server / SQL-server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, Sergey; Kukovyakin, Alexey

    Within the framework of the research program "Textaurus" an operational prototype of multifunctional library T-Libra v.4.1. has been created which makes it possible to carry out flexible parametrizable search within a full-text database. The information system is realized in the architecture Web-browser / Web-server / SQL-server. This allows to achieve an optimal combination of universality and efficiency of text processing, on the one hand, and convenience and minimization of expenses for an end user (due to applying of a standard Web-browser as a client application), on the other one. The following principles underlie the information system: a) multifunctionality, b) intelligence, c) multilingual primary texts and full-text searching, d) development of digital library (DL) by a user ("administrative client"), e) multi-platform working. A "library of concepts", i.e. a block of functional models of semantic (concept-oriented) searching, as well as a subsystem of parametrizable queries to a full-text database, which is closely connected with the "library", serve as a conceptual basis of multifunctionality and "intelligence" of the DL T-Libra v.4.1. An author's paragraph is a unit of full-text searching in the suggested technology. At that, the "logic" of an educational / scientific topic or a problem can be built in a multilevel flexible structure of a query and the "library of concepts", replenishable by the developers and experts. About 10 queries of various level of complexity and conceptuality are realized in the suggested version of the information system: from simple terminological searching (taking into account lexical and grammatical paradigms of Russian) to several kinds of explication of terminological fields and adjustable two-parameter thematic searching (a [set of terms] and a [distance between terms] within the limits of an author's paragraph are such parameters correspondingly).

  9. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    DOE PAGES

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; ...

    2016-01-06

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+αs uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. Lastly, we finally discuss tools which allow for themore » delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology.« less

  10. Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody worldwide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text. The ADS database contains over 3.6 million references, with 965,000 in the Astronomy/Planetary Sciences database, and 1.6 million in the Physics/Geophysics database. 2/3 of the records have full abstracts, the rest are table of contents entries (titles and author lists only). The coverage for the Astronomy literature is better than 95% from 1975. Before that we cover all major journals and many smaller ones. Most of the journal literature is covered back to volume 1. We now get abstracts on a regular basis from most journals. Over the last year we have entered basically all conference proceedings tables of contents that are available at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics library. This has greatly increased the coverage of conference proceedings in the ADS. The ADS also covers the ArXiv Preprints. We download these preprints every night and index all the preprints. They can be searched either together with the other abstracts or separately. There are currently about 260,000 preprints in that database. In January 2004 we have introduced two new services, full text searching and a personal notification service called "myADS". As all other ADS services, these are free to use for anybody.

  11. The structural and content aspects of abstracts versus bodies of full text journal articles are different

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An increase in work on the full text of journal articles and the growth of PubMedCentral have the opportunity to create a major paradigm shift in how biomedical text mining is done. However, until now there has been no comprehensive characterization of how the bodies of full text journal articles differ from the abstracts that until now have been the subject of most biomedical text mining research. Results We examined the structural and linguistic aspects of abstracts and bodies of full text articles, the performance of text mining tools on both, and the distribution of a variety of semantic classes of named entities between them. We found marked structural differences, with longer sentences in the article bodies and much heavier use of parenthesized material in the bodies than in the abstracts. We found content differences with respect to linguistic features. Three out of four of the linguistic features that we examined were statistically significantly differently distributed between the two genres. We also found content differences with respect to the distribution of semantic features. There were significantly different densities per thousand words for three out of four semantic classes, and clear differences in the extent to which they appeared in the two genres. With respect to the performance of text mining tools, we found that a mutation finder performed equally well in both genres, but that a wide variety of gene mention systems performed much worse on article bodies than they did on abstracts. POS tagging was also more accurate in abstracts than in article bodies. Conclusions Aspects of structure and content differ markedly between article abstracts and article bodies. A number of these differences may pose problems as the text mining field moves more into the area of processing full-text articles. However, these differences also present a number of opportunities for the extraction of data types, particularly that found in parenthesized text

  12. Recent advances in PDF modeling of turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Andrew D.; Dai, F.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation concludes that a Monte Carlo probability density function (PDF) solution successfully couples with an existing finite volume code; PDF solution method applied to turbulent reacting flows shows good agreement with data; and PDF methods must be run on parallel machines for practical use.

  13. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at European Orthodontic Society congresses.

    PubMed

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin

    2014-10-01

    Empirical evidence has indicated that only a subsample of studies conducted reach full-text publication and this phenomenon has become known as publication bias. A form of publication bias is the selectively delayed full publication of conference abstracts. The objective of this article was to examine the publication status of oral abstracts and poster-presentation abstracts, included in the scientific program of the 82nd and 83rd European Orthodontic Society (EOS) congresses, held in 2006 and 2007, and to identify factors associated with full-length publication. A systematic search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases was performed in April 2013 using author names and keywords from the abstract title to locate abstract and full-article publications. Information regarding mode of presentation, type of affiliation, geographical origin, statistical results, and publication details were collected and analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Approximately 51 per cent of the EOS 2006 and 55 per cent of the EOS 2007 abstracts appeared in print more than 5 years post congress. A mean period of 1.32 years elapsed between conference and publication date. Mode of presentation (oral or poster), use of statistical analysis, and research subject area were significant predictors for publication success. Inherent discrepancies of abstract reporting, mainly related to presentation of preliminary results and incomplete description of methods, may be considered in analogous studies. On average 52.2 per cent of the abstracts presented at the two EOS conferences reached full publication. Abstracts presented orally, including statistical analysis, were more likely to get published. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the human mitochondrial peptide deformylase (PDF).

    PubMed

    Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Costa, Luís Teixeira da; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luisa

    2012-05-18

    The last years of research have been particularly dynamic in establishing the importance of peptide deformylase (PDF), a protein of the N-terminal methionine excision (NME) pathway that removes formyl-methionine from mitochondrial-encoded proteins. The genomic sequence of the human PDF gene is shared with the COG8 gene, which encodes a component of the oligomeric golgi complex, a very unusual case in Eukaryotic genomes. Since PDF is crucial in maintaining mitochondrial function and given the atypical short distance between the end of COG8 coding sequence and the PDF initiation codon, we investigated whether the regulation of the human PDF is affected by the COG8 overlapping partner. Our data reveals that PDF has several transcription start sites, the most important of which only 18 bp from the initiation codon. Furthermore, luciferase-activation assays using differently-sized fragments defined a 97 bp minimal promoter region for human PDF, which is capable of very strong transcriptional activity. This fragment contains a potential Sp1 binding site highly conserved in mammalian species. We show that this binding site, whose mutation significantly reduces transcription activation, is a target for the Sp1 transcription factor, and possibly of other members of the Sp family. Importantly, the entire minimal promoter region is located after the end of COG8's coding region, strongly suggesting that the human PDF preserves an independent regulation from its overlapping partner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  16. Signaling of Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) in the Madeira Cockroach Rhyparobia maderae

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Nico W.; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca2+ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca2+ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca2+ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca2+ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1–4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K+ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K+ and Na+ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance. PMID:25269074

  17. PDF modeling of near-wall turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreeben, Thomas David

    1997-06-01

    Pdf methods are extended to include modeling of wall- bounded turbulent flows. For flows in which resolution of the viscous sublayer is desired, a Pdf near-wall model is developed in which the Generalized Langevin model is combined with an exact model for viscous transport. Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation is used to incorporate the wall effects into the governing equations without the use of wall functions or damping functions. Close to the wall, the Generalized Langevin model provides an analogy to the effect of the fluctuating continuity equation. This enables accurate modeling of the near-wall turbulent statistics. Demonstrated accuracy for fully-developed channel flow is achieved with a Pdf/Monte Carlo simulation, and with its related Reynolds-stress closure. For flows in which the details of the viscous sublayer are not important, a Pdf wall- function method is developed with the Simplified Langevin model.

  18. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf01 (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light–dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene perS ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the perS protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf01 circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF. PMID:24707054

  19. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf(01) (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light-dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene per(S) ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the per(S) protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf(01) circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF.

  20. Publications - PDF 96-18 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 96-18 Publication Details Title: Major and trace element analyses of Cretaceous plutonic Bibliographic Reference Newberry, R.J., 1996, Major and trace element analyses of Cretaceous plutonic rocks in pdf1996_018.pdf (571.0 K) Keywords Geochemistry; Geology; Igneous Rocks; Major Oxides; Plutonic Rocks

  1. Extract and visualize geolocation from any text file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustani, M.

    2015-12-01

    There are variety of text file formats such as PDF, HTML and more which contains words about locations(countries, cities, regions and more). GeoParser developed as one of sub-projects under DARPA Memex to help finding any geolocation information crawled website data. It is a web application benefiting from Apache Tika to extract locations from any text file format and visualize geolocations on the map. https://github.com/MBoustani/GeoParserhttps://github.com/chrismattmann/tika-pythonhttp://www.darpa.mil/program/memex

  2. Conditional probability distribution function of "energy transfer rate" (PDF(ɛ|PVI)) as compared with its counterpart of temperature (PDF(T|PVI)) at the same condition of fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiansen; Wang, Yin; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Tu, Chuanyi

    2017-04-01

    Energy transfer rate of turbulence is not uniform everywhere but suggested to follow a certain distribution, e.g., lognormal distribution (Kolmogorov 1962). The inhomogeneous transfer rate leads to emergence of intermittency, which may be identified with some parameter, e.g., normalized partial variance increments (PVI) (Greco et al., 2009). Large PVI of magnetic field fluctuations are found to have a temperature distribution with the median and mean values higher than that for small PVI level (Osman et al., 2012). However, there is a large proportion of overlap between temperature distributions associated with the smaller and larger PVIs. So it is recognized that only PVI cannot fully determine the temperature, since the one-to-one mapping relationship does not exist. One may be curious about the reason responsible for the considerable overlap of conditional temperature distribution for different levels of PVI. Usually the hotter plasma with higher temperature is speculated to be heated more with more dissipation of turbulence energy corresponding to more energy cascading rate, if the temperature fluctuation of the eigen wave mode is not taken into account. To explore the statistical relationship between turbulence cascading and plasma thermal state, we aim to study and reveal, for the first time, the conditional probability function of "energy transfer rate" under different levels of PVI condition (PDF(ɛ|PVI)), and compare it with the conditional probability function of temperature. The conditional probability distribution function, PDF(ɛ|PVI), is derived from PDF(PVI|ɛ)·PDF(ɛ)/PDF(PVI) according to the Bayesian theorem. PDF(PVI) can be obtained directly from the data. PDF(ɛ) is derived from the conjugate-gradient inversion of PDF(PVI) by assuming reasonably that PDF(δB|σ) is a Gaussian distribution, where PVI=|δB|/ σ and σ ( ɛι)1/3. PDF(ɛ) can also be acquired from fitting PDF(δB) with an integral function ∫PDF(δB|σ)PDF(σ)d σ. As a result

  3. Cyclic AMP imaging sheds light on PDF signaling in circadian clock neurons.

    PubMed

    Tomchik, Seth M; Davis, Ronald L

    2008-04-24

    In Drosophila, the neuropeptide PDF is required for circadian rhythmicity, but it is unclear where PDF acts. In this issue of Neuron, Shafer et al. use a novel bioimaging methodology to demonstrate that PDF elevates cAMP in nearly all clock neurons. Thus, PDF apparently exerts more widespread effects on the circadian clock network than suggested by previous studies of PDF receptor expression.

  4. Commercial Database Design vs. Library Terminology Comprehension: Why Do Students Print Abstracts Instead of Full-Text Articles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imler, Bonnie; Eichelberger, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    When asked to print the full text of an article, many undergraduate college students print the abstract instead of the full text. This study seeks to determine the underlying cause(s) of this confusion. In this quantitative study, participants (n = 40) performed five usability tasks to assess ease of use and usefulness of five commercial library…

  5. The photon PDF from high-mass Drell-Yan data at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Giuli, F

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the highest precision for theoretical predictions at the LHC requires the calculation of hard-scattering cross sections that include perturbative QCD corrections up to (N)NNLO and electroweak (EW) corrections up to NLO. Parton distribution functions (PDFs) need to be provided with matching accuracy, which in the case of QED effects involves introducing the photon parton distribution of the proton, [Formula: see text]. In this work a determination of the photon PDF from fits to recent ATLAS measurements of high-mass Drell-Yan dilepton production at [Formula: see text] TeV is presented. This analysis is based on the xFitter framework, and has required improvements both in the APFEL program, to account for NLO QED effects, and in the aMCfast interface to account for the photon-initiated contributions in the EW calculations within MadGraph5_aMC@NLO. The results are compared with other recent QED fits and determinations of the photon PDF, consistent results are found.

  6. An Overview of the NCC Spray/Monte-Carlo-PDF Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper advances the state-of-the-art in spray computations with some of our recent contributions involving scalar Monte Carlo PDF (Probability Density Function), unstructured grids and parallel computing. It provides a complete overview of the scalar Monte Carlo PDF and Lagrangian spray computer codes developed for application with unstructured grids and parallel computing. Detailed comparisons for the case of a reacting non-swirling spray clearly highlight the important role that chemistry/turbulence interactions play in the modeling of reacting sprays. The results from the PDF and non-PDF methods were found to be markedly different and the PDF solution is closer to the reported experimental data. The PDF computations predict that some of the combustion occurs in a predominantly premixed-flame environment and the rest in a predominantly diffusion-flame environment. However, the non-PDF solution predicts wrongly for the combustion to occur in a vaporization-controlled regime. Near the premixed flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows two distinct peaks: one centered around the flame temperature and the other around the surrounding-gas temperature. Near the diffusion flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows a single peak. In both cases, the computed PDF's shape and strength are found to vary substantially depending upon the proximity to the flame surface. The results bring to the fore some of the deficiencies associated with the use of assumed-shape PDF methods in spray computations. Finally, we end the paper by demonstrating the computational viability of the present solution procedure for its use in 3D combustor calculations by summarizing the results of a 3D test case with periodic boundary conditions. For the 3D case, the parallel performance of all the three solvers (CFD, PDF, and spray) has been found to be good when the computations were performed on a 24-processor SGI Origin work-station.

  7. Talking and texting among teenage drivers: a glass half empty or half full?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Natalie P; Goodwin, Arthur H; Foss, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    Cell phone use and text messaging in particular are associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. However, the frequency with which teenagers use cell phones while driving is still largely unknown. The current study obtained self-reported cell phone use behaviors while driving, including text messaging, along with beliefs about these actions, for a sample of licensed teenage drivers. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 1947 high-school-age teens in 2 large metropolitan areas in North Carolina. Questionnaires were completed and returned by 537 teens, of whom 320 had an intermediate or full driver's license. In total, 45 percent of teens reported using a cell phone in some capacity during their most recent trip. Fifteen percent reported that they only talked on a cell phone, 15 percent sent or read a text message only, and 15 percent both talked and texted. More generally, 12 percent of teens reported that they often talked on a cell phone while driving, 4 percent reported that they often initiated a text conversation while driving, 11 percent said that they often replied to texts, and 23 percent often read text messages. Teens reported using several strategies to reduce the risk associated with using a cell phone while driving. Among teens who had ever talked on a cell phone while driving, 47 percent said that they try to keep their conversations short because they are driving. Among teens who had ever texted while driving, approximately half said that they often wait until it feels safe to read and reply to text messages (58% and 47%, respectively). Most teens surveyed reported having talked or read or sent a text message using a cell phone while driving. Somewhat less than half engaged in one of these behaviors the last time they drove. However, many teens reported using strategies to reduce this risk and in certain instances, cell phone nonuse was the normative behavior. Better measurement of the extent and nature of phone use while

  8. Scholarly Electronic Full-Text Publications via the Internet: Issues and Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmin, Linda J.

    1999-01-01

    On-line access to complete texts of scholarly journal articles, conference papers, and books is facilitated by rapidly developing World-wide Web Internet access and capabilities. Meanwhile, print publications continue to be produced and read in spite of the proliferation of many networked electronic publications. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight fundamental issues impacting stakeholder groups, as the trend continues towards migration from paper to affordable ubiquitous networked full-text publications. Librarians, publishers, authors and end-users have various viewpoints, interests, and concerns. There are many issues challenging all stakeholder groups. For instance, all share concerns about administering copyright compliance and enforcing fair use. Uncontrollable electronic downstreaming could result in infringed copyright, while limiting a publisher's entitled revenue stream. Moreover, metered fee-based access may hamper scholarly information research. And, self-authoring on the Internet without peer filtering could lead to information clutter. Many related issues challenge librarians in particular. Among these are rising journal subscription prices, regardless if offered in print or electronic. Some electronic offerings are independent of print, others supplement or duplicate print; several publishers presently require subscribing to print in order to access electronic. Furthermore, numbers of publications are n'ow being marketed via the Internet directly to end-users, which can be viewed as encouraging users to bypass the traditional library. A key issue challenging publishers today is the rapidly expanding electronic user base that is demanding delivery of added-value full-text to desktop computers. Also of growing concern appears to be the decline in print sales to libraries, thereby reducing traditional revenue stream potential. Nowadays, publishers are more hesitant about investing in the production of publications geared toward small niche

  9. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  10. PDF Lecture Materials for Online and ``Flipped'' Format Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kary, D. M.; Eisberg, J.

    2013-04-01

    Online astronomy courses typically rely on students reading the textbook and/or a set of text-based lecture notes to replace the “lecture” material. However, many of our students report that this is much less engaging than in-person lectures, especially given the amount of interactive work such as “think-pair-share” problems done in many astronomy classes. Students have similarly criticized direct lecture-capture. To address this, we have developed a set of PowerPoint-style presentations with embedded lecture audio combined with prompts for student interaction including think-pair-share questions. These are formatted PDF packages that can be used on a range of different computers using free software. The presentations are first developed using Microsoft PowerPoint software. Audio recordings of scripted lectures are then synchronized with the presentations and the entire package is converted to PDF using Adobe Presenter. This approach combines the ease of editing that PowerPoint provides along with the platform-independence of PDF. It's easy to add, remove, or edit individual slides as needed, and PowerPoint supports internal links so that think-pair-share questions can be inserted with links to feedback based on the answers selected. Modern PDF files support animated visuals with synchronized audio and they can be read using widely available free software. Using these files students in an online course can get many of the benefits of seeing and hearing the course material presented in an in-person lecture format. Students needing extra help in traditional lecture classes can use these presentations to help review the materials covered in lecture. Finally, the presentations can be used in a “flipped” format in which students work through the presentations outside of class time while spending the “lecture” time on in-class interaction.

  11. Design and application of PDF model for extracting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In order to change the steps of contributions in editorial department system from two steps to one, this paper advocates that the technology of extracting the information of PDF files should be transplanted from PDF reader into IEEE Xplore contribution system and that it should be combined with uploading in batch skillfully to enable editors to upload PDF files about 1GB in batch for once. Computers will extract the information of the title, author, address, mailbox, abstract and key words of thesis voluntarily for later retrieval so as to save plenty of labor, material and finance for editorial department.

  12. 2 CFR Appendix I to Part 200 - Full Text of Notice of Funding Opportunity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. I Appendix I to Part 200—Full Text of... section whether that section is required in every announcement or is a Federal awarding agency option. The... sections to describe the types of information that a Federal awarding agency would include in that section...

  13. Improvements and new features in the PDF module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses what models are used in this package and what their advantages and disadvantages are, how the probability density function (PDF) model is implemented and the features of the program, and what can be expected in the future from the NASA Lewis PDF code.

  14. Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2008-07-01

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  15. Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF) and change in well-being in older persons.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Angèle A; Comijs, Hannie C; Knipscheer, Kees C; Deeg, Dorly J

    2008-10-01

    It is often assumed that aging is accompanied by diverse and constant functional and cognitive decline, and it is therefore surprising that the well-being of older persons does not appear to decline in the same way. This study investigates longitudinally whether well-being in older persons changes due to Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF). Data were collected in the context of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Conditions of PDF are persistent decline in cognitive functioning, physical functioning and increase in chronic diseases. Measurements of well-being included life satisfaction, positive affect, and valuation of life. T-tests were used to analyse mean difference scores for well-being, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine changes in three well-being outcomes in relation to PDF. Cross-sectional analyses showed significant differences and associations between the two PDF subgroups and non- PDF for well-being at T3. In longitudinal analyses, we found significant decreases in and associations with wellbeing over time in respondents fulfilling one PDF condition (mild PDF). For respondents fulfilling two or more PDF conditions (severe PDF), longitudinally no significant associations were found. Cognitive aspects of well-being (life satisfaction and valuation of life) and the affective element (positive affect) of well-being appear to be influenced negatively by mild PDF, whereas well-being does not seem to be diminished in persons with more severe PDF. This may be due to the ability to accept finally the inevitable situation of severe PDF.

  16. The Protein-Protein Interaction tasks of BioCreative III: classification/ranking of articles and linking bio-ontology concepts to full text.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Vazquez, Miguel; Leitner, Florian; Salgado, David; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Winter, Andrew; Perfetto, Livia; Briganti, Leonardo; Licata, Luana; Iannuccelli, Marta; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni; Tyers, Mike; Schneider, Gerold; Rinaldi, Fabio; Leaman, Robert; Gonzalez, Graciela; Matos, Sergio; Kim, Sun; Wilbur, W John; Rocha, Luis; Shatkay, Hagit; Tendulkar, Ashish V; Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Wang, Xinglong; Rak, Rafal; Noto, Keith; Elkan, Charles; Lu, Zhiyong; Dogan, Rezarta Islamaj; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Valencia, Alfonso

    2011-10-03

    systems against manually generated annotations done by curators from the BioGRID and MINT databases. The highest AUC iP/R achieved by any run was 53%, the best MCC score 0.55. In case of competitive systems with an acceptable recall (above 35%) the macro-averaged precision ranged between 50% and 80%, with a maximum F-Score of 55%. The results of the ACT task of BioCreative III indicate that classification of large unbalanced article collections reflecting the real class imbalance is still challenging. Nevertheless, text-mining tools that report ranked lists of relevant articles for manual selection can potentially reduce the time needed to identify half of the relevant articles to less than 1/4 of the time when compared to unranked results. Detecting associations between full text articles and interaction detection method PSI-MI terms (IMT) is more difficult than might be anticipated. This is due to the variability of method term mentions, errors resulting from pre-processing of articles provided as PDF files, and the heterogeneity and different granularity of method term concepts encountered in the ontology. However, combining the sophisticated techniques developed by the participants with supporting evidence strings derived from the articles for human interpretation could result in practical modules for biological annotation workflows.

  17. The Protein-Protein Interaction tasks of BioCreative III: classification/ranking of articles and linking bio-ontology concepts to full text

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    evaluated by comparing systems against manually generated annotations done by curators from the BioGRID and MINT databases. The highest AUC iP/R achieved by any run was 53%, the best MCC score 0.55. In case of competitive systems with an acceptable recall (above 35%) the macro-averaged precision ranged between 50% and 80%, with a maximum F-Score of 55%. Conclusions The results of the ACT task of BioCreative III indicate that classification of large unbalanced article collections reflecting the real class imbalance is still challenging. Nevertheless, text-mining tools that report ranked lists of relevant articles for manual selection can potentially reduce the time needed to identify half of the relevant articles to less than 1/4 of the time when compared to unranked results. Detecting associations between full text articles and interaction detection method PSI-MI terms (IMT) is more difficult than might be anticipated. This is due to the variability of method term mentions, errors resulting from pre-processing of articles provided as PDF files, and the heterogeneity and different granularity of method term concepts encountered in the ontology. However, combining the sophisticated techniques developed by the participants with supporting evidence strings derived from the articles for human interpretation could result in practical modules for biological annotation workflows. PMID:22151929

  18. A GPU accelerated PDF transparency engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recker, John; Lin, I.-Jong; Tastl, Ingeborg

    2011-01-01

    As commercial printing presses become faster, cheaper and more efficient, so too must the Raster Image Processors (RIP) that prepare data for them to print. Digital press RIPs, however, have been challenged to on the one hand meet the ever increasing print performance of the latest digital presses, and on the other hand process increasingly complex documents with transparent layers and embedded ICC profiles. This paper explores the challenges encountered when implementing a GPU accelerated driver for the open source Ghostscript Adobe PostScript and PDF language interpreter targeted at accelerating PDF transparency for high speed commercial presses. It further describes our solution, including an image memory manager for tiling input and output images and documents, a PDF compatible multiple image layer blending engine, and a GPU accelerated ICC v4 compatible color transformation engine. The result, we believe, is the foundation for a scalable, efficient, distributed RIP system that can meet current and future RIP requirements for a wide range of commercial digital presses.

  19. Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.

    1997-09-01

    A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.

  20. Comparative analysis of Pdf-mediated circadian behaviors between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2009-03-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)'s) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf(01) mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LN(v)-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf(01)-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LN(v)-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LN(v)'s, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LN(d)'s and fifth s-LN(v)) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns.

  1. A Full-Text-Based Search Engine for Finding Highly Matched Documents Across Multiple Categories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report demonstrates the full-text-based search engine that works on any Web-based mobile application. The engine has the capability to search databases across multiple categories based on a user's queries and identify the most relevant or similar. The search results presented here were found using an Android (Google Co.) mobile device; however, it is also compatible with other mobile phones.

  2. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  3. A multi-scalar PDF approach for LES of turbulent spray combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkat; Heye, Colin

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive joint-scalar probability density function (PDF) approach is proposed for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion and tests are conducted to analyze the validity and modeling requirements. The PDF method has the advantage that the chemical source term appears closed but requires models for the small scale mixing process. A stable and consistent numerical algorithm for the LES/PDF approach is presented. To understand the modeling issues in the PDF method, direct numerical simulation of a spray flame at three different fuel droplet Stokes numbers and an equivalent gaseous flame are carried out. Assumptions in closing the subfilter conditional diffusion term in the filtered PDF transport equation are evaluated for various model forms. In addition, the validity of evaporation rate models in high Stokes number flows is analyzed.

  4. [Practical experience about the compatibility of PDF converter in ECG information system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Lu, Weishi; Zhou, Jiacheng

    2009-11-01

    To find a way to view ECG from different manufacturers in electrocardiogram information system. Different format ECG data were transmitted to ECG center by different ways. Corresponding analysis software was used to make the diagnosis reports in the center. Then we use PDF convert to change all ECG reports into PDF format. The electrocardiogram information system manage these PDF format ECG data for clinic user. The ECG reports form several major ECG manufacturers were transformed to PDF format successfully. In the electrocardiogram information system it is freely to view the ECG figure. PDF format ECG report is a practicable way to solve the compatibility problem in electrocardiogram information system.

  5. PDF added value of a high resolution climate simulation for precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2015-04-01

    dynamical downscaling, based on simple PDF skill scores. The measure can assess the full quality of the PDFs and at the same time integrates a flexible manner to weight differently the PDF tails. In this study we apply the referred method to characaterize the PDF added value of a high resolution simulation with the WRF model. Results from a WRF climate simulation centred at the Iberian Penisnula with two nested grids, a larger one at 27km and a smaller one at 9km. This simulation is forced by ERA-Interim. The observational data used covers from rain gauges precipitation records to observational regular grids of daily precipitation. Two regular gridded precipitation datasets are used. A Portuguese grid precipitation dataset developed at 0.2°× 0.2°, from observed rain gauges daily precipitation. A second one corresponding to the ENSEMBLES observational gridded dataset for Europe, which includes daily precipitation values at 0.25°. The analisys shows an important PDF added value from the higher resolution simulation, regarding the full PDF and the extremes. This method shows higher potential to be applied to other simulation exercises and to evaluate other variables.

  6. PDF-modulated visual inputs and cryptochrome define diurnal behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Paola; Klarsfeld, André; Chélot, Elisabeth; Picot, Marie; Richier, Benjamin; Rouyer, François

    2009-11-01

    Morning and evening circadian oscillators control the bimodal activity of Drosophila in light-dark cycles. The lateral neurons evening oscillator (LN-EO) is important for promoting diurnal activity at dusk. We found that the LN-EO autonomously synchronized to light-dark cycles through either the cryptochrome (CRY) that it expressed or the visual system. In conditions in which CRY was not activated, flies depleted for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) or its receptor lost the evening activity and displayed reversed PER oscillations in the LN-EO. Rescue experiments indicated that normal PER cycling and the presence of evening activity relied on PDF secretion from the large ventral lateral neurons and PDF receptor function in the LN-EO. The LN-EO thus integrates light inputs and PDF signaling to control Drosophila diurnal behavior, revealing a new clock-independent function for PDF.

  7. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standardmore » Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.« less

  8. PDF Receptor Expression Reveals Direct Interactions between Circadian Oscillators in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Im, Seol Hee; Taghert, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Daily rhythms of behavior are controlled by a circuit of circadian pacemaking neurons. In Drosophila, 150 pacemakers participate in this network, and recent observations suggest the network is divisible into M and E oscillators which normally interact and synchronize. Sixteen oscillator neurons (the small and large LNvs) express a neuropeptide called pigment dispersing factor (PDF) whose signaling is often equated with M oscillator output. Given the significance of PDF signaling to numerous aspects of behavioral and molecular rhythms, determining precisely where and how signaling via the PDF receptor (PDFR) occurs is now a central question in the field. Here we show that GAL4-mediated rescue of pdfr phenotypes using a UAS-PDFR transgene is insufficient to provide complete behavioral rescue. In contrast, we describe a ~70 kB PDF receptor (pdfr) transgene which does rescue the entire pdfr circadian behavioral phenotype. The transgene is widely but heterogeneously expressed among pacemakers, and also among a limited number of non-pacemakers. Our results support an important hypothesis: the small LNv cells directly target a subset of the other crucial pacemaker neurons cells. Furthermore, expression of the transgene confirms an autocrine feedback signaling by PDF back to PDF-expressing cells. Finally, the results present an unexpected PDF receptor site: the large LNv cells appear to target a population of non-neuronal cells that resides at the base of the eye. PMID:20394051

  9. Statistical Analysis of PDF's for Na Released by Photons from Solid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamborino, D.; Wurz, P.

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the adequacy of three model speed PDF's previously used to describe the desorption of Na from a solid surface either by ESD or PSD. We found that the Maxwell PDF is too wide compared to measurements and non-thermal PDF's are better suited.

  10. Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2011-04-11

    04/15/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-10. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A: Department of Defense Appropriations. Division B: Full-Year Continuing Appropriations, continuing appropriations through 9/30/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Using distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations from full-text scientific articles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wu; Blake, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Databases of curated biomedical knowledge, such as the protein-locations reflected in the UniProtKB database, provide an accurate and useful resource to researchers and decision makers. Our goal is to augment the manual efforts currently used to curate knowledge bases with automated approaches that leverage the increased availability of full-text scientific articles. This paper describes experiments that use distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations, which are important to understand protein function and to identify candidate drug targets. Experiments consider Swiss-Prot, the manually annotated subset of the UniProtKB protein knowledge base, and 43,000 full-text articles from the Journal of Biological Chemistry that contain just under 11.5 million sentences. The system achieves 0.81 precision and 0.49 recall at sentence level and an accuracy of 57% on held-out instances in a test set. Moreover, the approach identifies 8210 instances that are not in the UniProtKB knowledge base. Manual inspection of the 50 most likely relations showed that 41 (82%) were valid. These results have immediate benefit to researchers interested in protein function, and suggest that distant supervision should be explored to complement other manual data curation efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

    1998-01-01

    Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL. PMID:9681165

  13. Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.

    PubMed

    Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

    1998-07-01

    Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL.

  14. Evaluation of the reproducibility of lung motion probability distribution function (PDF) using dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Read, Paul W; Altes, Talissa A; Molloy, Janelle A; Brookeman, James R; Sheng, Ke

    2007-01-21

    Treatment planning based on probability distribution function (PDF) of patient geometries has been shown a potential off-line strategy to incorporate organ motion, but the application of such approach highly depends upon the reproducibility of the PDF. In this paper, we investigated the dependences of the PDF reproducibility on the imaging acquisition parameters, specifically the scan time and the frame rate. Three healthy subjects underwent a continuous 5 min magnetic resonance (MR) scan in the sagittal plane with a frame rate of approximately 10 f s-1, and the experiments were repeated with an interval of 2 to 3 weeks. A total of nine pulmonary vessels from different lung regions (upper, middle and lower) were tracked and the dependences of their displacement PDF reproducibility were evaluated as a function of scan time and frame rate. As results, the PDF reproducibility error decreased with prolonged scans and appeared to approach equilibrium state in subjects 2 and 3 within the 5 min scan. The PDF accuracy increased in the power function with the increase of frame rate; however, the PDF reproducibility showed less sensitivity to frame rate presumably due to the randomness of breathing which dominates the effects. As the key component of the PDF-based treatment planning, the reproducibility of the PDF affects the dosimetric accuracy substantially. This study provides a reference for acquiring MR-based PDF of structures in the lung.

  15. Database citation in supplementary data linked to Europe PubMed Central full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Pi, Xingjun; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of data citation practices in full text research articles and their corresponding supplementary data files, made available in the Open Access set of articles from Europe PubMed Central. Our aim is to investigate whether supplementary data files should be considered as a source of information for integrating the literature with biomolecular databases. Using text-mining methods to identify and extract a variety of core biological database accession numbers, we found that the supplemental data files contain many more database citations than the body of the article, and that those citations often take the form of a relatively small number of articles citing large collections of accession numbers in text-based files. Moreover, citation of value-added databases derived from submission databases (such as Pfam, UniProt or Ensembl) is common, demonstrating the reuse of these resources as datasets in themselves. All the database accession numbers extracted from the supplementary data are publicly accessible from http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11771. Our study suggests that supplementary data should be considered when linking articles with data, in curation pipelines, and in information retrieval tasks in order to make full use of the entire research article. These observations highlight the need to improve the management of supplemental data in general, in order to make this information more discoverable and useful.

  16. PDF receptor expression reveals direct interactions between circadian oscillators in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Im, Seol Hee; Taghert, Paul H

    2010-06-01

    Daily rhythms of behavior are controlled by a circuit of circadian pacemaking neurons. In Drosophila, 150 pacemakers participate in this network, and recent observations suggest that the network is divisible into M and E oscillators, which normally interact and synchronize. Sixteen oscillator neurons (the small and large lateral neurons [LNvs]) express a neuropeptide called pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) whose signaling is often equated with M oscillator output. Given the significance of PDF signaling to numerous aspects of behavioral and molecular rhythms, determining precisely where and how signaling via the PDF receptor (PDFR) occurs is now a central question in the field. Here we show that GAL4-mediated rescue of pdfr phenotypes using a UAS-PDFR transgene is insufficient to provide complete behavioral rescue. In contrast, we describe a approximately 70-kB PDF receptor (pdfr) transgene that does rescue the entire pdfr circadian behavioral phenotype. The transgene is widely but heterogeneously expressed among pacemakers, and also among a limited number of non-pacemakers. Our results support an important hypothesis: the small LNv cells directly target a subset of the other crucial pacemaker neurons cells. Furthermore, expression of the transgene confirms an autocrine feedback signaling by PDF back to PDF-expressing cells. Finally, the results present an unexpected PDF receptor site: the large LNv cells appear to target a population of non-neuronal cells that resides at the base of the eye. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. On the Creation of Hypertext Links in Full-Text Documents: Measurement of Inter-Linker Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which several different sets of hypertext links are inserted by different people in full-text documents. The degree of similarity between the sets is measured using coefficients and topological indices. As in comparable studies of inter-indexer consistency, the sets of links used by different people showed little similarity.…

  18. PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng

    1993-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.

  19. Mmp1 processing of the PDF neuropeptide regulates circadian structural plasticity of pacemaker neurons.

    PubMed

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Agata; Gorostiza, E Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M; Ceriani, M Fernanda

    2014-10-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior.

  20. Mmp1 Processing of the PDF Neuropeptide Regulates Circadian Structural Plasticity of Pacemaker Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Ágata; Gorostiza, E. Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Ceriani, M. Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior. PMID:25356918

  1. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Seluzicki, Adam; Flourakis, Matthieu; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Zhang, Luoying; Kilman, Valerie; Allada, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and PDF(-) circadian pacemaker neurons and controlling pacemaker neuron output. Yet the mechanisms by which PDF functions are not clear. We demonstrate that genetic inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in PDF(-) clock neurons can phenocopy PDF mutants while activated PKA can partially rescue PDF receptor mutants. PKA subunit transcripts are also under clock control in non-PDF DN1p neurons. To address the core clock target of PDF, we rescued per in PDF neurons of arrhythmic per⁰¹ mutants. PDF neuron rescue induced high amplitude rhythms in the clock component TIMELESS (TIM) in per-less DN1p neurons. Complete loss of PDF or PKA inhibition also results in reduced TIM levels in non-PDF neurons of per⁰¹ flies. To address how PDF impacts pacemaker neuron output, we focally applied PDF to DN1p neurons and found that it acutely depolarizes and increases firing rates of DN1p neurons. Surprisingly, these effects are reduced in the presence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, yet persist in the presence of PKA inhibition. We have provided evidence for a signaling mechanism (PKA) and a molecular target (TIM) by which PDF resets and synchronizes clocks and demonstrates an acute direct excitatory effect of PDF on target neurons to control neuronal output. The identification of TIM as a target of PDF signaling suggests it is a multimodal integrator of cell autonomous clock, environmental light, and neural network signaling. Moreover, these data reveal a bifurcation of PKA-dependent clock effects and PKA-independent output effects. Taken together, our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for the dual functions of PDF in clock resetting and pacemaker output.

  2. Dual PDF Signaling Pathways Reset Clocks Via TIMELESS and Acutely Excite Target Neurons to Control Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seluzicki, Adam; Flourakis, Matthieu; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Zhang, Luoying; Kilman, Valerie; Allada, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and PDF(−) circadian pacemaker neurons and controlling pacemaker neuron output. Yet the mechanisms by which PDF functions are not clear. We demonstrate that genetic inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in PDF(−) clock neurons can phenocopy PDF mutants while activated PKA can partially rescue PDF receptor mutants. PKA subunit transcripts are also under clock control in non-PDF DN1p neurons. To address the core clock target of PDF, we rescued per in PDF neurons of arrhythmic per01 mutants. PDF neuron rescue induced high amplitude rhythms in the clock component TIMELESS (TIM) in per-less DN1p neurons. Complete loss of PDF or PKA inhibition also results in reduced TIM levels in non-PDF neurons of per01 flies. To address how PDF impacts pacemaker neuron output, we focally applied PDF to DN1p neurons and found that it acutely depolarizes and increases firing rates of DN1p neurons. Surprisingly, these effects are reduced in the presence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, yet persist in the presence of PKA inhibition. We have provided evidence for a signaling mechanism (PKA) and a molecular target (TIM) by which PDF resets and synchronizes clocks and demonstrates an acute direct excitatory effect of PDF on target neurons to control neuronal output. The identification of TIM as a target of PDF signaling suggests it is a multimodal integrator of cell autonomous clock, environmental light, and neural network signaling. Moreover, these data reveal a bifurcation of PKA-dependent clock effects and PKA-independent output effects. Taken together, our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for the dual functions of PDF in clock resetting and pacemaker output. PMID:24643294

  3. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-07-01

    Discrete clusters of circadian clock neurons temporally organize daily behaviors such as sleep and wake. In Drosophila, a network of just 150 neurons drives two peaks of timed activity in the morning and evening. A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions. Yet, how PDF acts on downstream circuits to mediate rhythmic behavior is unknown. Using circuit-directed rescue of PDF receptor mutants, we show that PDF targeting of just approximately 30 non-PDF evening circadian neurons is sufficient to drive morning behavior. This function is not accompanied by large changes in core molecular oscillators in light-dark, indicating that PDF RECEPTOR likely regulates the output of these cells under these conditions. We find that PDF also acts on this focused set of non-PDF neurons to regulate both evening activity phase and period length, consistent with modest resetting effects on core oscillators. PDF likely acts on more distributed pacemaker neuron targets, including the PDF neurons themselves, to regulate rhythmic strength. Here we reveal defining features of the circuit-diagram for PDF peptide function in circadian behavior, revealing the direct neuronal targets of PDF as well as its behavioral functions at those sites. These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors.

  4. E AND M CIRCADIAN PACEMAKER NEURONS USE DIFFERENT PDF RECEPTOR SIGNALOSOME COMPONENTS IN DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    We used real-time imaging to detect cAMP levels in neurons of intact fly brains to study mechanisms of circadian pacemaker synchronization by the neuropeptide PDF in Drosophila. PDF receptor (PDF-R) is expressed by both M (sLNv) and E (LNd) pacemaker sub-classes and is coupled to Gsα in both cases. We previously reported that PDF-R in M pacemakers elevates cAMP levels by activating the ortholog of mammalian Adenylate Cyclase 3 (AC3), but that AC3 disruptions had no effect on E pacemaker sensitivity to PDF. Here we show that PDF-R in E pacemakers activates a different AC isoform, AC78C, an ortholog of mammalian AC8. Knockdown of AC78C by transgenic RNAi substantially reduces, but does not completely abrogate, PDF responses in these E pacemakers. The knockdown effect is intact when restricted to mature stages, suggesting a physiological and not a development role for AC78C in E pacemakers. The AC78C phenotype is rescued by over-expression of AC78C, but not by over-expression of the rutabaga AC. AC78C over-expression does not disrupt PDF responses in these E pacemakers, and neither AC78C knockdown nor its over-expression disrupted locomotor rhythms. Finally, knockdown of two AKAPs, nervy and AKAP 200 partially reduces LNd PDF responses. These findings begin to identify the components of E pacemaker PDF-R signalosomes and indicate they are distinct from PDF-R signalosomes in M pacemakers: we propose they contain AC78C and at least one other AC. PMID:23929551

  5. E and M circadian pacemaker neurons use different PDF receptor signalosome components in drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Laura B; Taghert, Paul H

    2013-08-01

    We used real-time imaging to detect cAMP levels in neurons of intact fly brains to study the mechanisms of circadian pacemaker synchronization by the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) in Drosophila. PDF receptor (PDF-R) is expressed by both M (sLNv) and E (LNd) pacemaker subclasses and is coupled to G(sα) in both cases. We previously reported that PDF-R in M pacemakers elevates cAMP levels by activating the ortholog of mammalian adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) but that AC3 disruptions had no effect on E pacemaker sensitivity to PDF. Here, we show that PDF-R in E pacemakers activates a different AC isoform, AC78C, an ortholog of mammalian AC8. Knockdown of AC78C by transgenic RNAi substantially reduces, but does not completely abrogate, PDF responses in these E pacemakers. The knockdown effect is intact when restricted to mature stages, suggesting a physiological and not a development role for AC78C in E pacemakers. The AC78C phenotype is rescued by the overexpression of AC78C but not by overexpression of the rutabaga AC. AC78C overexpression does not disrupt PDF responses in these E pacemakers, and neither AC78C knockdown nor its overexpression disrupted locomotor rhythms. Finally, knockdown of 2 AKAPs, nervy and AKAP200, partially reduces LNd PDF responses. These findings begin to identify the components of E pacemaker PDF-R signalosomes and indicate that they are distinct from PDF-R signalosomes in M pacemakers: we propose they contain AC78C and at least 1 other AC.

  6. [Exploration and construction of the full-text database of acupuncture literature in the Republic of China].

    PubMed

    Fei, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Leng, Jiahao; Zhang, Shujian

    2017-10-12

    The ALIPORC full-text database is targeted at a specific full-text database of acupuncture literature in the Republic of China. Starting in 2015, till now, the database has been getting completed, focusing on books relevant with acupuncture, articles and advertising documents, accomplished or published in the Republic of China. The construction of this database aims to achieve the source sharing of acupuncture medical literature in the Republic of China through the retrieval approaches to diversity and accurate content presentation, contributes to the exchange of scholars, reduces the paper damage caused by paging and simplify the retrieval of the rare literature. The writers have made the explanation of the database in light of sources, characteristics and current situation of construction; and have discussed on improving the efficiency and integrity of the database and deepening the development of acupuncture literature in the Republic of China.

  7. PDF receptor signaling in Drosophila contributes to both circadian and geotactic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Inge; Vandingenen, Anick; Johnson, Erik C; Shafer, Orie T; Li, W; Trigg, J S; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Taghert, Paul H

    2005-10-20

    The neuropeptide Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is a principle transmitter regulating circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila. We have identified a Class II (secretin-related) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is specifically responsive to PDF and also to calcitonin-like peptides and to PACAP. In response to PDF, the PDF receptor (PDFR) elevates cAMP levels when expressed in HEK293 cells. As predicted by in vivo studies, cotransfection of Neurofibromatosis Factor 1 significantly improves coupling of PDFR to adenylate cyclase. pdfr mutant flies display increased circadian arrhythmicity, and also display altered geotaxis that is epistatic to that of pdf mutants. PDFR immunosignals are expressed by diverse neurons, but only by a small subset of circadian pacemakers. These data establish the first synapse within the Drosophila circadian neural circuit and underscore the importance of Class II peptide GPCR signaling in circadian neural systems.

  8. An assumed joint-Beta PDF approach for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Alexopoulos, G. A.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent experiment, Cheng et al. (1991) used ultraviolet spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence techniques for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of O2, H2, H2O, OH, and N2 (and their rms) in supersonic turbulent reacting shear layers. Because present computational techniques are not suited for prediction of all of the above measurements, a new approach has been developed and is being used to predict all relevant flow properties and their rms (where appropriate). The approach explores the use of a joint-Beta PDF for concentrations. It was found that the general expression of this PDF was impractical because of decoding problems resulting from determining the various parameters of the PDF. Thus, a special case of this general expression was considered. Calculations using this simplified version of the joint-Beta PDF were not consistent with the available data from the experiment.

  9. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  10. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  11. Blocking endocytosis in Drosophila's circadian pacemaker neurons interferes with the endogenous clock in a PDF-dependent way.

    PubMed

    Wülbeck, Corinna; Grieshaber, Eva; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2009-10-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) plays an essential role in the circadian clock of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, but many details of PDF signaling in the clock network are still unknown. We tried to interfere with PDF signaling by blocking the GTPase Shibire in PDF neurons. Shibire is an ortholog of the mammalian Dynamins and is essential for endocytosis of clathrin-coated vesicles at the plasma membrane. Such endocytosis is used for neurotransmitter reuptake by presynaptic neurons, which is a prerequisite of synaptic vesicle recycling, and receptor-mediated endocytosis in the postsynaptic neuron, which leads to signal termination. By blocking Shibire function via overexpression of a dominant negative mutant form of Shibire in PDF neurons, we slowed down the behavioral rhythm by 3 h. This effect was absent in PDF receptor null mutants, indicating that we interfered with PDF receptor-mediated endocytosis. Because we obtained similar behavioral phenotypes by increasing the PDF level in regions close to PDF neurons, we conclude that blocking Shibire did prolong PDF signaling in the neurons that respond to PDF. Obviously, terminating the PDF signaling via receptor-mediated endocytosis is a crucial step in determining the period of behavioral rhythms.

  12. Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Johnson, Erik C; Audsley, Neil; Shirras, Alan D

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies have firmly established pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a C-terminally amidated octodecapeptide, as a key neurotransmitter regulating rhythmic circadian locomotory behaviours in adult Drosophila melanogaster. The mechanisms by which PDF functions as a circadian peptide transmitter are not fully understood, however; in particular, nothing is known about the role of extracellular peptidases in terminating PDF signalling at synapses. In this study we show that PDF is susceptible to hydrolysis by neprilysin, an endopeptidase that is enriched in synaptic membranes of mammals and insects. Neprilysin cleaves PDF at the internal Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond to generate PDF1-7 and PDF8-18. Neither of these fragments were able to increase intracellular cAMP levels in HEK293 cells cotransfected with the Drosophila PDF receptor cDNA and a firefly luciferase reporter gene, confirming that such cleavage results in PDF inactivation. The Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond was also the principal cleavage site when PDF was incubated with membranes prepared from heads of adult Drosophila. This endopeptidase activity was inhibited by the neprilysin inhibitors phosphoramidon (IC(50,) 0.15 micromol l(-1)) and thiorphan (IC(50,) 1.2 micromol l(-1)). We propose that cleavage by a member of the Drosophila neprilysin family of endopeptidases is the most likely mechanism for inactivating synaptic PDF and that neprilysin might have an important role in regulating PDF signals within circadian neural circuits.

  13. Cross-reference identification within a PDF document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sida; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-references, such like footnotes, endnotes, figure/table captions, references, are a common and useful type of page elements to further explain their corresponding entities in the target document. In this paper, we focus on cross-reference identification in a PDF document, and present a robust method as a case study of identifying footnotes and figure references. The proposed method first extracts footnotes and figure captions, and then matches them with their corresponding references within a document. A number of novel features within a PDF document, i.e., page layout, font information, lexical and linguistic features of cross-references, are utilized for the task. Clustering is adopted to handle the features that are stable in one document but varied in different kinds of documents so that the process of identification is adaptive with document types. In addition, this method leverages results from the matching process to provide feedback to the identification process and further improve the algorithm accuracy. The primary experiments in real document sets show that the proposed method is promising to identify cross-reference in a PDF document.

  14. A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.

  15. Improved biocompatibility of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF is not related to pH.

    PubMed

    Zareie, Mohammad; Keuning, Eelco D; ter Wee, Piet M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Beelen, Robert H J; van den Born, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Chronic exposure to conventional peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) is associated with functional and structural alterations of the peritoneal membrane. The bioincompatibility of conventional PDF can be due to hypertonicity, high glucose concentration, lactate buffering system, presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs) and/or acidic pH. Although various investigators have studied the sole effects of hyperosmolarity, high glucose, GDPs and lactate buffer in experimental PD, less attention has been paid to the chronic impact of low pH in vivo. Rats received daily 10 ml of either conventional lactate-buffered PDF (pH 5.2; n=7), a standard bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF with physiological pH (n=8), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF with acidic pH (adjusted to pH 5.2 with 1 N hydrochloride, n=5), or bicarbonate/lactate buffer, without glucose, pH 7.4 (n=7). Fluids were instilled via peritoneal catheters connected to implanted subcutaneous mini vascular access ports for 8 weeks. Control animals with or without peritoneal catheters served as control groups (n=8/group). Various functional (2 h PET) and morphological/cellular parameters were analyzed. Compared with control groups and the buffer group, conventional lactate-buffered PDF induced a number of morphological/cellular changes, including angiogenesis and fibrosis in various peritoneal tissues (all parameters P<0.05), accompanied by increased glucose absorption and reduced ultrafiltration capacity. Daily exposure to standard or acidified bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF improved the performance of the peritoneal membrane, evidenced by reduced new vessel formation in omentum (P<0.02) and parietal peritoneum (P<0.008), reduced fibrosis (P<0.02) and improved ultrafiltration capacity. No significant differences were found between standard and acidified bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF. During PET, acidic PDF was neutralized within 15 to 20 min. The bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF, acidity per se did not contribute

  16. Comparing data accuracy between structured abstracts and full-text journal articles: implications in their use for informing clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Gavino, Alex; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis

    2013-12-01

    The abstract is the most frequently read section of a research article. The use of 'Consensus Abstracts', a clinician-oriented web application formatted for mobile devices to search MEDLINE/PubMed, for informing clinical decisions was proposed recently; however, inaccuracies between abstracts and the full-text article have been shown. Efforts have been made to improve quality. We compared data in 60 recent-structured abstracts and full-text articles from six highly read medical journals. Data inaccuracies were identified and then classified as either clinically significant or not significant. Data inaccuracies were observed in 53.33% of articles ranging from 3.33% to 45% based on the IMRAD format sections. The Results section showed the highest discrepancies (45%) although these were deemed to be mostly not significant clinically except in one. The two most common discrepancies were mismatched numbers or percentages (11.67%) and numerical data or calculations found in structured abstracts but not mentioned in the full text (40%). There was no significant relationship between journals and the presence of discrepancies (Fisher's exact p value =0.3405). Although we found a high percentage of inaccuracy between structured abstracts and full-text articles, these were not significant clinically. The inaccuracies do not seem to affect the conclusion and interpretation overall. Structured abstracts appear to be informative and may be useful to practitioners as a resource for guiding clinical decisions.

  17. A Lagrangian mixing frequency model for transported PDF modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeri, Hasret; Zhao, Xinyu

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a Lagrangian mixing frequency model is proposed for molecular mixing models within the framework of transported probability density function (PDF) methods. The model is based on the dissipations of mixture fraction and progress variables obtained from Lagrangian particles in PDF methods. The new model is proposed as a remedy to the difficulty in choosing the optimal model constant parameters when using conventional mixing frequency models. The model is implemented in combination with the Interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) mixing model. The performance of the new model is examined by performing simulations of Sandia Flame D and the turbulent premixed flame from the Cambridge stratified flame series. The simulations are performed using the pdfFOAM solver which is a LES/PDF solver developed entirely in OpenFOAM. A 16-species reduced mechanism is used to represent methane/air combustion, and in situ adaptive tabulation is employed to accelerate the finite-rate chemistry calculations. The results are compared with experimental measurements as well as with the results obtained using conventional mixing frequency models. Dynamic mixing frequencies are predicted using the new model without solving additional transport equations, and good agreement with experimental data is observed.

  18. PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.

  19. Functional PDF Signaling in the Drosophila Circadian Neural Circuit Is Gated by Ral A-Dependent Modulation.

    PubMed

    Klose, Markus; Duvall, Laura; Li, Weihua; Liang, Xitong; Ren, Chi; Steinbach, Joe Henry; Taghert, Paul H

    2016-05-18

    The neuropeptide PDF promotes the normal sequencing of circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We report daily rhythmicity in responsiveness to PDF in critical pacemakers called small LNvs. There is a daily change in potency, as great as 10-fold higher, around dawn. The rhythm persists in constant darkness and does not require endogenous ligand (PDF) signaling or rhythmic receptor gene transcription. Furthermore, rhythmic responsiveness reflects the properties of the pacemaker cell type, not the receptor. Dopamine responsiveness also cycles, in phase with that of PDF, in the same pacemakers, but does not cycle in large LNv. The activity of RalA GTPase in s-LNv regulates PDF responsiveness and behavioral locomotor rhythms. Additionally, cell-autonomous PDF signaling reversed the circadian behavioral effects of lowered RalA activity. Thus, RalA activity confers high PDF responsiveness, providing a daily gate around the dawn hours to promote functional PDF signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional PDF Signaling in the Drosophila Circadian Neural Circuit is Gated by Ral A-Dependent Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xitong; Ren, Chi; Steinbach, Joe Henry; Taghert, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF promotes the normal sequencing of circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We report daily rhythmicity in responsiveness to PDF in critical pacemakers called small LNvs. There is a daily change in potency, as great as 10-fold higher, around dawn. The rhythm persists in constant darkness, does not require endogenous ligand (PDF) signaling, or rhythmic receptor gene transcription. Furthermore, rhythmic responsiveness reflects the properties of the pacemaker cell type, not the receptor. Dopamine responsiveness also cycles, in phase with that of PDF, in the same pacemakers, but does not cycle in large LNv. The activity of RalA GTPase in s-LNv regulates PDF responsiveness and behavioral locomotor rhythms. Additional, cell autonomous PDF signaling reversed the circadian behavioral effects of lowered RalA activity. Thus RalA activity confers high PDF responsiveness, providing a daily gate around the dawn hours to promote functional PDF signaling. PMID:27161526

  1. A hybrid Reynolds averaged/PDF closure model for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, Steven H.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    1990-01-01

    A hybrid Reynolds averaged/assumed pdf approach has been developed and applied to the study of turbulent combustion in a supersonic mixing layer. This approach is used to address the 'laminar-like' treatment of the thermochemical terms that appear in the conservation equations. Calculations were carried out for two experiments involving H2-air supersonic turbulent mixing. Two different forms of the pdf were implemented. In general, the results show modest improvement from previous calculations. Moreover, the results appear to be somewhat independent of the form of the assumed pdf.

  2. The CRYPTOCHROME photoreceptor gates PDF neuropeptide signaling to set circadian network hierarchy in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoying; Lear, Bridget C; Seluzicki, Adam; Allada, Ravi

    2009-12-15

    Circadian clocks in the brain are organized as coupled oscillators that integrate seasonal cues such as light and temperature to time daily behaviors. In Drosophila, the PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) neuropeptide-expressing morning (M) and non-PDF evening (E) cells are coupled cell groups important for morning and evening behavior, respectively. Depending on day length, either M cells (short days) or E cells (long days) dictate both the morning and the evening phase, a phenomenon that we term network hierarchy. To examine the role of PDF in light-dark conditions, we examined flies lacking both the PDF receptor (PDFR) and the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). We found that subsets of E cells exhibit molecular oscillations antiphase to those of wild-type flies, single cry mutants, or single Pdfr mutants, demonstrating a potent role for PDF in light-mediated entrainment, specifically in the absence of CRY. Moreover, we find that the evening behavioral phase is more strongly reset by PDF(+) M cells in the absence of CRY. On the basis of our findings, we propose that CRY can gate PDF signaling to determine behavioral phase and network hierarchy.

  3. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Emery, Patrick

    2013-04-10

    The neuropeptide PDF is crucial for Drosophila circadian behavior: it keeps circadian neurons synchronized. Here, we identify GW182 as a key regulator of PDF signaling. Indeed, GW182 downregulation results in phenotypes similar to those of Pdf and Pdf-receptor (Pdfr) mutants. gw182 genetically interacts with Pdfr and cAMP signaling, which is essential for PDFR function. GW182 mediates miRNA-dependent gene silencing through its interaction with AGO1. Consistently, GW182's AGO1 interaction domain is required for GW182's circadian function. Moreover, our results indicate that GW182 modulates PDFR signaling by silencing the expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase DUNCE. Importantly, this repression is under photic control, and GW182 activity level--which is limiting in circadian neurons--influences the responses of the circadian neural network to light. We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-Receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Emery, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is crucial for Drosophila circadian behavior: it keeps circadian neurons synchronized. Here, we identify GW182 as a key regulator of PDF signaling. Indeed, GW182 downregulation results in phenotypes similar to those of Pdf and Pdf-receptor (Pdfr) mutants. gw182 genetically interacts with Pdfr and cAMP signaling, which is essential for PDFR function. GW182 mediates miRNA-dependent gene silencing through its interaction with AGO1. Consistently, GW182's AGO1 interaction domain is required for GW182's circadian function. Moreover, our results indicate that GW182 modulates PDFR signaling by silencing the expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase DUNCE. Importantly, this repression is under photic control, and GW182 activity level - which is limiting in circadian neurons - influences the responses of the circadian neural network to light. We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling, and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. PMID:23583112

  5. Direct photon production and PDF fits reloaded

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, John M.; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma; ...

    2018-06-09

    Direct photon production in hadronic collisions provides a handle on the gluon PDF by means of the QCD Compton scattering process. In this work we revisit the impact of direct photon production on a global PDF analysis, motivated by the recent availability of the next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculation for this process. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NNLO QCD and leading-logarithmic electroweak corrections leads to a good quantitative agreement with the ATLAS measurements at 8 and 13 TeV, except for the most forward rapidity region in the former case. By including the ATLAS 8 TeV direct photon production data in themore » NNPDF3.1 NNLO global analysis, we assess its impact on the medium-x gluon. We also study the constraining power of the direct photon production measurements on PDF fits based on different datasets, in particular on the NNPDF3.1 no-LHC and collider-only fits. Here, we also present updated NNLO theoretical predictions for direct photon production at 13 TeV that include the constraints from the 8 TeV measurements.« less

  6. Direct photon production and PDF fits reloaded

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma

    Direct photon production in hadronic collisions provides a handle on the gluon PDF by means of the QCD Compton scattering process. In this work we revisit the impact of direct photon production on a global PDF analysis, motivated by the recent availability of the next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculation for this process. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NNLO QCD and leading-logarithmic electroweak corrections leads to a good quantitative agreement with the ATLAS measurements at 8 and 13 TeV, except for the most forward rapidity region in the former case. By including the ATLAS 8 TeV direct photon production data in themore » NNPDF3.1 NNLO global analysis, we assess its impact on the medium-x gluon. We also study the constraining power of the direct photon production measurements on PDF fits based on different datasets, in particular on the NNPDF3.1 no-LHC and collider-only fits. Here, we also present updated NNLO theoretical predictions for direct photon production at 13 TeV that include the constraints from the 8 TeV measurements.« less

  7. Direct photon production and PDF fits reloaded

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma

    2018-02-08

    Direct photon production in hadronic collisions provides a handle on the gluon PDF by means of the QCD Compton scattering process. In this work we revisit the impact of direct photon production on a global PDF analysis, motivated by the recent availability of the next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculation for this process. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NNLO QCD and leading-logarithmic electroweak corrections leads to a good quantitative agreement with the ATLAS measurements at 8 TeV and 13 TeV, except for the most forward rapidity region in the former case. By including the ATLAS 8 TeV direct photon production data inmore » the NNPDF3.1 NNLO global analysis, we assess its impact on the medium-x gluon. We also study the constraining power of the direct photon production measurements on PDF fits based on different datasets, in particular on the NNPDF3.1 no-LHC and collider-only fits. We also present updated NNLO theoretical predictions for direct photon production at 13 TeV that include the constraints from the 8 TeV measurements.« less

  8. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with a multivariate beta PDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent calculations of turbulent supersonic reacting shear flows using an assumed multivariate beta PDF (probability density function) resulted in reduced production rates and a delay in the onset of combustion. This result is not consistent with available measurements. The present research explores two possible reasons for this behavior: use of PDF's that do not yield Favre averaged quantities, and the gradient diffusion assumption. A new multivariate beta PDF involving species densities is introduced which makes it possible to compute Favre averaged mass fractions. However, using this PDF did not improve comparisons with experiment. A countergradient diffusion model is then introduced. Preliminary calculations suggest this to be the cause of the discrepancy.

  9. A New LES/PDF Method for Computational Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeri, Hasret; Muradoglu, Metin; Pope, Stephen B.

    2013-11-01

    A new LES/PDF method is developed for computational modeling of turbulent reacting flows. The open source package, OpenFOAM, is adopted as the LES solver and combined with the particle-based Monte Carlo method to solve the LES/PDF model equations. The dynamic Smagorinsky model is employed to account for the subgrid-scale motions. The LES solver is first validated for the Sandia Flame D using a steady flamelet method in which the chemical compositions, density and temperature fields are parameterized by the mean mixture fraction and its variance. In this approach, the modeled transport equations for the mean mixture fraction and the square of the mixture fraction are solved and the variance is then computed from its definition. The results are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Then the LES solver is combined with the particle-based Monte Carlo algorithm to form a complete solver for the LES/PDF model equations. The in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm is incorporated into the LES/PDF method for efficient implementation of detailed chemical kinetics. The LES/PDF method is also applied to the Sandia Flame D using the GRI-Mech 3.0 chemical mechanism and the results are compared with the experimental data and the earlier PDF simulations. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Grant No. 111M067.

  10. The GABAA Receptor RDL Acts in Peptidergic PDF Neurons to Promote Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Brian Y.; Kilman, Valerie L.; Keath, J. Russel; Pitman, Jena L.; Allada, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Sleep is regulated by a circadian clock that largely times sleep and wake to occur at specific times of day and a sleep homeostat that drives sleep as a function of duration of prior wakefulness[1]. To better understand the role of the circadian clock in sleep regulation, we have been using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster[2]. Fruit flies display all of the core behavioral features of sleep including relative immobility, elevated arousal thresholds and homeostatic regulation[2, 3]. We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of 20 circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that PDF neuron ablation, loss of pdf or its receptor pdfr results in increased sleep during the late night in light:dark (LD) conditions and more prominent increases on the first subjective day of constant darkness (DD). Flies deploy similar genetic and neurotransmitter pathways to regulate sleep as their mammalian counterparts, including GABA[4]. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of the GABAA receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons, reduced sleep consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function. Patch clamp electrophysiology reveals GABA-activated picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents on PDF+ neurons. In addition, RDL is detectable most strongly on the large subset of PDF+ pacemaker neurons. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition of arousal promoting PDF neurons is an important mode of sleep-wake regulation in vivo. PMID:19230663

  11. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-06-17

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY.

  12. The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Laura B; Taghert, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude. The PDF receptor (PDF-R) is present in both M and subsets of E cells. Activation of PDF-R stimulates cAMP increases in vitro and in M cells in vivo. The present study asks: What is the identity of downstream signaling components that are associated with PDF receptor in specific circadian pacemaker neurons? Using live imaging of intact fly brains and transgenic RNAi, we show that adenylate cyclase AC3 underlies PDF signaling in M cells. Genetic disruptions of AC3 specifically disrupt PDF responses: they do not affect other Gs-coupled GPCR signaling in M cells, they can be rescued, and they do not represent developmental alterations. Knockdown of the Drosophila AKAP-like scaffolding protein Nervy also reduces PDF responses. Flies with AC3 alterations show behavioral syndromes consistent with known roles of M pacemakers as mediated by PDF. Surprisingly, disruption of AC3 does not alter PDF responses in E cells--the PDF-R(+) LNd. Within M pacemakers, PDF-R couples preferentially to a single AC, but PDF-R association with a different AC(s) is needed to explain PDF signaling in the E pacemakers. Thus critical pathways of circadian synchronization are mediated by highly specific second messenger components. These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into "circadian signalosomes," whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types.

  13. Using Interactive 3D PDF for Exploring Complex Biomedical Data: Experiences and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for the exchange of electronic documents. A lesser-known feature of PDF is the possibility to embed three-dimensional models and to display these models interactively with a qualified reader. This technology is well suited to present, to explore and to communicate complex biomedical data. This applies in particular for data which would suffer from a loss of information if it was reduced to a static two-dimensional projection. In this article, we present applications of 3D PDF for selected scholarly and clinical use cases in the biomedical domain. Furthermore, we present a sophisticated tool for the generation of respective PDF documents.

  14. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    DOE PAGES

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; ...

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths aremore » $$\\Delta z=0.1$$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.« less

  15. Non-Gaussian PDF Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwolf, Alexander; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate properties of the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the exterior of a supersonic transport aircraft. It is shown that fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for surface conditions having no significant discontinuities. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations upstream of forward-facing step discontinuities and downstream of aft-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. Various analytical PDF distributions are used and further developed to model this behavior.

  16. Progress in the development of PDF turbulence models for combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    A combined Monte Carlo-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) algorithm was developed recently at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for turbulent reacting flows. In this algorithm, conventional CFD schemes are employed to obtain the velocity field and other velocity related turbulent quantities, and a Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve the evolution equation for the probability density function (pdf) of species mass fraction and temperature. In combustion computations, the predictions of chemical reaction rates (the source terms in the species conservation equation) are poor if conventional turbulence modles are used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature produces excessively large errors. Moment closure models for the source terms have attained only limited success. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative at the present time that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus may be the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. Assumed pdf's are useful in simple problems; however, for more general combustion problems, the solution of an evolution equation for the pdf is necessary.

  17. Handling a Collection of PDF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You have several options for making a large collection of PDF documents more accessible to your audience: avoid uploading altogether, use multiple document pages, and use document IDs as anchors for direct links within a document page.

  18. The Circadian Neuropeptide PDF Signals Preferentially through a Specific Adenylate Cyclase Isoform AC3 in M Pacemakers of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Laura B.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude. The PDF receptor (PDF-R) is present in both M and subsets of E cells. Activation of PDF-R stimulates cAMP increases in vitro and in M cells in vivo. The present study asks: What is the identity of downstream signaling components that are associated with PDF receptor in specific circadian pacemaker neurons? Using live imaging of intact fly brains and transgenic RNAi, we show that adenylate cyclase AC3 underlies PDF signaling in M cells. Genetic disruptions of AC3 specifically disrupt PDF responses: they do not affect other Gs-coupled GPCR signaling in M cells, they can be rescued, and they do not represent developmental alterations. Knockdown of the Drosophila AKAP-like scaffolding protein Nervy also reduces PDF responses. Flies with AC3 alterations show behavioral syndromes consistent with known roles of M pacemakers as mediated by PDF. Surprisingly, disruption of AC3 does not alter PDF responses in E cells—the PDF-R(+) LNd. Within M pacemakers, PDF-R couples preferentially to a single AC, but PDF-R association with a different AC(s) is needed to explain PDF signaling in the E pacemakers. Thus critical pathways of circadian synchronization are mediated by highly specific second messenger components. These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into “circadian signalosomes,” whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types. PMID:22679392

  19. Modeling Interactions Among Turbulence, Gas-Phase Chemistry, Soot and Radiation Using Transported PDF Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The importance of explicitly accounting for the effects of unresolved turbulent fluctuations in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations of chemically reacting turbulent flows is increasingly recognized. Transported probability density function (PDF) methods have emerged as one of the most promising modeling approaches for this purpose. In particular, PDF methods provide an elegant and effective resolution to the closure problems that arise from averaging or filtering terms that correspond to nonlinear point processes, including chemical reaction source terms and radiative emission. PDF methods traditionally have been associated with studies of turbulence-chemistry interactions in laboratory-scale, atmospheric-pressure, nonluminous, statistically stationary nonpremixed turbulent flames; and Lagrangian particle-based Monte Carlo numerical algorithms have been the predominant method for solving modeled PDF transport equations. Recent advances and trends in PDF methods are reviewed and discussed. These include advances in particle-based algorithms, alternatives to particle-based algorithms (e.g., Eulerian field methods), treatment of combustion regimes beyond low-to-moderate-Damköhler-number nonpremixed systems (e.g., premixed flamelets), extensions to include radiation heat transfer and multiphase systems (e.g., soot and fuel sprays), and the use of PDF methods as the basis for subfilter-scale modeling in large-eddy simulation. Examples are provided that illustrate the utility and effectiveness of PDF methods for physics discovery and for applications to practical combustion systems. These include comparisons of results obtained using the PDF method with those from models that neglect unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature in the averaged or filtered chemical source terms and/or the radiation heat transfer source terms. In this way, the effects of turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions can be isolated and quantified.

  20. How to Create a Web-Ready PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Making EPA's PDF documents accessible (by Section 508 standards) and user-friendly includes steps such as adding bookmarks, using electronic conversion rather than scanning pages, and adding metadata.

  1. Refinement of the Pion PDF implementing Drell-Yan and Deep Inelastic Scattering Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Patrick; Sato, Nobuo; Melnitchouk, Wally; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2017-09-01

    We realize that an abundance of ``sea'' quarks and gluons (as opposed to three valence quarks) is crucial to understanding the mass and internal structure of the proton. An effective pion cloud exists around the core valence structure. In the Drell-Yan (DY) process, two hadrons collide, one donating a quark and the other donating an antiquark. The quark-antiquark pair annihilate, forming a virtual photon, which creates a lepton-antilepton pair. By measuring their cross-sections, we obtain information about the parton distribution function (PDF) of the hadrons. The PDF is the probability of finding a parton at a momentum fraction of the hadron, x, between 0 and 1. Complementary to the DY process is deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Here, a target nucleon is probed by a lepton, and we investigate the pion cloud of the nucleon. The experiments H1 and ZEUS done at HERA at DESY collect DIS data by detecting a leading neutron (LN). By using nested sampling to generate sets of parameters, we present some preliminary fits of pion PDFs to DY (Fermilab-E615 and CERN-NA10) and LN (H1 and ZEUS) datasets. We aim to perform a full NLO QCD global analysis to determine pion PDFs accurately for all x. There have been no attempts to fit the pion PDF using both low and high x data until now.

  2. Drosophila GPCR Han is a receptor for the circadian clock neuropeptide PDF.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seogang; Lee, Youngseok; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Paik, Donggi; Kang, Jongkyun; Shin, Jinwhan; Lee, Jaejung; Jeon, Keunhye; Hwang, Seungyoon; Bae, Eunkyung; Kim, Jaeseob

    2005-10-20

    The pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide controlling circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its receptor is not yet known. From a large-scale temperature preference behavior screen in Drosophila, we isolated a P insertion mutant that preferred different temperatures during the day and night. This mutation, which we named han, reduced the transcript level of CG13758. We found that Han was expressed specifically in 13 pairs of circadian clock neurons in the adult brain. han null flies showed arrhythmic circadian behavior in constant darkness. The behavioral characteristics of han null mutants were similar to those of pdf null mutants. We also found that PDF binds specifically to S2 cells expressing Han, which results in the elevation of cAMP synthesis. Therefore, we herein propose that Han is a PDF receptor regulating circadian behavioral rhythm through coordination of activities of clock neurons.

  3. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  4. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  5. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02780.001 PMID:24939987

  6. The GABA(A) receptor RDL acts in peptidergic PDF neurons to promote sleep in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brian Y; Kilman, Valerie L; Keath, J Russel; Pitman, Jena L; Allada, Ravi

    2009-03-10

    Sleep is regulated by a circadian clock that times sleep and wake to specific times of day and a homeostat that drives sleep as a function of prior wakefulness. To analyze the role of the circadian clock, we have used the fruit fly Drosophila. Flies display the core behavioral features of sleep, including relative immobility, elevated arousal thresholds, and homeostatic regulation. We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that disruption of PDF function increases sleep during the late night in light:dark and the first subjective day of constant darkness. Flies deploy genetic and neurotransmitter pathways to regulate sleep that are similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including GABA. We find that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the GABA(A) receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons reduces sleep, consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function. Patch-clamp electrophysiology reveals GABA-activated picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents on PDF+ neurons. In addition, RDL is detectable most strongly on the large subset of PDF+ pacemaker neurons. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition of arousal-promoting PDF neurons is an important mode of sleep-wake regulation in vivo.

  7. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  8. PDF Signaling Is an Integral Part of the Drosophila Circadian Molecular Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Mezan, Shaul; Feuz, Jean Daniel; Deplancke, Bart; Kadener, Sebastian

    2016-10-11

    Circadian clocks generate 24-hr rhythms in physiology and behavior. Despite numerous studies, it is still uncertain how circadian rhythms emerge from their molecular and neural constituents. Here, we demonstrate a tight connection between the molecular and neuronal circadian networks. Using fluorescent transcriptional reporters in a Drosophila ex vivo brain culture system, we identified a reciprocal negative regulation between the master circadian regulator CLK and expression of pdf, the main circadian neuropeptide. We show that PDF feedback is required for maintaining normal oscillation pattern in CLK-driven transcription. Interestingly, we found that CLK and neuronal firing suppresses pdf transcription, likely through a common pathway involving the transcription factors DHR38 and SR, establishing a direct link between electric activity and the circadian system. In sum, our work provides evidence for the existence of an uncharacterized CLK-PDF feedback loop that tightly wraps together the molecular oscillator with the circadian neuronal network in Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anatomical characterization of PDF-tri neurons and peptidergic neurons associated with eclosion behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Selcho, Mareike; Mühlbauer, Barbara; Hensgen, Ronja; Shiga, Sakiko; Wegener, Christian; Yasuyama, Kouji

    2018-06-01

    The peptidergic Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-Tri neurons are a group of non-clock neurons that appear transiently around the time of adult ecdysis (=eclosion) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This specific developmental pattern points to a function of these neurons in eclosion or other processes that are active around pupal-adult transition. As a first step to understand the role of these neurons, we here characterize the anatomy of the PDF-Tri neurons. In addition, we describe a further set of peptidergic neurons that have been associated with eclosion behavior, eclosion hormone (EH), and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons, to single cell level in the pharate adult brain. PDF-Tri neurons as well as CCAP neurons co-express a classical transmitter indicated by the occurrence of small clear vesicles in addition to dense-core vesicles containing the peptides. In the tritocerebrum, gnathal ganglion and the superior protocerebrum PDF-Tri neurites contain peptidergic varicosities and both pre- and postsynaptic sites, suggesting that the PDF-Tri neurons represent modulatory rather than pure interneurons that connect the subesophageal zone with the superior protocerebrum. The extensive overlap of PDF-Tri arborizations with neurites of CCAP- and EH-expressing neurons in distinct brain regions provides anatomical evidence for a possible function of the PDF-Tri neurons in eclosion behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An easy and effective approach to manage radiologic portable document format (PDF) files using iTunes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li Jun; Zhou, Mi; Xu, Jian Rong

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to explain an easy and effective approach for managing radiologic files in portable document format (PDF) using iTunes. PDF files are widely used as a standard file format for electronic publications as well as for medical online documents. Unfortunately, there is a lack of powerful software to manage numerous PDF documents. In this article, we explain how to use the hidden function of iTunes (Apple Computer) to manage PDF documents as easily as managing music files.

  11. A circadian neuropeptide PDF in the honeybee, Apis mellifera: cDNA cloning and expression of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Miho; Sato, Seiji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Sumida, Kazunori; Koga, Keita; Itoh, Tsunao; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2011-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a pacemaker hormone regulating the locomotor rhythm in insects. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding the Apis PDF precursor protein, and found that there are at least seven different pdf mRNAs yielded by an alternative splicing site and five alternative polyadenylation sites in the 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions. The amino acid sequence of Apis PDF peptide has a characteristic novel amino acid residue, aspargine (Asn), at position 17. Quantitative real-time PCR of total and 5'UTR insertion-type pdf mRNAs revealed, for the first time, that the expression levels change in a circadian manner with a distinct trough at the beginning of night in LD conditions, and at the subjective night under DD conditions. In contrast, the expression level of 5'UTR deletion-type pdf mRNAs was about half of that of the insertion type, and the expression profile failed to show a circadian rhythm. As the expression profile of the total pdf mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm, transcription regulated at the promoter region was supposed to be controlled by some of the clock components. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that 14 lateral neurons at the frontal margin of the optic lobe express these mRNA isoforms. PDF expressing cells examined with a newly produced antibody raised against Apis PDF were also found to have a dense supply of axon terminals in the optic lobes and the central brain.

  12. Crystal structure of an EfPDF complex with Met-Ala-Ser based on crystallographic packing.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Eunice Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2009-04-17

    PDF (peptide deformylase) plays a critical role in the production of mature proteins by removing the N-formyl polypeptide of nascent proteins in the prokaryote cell system. This protein is essential for bacterial growth, making it an attractive target for the design of new antibiotics. Accordingly, PDF has been evaluated as a drug target; however, architectural mechanism studies of PDF have not yet fully elucidated its molecular function. We recently reported the crystal structure of PDF produced by Enterococcus faecium [K.H. Nam, J.I. Ham, A. Priyadarshi, E.E. Kim, N. Chung, K.Y. Hwang, "Insight into the antibacterial drug design and architectural mechanism of peptide recognition from the E. faecium peptide deformylase structure", Proteins 74 (2009) 261-265]. Here, we present the crystal structure of the EfPDF complex with MAS (Met-Ser-Ala), thereby not only delineating the architectural mechanism for the recognition of mimic-peptides by N-terminal cleaved expression peptide, but also suggesting possible targets for rational design of antibacterial drugs. In addition to their implications for drug design, these structural studies will facilitate elucidation of the architectural mechanism responsible for the peptide recognition of PDF.

  13. Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has different effects on Drosophila's circadian clocks in the accessory medulla and in the dorsal brain.

    PubMed

    Wülbeck, Corinna; Grieshaber, Eva; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2008-10-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a key transmitter in the circadian clock of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we studied the rhythmic behavior of neural mutants with modified arborizations of the large PDF neurons. In sine oculis(1) (so(1)) mutants we found a higher density of PDF fibers in the fly's pacemaker center, the accessory medulla. These flies exhibited a significantly longer period (24.6 h) than control flies. When PDF levels were elevated to very high levels in the dorsal brain as true for so(mda) mutants and small optic lobes;so(1) double mutants (sol(1);so( 1)), a short-period component split off the long period in behavioral rhythmicity. The short period became shorter the higher the amount of PDF in this brain region and reached a value of approximately 21 h. The period alterations were clearly dependent on PDF, because so(1);Pdf 01 and so(mda);Pdf 01 double mutants showed a single free-running component with a period similar to Pdf 01 mutants (approximately 22.5 h) and significantly longer than the short period of so(mda) mutants. These observations indicate that PDF feeds back on the clock neurons and changes their period. Obviously, PDF lengthens the period of some clock neurons and shortens that of others.

  14. Publication trends of shared decision making in 15 high impact medical journals: a full-text review with bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) is increasingly advocated as a model for medical decision making. However, there is still low use of SDM in clinical practice. High impact factor journals might represent an efficient way for its dissemination. We aimed to identify and characterize publication trends of SDM in 15 high impact medical journals. Methods We selected the 15 general and internal medicine journals with the highest impact factor publishing original articles, letters and editorials. We retrieved publications from 1996 to 2011 through the full-text search function on each journal website and abstracted bibliometric data. We included publications of any type containing the phrase “shared decision making” or five other variants in their abstract or full text. These were referred to as SDM publications. A polynomial Poisson regression model with logarithmic link function was used to assess the evolution across the period of the number of SDM publications according to publication characteristics. Results We identified 1285 SDM publications out of 229,179 publications in 15 journals from 1996 to 2011. The absolute number of SDM publications by journal ranged from 2 to 273 over 16 years. SDM publications increased both in absolute and relative numbers per year, from 46 (0.32% relative to all publications from the 15 journals) in 1996 to 165 (1.17%) in 2011. This growth was exponential (P < 0.01). We found fewer research publications (465, 36.2% of all SDM publications) than non-research publications, which included non-systematic reviews, letters, and editorials. The increase of research publications across time was linear. Full-text search retrieved ten times more SDM publications than a similar PubMed search (1285 vs. 119 respectively). Conclusion This review in full-text showed that SDM publications increased exponentially in major medical journals from 1996 to 2011. This growth might reflect an increased dissemination of the SDM concept to the

  15. Document Exploration and Automatic Knowledge Extraction for Unstructured Biomedical Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S.; Totaro, G.; Doshi, N.; Thapar, S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    We describe our work on building a web-browser based document reader with built-in exploration tool and automatic concept extraction of medical entities for biomedical text. Vast amounts of biomedical information are offered in unstructured text form through scientific publications and R&D reports. Utilizing text mining can help us to mine information and extract relevant knowledge from a plethora of biomedical text. The ability to employ such technologies to aid researchers in coping with information overload is greatly desirable. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in automatic biomedical concept extraction [1, 2] and intelligent PDF reader tools with the ability to search on content and find related articles [3]. Such reader tools are typically desktop applications and are limited to specific platforms. Our goal is to provide researchers with a simple tool to aid them in finding, reading, and exploring documents. Thus, we propose a web-based document explorer, which we called Shangri-Docs, which combines a document reader with automatic concept extraction and highlighting of relevant terms. Shangri-Docsalso provides the ability to evaluate a wide variety of document formats (e.g. PDF, Words, PPT, text, etc.) and to exploit the linked nature of the Web and personal content by performing searches on content from public sites (e.g. Wikipedia, PubMed) and private cataloged databases simultaneously. Shangri-Docsutilizes Apache cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) [4] and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to automatically identify and highlight terms and concepts, such as specific symptoms, diseases, drugs, and anatomical sites, mentioned in the text. cTAKES was originally designed specially to extract information from clinical medical records. Our investigation leads us to extend the automatic knowledge extraction process of cTAKES for biomedical research domain by improving the ontology guided information extraction

  16. Raising the IQ in full-text searching via intelligent querying

    SciTech Connect

    Kero, R.; Russell, L.; Swietlik, C.

    1994-11-01

    Current Information Retrieval (IR) technologies allow for efficient access to relevant information, provided that user selected query terms coincide with the specific linguistical choices made by the authors whose works constitute the text-base. Therefore, the challenge is to enhance the limited searching capability of state-of-the-practice IR. This can be done either with augmented clients that overcome current server searching deficiencies, or with added capabilities that can augment searching algorithms on the servers. The technology being investigated is that of deductive databases, with a set of new techniques called cooperative answering. This technology utilizes semantic networks to allow for navigation betweenmore » possible query search term alternatives. The augmented search terms are passed to an IR engine and the results can be compared. The project utilizes the OSTI Environment, Safety and Health Thesaurus to populate the domain specific semantic network and the text base of ES&H related documents from the Facility Profile Information Management System as the domain specific search space.« less

  17. The PDF method for turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Probability Density Function (PDF) methods provide a means of calculating the properties of turbulent reacting flows. They have been successfully applied to many turbulent flames, including some with finite rate kinetic effects. Here the methods are reviewed with an emphasis on computational issues and their application to turbulent combustion.

  18. High-pressure pair distribution function (PDF) measurement using high-energy focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J.; Ehm, Lars

    In this paper, we report recent development of the high-pressure pair distribution function (HP-PDF) measurement technique using a focused high-energy X-ray beam coupled with a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The focusing optics consist of a sagittally bent Laue monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) mirrors. This combination provides a clean high-energy X-ray beam suitable for HP-PDF research. Demonstration of the HP-PDF technique for nanocrystalline platinum under quasi-hydrostatic condition above 30 GPa is presented.

  19. 77 FR 38831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on June 4, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file...

  20. 78 FR 27431 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on April 19, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... project remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes...

  1. 78 FR 72713 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on October 31, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes in...

  2. PDF cycling in the dorsal protocerebrum of the Drosophila brain is not necessary for circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Kula, Elzbieta; Levitan, Edwin S; Pyza, Elzbieta; Rosbash, Michael

    2006-04-01

    In Drosophila, the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a likely circadian molecule, secreted by central pacemaker neurons (LNvs). PDF is expressed in both small and large LNvs (sLNvs and lLNvs), and there are striking circadian oscillations of PDF staining intensity in the small cell termini, which require a functional molecular clock. This cycling may be relevant to the proposed role of PDF as a synchronizer of the clock system or as an output signal connecting pacemaker cells to locomotor activity centers. In this study, the authors use a generic neuropeptide fusion protein (atrial natriuretic factor-green fluorescent protein [ANF-GFP]) and show that it can be expressed in the same neurons as PDF itself. Yet, ANF-GFP as well as PDF itself does not manifest any cyclical accumulation in sLNv termini in adult transgenic flies. Surprisingly, the absence of detectable PDF cycling is not accompanied by any detectable behavioral pheno-type, since these transgenic flies have normal morning and evening anticipation in a light-dark cycle (LD) and are fully rhythmic in constant darkness (DD). The molecular clock is also not compromised. The results suggest that robust PDF cycling in sLNv termini plays no more than a minor role in the Drosophila circadian system and is apparently not even necessary for clock output function.

  3. Handling a Large Collection of PDF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You have several options for making a large collection of PDF documents more accessible to your audience: avoid uploading altogether, use multiple document pages, and use document IDs as anchors for direct links within a document page.

  4. Exact PDF equations and closure approximations for advective-reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, D.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical models of advection–reaction phenomena rely on advective flow velocity and (bio) chemical reaction rates that are notoriously random. By using functional integral methods, we derive exact evolution equations for the probability density function (PDF) of the state variables of the advection–reaction system in the presence of random transport velocity and random reaction rates with rather arbitrary distributions. These PDF equations are solved analytically for transport with deterministic flow velocity and a linear reaction rate represented mathematically by a heterog eneous and strongly-correlated random field. Our analytical solution is then used to investigate the accuracy and robustness of the recentlymore » proposed large-eddy diffusivity (LED) closure approximation [1]. We find that the solution to the LED-based PDF equation, which is exact for uncorrelated reaction rates, is accurate even in the presence of strong correlations and it provides an upper bound of predictive uncertainty.« less

  5. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event. We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10-3 to 0.3-0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20-2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.

  6. A compound scattering pdf for the ultrasonic echo envelope and its relationship to K and Nakagami distributions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2003-03-01

    A compound probability density function (pdf) is presented to describe the envelope of the backscattered echo from tissue. This pdf allows local and global variation in scattering cross sections in tissue. The ultrasonic backscattering cross sections are assumed to be gamma distributed. The gamma distribution also is used to model the randomness in the average cross sections. This gamma-gamma model results in the compound scattering pdf for the envelope. The relationship of this compound pdf to the Rayleigh, K, and Nakagami distributions is explored through an analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the envelopes and random number simulations. The three parameter compound pdf appears to be flexible enough to represent envelope statistics giving rise to Rayleigh, K, and Nakagami distributions.

  7. ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia. PMID:24266292

  8. ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia.

  9. Widespread receptivity to neuropeptide PDF throughout the neuronal circadian clock network of Drosophila revealed by real-time cyclic AMP imaging.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Orie T; Kim, Dong Jo; Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J; Taghert, Paul H

    2008-04-24

    The neuropeptide PDF is released by sixteen clock neurons in Drosophila and helps maintain circadian activity rhythms by coordinating a network of approximately 150 neuronal clocks. Whether PDF acts directly on elements of this neural network remains unknown. We address this question by adapting Epac1-camps, a genetically encoded cAMP FRET sensor, for use in the living brain. We find that a subset of the PDF-expressing neurons respond to PDF with long-lasting cAMP increases and confirm that such responses require the PDF receptor. In contrast, an unrelated Drosophila neuropeptide, DH31, stimulates large cAMP increases in all PDF-expressing clock neurons. Thus, the network of approximately 150 clock neurons displays widespread, though not uniform, PDF receptivity. This work introduces a sensitive means of measuring cAMP changes in a living brain with subcellular resolution. Specifically, it experimentally confirms the longstanding hypothesis that PDF is a direct modulator of most neurons in the Drosophila clock network.

  10. Fluorescence circadian imaging reveals a PDF-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila molecular clock.

    PubMed

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nunes, José Manuel; Rosbash, Michael; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-30

    Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons. The effect of PDF on clock gene transcription and the known role of PDF in enhancing PER/TIM stability occur via independent pathways downstream of the PDF receptor, the former through a cAMP-independent mechanism and the latter through a cAMP-PKA dependent mechanism. These results confirm and extend the mechanistic understanding of the role of PDF in controlling the synchrony of the pacemaker neurons. More broadly, our results establish the utility of the new live-imaging tools for the study of molecular-neural interactions important for the operation of the circadian pacemaker circuit.

  11. Fluorescence circadian imaging reveals a PDF-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila molecular clock

    PubMed Central

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nunes, José Manuel; Rosbash, Michael; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons. The effect of PDF on clock gene transcription and the known role of PDF in enhancing PER/TIM stability occur via independent pathways downstream of the PDF receptor, the former through a cAMP-independent mechanism and the latter through a cAMP-PKA dependent mechanism. These results confirm and extend the mechanistic understanding of the role of PDF in controlling the synchrony of the pacemaker neurons. More broadly, our results establish the utility of the new live-imaging tools for the study of molecular-neural interactions important for the operation of the circadian pacemaker circuit. PMID:28134281

  12. PDF-ECG in clinical practice: A model for long-term preservation of digital 12-lead ECG data.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Roberto; Bond, Raymond R; Cairns, Andrew; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Libretti, Guido; Isola, Lamberto; Vaglio, Martino; Poeta, Roberto; Campana, Marco; Cuccia, Claudio; Badilini, Fabio

    In clinical practice, data archiving of resting 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) is mainly achieved by storing a PDF report in the hospital electronic health record (EHR). When available, digital ECG source data (raw samples) are only retained within the ECG management system. The widespread availability of the ECG source data would undoubtedly permit successive analysis and facilitate longitudinal studies, with both scientific and diagnostic benefits. PDF-ECG is a hybrid archival format which allows to store in the same file both the standard graphical report of an ECG together with its source ECG data (waveforms). Using PDF-ECG as a model to address the challenge of ECG data portability, long-term archiving and documentation, a real-world proof-of-concept test was conducted in a northern Italy hospital. A set of volunteers undertook a basic ECG using routine hospital equipment and the source data captured. Using dedicated web services, PDF-ECG documents were then generated and seamlessly uploaded in the hospital EHR, replacing the standard PDF reports automatically generated at the time of acquisition. Finally, the PDF-ECG files could be successfully retrieved and re-analyzed. Adding PDF-ECG to an existing EHR had a minimal impact on the hospital's workflow, while preserving the ECG digital data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  14. Successful COG8 and PDF overlap is mediated by alterations in splicing and polyadenylation signals.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Quental, Rita; da Costa, Luís T; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    Although gene-free areas compose the great majority of eukaryotic genomes, a significant fraction of genes overlaps, i.e., unique nucleotide sequences are part of more than one transcription unit. In this work, the evolutionary history and origin of a same-strand gene overlap is dissected through the analysis of COG8 (component of oligomeric Golgi complex 8) and PDF (peptide deformylase). Comparative genomic surveys reveal that the relative locations of these two genes have been changing over the last 445 million years from distinct chromosomal locations in fish to overlapping in rodents and primates, indicating that the overlap between these genes precedes their divergence. The overlap between the two genes was initiated by the gain of a novel splice donor site between the COG8 stop codon and PDF initiation codon. Splicing is accomplished by the use of the PDF acceptor, leading COG8 to share the 3'end with PDF. In primates, loss of the ancestral polyadenylation signal for COG8 makes the overlap between COG8 and PDF mandatory, while in mouse and rat concurrent overlapping and non-overlapping Cog8 transcripts exist. Altogether, we demonstrate that the origin, evolution and preservation of the COG8/PDF same-strand overlap follow similar mechanistic steps as those documented for antisense overlaps where gain and/or loss of splice sites and polyadenylation signals seems to drive the process.

  15. APFEL: A PDF evolution library with QED corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Rojo, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the variable-flavor-number scheme and with either pole or MS bar heavy quark masses. APFEL consistently accounts for the QED corrections to the evolution of quark and gluon PDFs and for the contribution from the photon PDF in the proton. The coupled QCD ⊗ QED equations are solved in x-space by means of higher order interpolation, followed by Runge-Kutta solution of the resulting discretized evolution equations. APFEL is based on an innovative and flexible methodology for the sequential solution of the QCD and QED evolution equations and their combination. In addition to PDF evolution, APFEL provides a module that computes Deep-Inelastic Scattering structure functions in the FONLL general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme up to O(αs2) . All the functionalities of APFEL can be accessed via a Graphical User Interface, supplemented with a variety of plotting tools for PDFs, parton luminosities and structure functions. Written in FORTRAN 77, APFEL can also be used via the C/C++ and Python interfaces, and is publicly available from the HepForge repository.

  16. Disk diffusion quality control guidelines for NVP-PDF 713: a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Tamara R; Jones, Ronald N

    2004-01-01

    NVP-PDF713 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor that has emerged as a candidate for treating Gram-positive infections and selected Gram-negative species that commonly cause community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This report summarizes the results of a multi-center (seven participants) disk diffusion quality control (QC) investigation for NVP PDF-713 using guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards and the standardized disk diffusion method. A total of 420 NVP-PDF 713 zone diameter values were generated for each QC organism. The proposed zone diameter ranges contained 97.6-99.8% of the reported participant results and were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-35 mm), Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (30-37 mm), and Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 (24-32 mm). These QC criteria for the disk diffusion method should be applied during the NVP-PDF 713 clinical trials to maximize test accuracy.

  17. Evaluation of a Consistent LES/PDF Method Using a Series of Experimental Spray Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heye, Colin; Raman, Venkat

    2012-11-01

    A consistent method for the evolution of the joint-scalar probability density function (PDF) transport equation is proposed for application to large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent reacting flows containing evaporating spray droplets. PDF transport equations provide the benefit of including the chemical source term in closed form, however, additional terms describing LES subfilter mixing must be modeled. The recent availability of detailed experimental measurements provide model validation data for a wide range of evaporation rates and combustion regimes, as is well-known to occur in spray flames. In this work, the experimental data will used to investigate the impact of droplet mass loading and evaporation rates on the subfilter scalar PDF shape in comparison with conventional flamelet models. In addition, existing model term closures in the PDF transport equations are evaluated with a focus on their validity in the presence of regime changes.

  18. The Dayton Agenda: Full Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Research on Christian Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In November 1997, 140 researchers, administrators, and others interested in the support of nonpublic schools gathered at the University of Dayton to develop a research agenda for American private education. What developed over the several hours of intense sessions was an agenda that has given direction to researchers well into the 21st century.…

  19. The BioC-BioGRID corpus: full text articles annotated for curation of protein–protein and genetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun; Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S.; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C.; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of information on the molecular genetics and biochemistry of model organisms has been reported in the scientific literature. However, this data is typically described in free text form and is not readily amenable to computational analyses. To this end, the BioGRID database systematically curates the biomedical literature for genetic and protein interaction data. This data is provided in a standardized computationally tractable format and includes structured annotation of experimental evidence. BioGRID curation necessarily involves substantial human effort by expert curators who must read each publication to extract the relevant information. Computational text-mining methods offer the potential to augment and accelerate manual curation. To facilitate the development of practical text-mining strategies, a new challenge was organized in BioCreative V for the BioC task, the collaborative Biocurator Assistant Task. This was a non-competitive, cooperative task in which the participants worked together to build BioC-compatible modules into an integrated pipeline to assist BioGRID curators. As an integral part of this task, a test collection of full text articles was developed that contained both biological entity annotations (gene/protein and organism/species) and molecular interaction annotations (protein–protein and genetic interactions (PPIs and GIs)). This collection, which we call the BioC-BioGRID corpus, was annotated by four BioGRID curators over three rounds of annotation and contains 120 full text articles curated in a dataset representing two major model organisms, namely budding yeast and human. The BioC-BioGRID corpus contains annotations for 6409 mentions of genes and their Entrez Gene IDs, 186 mentions of organism names and their NCBI Taxonomy IDs, 1867 mentions of PPIs and 701 annotations of PPI experimental evidence statements, 856 mentions of GIs and 399 annotations of GI evidence statements. The purpose, characteristics and possible future

  20. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. Conclusions The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications. PMID:22901054

  1. New Powder Diffraction File (PDF-4) in relational database format: advantages and data-mining capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kabekkodu, Soorya N; Faber, John; Fawcett, Tim

    2002-06-01

    The International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) is responding to the changing needs in powder diffraction and materials analysis by developing the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) in a very flexible relational database (RDB) format. The PDF now contains 136,895 powder diffraction patterns. In this paper, an attempt is made to give an overview of the PDF-4, search/match methods and the advantages of having the PDF-4 in RDB format. Some case studies have been carried out to search for crystallization trends, properties, frequencies of space groups and prototype structures. These studies give a good understanding of the basic structural aspects of classes of compounds present in the database. The present paper also reports data-mining techniques and demonstrates the power of a relational database over the traditional (flat-file) database structures.

  2. PDF investigations of turbulent non-premixed jet flames with thin reaction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    PDF (probability density function) modeling studies are carried out for the Sydney piloted jet flames. These Sydney flames feature much thinner reaction zones in the mixture fraction space compared to those in the well-studied Sandia piloted jet flames. The performance of the different turbulent combustion models in the Sydney flames with thin reaction zones has not been examined extensively before, and this work aims at evaluating the capability of the PDF method to represent the thin turbulent flame structures in the Sydney piloted flames. Parametric and sensitivity PDF studies are performed with respect to the different models and model parameters. A global error parameter is defined to quantify the departure of the simulation results from the experimental data, and is used to assess the performance of the different set of models and model parameters.

  3. Allatostatin A Signalling in Drosophila Regulates Feeding and Sleep and Is Modulated by PDF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangtian; Reiher, Wencke; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Sellami, Azza; Cognigni, Paola; Kondo, Shu; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Veenstra, Jan A; Wegener, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates. We further identify the PLP neurons as a downstream target of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an output factor of the circadian clock. PLP neurons are contacted by PDF-expressing clock neurons, and express a functional PDF receptor demonstrated by cAMP imaging. Silencing of AstA signalling and continuous input to AstA cells by tethered PDF changes the sleep/activity ratio in opposite directions but does not affect rhythmicity. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic AstA signalling by a distinct neuronal and enteroendocrine AstA cell subset adapts the fly to a digestive energy-saving state which can be modulated by PDF.

  4. Allatostatin A Signalling in Drosophila Regulates Feeding and Sleep and Is Modulated by PDF

    PubMed Central

    Reiher, Wencke; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Sellami, Azza; Cognigni, Paola; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Veenstra, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates. We further identify the PLP neurons as a downstream target of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an output factor of the circadian clock. PLP neurons are contacted by PDF-expressing clock neurons, and express a functional PDF receptor demonstrated by cAMP imaging. Silencing of AstA signalling and continuous input to AstA cells by tethered PDF changes the sleep/activity ratio in opposite directions but does not affect rhythmicity. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic AstA signalling by a distinct neuronal and enteroendocrine AstA cell subset adapts the fly to a digestive energy-saving state which can be modulated by PDF. PMID:27689358

  5. The pdf approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a probabilistic approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows. The two-phase flows considered are composed of a continuous phase, which is a turbulent fluid, and a dispersed phase, which represents an ensemble of discrete particles (solid particles, droplets or bubbles). Gathering the difficulties of turbulent flows and of particle motion, the challenge is to work out a general modelling approach that meets three requirements: to treat accurately the physically relevant phenomena, to provide enough information to address issues of complex physics (combustion, polydispersed particle flows, …) and to remain tractable for general non-homogeneous flows. The present probabilistic approach models the statistical dynamics of the system and consists in simulating the joint probability density function (pdf) of a number of fluid and discrete particle properties. A new point is that both the fluid and the particles are included in the pdf description. The derivation of the joint pdf model for the fluid and for the discrete particles is worked out in several steps. The mathematical properties of stochastic processes are first recalled. The various hierarchies of pdf descriptions are detailed and the physical principles that are used in the construction of the models are explained. The Lagrangian one-particle probabilistic description is developed first for the fluid alone, then for the discrete particles and finally for the joint fluid and particle turbulent systems. In the case of the probabilistic description for the fluid alone or for the discrete particles alone, numerical computations are presented and discussed to illustrate how the method works in practice and the kind of information that can be extracted from it. Comments on the current modelling state and propositions for future investigations which try to link the present work with other ideas in physics are made at the end of the paper.

  6. Serotonin and the Neuropeptide PDF Initiate and Extend Opposing Behavioral States in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Flavell, Steven W.; Pokala, Navin; Macosko, Evan Z.; Albrecht, Dirk R.; Larsch, Johannes; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Foraging animals have distinct exploration and exploitation behaviors that are organized into discrete behavioral states. Here we characterize a neuromodulatory circuit that generates long-lasting roaming and dwelling states in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that two opposing neuromodulators, serotonin and the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), each initiate and extend one behavioral state. Serotonin promotes dwelling states through the MOD-1 serotonin-gated chloride channel. The spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons correlates with dwelling behavior, and optogenetic modulation of the critical MOD-1-expressing targets induces prolonged dwelling states. PDF promotes roaming states through a Gαs-coupled PDF receptor; optogenetic activation of cAMP production in PDF receptor-expressing cells induces prolonged roaming states. The neurons that produce and respond to each neuromodulator form a distributed circuit orthogonal to the classical wiring diagram, with several essential neurons that express each molecule. The slow temporal dynamics of this neuromodulatory circuit supplement fast motor circuits to organize long-lasting behavioral states. PMID:23972393

  7. Factors Affecting Subsequent Full-text Publication of Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sumaira; Mishra, Devendra; Mishra, Ruchi; Gupta, Shalu

    2017-02-15

    To study the factors associated with the subsequent (over next 9 years) full-text publication of papers presented at the 44th National Conference of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (PEDICON), 2007. All papers presented at PEDICON 2007 were searched for subsequent full-text publication over the next 9 years in English-language journals by an internet-based search. The published papers were compared with the conference-abstracts. 74 (16%) of the 450 abstracts presented were subsequently published; 61 (82.4%) in Medline-indexed journals. Majority (50, 67.6%) of the papers was published within the first 36 mo in journals with mean (SD) impact factor of 2.62 (1.63). The factors significantly associated with subsequent publication were papers presented as award papers (P<0.001), those reporting on Interventional trials (P<0.001), and those from medical colleges (P<0.05). On comparison of the conference abstracts with the subsequently published full-papers, 55% had a change in title; authors were changed in 65%, and participants' numbers were dissimilar in 8.6%. There is a need to identify the factors responsible for this low rate of subsequent publication, and interventions to improve it both at institutional and researchers' level.

  8. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny; Larson, Vincent E.

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continentalmore » and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.« less

  9. Analysis of full-text publication and publishing predictors of abstracts presented at an Italian public health meeting (2005-2007).

    PubMed

    Castaldi, S; Giacometti, M; Toigo, W; Bert, F; Siliquini, R

    2015-09-29

    In Public Health, a thorough review of abstract quality evaluations and the publication history of studies presented at scientific meetings has never been conducted. To analyse the long-term outcome of quality abstracts submitted to conferences of Italian Society of Hygiene and Public Health (SItI) from 2005 to 2007, we conducted a second analysis of previously published material aiming to estimate full-text publication rate of high quality abstract presented at Italian public health meetings, and to identify predictors of full-text publication. The search was undertaken through scientific databases and search engines and through the web sites of the major Italian journals of Public Health. For each publication confirmed as a full text paper, the journal name, impact factor, year of publication, gender of the first author, type of study design, characteristics of the results and sample size were collected. The overall publication rate of the abstracts presented is 23.5%; most of the papers were published in Public Health journals (average impact factor: 3.007). Non universitary affiliation had resulted in a lower probability of publication, while some of the Conference topics had predisposed the studies to an increased likelihood of publication as well as poster form presentation. The method presented in this study provides a good framework for the evaluation of the scientific evidence. The findings achieved should be taken into consideration by the Scientific Societies during the contributions selection phase, with the aim of achieving a continuous improvement of work quality. In the future, it would be interesting to survey the abstract authors to identify reasons for unpublished data.

  10. Combined PDF and Rietveld studies of ADORable zeolites and the disordered intermediate IPC-1P.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel A; Wheatley, Paul S; Položij, Miroslav; Nachtigall, Petr; Eliášová, Pavla; Čejka, Jiří; Lucas, Tim C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Pinar, Ana B; Morris, Russell E

    2016-09-28

    The disordered intermediate of the ADORable zeolite UTL has been structurally confirmed using the pair distribution function (PDF) technique. The intermediate, IPC-1P, is a disordered layered compound formed by the hydrolysis of UTL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Its structure is unsolvable by traditional X-ray diffraction techniques. The PDF technique was first benchmarked against high-quality synchrotron Rietveld refinements of IPC-2 (OKO) and IPC-4 (PCR) - two end products of IPC-1P condensation that share very similar structural features. An IPC-1P starting model derived from density functional theory was used for the PDF refinement, which yielded a final fit of Rw = 18% and a geometrically reasonable structure. This confirms the layers do stay intact throughout the ADOR process and shows PDF is a viable technique for layered zeolite structure determination.

  11. Structural reconstruction of the catalytic center of LiPDF through multiple scattering calculation with MXAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Ma, Sixuan; Gong, Weimin; Benfatto, Maurizio; Hu, Tiandou; Xie, Yaning; Wu, ZiYu

    2006-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) is essential for the normal growth of eubacterium but not for mammalians. Recently, PDF has been studied as a target for new antibiotics. In this paper, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the local structure around the zinc ion of PDF from Leptospira Interrogans in dry powder, because it is very difficult to obtain the crystallized sample of LiPDF. We performed X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) calculation and reconstructed successfully the local geometry of the active center, and the results from calculations show that a water molecule (Wat1) has moved towards the zinc ion and lies in the distance range to coordinate with the zinc ion weakly. In addition, the sensitivity of theoretical spectra to the different ligand bodies was evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit.

  12. Application and evaluation of interactive 3D PDF for presenting and sharing planning results for liver surgery in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file ("PDF App"). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a wider use of this new technology, since the basic idea

  13. EUPDF: An Eulerian-Based Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) Solver. User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    EUPDF is an Eulerian-based Monte Carlo PDF solver developed for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with the coding required to couple the PDF code to any given flow code and a basic understanding of the EUPDF code structure as well as the models involved in the PDF formulation. The source code of EUPDF will be available with the release of the National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  14. The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    In combustion computations, it is known that the predictions of chemical reaction rates are poor if conventional turbulence models are used. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus is the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. The fact that the pdf equation has a very large dimensionality renders finite difference schemes extremely demanding on computer memories and thus impractical. A logical alternative is the Monte Carlo scheme. Since CFD has a certain maturity as well as acceptance, it seems that the use of a combined CFD and Monte Carlo scheme is more beneficial. Therefore, a scheme is chosen that uses a conventional CFD flow solver in calculating the flow field properties such as velocity, pressure, etc., while the chemical reaction part is solved using a Monte Carlo scheme. The discharge of a heated turbulent plane jet into quiescent air was studied. Experimental data for this problem shows that when the temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding air is small, buoyancy effect can be neglected and the temperature can be treated as a passive scalar. The fact that jet flows have a self-similar solution lends convenience in the modeling study. Futhermore, the existence of experimental data for turbulent shear stress and temperature variance make the case ideal for the testing of pdf models wherein these values can be directly evaluated.

  15. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided somore » far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.« less

  16. Assessment of PDF Micromixing Models Using DNS Data for a Two-Step Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Kuochen; Chakrabarti, Mitali; Fox, Rodney O.; Hill, James C.

    1996-11-01

    Although the probability density function (PDF) method is known to treat the chemical reaction terms exactly, its application to turbulent reacting flows have been overshadowed by the ability to model the molecular mixing terms satisfactorily. In this study, two PDF molecular mixing models, the linear-mean-square-estimation (LMSE or IEM) model and the generalized interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (GIEM) model, are compared with the DNS data in decaying turbulence with a two-step parallel-consecutive reaction and two segregated initial conditions: ``slabs" and ``blobs". Since the molecular mixing model is expected to have a strong effect on the mean values of chemical species under such initial conditions, the model evaluation is intended to answer the following questions: Can the PDF models predict the mean values of chemical species correctly with completely segregated initial conditions? (2) Is a single molecular mixing timescale sufficient for the PDF models to predict the mean values with different initial conditions? (3) Will the chemical reactions change the molecular mixing timescales of the reacting species enough to affect the accuracy of the model's prediction for the mean values of chemical species?

  17. PDF modeling of turbulent flows on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakosi, Jozsef

    In probability density function (PDF) methods of turbulent flows, the joint PDF of several flow variables is computed by numerically integrating a system of stochastic differential equations for Lagrangian particles. Because the technique solves a transport equation for the PDF of the velocity and scalars, a mathematically exact treatment of advection, viscous effects and arbitrarily complex chemical reactions is possible; these processes are treated without closure assumptions. A set of algorithms is proposed to provide an efficient solution of the PDF transport equation modeling the joint PDF of turbulent velocity, frequency and concentration of a passive scalar in geometrically complex configurations. An unstructured Eulerian grid is employed to extract Eulerian statistics, to solve for quantities represented at fixed locations of the domain and to track particles. All three aspects regarding the grid make use of the finite element method. Compared to hybrid methods, the current methodology is stand-alone, therefore it is consistent both numerically and at the level of turbulence closure without the use of consistency conditions. Since both the turbulent velocity and scalar concentration fields are represented in a stochastic way, the method allows for a direct and close interaction between these fields, which is beneficial in computing accurate scalar statistics. Boundary conditions implemented along solid bodies are of the free-slip and no-slip type without the need for ghost elements. Boundary layers at no-slip boundaries are either fully resolved down to the viscous sublayer, explicitly modeling the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the low-Reynolds-number wall region without damping or wall-functions or specified via logarithmic wall-functions. As in moment closures and large eddy simulation, these wall-treatments provide the usual trade-off between resolution and computational cost as required by the given application. Particular attention is focused on

  18. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation was developed. The algorithm was validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames was carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  19. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed in this work. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional CFD flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation has been developed. The algorithm has been validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames has been carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computuations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  20. Publications - PDF 88-8 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 88-8 Publication Details Title: Alaska's mineral industry 1987: Executive summary Authors , Alaska's mineral industry 1987: Executive summary: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

  1. Applied Actant Network Theory: Toward the Automated Detection of Technoscientific Emergence from Full Text Publications and Patents (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    Applied Actant-Network Theory: Toward the Automated Detection of Technoscientific Emergence from Full-Text Publications and Patents David C...Brock**, Olga Babko-Malaya*, James Pustejovsky***, Patrick Thomas****, *BAE Systems Advanced Information Technologies, ** David C. Brock Consulting... Wojick , D. 2008. Population modeling of the emergence and development of scientific fields. Scientometrics, 75(3):495–518. Cook, T. D. and

  2. Serotonin and the neuropeptide PDF initiate and extend opposing behavioral states in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Steven W; Pokala, Navin; Macosko, Evan Z; Albrecht, Dirk R; Larsch, Johannes; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2013-08-29

    Foraging animals have distinct exploration and exploitation behaviors that are organized into discrete behavioral states. Here, we characterize a neuromodulatory circuit that generates long-lasting roaming and dwelling states in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that two opposing neuromodulators, serotonin and the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), each initiate and extend one behavioral state. Serotonin promotes dwelling states through the MOD-1 serotonin-gated chloride channel. The spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons correlates with dwelling behavior, and optogenetic modulation of the critical MOD-1-expressing targets induces prolonged dwelling states. PDF promotes roaming states through a Gαs-coupled PDF receptor; optogenetic activation of cAMP production in PDF receptor-expressing cells induces prolonged roaming states. The neurons that produce and respond to each neuromodulator form a distributed circuit orthogonal to the classical wiring diagram, with several essential neurons that express each molecule. The slow temporal dynamics of this neuromodulatory circuit supplement fast motor circuits to organize long-lasting behavioral states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application and Evaluation of Interactive 3D PDF for Presenting and Sharing Planning Results for Liver Surgery in Clinical Routine

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. Methods We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Results Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file (“PDF App”). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. Conclusion The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a

  4. 77 FR 71831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 8, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes in...

  5. 77 FR 56861 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3d PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Production Act of 1993--3d PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 20, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes in...

  6. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  7. Publications - PDF 89-7 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 89-7 Publication Details Title: Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1988 Authors , Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1988: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

  8. Publications - PDF 90-10 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 90-10 Publication Details Title: Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1989 Authors , Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1989: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

  9. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 27, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... Corporation, Boulder, CO; Aras Corporation, Andover, MA; Tetra 4D, LLC, Seattle, WA; Tech Soft 3D, Berkeley...

  10. Modeling error PDF optimization based wavelet neural network modeling of dynamic system and its application in blast furnace ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Mingjie

    In general, the modeling errors of dynamic system model are a set of random variables. The traditional performance index of modeling such as means square error (MSE) and root means square error (RMSE) can not fully express the connotation of modeling errors with stochastic characteristics both in the dimension of time domain and space domain. Therefore, the probability density function (PDF) is introduced to completely describe the modeling errors in both time scales and space scales. Based on it, a novel wavelet neural network (WNN) modeling method is proposed by minimizing the two-dimensional (2D) PDF shaping of modeling errors. First,more » the modeling error PDF by the tradional WNN is estimated using data-driven kernel density estimation (KDE) technique. Then, the quadratic sum of 2D deviation between the modeling error PDF and the target PDF is utilized as performance index to optimize the WNN model parameters by gradient descent method. Since the WNN has strong nonlinear approximation and adaptive capability, and all the parameters are well optimized by the proposed method, the developed WNN model can make the modeling error PDF track the target PDF, eventually. Simulation example and application in a blast furnace ironmaking process show that the proposed method has a higher modeling precision and better generalization ability compared with the conventional WNN modeling based on MSE criteria. Furthermore, the proposed method has more desirable estimation for modeling error PDF that approximates to a Gaussian distribution whose shape is high and narrow.« less

  11. Modeling error PDF optimization based wavelet neural network modeling of dynamic system and its application in blast furnace ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Mingjie

    In general, the modeling errors of dynamic system model are a set of random variables. The traditional performance index of modeling such as means square error (MSE) and root means square error (RMSE) cannot fully express the connotation of modeling errors with stochastic characteristics both in the dimension of time domain and space domain. Therefore, the probability density function (PDF) is introduced to completely describe the modeling errors in both time scales and space scales. Based on it, a novel wavelet neural network (WNN) modeling method is proposed by minimizing the two-dimensional (2D) PDF shaping of modeling errors. First, themore » modeling error PDF by the traditional WNN is estimated using data-driven kernel density estimation (KDE) technique. Then, the quadratic sum of 2D deviation between the modeling error PDF and the target PDF is utilized as performance index to optimize the WNN model parameters by gradient descent method. Since the WNN has strong nonlinear approximation and adaptive capability, and all the parameters are well optimized by the proposed method, the developed WNN model can make the modeling error PDF track the target PDF, eventually. Simulation example and application in a blast furnace ironmaking process show that the proposed method has a higher modeling precision and better generalization ability compared with the conventional WNN modeling based on MSE criteria. However, the proposed method has more desirable estimation for modeling error PDF that approximates to a Gaussian distribution whose shape is high and narrow.« less

  12. Modeling error PDF optimization based wavelet neural network modeling of dynamic system and its application in blast furnace ironmaking

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Mingjie; ...

    2018-01-31

    In general, the modeling errors of dynamic system model are a set of random variables. The traditional performance index of modeling such as means square error (MSE) and root means square error (RMSE) cannot fully express the connotation of modeling errors with stochastic characteristics both in the dimension of time domain and space domain. Therefore, the probability density function (PDF) is introduced to completely describe the modeling errors in both time scales and space scales. Based on it, a novel wavelet neural network (WNN) modeling method is proposed by minimizing the two-dimensional (2D) PDF shaping of modeling errors. First, themore » modeling error PDF by the traditional WNN is estimated using data-driven kernel density estimation (KDE) technique. Then, the quadratic sum of 2D deviation between the modeling error PDF and the target PDF is utilized as performance index to optimize the WNN model parameters by gradient descent method. Since the WNN has strong nonlinear approximation and adaptive capability, and all the parameters are well optimized by the proposed method, the developed WNN model can make the modeling error PDF track the target PDF, eventually. Simulation example and application in a blast furnace ironmaking process show that the proposed method has a higher modeling precision and better generalization ability compared with the conventional WNN modeling based on MSE criteria. However, the proposed method has more desirable estimation for modeling error PDF that approximates to a Gaussian distribution whose shape is high and narrow.« less

  13. Hybrid finite-volume/transported PDF method for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkatramanan

    A novel computational scheme is formulated for simulating turbulent reactive flows in complex geometries with detailed chemical kinetics. A Probability Density Function (PDF) based method that handles the scalar transport equation is coupled with an existing Finite Volume (FV) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver. The PDF formulation leads to closed chemical source terms and facilitates the use of detailed chemical mechanisms without approximations. The particle-based PDF scheme is modified to handle complex geometries and grid structures. Grid-independent particle evolution schemes that scale linearly with the problem size are implemented in the Monte-Carlo PDF solver. A novel algorithm, in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) is employed to ensure tractability of complex chemistry involving a multitude of species. Several non-reacting test cases are performed to ascertain the efficiency and accuracy of the method. Simulation results from a turbulent jet-diffusion flame case are compared against experimental data. The effect of micromixing model, turbulence model and reaction scheme on flame predictions are discussed extensively. Finally, the method is used to analyze the Dow Chlorination Reactor. Detailed kinetics involving 37 species and 158 reactions as well as a reduced form with 16 species and 21 reactions are used. The effect of inlet configuration on reactor behavior and product distribution is analyzed. Plant-scale reactors exhibit quenching phenomena that cannot be reproduced by conventional simulation methods. The FV-PDF method predicts quenching accurately and provides insight into the dynamics of the reactor near extinction. The accuracy of the fractional time-stepping technique in discussed in the context of apparent multiple-steady states observed in a non-premixed feed configuration of the chlorination reactor.

  14. The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, I.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.

  15. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with an improved joint beta PDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts at modeling recent experiments of Cheng et al. indicated that discrepancies between theory and experiment can be a result of the form of assumed probability density function (PDF) and/or the turbulence model employed. Improvements in both the form of the assumed PDF and the turbulence model are presented. The results are again used to compare with measurements. Initial comparisons are encouraging.

  16. Research on Optimization of Encoding Algorithm of PDF417 Barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Fu, Longsheng; Han, Shuqing

    The purpose of this research is to develop software to optimize the data compression of a PDF417 barcode using VC++6.0. According to the different compression mode and the particularities of Chinese, the relevant approaches which optimize the encoding algorithm of data compression such as spillage and the Chinese characters encoding are proposed, a simple approach to compute complex polynomial is introduced. After the whole data compression is finished, the number of the codeword is reduced and then the encoding algorithm is optimized. The developed encoding system of PDF 417 barcodes will be applied in the logistics management of fruits, therefore also will promote the fast development of the two-dimensional bar codes.

  17. Publications - PDF 87-2 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 87-2 Publication Details Title: Alaska's mineral industry 1986: Executive summary Authors : Executive summary: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 87-2, 5 p. http

  18. Blocking synaptic transmission with tetanus toxin light chain reveals modes of neurotransmission in the PDF-positive circadian clock neurons of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yujiro; Yasuyama, Kouji; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    Circadian locomotor rhythms of Drosophila melanogaster are controlled by a neuronal circuit composed of approximately 150 clock neurons that are roughly classified into seven groups. In the circuit, a group of neurons expressing pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) play an important role in organizing the pacemaking system. Recent studies imply that unknown chemical neurotransmitter(s) (UNT) other than PDF is also expressed in the PDF-positive neurons. To explore its role in the circadian pacemaker, we examined the circadian locomotor rhythms of pdf-Gal4/UAS-TNT transgenic flies in which chemical synaptic transmission in PDF-positive neurons was blocked by expressed tetanus toxin light chain (TNT). In constant darkness (DD), the flies showed a free-running rhythm, which was similar to that of wild-type flies but significantly different from pdf null mutants. Under constant light conditions (LL), however, they often showed complex rhythms with a short period and a long period component. The UNT is thus likely involved in the synaptic transmission in the clock network and its release caused by LL leads to arrhythmicity. Immunocytochemistry revealed that LL induced phase separation in TIMELESS (TIM) cycling among some of the PDF-positive and PDF-negative clock neurons in the transgenic flies. These results suggest that both PDF and UNT play important roles in the Drosophila circadian clock, and activation of PDF pathway alone by LL leads to the complex locomotor rhythm through desynchronized oscillation among some of the clock neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PDF turbulence modeling and DNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.

  20. Nuclear PDF for neutrino and charged lepton data

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, K.

    2011-10-06

    Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) on nuclei is an essential process to constrain the strange quark parton distribution functions (PDF) in the proton. The critical component on the way to using the neutrino DIS data in a proton PDF analysis is understanding the nuclear effects in parton distribution functions. We parametrize these effects by nuclear parton distribution functions (NPDF). Here we compare results from two analysis of NPDF both done at next-to-leading order in QCD. The first uses neutral current charged-lepton (l{sup {+-}A}) Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) and Drell-Yan data for several nuclear targets and the second uses neutrino-nucleon DISmore » data. We compare the nuclear corrections factors (F{sub 2}{sup Fe}/F{sub 2}{sup D}) for the charged-lepton data with other results from the literature. In particular, we compare and contrast fits based upon the charged-lepton DIS data with those using neutrino-nucleon DIS data.« less

  1. Publications - PDF 91-6 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 91-6 Publication Details Title: Summary of Alaska's mineral industry for 1990 Authors ., Bundtzen, T.K., and Wood, J.E., 1991, Summary of Alaska's mineral industry for 1990: Alaska Division of

  2. Publications - PDF 98-39 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 98-39 Publication Details Title: Rock geochemistry from the Manley mining district ., Bundtzen, T.K., Newberry, R.J., Dover, J.H., and Blodgett, R.B., 1998, Rock geochemistry from the Manley

  3. STP 4-06 Model-Based Technical Data in Procurement, 3D PDF Technology Data Demonstration Project. Phase 1 Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    O R G STP 4-06 MODEL-BASED TECHNICAL DATA IN PROCUREMENT 3D PDF TECHNOLOGY DATA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT PHASE 1 SUMMARY REPORT DL309T2...LMI’s ISO- certified quality management procedures. J U L Y 2 0 1 5 STP 4-06 MODEL-BASED TECHNICAL DATA IN PROCUREMENT 3D PDF TECHNICAL DATA...Based Technical Data ..................................................................................... 5 3D PDF Demonstration Team

  4. Synaptic connections of PDF-immunoreactive lateral neurons projecting to the dorsal protocerebrum of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Meinertzhagen, Ian A

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster indicate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is an important output signal from a set of major clock neurons, s-LN(v)s (small ventral lateral neurons), which transmit the circadian phase to subsets of other clock neurons, DNs (dorsal neurons). Both s-LN(v)s and DNs have fiber projections to the dorsal protocerebrum of the brain, so that this area is a conspicuous locus for coupling between different subsets of clock neurons. To unravel the neural circuits underlying the fly's circadian rhythms, we examined the detailed subcellular morphology of the PDF-positive fibers of the s-LN(v)s in the dorsal protocerebrum, focusing on their synaptic connections, using preembedding immunoelectron microscopy. To examine the distribution of synapses, we also reconstructed the three-dimensional morphology of PDF-positive varicosities from fiber profiles in the dorsal protocerebrum. The varicosities contained large dense-core vesicles (DCVs), and also numerous small clear vesicles, forming divergent output synapses onto unlabeled neurites. The DCVs apparently dock at nonsynaptic sites, suggesting their nonsynaptic release. In addition, a 3D reconstruction revealed the presence of input synapses onto the PDF-positive fibers. These were detected less frequently than output sites. These observations suggest that the PDF-positive clock neurons receive neural inputs directly through synaptic connections in the dorsal protocerebrum, in addition to supplying dual outputs, either synaptic or via paracrine release of the DCV contents, to unidentified target neurons.

  5. On Variations in the Level of PER in Glial Clocks of Drosophila Optic Lobe and Its Negative Regulation by PDF Signaling.

    PubMed

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Chwastek, Elżbieta M; Walkowicz, Lucyna; Witek, Kacper

    2018-01-01

    We show that the level of the core protein of the circadian clock Period (PER) expressed by glial peripheral oscillators depends on their location in the Drosophila optic lobe. It appears to be controlled by the ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) that release the circadian neurotransmitter Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF). We demonstrate that glial cells of the distal medulla neuropil (dMnGl) that lie in the vicinity of the PDF-releasing terminals of the LNvs possess receptors for PDF (PDFRs) and express PER at significantly higher level than other types of glia. Surprisingly, the amplitude of PER molecular oscillations in dMnGl is increased twofold in PDF-free environment, that is in Pdf 0 mutants. The Pdf 0 mutants also reveal an increased level of glia-specific protein REPO in dMnGl. The photoreceptors of the compound eye (R-cells) of the PDF-null flies, on the other hand, exhibit de-synchrony of PER molecular oscillations, which manifests itself as increased variability of PER-specific immunofluorescence among the R-cells. Moreover, the daily pattern of expression of the presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) in the lamina terminals of the R-cells is changed in Pdf 0 mutant. Considering that PDFRs are also expressed by the marginal glia of the lamina that surround the R-cell terminals, the LNv pacemakers appear to be the likely modulators of molecular cycling in the peripheral clocks of both the glial cells and the photoreceptors of the compound eye. Consequently, some form of PDF-based coupling of the glial clocks and the photoreceptors of the eye with the central LNv pacemakers must be operational.

  6. On Variations in the Level of PER in Glial Clocks of Drosophila Optic Lobe and Its Negative Regulation by PDF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Chwastek, Elżbieta M.; Walkowicz, Lucyna; Witek, Kacper

    2018-01-01

    We show that the level of the core protein of the circadian clock Period (PER) expressed by glial peripheral oscillators depends on their location in the Drosophila optic lobe. It appears to be controlled by the ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) that release the circadian neurotransmitter Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF). We demonstrate that glial cells of the distal medulla neuropil (dMnGl) that lie in the vicinity of the PDF-releasing terminals of the LNvs possess receptors for PDF (PDFRs) and express PER at significantly higher level than other types of glia. Surprisingly, the amplitude of PER molecular oscillations in dMnGl is increased twofold in PDF-free environment, that is in Pdf0 mutants. The Pdf0 mutants also reveal an increased level of glia-specific protein REPO in dMnGl. The photoreceptors of the compound eye (R-cells) of the PDF-null flies, on the other hand, exhibit de-synchrony of PER molecular oscillations, which manifests itself as increased variability of PER-specific immunofluorescence among the R-cells. Moreover, the daily pattern of expression of the presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) in the lamina terminals of the R-cells is changed in Pdf0 mutant. Considering that PDFRs are also expressed by the marginal glia of the lamina that surround the R-cell terminals, the LNv pacemakers appear to be the likely modulators of molecular cycling in the peripheral clocks of both the glial cells and the photoreceptors of the compound eye. Consequently, some form of PDF-based coupling of the glial clocks and the photoreceptors of the eye with the central LNv pacemakers must be operational. PMID:29615925

  7. Source Fingerprinting in Adobe PDF Files

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    targeted, opportunistic attacks [2]. Figures from F -Secure for 2008–2010 indicate that anywhere from 28–61% of targeted attacks involved PDF exploits...digit byte offset into the file, a five-digit generation number, and either the character ‘ f ’ or ‘n’, indicating whether the object defined on that line...Walk through a path, extracting n-grams from files and associating # them with the directory that contains them. E.g., the file # ./my_docs/ foo

  8. Structural isoforms of the circadian neuropeptide PDF expressed in the optic lobes of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus: immunocytochemical evidence from specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takeshi; Matsushima, Ayami; Sumida, Kazunori; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Onoue, Hitoshi; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2006-11-20

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is an 18-mer peptide that acts as a principal neurotransmitter of the insect circadian clock. Our previous study, utilizing anti-Uca beta-PDH polyclonal antibody (pAb) to immunolabel the optic lobe of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, suggested the existence of an alternative PDF-like peptide in the outer cells of the first neuropile, or lamina (La), which were much less immunoreactive than the inner cells of the second neuropile, the medulla (Me). To obtain structural information about such a PDF-like peptide, we prepared 10 anti-Gryllus PDF monoclonal (mAb) and pAb antibodies and analyzed their detailed epitope specificities. The PDFMe and PDFLa inner cells and their axonal projections were clearly immunoreactive to all these antibodies, revealing the widespread immunocytochemical organization of the PDF system in the optic lobe, as seen previously with anti-Uca beta-PDH pAb and anti-Gryllus PDF mAb, the epitope structures of which were also clarified in this study. The lamina outer cells, which we found lacked a target pdf mRNA, displayed specific immunoreactivities, indicating that the cells contain a distinct PDF-like peptide possessing both N- and C-terminal structures. These cells were not immunolabeled by some other monoclonal antibodies, however, implying that the PDFLa outer cells have a PDF isoform peptide devoid of Asn at positions 6 and 16. This isoform was also identified in a varicose arborization in the lamina. These results suggest not only the structure of the peptide, but also the possibility of additional functions of this novel PDF isoform.

  9. PubDNA Finder: a web database linking full-text articles to sequences of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Cuevas, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; Martín, Luis; Anguita, Alberto; de la Iglesia, Diana; de la Calle, Guillermo; Crespo, José; Maojo, Víctor

    2010-11-01

    PubDNA Finder is an online repository that we have created to link PubMed Central manuscripts to the sequences of nucleic acids appearing in them. It extends the search capabilities provided by PubMed Central by enabling researchers to perform advanced searches involving sequences of nucleic acids. This includes, among other features (i) searching for papers mentioning one or more specific sequences of nucleic acids and (ii) retrieving the genetic sequences appearing in different articles. These additional query capabilities are provided by a searchable index that we created by using the full text of the 176 672 papers available at PubMed Central at the time of writing and the sequences of nucleic acids appearing in them. To automatically extract the genetic sequences occurring in each paper, we used an original method we have developed. The database is updated monthly by automatically connecting to the PubMed Central FTP site to retrieve and index new manuscripts. Users can query the database via the web interface provided. PubDNA Finder can be freely accessed at http://servet.dia.fi.upm.es:8080/pubdnafinder

  10. A new subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields using a multivariate PDF

    DOE PAGES

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-06-03

    The subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields is important for calculating microphysical process rates. In order to represent subgrid-scale variability, the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization uses a multivariate probability density function (PDF). In addition to vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture fields, the PDF includes hydrometeor fields. Previously, hydrometeor fields were assumed to follow a multivariate single lognormal distribution. Now, in order to better represent the distribution of hydrometeors, two new multivariate PDFs are formulated and introduced.The new PDFs represent hydrometeors using either a delta-lognormal or a delta-double-lognormal shape. The two new PDF distributions, plus the previous single lognormalmore » shape, are compared to histograms of data taken from large-eddy simulations (LESs) of a precipitating cumulus case, a drizzling stratocumulus case, and a deep convective case. In conclusion, the warm microphysical process rates produced by the different hydrometeor PDFs are compared to the same process rates produced by the LES.« less

  11. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  12. Fate of abstracts presented at a National Turkish Orthopedics and Traumatology Congress: publication rates and consistency of abstracts compared with their subsequent full-text publications.

    PubMed

    Yalçınkaya, Merter; Bagatur, Erdem

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the publication rates of full-text articles after presentation of abstracts at a Turkish National Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress, determine the time lag from the congress date to publication of full-text articles and assess the consistency between abstracts and the subsequent publications. All abstracts from the scientific program of the 20th Turkish National Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress (2007) were identified and computerized PubMed searches were conducted to determine whether an abstract had been followed by publication of a full-text article and key features were compared to evaluate their consistency. The time lag to publication and the impact factors of the journals where the articles were published were noted. Of the 770 abstracts (264 oral, 506 poster presentations), 227 (29.5%) were followed by a full-text and 116 (44%) of the 264 oral and 111 (22%) of the 506 poster presentations were published. The mean time to publication was 14.9±16.075 (range: 33 to 55) months. Thirty-three (14.5%) were published prior to the presentation at the congress. The likelihood of publication decreased after the third year (26 of 227, 11.5%). A total of 182 (80.2%) articles showed inconsistencies with the abstract; 74 (32.6%) minor, 14 (6.2%) major, and 94 (41.4%) minor and major inconsistencies. The mean impact factor of the journals was 1.152±0.858. The vast majority of abstracts presented at this congress were not followed by publication of a full-text article. Additionally, frequent inconsistencies between the final published article and the original abstract indicated the inadequacy of quality of reporting in abstracts.

  13. Uncertainties on [Formula: see text] in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis and implications for SM predictions.

    PubMed

    Harland-Lang, L A; Martin, A D; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    We investigate the uncertainty in the strong coupling [Formula: see text] when allowing it to be a free parameter in the recent MMHT global analyses of deep-inelastic and related hard scattering data that was undertaken to determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton. The analysis uses the standard framework of leading twist fixed-order collinear factorisation in the [Formula: see text] scheme. We study the constraints on [Formula: see text] coming from individual data sets by repeating the NNLO and NLO fits spanning the range 0.108 to 0.128 in units of 0.001, making all PDFs sets available. The inclusion of the cross section for inclusive [Formula: see text] production allows us to explore the correlation between the mass [Formula: see text] of the top quark and [Formula: see text]. We find that the best-fit values are [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at NLO and NNLO, respectively, with the central values changing to [Formula: see text] and 0.1178 when the world average of [Formula: see text] is used as a data point. We investigate the interplay between the uncertainties on [Formula: see text] and on the PDFs. In particular we calculate the cross sections for key processes at the LHC and show how the uncertainties from the PDFs and from [Formula: see text] can be provided independently and be combined.

  14. Autoreceptor control of peptide/neurotransmitter corelease from PDF neurons determines allocation of circadian activity in drosophila.

    PubMed

    Choi, Charles; Cao, Guan; Tanenhaus, Anne K; McCarthy, Ellena V; Jung, Misun; Schleyer, William; Shang, Yuhua; Rosbash, Michael; Yin, Jerry C P; Nitabach, Michael N

    2012-08-30

    Drosophila melanogaster flies concentrate behavioral activity around dawn and dusk. This organization of daily activity is controlled by central circadian clock neurons, including the lateral-ventral pacemaker neurons (LN(v)s) that secrete the neuropeptide PDF (pigment dispersing factor). Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for PDF signaling to PDF receptor (PDFR)-expressing dorsal clock neurons in organizing circadian activity. Although LN(v)s also express functional PDFR, the role of these autoreceptors has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that (1) PDFR activation in LN(v)s shifts the balance of circadian activity from evening to morning, similar to behavioral responses to summer-like environmental conditions, and (2) this shift is mediated by stimulation of the Gα,s-cAMP pathway and a consequent change in PDF/neurotransmitter corelease from the LN(v)s. These results suggest another mechanism for environmental control of the allocation of circadian activity and provide new general insight into the role of neuropeptide autoreceptors in behavioral control circuits. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autoreceptor Modulation of Peptide/Neurotransmitter Co-release from PDF Neurons Determines Allocation of Circadian Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Charles; Cao, Guan; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; McCarthy, Ellena v.; Jung, Misun; Schleyer, William; Shang, Yuhua; Rosbash, Michael; Yin, Jerry C.P.; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster flies concentrate behavioral activity around dawn and dusk. This organization of daily activity is controlled by central circadian clock neurons, including the lateral ventral pacemaker neurons (LNvs) that secrete the neuropeptide PDF (Pigment Dispersing Factor). Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for PDF signaling to PDF receptor (PDFR)-expressing dorsal clock neurons in organizing circadian activity. While LNvs also express functional PDFR, the role of these autoreceptors has remained enigmatic. Here we show that (1) PDFR activation in LNvs shifts the balance of circadian activity from evening to morning, similar to behavioral responses to summer-like environmental conditions and (2) this shift is mediated by stimulation of the Ga,s-cAMP pathway and a consequent change in PDF/neurotransmitter co-release from the LNvs. These results suggest a novel mechanism for environmental control of the allocation of circadian activity and provide new general insight into the role of neuropeptide autoreceptors in behavioral control circuits. PMID:22938867

  16. Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly-mean cloud amount and relative humidity fields are used to compute a proxy for the second moment of an AGCM total water PDF called the RH01 diagnostic, which is the AIRS mean relative humidity for cloud fractions of 0.1 or less. The dependence of the second moment on horizontal grid resolution is analyzed using results from a high-resolution global model simulation.The AIRS-derived RH01 diagnostic is generally larger near the surface than aloft, indicating a narrower PDF near the surface, and varies with the type of underlying surface. High-resolution model results show that the vertical structure of profiles of the AGCM PDF second moment is unchanged as the grid resolution changes from 200 to 100 to 50 km, and that the second-moment profiles shift toward higher values with decreasing grid spacing.Several Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), AGCM simulations were performed with several choices for the profile of the PDF second moment. The resulting cloud and relative humidity fields were shown to be quite sensitive to the prescribed profile, and the use of a profile based on the AIRS-derived proxy results in improvements relative to observational estimates. The AIRS-guided total water PDF profiles, including their dependence on underlying surface type and on horizontal resolution, have been implemented in the version of the GEOS-5 AGCM used for publicly released simulations.

  17. E2FM: an encrypted and compressed full-text index for collections of genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Montecuollo, Ferdinando; Schmid, Giovannni; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    2017-09-15

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms and, more generally, high-throughput technologies are giving rise to an exponential growth in the size of nucleotide sequence databases. Moreover, many emerging applications of nucleotide datasets-as those related to personalized medicine-require the compliance with regulations about the storage and processing of sensitive data. We have designed and carefully engineered E 2 FM -index, a new full-text index in minute space which was optimized for compressing and encrypting nucleotide sequence collections in FASTA format and for performing fast pattern-search queries. E 2 FM -index allows to build self-indexes which occupy till to 1/20 of the storage required by the input FASTA file, thus permitting to save about 95% of storage when indexing collections of highly similar sequences; moreover, it can exactly search the built indexes for patterns in times ranging from few milliseconds to a few hundreds milliseconds, depending on pattern length. Source code is available at https://github.com/montecuollo/E2FM . ferdinando.montecuollo@unicampania.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Joint constraints on galaxy bias and σ{sub 8} through the N-pdf of the galaxy number density

    SciTech Connect

    Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Martínez, Vicent J.; Vielva, Patricio

    We present a full description of the N-probability density function of the galaxy number density fluctuations. This N-pdf is given in terms, on the one hand, of the cold dark matter correlations and, on the other hand, of the galaxy bias parameter. The method relies on the assumption commonly adopted that the dark matter density fluctuations follow a local non-linear transformation of the initial energy density perturbations. The N-pdf of the galaxy number density fluctuations allows for an optimal estimation of the bias parameter (e.g., via maximum-likelihood estimation, or Bayesian inference if there exists any a priori information on themore » bias parameter), and of those parameters defining the dark matter correlations, in particular its amplitude (σ{sub 8}). It also provides the proper framework to perform model selection between two competitive hypotheses. The parameters estimation capabilities of the N-pdf are proved by SDSS-like simulations (both, ideal log-normal simulations and mocks obtained from Las Damas simulations), showing that our estimator is unbiased. We apply our formalism to the 7th release of the SDSS main sample (for a volume-limited subset with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} ≤ −20). We obtain b-circumflex  = 1.193 ± 0.074 and σ-bar{sub 8} = 0.862 ± 0.080, for galaxy number density fluctuations in cells of the size of 30h{sup −1}Mpc. Different model selection criteria show that galaxy biasing is clearly favoured.« less

  19. Construction of phosphorylation interaction networks by text mining of full-length articles using the eFIP system.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Catalina O; Ross, Karen E; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification where a protein kinase adds a phosphate group to a protein, potentially regulating its function, localization and/or activity. Phosphorylation can affect protein-protein interactions (PPIs), abolishing interaction with previous binding partners or enabling new interactions. Extracting phosphorylation information coupled with PPI information from the scientific literature will facilitate the creation of phosphorylation interaction networks of kinases, substrates and interacting partners, toward knowledge discovery of functional outcomes of protein phosphorylation. Increasingly, PPI databases are interested in capturing the phosphorylation state of interacting partners. We have previously developed the eFIP (Extracting Functional Impact of Phosphorylation) text mining system, which identifies phosphorylated proteins and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs. In this work, we present several enhancements for the eFIP system: (i) text mining for full-length articles from the PubMed Central open-access collection; (ii) the integration of the RLIMS-P 2.0 system for the extraction of phosphorylation events with kinase, substrate and site information; (iii) the extension of the PPI module with new trigger words/phrases describing interactions and (iv) the addition of the iSimp tool for sentence simplification to aid in the matching of syntactic patterns. We enhance the website functionality to: (i) support searches based on protein roles (kinases, substrates, interacting partners) or using keywords; (ii) link protein entities to their corresponding UniProt identifiers if mapped and (iii) support visual exploration of phosphorylation interaction networks using Cytoscape. The evaluation of eFIP on full-length articles achieved 92.4% precision, 76.5% recall and 83.7% F-measure on 100 article sections. To demonstrate eFIP for knowledge extraction and discovery, we constructed phosphorylation-dependent interaction

  20. External intermittency prediction using AMR solutions of RANS turbulence and transported PDF models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, D. A.; Fairweather, M.; Falle, S. A. E. G.

    2011-12-01

    External intermittency in turbulent round jets is predicted using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modelling approach coupled to solutions of the transported probability density function (pdf) equation for scalar variables. Solutions to the descriptive equations are obtained using a finite-volume method, combined with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm, applied in both physical and compositional space. This method contrasts with conventional approaches to solving the transported pdf equation which generally employ Monte Carlo techniques. Intermittency-modified eddy viscosity and second-moment turbulence closures are used to accommodate the effects of intermittency on the flow field, with the influence of intermittency also included, through modifications to the mixing model, in the transported pdf equation. Predictions of the overall model are compared with experimental data on the velocity and scalar fields in a round jet, as well as against measurements of intermittency profiles and scalar pdfs in a number of flows, with good agreement obtained. For the cases considered, predictions based on the second-moment turbulence closure are clearly superior, although both turbulence models give realistic predictions of the bimodal scalar pdfs observed experimentally.

  1. Publications - PDF 97-29G | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 97-29G Publication Details Title: Rock geochemistry from the Rampart mining district , K.H., Bundtzen, T.K., Newberry, R.J., Dover, J.H., and Blodgett, R.B., 1997, Rock geochemistry from

  2. PDF cells are a GABA-responsive wake-promoting component of the Drosophila sleep circuit.

    PubMed

    Parisky, Katherine M; Agosto, Jose; Pulver, Stefan R; Shang, Yuhua; Kuklin, Elena; Hodge, James J L; Kang, Kyeongjin; Kang, Keongjin; Liu, Xu; Garrity, Paul A; Rosbash, Michael; Griffith, Leslie C

    2008-11-26

    Daily sleep cycles in humans are driven by a complex circuit within which GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons oppose arousal. Drosophila sleep has recently been shown to be controlled by GABA, which acts on unknown cells expressing the Rdl GABAA receptor. We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of the circadian clock. LNv activity regulates total sleep as well as the rate of sleep onset; both large and small LNvs are part of the sleep circuit. Flies mutant for pdf or its receptor are hypersomnolent, and PDF acts on the LNvs themselves to control sleep. These features of the Drosophila sleep circuit, GABAergic control of onset and maintenance as well as peptidergic control of arousal, support the idea that features of sleep-circuit architecture as well as the mechanisms governing the behavioral transitions between sleep and wake are conserved between mammals and insects.

  3. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  4. Identification of a new peptide deformylase gene from enterococcus faecium and establishment of a new screening model targeted on PDF for novel antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-Bing; Si, Shu-Yi; Zhang, Yue-Qin

    2004-09-01

    To identify a new peptide deformylase (PDF) gene (Genebank Accession AY238515) from Enterococcus faecium and to establish a new screening model targeted on PDF. A new PDF gene was identified by BLAST analysis and PCR and was subsequently over-expressed in the prokaryotic expression host E. coli B121(DE3). Over-expressed protein was purified for enzymatic assay by metal affinity chromatography and a new screening model was established for novel antibiotics. A new PDF gene of Enterococcus faecium was identified successfully. Ten positive samples were picked up from 8000 compound library and the microbial fermentation broth samples. A new PDF of gene Enterococcus faecium was first identified and the model had a high efficacy. Positive samples screened may be antibacterial agents of broad spectrum.

  5. Monte Carlo PDF method for turbulent reacting flow in a jet-stirred reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roekaerts, D.

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic algorithm for the solution of the modeled scalar probability density function (PDF) transport equation for single-phase turbulent reacting flow is described. Cylindrical symmetry is assumed. The PDF is represented by ensembles of N representative values of the thermochemical variables in each cell of a nonuniform finite-difference grid and operations on these elements representing convection, diffusion, mixing and reaction are derived. A simplified model and solution algorithm which neglects the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean reaction rates is also described. Both algorithms are applied to a selectivity problem in a real reactor.

  6. DeTEXT: A Database for Evaluating Text Extraction from Biomedical Literature Figures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xu-Cheng; Yang, Chun; Pei, Wei-Yi; Man, Haixia; Zhang, Jun; Learned-Miller, Erik; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. Since text is a rich source of information in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist in the task of mining figure information. A high-quality ground truth standard can greatly facilitate the development of an automated system. This article describes DeTEXT: A database for evaluating text extraction from biomedical literature figures. It is the first publicly available, human-annotated, high quality, and large-scale figure-text dataset with 288 full-text articles, 500 biomedical figures, and 9308 text regions. This article describes how figures were selected from open-access full-text biomedical articles and how annotation guidelines and annotation tools were developed. We also discuss the inter-annotator agreement and the reliability of the annotations. We summarize the statistics of the DeTEXT data and make available evaluation protocols for DeTEXT. Finally we lay out challenges we observed in the automated detection and recognition of figure text and discuss research directions in this area. DeTEXT is publicly available for downloading at http://prir.ustb.edu.cn/DeTEXT/. PMID:25951377

  7. Comprehensive insights into the structural and chemical changes in mixed-anion FeOF electrodes by using operando PDF and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Robert, Rosa; Pereira, Nathalie; Amatucci, Glenn G; Grey, Clare P; Chupas, Peter J; Chapman, Karena W

    2013-03-13

    In-depth analysis of operando X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) data is combined with Li NMR spectroscopy to gain comprehensive insights into the electrochemical reaction mechanism of high-performance iron oxyfluoride electrodes. While the full discharge capacity could be recovered upon charge, implying reversibility of the electrochemical reaction, the atomic structure of the electrode formed after cycling (discharge-charge) differs from the pristine uncycled electrode material. Instead, the "active" electrode that forms upon cycling is a nanocomposite of an amorphous rutile phase and a nanoscale rock salt phase. Bond valence sum analysis, based on the precise structural parameters (bond lengths and coordination number) extracted from the in situ PDF data, suggests that anion partitioning occurs during the electrochemical reaction, with the rutile phase being F-rich and the rock salt phase being O-rich. The F- and O-rich phases react sequentially; Fe in a F-rich environment reacts preferentially during both discharge and charge.

  8. PDF-1 neuropeptide signaling modulates a neural circuit for mate-searching behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Arantza; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Fang, Chunhui; Emmons, Scott W; Barr, Maureen M

    2012-12-01

    Appetitive behaviors require complex decision making that involves the integration of environmental stimuli and physiological needs. C. elegans mate searching is a male-specific exploratory behavior regulated by two competing needs: food and reproductive appetite. We found that the pigment dispersing factor receptor (PDFR-1) modulates the circuit that encodes the male reproductive drive that promotes male exploration following mate deprivation. PDFR-1 and its ligand, PDF-1, stimulated mate searching in the male, but not in the hermaphrodite. pdf-1 was required in the gender-shared interneuron AIM, and the receptor acted in internal and external environment-sensing neurons of the shared nervous system (URY, PQR and PHA) to produce mate-searching behavior. Thus, the pdf-1 and pdfr-1 pathway functions in non-sex-specific neurons to produce a male-specific, goal-oriented exploratory behavior. Our results indicate that secretin neuropeptidergic signaling is involved in regulating motivational internal states.

  9. Offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing using modeling error PDF shaping and entropy minimization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing which consists of a number of unit processes in series. The prediction of the product quality of the whole mineral process (i.e., the mixed concentrate grade) plays an important role and the establishment of its predictive model is a key issue for the plantwide optimization. For this purpose, a hybrid modeling approach of the mixed concentrate grade prediction is proposed, which consists of a linear model and a nonlinear model. The least-squares support vector machine is adopted to establish the nonlinear model. The inputs of the predictive model are the performance indices of each unit process, while the output is the mixed concentrate grade. In this paper, the model parameter selection is transformed into the shape control of the probability density function (PDF) of the modeling error. In this context, both the PDF-control-based and minimum-entropy-based model parameter selection approaches are proposed. Indeed, this is the first time that the PDF shape control idea is used to deal with system modeling, where the key idea is to turn model parameters so that either the modeling error PDF is controlled to follow a target PDF or the modeling error entropy is minimized. The experimental results using the real plant data and the comparison of the two approaches are discussed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines. PMID:25780759

  11. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines.

  12. Computations of steady-state and transient premixed turbulent flames using pdf methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hulek, T.; Lindstedt, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    Premixed propagating turbulent flames are modeled using a one-point, single time, joint velocity-composition probability density function (pdf) closure. The pdf evolution equation is solved using a Monte Carlo method. The unclosed terms in the pdf equation are modeled using a modified version of the binomial Langevin model for scalar mixing of Valino and Dopazo, and the Haworth and Pope (HP) and Lagrangian Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (LSSG) models for the viscous dissipation of velocity and the fluctuating pressure gradient. The source terms for the presumed one-step chemical reaction are extracted from the rate of fuel consumption in laminar premixed hydrocarbon flames, computed usingmore » a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism. Steady-state and transient solutions are obtained for planar turbulent methane-air and propane-air flames. The transient solution method features a coupling with a Finite Volume (FV) code to obtain the mean pressure field. The results are compared with the burning velocity measurements of Abdel-Gayed et al. and with velocity measurements obtained in freely propagating propane-air flames by Videto and Santavicca. The effects of different upstream turbulence fields, chemical source terms (different fuels and strained/unstrained laminar flames) and the influence of the velocity statistics models (HP and LSSG) are assessed.« less

  13. The C-terminal residue of phage Vp16 PDF, the smallest peptide deformylase, acts as an offset element locking the active conformation.

    PubMed

    Grzela, Renata; Nusbaum, Julien; Fieulaine, Sonia; Lavecchia, Francesco; Bienvenut, Willy V; Dian, Cyril; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2017-09-08

    Prokaryotic proteins must be deformylated before the removal of their first methionine. Peptide deformylase (PDF) is indispensable and guarantees this mechanism. Recent metagenomics studies revealed new idiosyncratic PDF forms as the most abundant family of viral sequences. Little is known regarding these viral PDFs, including the capacity of the corresponding encoded proteins to ensure deformylase activity. We provide here the first evidence that viral PDFs, including the shortest PDF identified to date, Vp16 PDF, display deformylase activity in vivo, despite the absence of the key ribosome-interacting C-terminal region. Moreover, characterization of phage Vp16 PDF underscores unexpected structural and molecular features with the C-terminal Isoleucine residue significantly contributing to deformylase activity both in vitro and in vivo. This residue fully compensates for the absence of the usual long C-domain. Taken together, these data elucidate an unexpected mechanism of enzyme natural evolution and adaptation within viral sequences.

  14. PDF as a coupling mediator between the light-entrainable and temperature-entrainable clocks in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, K; Miyasako, Y; Umezaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila shows bimodal circadian locomotor rhythms with peaks around light-on (morning peak) and before light-off (evening peak). The rhythm synchronizes to light and temperature cycles and the synchronization is achieved by two sets of clocks: one entrains to light cycles and the other to temperature cycles. The light-entrainable clock consists of the clock neurons located in the lateral protocerebrum (LNs) and the temperature-entrainable clock involves those located in the dorsal protocerebrum (DNs) and the cells located in the posterior lateral protocerebrum (LPNs). To understand the interaction between the light-entrainable and the temperature-entrainable clock neurons, locomotor rhythms of the mutant flies lacking PDF or PDF-positive clock neurons were examined. Under the light cycles, they showed altered phase of the evening peak. When exposed to temperature cycles of lower temperature levels, the onset of evening peak showed larger advance in contrast to those of wild-type flies. The termination of the peak also advanced while that of wild-type flies remained almost at the same phase as in the constant temperature. These results support our hypothesis that the PDF-positive light entrainable cells regulate the phase of the temperature entrainable cells to be synchronized to their own phase using PDF as a coupling mediator.

  15. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas [Theory of cumulative large-angle collisions in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Drew P.

    Here, we describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event.more » We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10 -3 to 0.3–0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20–2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.« less

  16. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas [Theory of cumulative large-angle collisions in plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Higginson, Drew P.

    2017-08-12

    Here, we describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event.more » We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10 -3 to 0.3–0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20–2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.« less

  17. Comparisons of Lagrangian and Eulerian PDF methods in simulations of non-premixed turbulent jet flames with moderate-to-strong turbulence-chemistry interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaishree, J.; Haworth, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    Transported probability density function (PDF) methods have been applied widely and effectively for modelling turbulent reacting flows. In most applications of PDF methods to date, Lagrangian particle Monte Carlo algorithms have been used to solve a modelled PDF transport equation. However, Lagrangian particle PDF methods are computationally intensive and are not readily integrated into conventional Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Eulerian field PDF methods have been proposed as an alternative. Here a systematic comparison is performed among three methods for solving the same underlying modelled composition PDF transport equation: a consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh (LPEM) method, a stochastic Eulerian field (SEF) method and a deterministic Eulerian field method with a direct-quadrature-method-of-moments closure (a multi-environment PDF-MEPDF method). The comparisons have been made in simulations of a series of three non-premixed, piloted methane-air turbulent jet flames that exhibit progressively increasing levels of local extinction and turbulence-chemistry interactions: Sandia/TUD flames D, E and F. The three PDF methods have been implemented using the same underlying CFD solver, and results obtained using the three methods have been compared using (to the extent possible) equivalent physical models and numerical parameters. Reasonably converged mean and rms scalar profiles are obtained using 40 particles per cell for the LPEM method or 40 Eulerian fields for the SEF method. Results from these stochastic methods are compared with results obtained using two- and three-environment MEPDF methods. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of accuracy and computational requirements are explored and identified. In general, the results obtained from the two stochastic methods (LPEM and SEF) are very similar, and are in closer agreement with experimental measurements than those obtained using the MEPDF method

  18. Getting more out of biomedical documents with GATE's full lifecycle open source text analytics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Hamish; Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Angus; Bontcheva, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group) who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online <1> under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis.

  19. Getting More Out of Biomedical Documents with GATE's Full Lifecycle Open Source Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Hamish; Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Angus; Bontcheva, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem, bringing together software developers, language engineers and research staff from diverse fields. GATE now has a strong claim to cover a uniquely wide range of the lifecycle of text analysis systems. It forms a focal point for the integration and reuse of advances that have been made by many people (the majority outside of the authors' own group) who work in text processing for biomedicine and other areas. GATE is available online <1> under GNU open source licences and runs on all major operating systems. Support is available from an active user and developer community and also on a commercial basis. PMID:23408875

  20. Development and characterization of two cell lines PDF and PDH from Puntius denisonii (Day 1865).

    PubMed

    Lakra, Wazir S; Goswami, M; Yadav, Kamalendra; Gopalakrishnan, A; Patiyal, R S; Singh, M

    2011-02-01

    The Puntius denisonii colloquially and more popularly referred to as Miss Kerala is a subtropical fish belonging to the genus Puntius (Barb) and family Cyprinidae. Two cell lines PDF and PDH were developed from the caudal fin and heart of P. denisonii, respectively. The cell lines were optimally maintained at 26°C in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. A diploid count of 50 chromosomes at passage 50 was observed in both the cell lines. The high growth potential of the cell lines was reflected from the cell doubling time of 28 and 30 h of PDF and PDH cell lines, respectively. The viability of the PDF and PDH cell lines was 70% and 76%, respectively, after 4 mo of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 653 bp fragments of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA genes.

  1. A consistent transported PDF model for treating differential molecular diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Pei

    2016-11-01

    Differential molecular diffusion is a fundamentally significant phenomenon in all multi-component turbulent reacting or non-reacting flows caused by the different rates of molecular diffusion of energy and species concentrations. In the transported probability density function (PDF) method, the differential molecular diffusion can be treated by using a mean drift model developed by McDermott and Pope. This model correctly accounts for the differential molecular diffusion in the scalar mean transport and yields a correct DNS limit of the scalar variance production. The model, however, misses the molecular diffusion term in the scalar variance transport equation, which yields an inconsistent prediction of the scalar variance in the transported PDF method. In this work, a new model is introduced to remedy this problem that can yield a consistent scalar variance prediction. The model formulation along with its numerical implementation is discussed, and the model validation is conducted in a turbulent mixing layer problem.

  2. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  3. A Electronic Map Data Model Based on PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Yang, Chuncheng; Meng, Nina; Peng, Peng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed the PDFEMAP (PDF electronic map) that is a kind of new electronic map products aiming at the current situation and demand of the use of electronic map products. Firstly gives the definition and characteristics of PDFEMAP, followed by a detailed description of the data model and method for generating PDFEMAP, and finally expounds application modes of the PDFEMAP which feasibility and effectiveness are verified.

  4. An exploratory analysis of PubMed's free full-text limit on citation retrieval for clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Mary M; Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M

    2008-10-01

    The research sought to determine (1) how use of the PubMed free full-text (FFT) limit affects citation retrieval and (2) how use of the FFT limit impacts the types of articles and levels of evidence retrieved. Four clinical questions based on a research agenda for physical therapy were searched in PubMed both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Retrieved citations were examined for relevancy to each question. Abstracts of relevant citations were reviewed to determine the types of articles and levels of evidence. Descriptive analysis was used to compare the total number of citations, number of relevant citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Across all 4 questions, the FFT limit reduced the number of citations to 11.1% of the total number of citations retrieved without the FFT limit. Additionally, high-quality evidence such as systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were missed when the FFT limit was used. Health sciences librarians play a key role in educating users about the potential impact the FFT limit has on the number of citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence retrieved.

  5. An LES-PBE-PDF approach for modeling particle formation in turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewerin, Fabian; Rigopoulos, Stelios

    2017-10-01

    Many chemical and environmental processes involve the formation of a polydispersed particulate phase in a turbulent carrier flow. Frequently, the immersed particles are characterized by an intrinsic property such as the particle size, and the distribution of this property across a sample population is taken as an indicator for the quality of the particulate product or its environmental impact. In the present article, we propose a comprehensive model and an efficient numerical solution scheme for predicting the evolution of the property distribution associated with a polydispersed particulate phase forming in a turbulent reacting flow. Here, the particulate phase is described in terms of the particle number density whose evolution in both physical and particle property space is governed by the population balance equation (PBE). Based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES), we augment the existing LES-transported probability density function (PDF) approach for fluid phase scalars by the particle number density and obtain a modeled evolution equation for the filtered PDF associated with the instantaneous fluid composition and particle property distribution. This LES-PBE-PDF approach allows us to predict the LES-filtered fluid composition and particle property distribution at each spatial location and point in time without any restriction on the chemical or particle formation kinetics. In view of a numerical solution, we apply the method of Eulerian stochastic fields, invoking an explicit adaptive grid technique in order to discretize the stochastic field equation for the number density in particle property space. In this way, sharp moving features of the particle property distribution can be accurately resolved at a significantly reduced computational cost. As a test case, we consider the condensation of an aerosol in a developed turbulent mixing layer. Our investigation not only demonstrates the predictive capabilities of the LES-PBE-PDF model but also

  6. Oscillating PDF in termini of circadian pacemaker neurons and synchronous molecular clocks in downstream neurons are not sufficient for sustenance of activity rhythms in constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Pavitra; Nambiar, Aishwarya; Sheeba, Vasu

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila, neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is expressed in small and large ventral Lateral Neurons (sLNv and lLNv), among which sLNv are critical for activity rhythms in constant darkness. Studies show that this is mediated by rhythmic accumulation and likely secretion of PDF from sLNv dorsal projections, which in turn synchronises molecular oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. Using targeted expression of a neurodegenerative protein Huntingtin in LNv, we evoke a selective loss of neuropeptide PDF and clock protein PERIOD from sLNv soma. However, PDF is not lost from sLNv dorsal projections and lLNv. These flies are behaviourally arrhythmic in constant darkness despite persistence of PDF oscillations in sLNv dorsal projections and synchronous PERIOD oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. We find that PDF oscillations in sLNv dorsal projections are not sufficient for sustenance of activity rhythms in constant darkness and this is suggestive of an additional component that is possibly dependent on sLNv molecular clock and PDF in sLNv soma. Additionally, despite loss of PERIOD in sLNv, their activity rhythms entrain to light/dark cycles indicating that sLNv molecular clocks are not necessary for entrainment. Under constant light, these flies lack PDF from both soma and dorsal projections of sLNv, and when subjected to light/dark cycles, show morning and evening anticipation and accurately phased morning and evening peaks. Thus, under light/dark cycles, PDF in sLNv is not necessary for morning anticipation.

  7. Oscillating PDF in termini of circadian pacemaker neurons and synchronous molecular clocks in downstream neurons are not sufficient for sustenance of activity rhythms in constant darkness

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Pavitra; Nambiar, Aishwarya; Sheeba, Vasu

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila, neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is expressed in small and large ventral Lateral Neurons (sLNv and lLNv), among which sLNv are critical for activity rhythms in constant darkness. Studies show that this is mediated by rhythmic accumulation and likely secretion of PDF from sLNv dorsal projections, which in turn synchronises molecular oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. Using targeted expression of a neurodegenerative protein Huntingtin in LNv, we evoke a selective loss of neuropeptide PDF and clock protein PERIOD from sLNv soma. However, PDF is not lost from sLNv dorsal projections and lLNv. These flies are behaviourally arrhythmic in constant darkness despite persistence of PDF oscillations in sLNv dorsal projections and synchronous PERIOD oscillations in downstream circadian neurons. We find that PDF oscillations in sLNv dorsal projections are not sufficient for sustenance of activity rhythms in constant darkness and this is suggestive of an additional component that is possibly dependent on sLNv molecular clock and PDF in sLNv soma. Additionally, despite loss of PERIOD in sLNv, their activity rhythms entrain to light/dark cycles indicating that sLNv molecular clocks are not necessary for entrainment. Under constant light, these flies lack PDF from both soma and dorsal projections of sLNv, and when subjected to light/dark cycles, show morning and evening anticipation and accurately phased morning and evening peaks. Thus, under light/dark cycles, PDF in sLNv is not necessary for morning anticipation. PMID:28558035

  8. EUPDF-II: An Eulerian Joint Scalar Monte Carlo PDF Module : User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    EUPDF-II provides the solution for the species and temperature fields based on an evolution equation for PDF (Probability Density Function) and it is developed mainly for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing, and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase CFD and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with an understanding of the various models involved in the PDF formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. The source code of EUPDF-II will be available with National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  9. Coreference annotation and resolution in the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus of biomedical journal articles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Choi, Miji Joo-Young; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Panteleyeva, Natalya; Verspoor, Karin; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2017-08-17

    Coreference resolution is the task of finding strings in text that have the same referent as other strings. Failures of coreference resolution are a common cause of false negatives in information extraction from the scientific literature. In order to better understand the nature of the phenomenon of coreference in biomedical publications and to increase performance on the task, we annotated the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus with coreference relations. The corpus was manually annotated with coreference relations, including identity and appositives for all coreferring base noun phrases. The OntoNotes annotation guidelines, with minor adaptations, were used. Interannotator agreement ranges from 0.480 (entity-based CEAF) to 0.858 (Class-B3), depending on the metric that is used to assess it. The resulting corpus adds nearly 30,000 annotations to the previous release of the CRAFT corpus. Differences from related projects include a much broader definition of markables, connection to extensive annotation of several domain-relevant semantic classes, and connection to complete syntactic annotation. Tool performance was benchmarked on the data. A publicly available out-of-the-box, general-domain coreference resolution system achieved an F-measure of 0.14 (B3), while a simple domain-adapted rule-based system achieved an F-measure of 0.42. An ensemble of the two reached F of 0.46. Following the IDENTITY chains in the data would add 106,263 additional named entities in the full 97-paper corpus, for an increase of 76% percent in the semantic classes of the eight ontologies that have been annotated in earlier versions of the CRAFT corpus. The project produced a large data set for further investigation of coreference and coreference resolution in the scientific literature. The work raised issues in the phenomenon of reference in this domain and genre, and the paper proposes that many mentions that would be considered generic in the general domain are not

  10. Pdf prediction of supersonic hydrogen flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eifler, P.; Kollmann, W.

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid method for the prediction of supersonic turbulent flows with combustion is developed consisting of a second order closure for the velocity field and a multi-scalar pdf method for the local thermodynamic state. It is shown that for non-premixed flames and chemical equilibrium mixture fraction, the logarithm of the (dimensionless) density, internal energy per unit mass and the divergence of the velocity have several advantages over other sets of scalars. The closure model is applied to a supersonic non-premixed flame burning hydrogen with air supplied by a supersonic coflow and the results are compared with a limited set of experimental data.

  11. Multiresolution MAP despeckling of SAR images based on locally adaptive generalized Gaussian pdf modeling.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Tiziano; Alparone, Luciano

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a new despeckling method based on undecimated wavelet decomposition and maximum a posteriori MIAP) estimation is proposed. Such a method relies on the assumption that the probability density function (pdf) of each wavelet coefficient is generalized Gaussian (GG). The major novelty of the proposed approach is that the parameters of the GG pdf are taken to be space-varying within each wavelet frame. Thus, they may be adjusted to spatial image context, not only to scale and orientation. Since the MAP equation to be solved is a function of the parameters of the assumed pdf model, the variance and shape factor of the GG function are derived from the theoretical moments, which depend on the moments and joint moments of the observed noisy signal and on the statistics of speckle. The solution of the MAP equation yields the MAP estimate of the wavelet coefficients of the noise-free image. The restored SAR image is synthesized from such coefficients. Experimental results, carried out on both synthetic speckled images and true SAR images, demonstrate that MAP filtering can be successfully applied to SAR images represented in the shift-invariant wavelet domain, without resorting to a logarithmic transformation.

  12. A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Revised estimates for continuous shoreline fumigation: a PDF approach.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muddassir; Khan, Faisal I; Husain, Tahir

    2005-02-14

    A probability density function (PDF) fumigation model is presented here to study the dispersion of air pollutants emitted from a tall stack on the shoreline. This work considers dispersion of the pollutants in the stable layer and within the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) proceeds independently. The growth of TIBL is considered parabolic with distance inland. Turbulence is taken as homogeneous and stationary. Dispersion of particles (contaminant) in lateral and vertical directions is assumed independent of each other. This assumption allows us to consider the position of particles in both directions as independent random variables. The lateral dispersion distribution within the TIBL is considered as Gaussian and independent of height. A skewed bi-Gaussian vertical velocity PDF is used to account for the physics of dispersion due to different characteristics of updrafts and downdrafts within the TIBL. We have used Weil (J.C. Weil, A diagnosis of the asymmetry in top-down and bottom-up diffusion using a Lagrangian stochastic model, J. Atmos. Sci., 47 (1990) 501-515) solutions to find out the parameters of this PDF. Incorporating finite Lagrangian integral time scale for the vertical velocity component, it is observed that it reduces the vertical dispersion in the beginning and moves the point of maximum concentration further downwind. Due to little dispersion in the beginning, there is more plume to be dispersed causing higher concentrations at large distances. The model has considered Weil and Brower's (J.C. Weil, P.R. Brower, Estimating convective boundary layer parameters for diffusion applications, Maryland Power Plant Siting Program Rep. PPSP-MP-48, Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD, 1985, 37 pp.) convective limit to analyze dispersion characteristics within TIBL. The revised model discussed here is evaluated with the data available from the Nanticoke field experiment on fumigation conducted in summer of 1978 in Ontario, Canada. The results

  14. An exploratory analysis of PubMed's free full-text limit on citation retrieval for clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Mary M.; Richter, Randy R.; Austin, Tricia M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to determine (1) how use of the PubMed free full-text (FFT) limit affects citation retrieval and (2) how use of the FFT limit impacts the types of articles and levels of evidence retrieved. Methods: Four clinical questions based on a research agenda for physical therapy were searched in PubMed both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Retrieved citations were examined for relevancy to each question. Abstracts of relevant citations were reviewed to determine the types of articles and levels of evidence. Descriptive analysis was used to compare the total number of citations, number of relevant citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Results: Across all 4 questions, the FFT limit reduced the number of citations to 11.1% of the total number of citations retrieved without the FFT limit. Additionally, high-quality evidence such as systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were missed when the FFT limit was used. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians play a key role in educating users about the potential impact the FFT limit has on the number of citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence retrieved. PMID:18974812

  15. A PDF projection method: A pressure algorithm for stand-alone transported PDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Asghar; Steinhilber, Gerd; Markus, Detlev; Maas, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of the projection approach is introduced for stand-alone probability density function (PDF) methods. The method is suitable for applications in low-Mach number transient turbulent reacting flows. The method is based on a fractional step method in which first the advection-diffusion-reaction equations are modelled and solved within a particle-based PDF method to predict an intermediate velocity field. Then the mean velocity field is projected onto a space where the continuity for the mean velocity is satisfied. In this approach, a Poisson equation is solved on the Eulerian grid to obtain the mean pressure field. Then the mean pressure is interpolated at the location of each stochastic Lagrangian particle. The formulation of the Poisson equation avoids the time derivatives of the density (due to convection) as well as second-order spatial derivatives. This in turn eliminates the major sources of instability in the presence of stochastic noise that are inherent in particle-based PDF methods. The convergence of the algorithm (in the non-turbulent case) is investigated first by the method of manufactured solutions. Then the algorithm is applied to a one-dimensional turbulent premixed flame in order to assess the accuracy and convergence of the method in the case of turbulent combustion. As a part of this work, we also apply the algorithm to a more realistic flow, namely a transient turbulent reacting jet, in order to assess the performance of the method.

  16. aMC fast: automation of fast NLO computations for PDF fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Frederix, Rikkert; Frixione, Stefano; Rojo, Juan; Sutton, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We present the interface between M adG raph5_ aMC@NLO, a self-contained program that calculates cross sections up to next-to-leading order accuracy in an automated manner, and APPL grid, a code that parametrises such cross sections in the form of look-up tables which can be used for the fast computations needed in the context of PDF fits. The main characteristic of this interface, which we dub aMC fast, is its being fully automated as well, which removes the need to extract manually the process-specific information for additional physics processes, as is the case with other matrix-element calculators, and renders it straightforward to include any new process in the PDF fits. We demonstrate this by studying several cases which are easily measured at the LHC, have a good constraining power on PDFs, and some of which were previously unavailable in the form of a fast interface.

  17. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  18. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scalingmore » that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.« less

  19. HighWire Free Online Full-text Articles

    Science.gov Websites

    every Jan. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal all articles after 12 months Advances American Journal of Botany all articles after 12 months The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition all Nutrition all articles after 12 months back to 1 Jan 1997 Journal of Oncology Practice all articles after 12

  20. Evolution of the concentration PDF in random environments modeled by global random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Vamos, Calin; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of concentrations of chemical species transported in random environments is often modeled by ensembles of notional particles. The particles move in physical space along stochastic-Lagrangian trajectories governed by Ito equations, with drift coefficients given by the local values of the resolved velocity field and diffusion coefficients obtained by stochastic or space-filtering upscaling procedures. A general model for the sub-grid mixing also can be formulated as a system of Ito equations solving for trajectories in the composition space. The PDF is finally estimated by the number of particles in space-concentration control volumes. In spite of their efficiency, Lagrangian approaches suffer from two severe limitations. Since the particle trajectories are constructed sequentially, the demanded computing resources increase linearly with the number of particles. Moreover, the need to gather particles at the center of computational cells to perform the mixing step and to estimate statistical parameters, as well as the interpolation of various terms to particle positions, inevitably produce numerical diffusion in either particle-mesh or grid-free particle methods. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a global random walk method to solve the system of Ito equations in physical and composition spaces, which models the evolution of the random concentration's PDF. The algorithm consists of a superposition on a regular lattice of many weak Euler schemes for the set of Ito equations. Since all particles starting from a site of the space-concentration lattice are spread in a single numerical procedure, one obtains PDF estimates at the lattice sites at computational costs comparable with those for solving the system of Ito equations associated to a single particle. The new method avoids the limitations concerning the number of particles in Lagrangian approaches, completely removes the numerical diffusion, and

  1. Policing in the United States: Has the Time Come for a Full-Time National Police Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    content/pub/pdf/fleo00.pdf. 103 Scalia, John. NCJ-163066, Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin: Juvenile Delinquents in the Federal Criminal Justice...96 viii ACRONYMS BJS Bureau of Justice Statistics CALEA Commission on Accrediting Law Enforcement Agencies COMPSTAT...Computer Statistics COR Corrections CRCC Civilian Review and Complaint Commission CRT Court Operations DEA Drug Enforcement Agency DHS

  2. Modulation of light-driven arousal by LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Apterous in large PDF-positive lateral neurons of the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Naoto; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal. We identified that Ap localizes to the nuclei of s-LNvs and l-LNvs. In light-dark (LD) cycles, RNAi knockdown or the targeted expression of dominant-negative forms of Ap or Chi in PDF-expressing neurons or l-LNvs promoted arousal. In contrast, in constant darkness, knockdown of Ap in PDF-expressing neurons did not promote arousal, indicating that a reduced Ap function in PDF-expressing neurons promotes light-driven arousal. Furthermore, Ap expression in l-LNvs showed daily rhythms (peaking at midnight), which are generated by a direct light-dependent mechanism rather than by the endogenous clock. These results raise the possibility that the daily oscillation of Ap expression in l-LNvs may contribute to the buffering of light-driven arousal in wild-type flies. PMID:27853240

  3. Modulation of light-driven arousal by LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Apterous in large PDF-positive lateral neurons of the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Naoto; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-11-17

    Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal. We identified that Ap localizes to the nuclei of s-LNvs and l-LNvs. In light-dark (LD) cycles, RNAi knockdown or the targeted expression of dominant-negative forms of Ap or Chi in PDF-expressing neurons or l-LNvs promoted arousal. In contrast, in constant darkness, knockdown of Ap in PDF-expressing neurons did not promote arousal, indicating that a reduced Ap function in PDF-expressing neurons promotes light-driven arousal. Furthermore, Ap expression in l-LNvs showed daily rhythms (peaking at midnight), which are generated by a direct light-dependent mechanism rather than by the endogenous clock. These results raise the possibility that the daily oscillation of Ap expression in l-LNvs may contribute to the buffering of light-driven arousal in wild-type flies.

  4. Publications - PDF 94-40 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 94-40 Publication Details Title: Geology of the Gagaryah River area, Lime Hills C-5 and C ., Clautice, K.H., and Harris, E.E., 1994, Geology of the Gagaryah River area, Lime Hills C-5 and C-6 Sheet 1 Geologic map of the Gagaryah River Area, Lime Hills C-5 and C-6 quadrangles, Southwestern Alaska

  5. Interactive 3D-PDF Presentations for the Simulation and Quantification of Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Surgical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Méndez, Juan A Juanes; Puigdelívoll-Sánchez, Anna; de Notaris, Matteo

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull base was reconstructed from the pre- and post-dissection head CT images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The CT images were segmented using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data, and the resulting 3D geometrical models of anatomical structures were used for dual purpose: to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches and to perform the quantitative analysis of the procedures. The analysis consisted of bone removal quantification and the calculation of quantitative parameters (surgical freedom and exposure area) of each procedure. The results are presented in three PDF documents containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D-PDF files include reconstructions of the nasal structures (nasal septum, vomer, middle turbinates), the bony structures of the anterior skull base and maxillofacial region and partial reconstructions of the optic nerve, the hypoglossal and vidian canals and the internal carotid arteries. Alongside the anatomical model, axial, sagittal and coronal CT images are shown. Interactive 3D presentations were created to explain the surgery and the associated quantification methods step-by-step. The resulting 3D-PDF files allow the user to interact with the model through easily available software, free of charge and in an intuitive manner. The files are available for offline use on a personal computer and no previous specialized knowledge in informatics is required. The documents can be downloaded at http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55224 .

  6. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons.

    PubMed

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Pírez, Nicolás; Griffith, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding.

  7. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Pírez, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding. PMID:24353297

  8. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  9. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    SciTech Connect

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  10. 75 FR 27926 - Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... the message. Comments and suggestions should be provided in WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or text file format. The full text of the interpretive rule is available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov.... The full text of the interpretive rule is available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance...

  11. Elucidation of structure and nature of the PdO-Pd transformation using in situ PDF and XAS techniques.

    PubMed

    Keating, Jonathan; Sankar, Gopinathan; Hyde, Timothy I; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji

    2013-06-14

    The PdO-Pd phase transformation in a 4 wt% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst has been investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and in situ X-ray total scattering (also known as high-energy X-ray diffraction) techniques. Both the partial and total pair distribution functions (PDF) from these respective techniques have been analysed in depth. New information from PDF analysis of total scattering data has been garnered using the differential PDF (d-PDF) approach where only correlations orginating from PdO and metallic Pd are extracted. This method circumvents problems encountered in characerising the catalytically active components due to the diffuse scattering from the disordered γ-Al2O3 support phase. Quantitative analysis of the palladium components within the catalyst allowed for the phase composition to be established at various temperatures. Above 850 °C it was found that PdO had converted to metallic Pd, however, the extent of reduction was of the order ca. 70% Pd metal and 30% PdO. Complementary in situ XANES and EXAFS were performed, with heating to high temperature and subsequent cooling in air, and the results of the analyses support the observations, that residual PdO is detected at elevated temperatures. Hysteresis in the transformation upon cooling is confirmed from XAS studies where reoxidation occurs below 680 °C.

  12. Asymptotic stability of spectral-based PDF modeling for homogeneous turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Engineering models of turbulence, based on one-point statistics, neglect spectral information inherent in a turbulence field. It is well known, however, that the evolution of turbulence is dictated by a complex interplay between the spectral modes of velocity. For example, for homogeneous turbulence, the pressure-rate-of-strain depends on the integrated energy spectrum weighted by components of the wave vectors. The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) (Kassinos & Reynolds, 1996) and the Velocity/Wave-Vector PDF model (Van Slooten & Pope, 1997) emulate spectral information in an attempt to improve the modeling of turbulence. We investigate the evolution and asymptotic stability of the IPRM using three different approaches. The first approach considers the Lagrangian evolution of individual realizations (idealized as particles) of the stochastic process defined by the IPRM. The second solves Lagrangian evolution equations for clusters of realizations conditional on a given wave vector. The third evolves the solution of the Eulerian conditional PDF corresponding to the aforementioned clusters. This last method avoids issues related to discrete particle noise and slow convergence associated with Lagrangian particle-based simulations.

  13. Potential utility of a peptide deformylase inhibitor (NVP PDF-713) against oxazolidinone-resistant or streptogramin-resistant Gram-positive organism isolates.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Moet, Gary J; Sader, Helio S; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the potency of a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor, NVP PDF-713, against Gram-positive organisms having resistances to linezolid or quinupristin/dalfopristin. A total of 45 strains from three genera (six species groups) were tested by reference broth microdilution methods. The mechanism of resistance to the oxazolidinone was determined by sequencing of the gene encoding the ribosomal target. NVP PDF-713 retained activity against linezolid-resistant staphylococci (MIC range 0.25-2 mg/L), Streptococcus oralis (MIC 0.5 mg/L), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC range 2-4 mg/L) and Enterococcus faecium (MIC range 0.5-4 mg/L). Quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium (MIC range 1-2 mg/L) and staphylococci (MIC range 0.12-2 mg/L) were also inhibited by NVP PDF-713. Many (10 of 13 strains) of the linezolid-resistant enterococci were resistant to vancomycin and these clinical strains had a G2576U ribosomal target mutation. NVP PDF-713 appears to be a promising clinical candidate among the peptide deformylase inhibitors for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive organisms that possess resistances to oxazolidinones or streptogramin combinations.

  14. The Neuropeptides FLP-2 and PDF-1 Act in Concert To Arouse Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Didi; Taylor, Kelsey P.; Hall, Qi; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    During larval molts, Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a sleep-like state (termed lethargus) that is characterized by the absence of feeding and profound locomotion quiescence. The rhythmic pattern of locomotion quiescence and arousal linked to the molting cycle is mediated by reciprocal changes in sensory responsiveness, whereby arousal is associated with increased responsiveness. Sensory neurons arouse locomotion via release of a neuropeptide (PDF-1) and glutamate. Here we identify a second arousing neuropeptide (FLP-2). We show that FLP-2 acts via an orexin-like receptor (FRPR-18), and that FLP-2 and PDF-1 secretion are regulated by reciprocal positive feedback. These results suggest that the aroused behavioral state is stabilized by positive feedback between two neuropeptides. PMID:27585848

  15. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework

    PubMed Central

    He, Karen Y.; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research. PMID:27685652

  16. Modeling the Bergeron-Findeisen Process Using PDF Methods With an Explicit Representation of Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C.; Reisner, J.

    2005-12-01

    Currently, the accurate prediction of cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentration in cloud resolving, numerical weather prediction and climate models is a formidable challenge. The Bergeron-Findeisen process in which ice crystals grow by vapor deposition at the expense of super-cooled droplets is expected to be inhomogeneous in nature--some droplets will evaporate completely in centimeter-scale filaments of sub-saturated air during turbulent mixing while others remain unchanged [Baker et al., QJRMS, 1980]--and is unresolved at even cloud-resolving scales. Despite the large body of observational evidence in support of the inhomogeneous mixing process affecting cloud droplet number [most recently, Brenguier et al., JAS, 2000], it is poorly understood and has yet to be parameterized and incorporated into a numerical model. In this talk, we investigate the Bergeron-Findeisen process using a new approach based on simulations of the probability density function (PDF) of relative humidity during turbulent mixing. PDF methods offer a key advantage over Eulerian (spatial) models of cloud mixing and evaporation: the low probability (cm-scale) filaments of entrained air are explicitly resolved (in probability space) during the mixing event even though their spatial shape, size and location remain unknown. Our PDF approach reveals the following features of the inhomogeneous mixing process during the isobaric turbulent mixing of two parcels containing super-cooled water and ice, respectively: (1) The scavenging of super-cooled droplets is inhomogeneous in nature; some droplets evaporate completely at early times while others remain unchanged. (2) The degree of total droplet evaporation during the initial mixing period depends linearly on the mixing fractions of the two parcels and logarithmically on Damköhler number (Da)---the ratio of turbulent to evaporative time-scales. (3) Our simulations predict that the PDF of Lagrangian (time-integrated) subsaturation (S) goes as

  17. Publications - PDF 95-33C | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 95-33C Publication Details Title: Surficial geologic map of the Charley River D-1, C-1 , and part of the B-1 quadrangles, east-central Alaska Authors: Pinney, D.S., Clough, J.G., and Liss ., 1995, Surficial geologic map of the Charley River D-1, C-1, and part of the B-1 quadrangles, east

  18. Drosophila DH31 Neuropeptide and PDF Receptor Regulate Night-Onset Temperature Preference

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Tadahiro; Tang, Xin; Umezaki, Yujiro; Chu, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature exhibits rhythmic fluctuations over a 24 h period (Refinetti and Menaker, 1992) and decreases during the night, which is associated with sleep initiation (Gilbert et al., 2004; Kräuchi, 2007a,b). However, the underlying mechanism of this temperature decrease is largely unknown. We have previously shown that Drosophila exhibit a daily temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which their preferred temperatures increase during the daytime and then decrease at the transition from day to night (night-onset) (Kaneko et al., 2012). Because Drosophila are small ectotherms, their body temperature is very close to that of the ambient temperature (Stevenson, 1985), suggesting that their TPR generates their body temperature rhythm. Here, we demonstrate that the neuropeptide diuretic hormone 31 (DH31) and pigment-dispersing factor receptor (PDFR) contribute to regulate the preferred temperature decrease at night-onset. We show that PDFR and tethered-DH31 expression in dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s) restore the preferred temperature decrease at night-onset, suggesting that DH31 acts on PDFR in DN2s. Notably, we previously showed that the molecular clock in DN2s is important for TPR. Although PDF (another ligand of PDFR) is a critical factor for locomotor activity rhythms, Pdf mutants exhibit normal preferred temperature decreases at night-onset. This suggests that DH31-PDFR signaling specifically regulates a preferred temperature decrease at night-onset. Thus, we propose that night-onset TPR and locomotor activity rhythms are differentially controlled not only by clock neurons but also by neuropeptide signaling in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Body temperature rhythm (BTR) is fundamental for the maintenance of functions essential for homeostasis, such as generating metabolic energy and sleep. One major unsolved question is how body temperature decreases dramatically during the night. Previously, we demonstrated that a BTR-like mechanism, referred to as temperature

  19. Publications - PDF 93-47 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 93-47 Publication Details Title: Geologic map of the Sleetmute C-7, D-7, C-8, and D-8 ., Harris, E.E., Kline, J.T., and Miller, M.L., 1993, Geologic map of the Sleetmute C-7, D-7, C-8, and D-8 Sleetmute C-7, C-8, D-7 and D-8 quadrangles, Horn Mountain Area, southwest Alaska, scale 1:63,360 (34.0 M

  20. A Role for the GCC-Box in Jasmonate-Mediated Activation of the PDF1.2 Gene of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca L.; Kazan, Kemal; McGrath, Ken C.; Maclean, Don J.; Manners, John M.

    2003-01-01

    The PDF1.2 gene of Arabidopsis encoding a plant defensin is commonly used as a marker for characterization of the jasmonate-dependent defense responses. Here, using PDF1.2 promoter-deletion lines linked to the β-glucoronidase-reporter gene, we examined putative promoter elements associated with jasmonate-responsive expression of this gene. Using stably transformed plants, we first characterized the extended promoter region that positively regulates basal expression from the PDF1.2 promoter. Second, using promoter deletion constructs including one from which the GCC-box region was deleted, we observed a substantially lower response to jasmonate than lines carrying this motif. In addition, point mutations introduced into the core GCC-box sequence substantially reduced jasmonate responsiveness, whereas addition of a 20-nucleotide-long promoter element carrying the core GCC-box and flanking nucleotides provided jasmonate responsiveness to a 35S minimal promoter. Taken together, these results indicated that the GCC-box plays a key role in conferring jasmonate responsiveness to the PDF1.2 promoter. However, deletion or specific mutations introduced into the core GCC-box did not completely abolish the jasmonate responsiveness of the promoter, suggesting that the other promoter elements lying downstream from the GCC-box region may also contribute to jasmonate responsiveness. In other experiments, we identified a jasmonate- and pathogen-responsive ethylene response factor transcription factor, AtERF2, which when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants activated transcription from the PDF1.2, Thi2.1, and PR4 (basic chitinase) genes, all of which contain a GCC-box sequence in their promoters. Our results suggest that in addition to their roles in regulating ethylene-mediated gene expression, ethylene response factors also appear to play important roles in regulating jasmonate-responsive gene expression, possibly via interaction with the GCC-box. PMID:12805630

  1. Multi-Character Tries for Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Lorraine K. D.; Tharp, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    Introduces the multicharacter trie as an index structure that can improve the time needed for retrieving full-text materials stored on CD-ROMs. The advantages of this structure compared to other structures are described, and experimental results comparing it to the widely used B+ tree and other structures used for full-text retrieval are…

  2. The Neuropeptides FLP-2 and PDF-1 Act in Concert To Arouse Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Didi; Taylor, Kelsey P; Hall, Qi; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    During larval molts, Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a sleep-like state (termed lethargus) that is characterized by the absence of feeding and profound locomotion quiescence. The rhythmic pattern of locomotion quiescence and arousal linked to the molting cycle is mediated by reciprocal changes in sensory responsiveness, whereby arousal is associated with increased responsiveness. Sensory neurons arouse locomotion via release of a neuropeptide (PDF-1) and glutamate. Here we identify a second arousing neuropeptide (FLP-2). We show that FLP-2 acts via an orexin-like receptor (FRPR-18), and that FLP-2 and PDF-1 secretion are regulated by reciprocal positive feedback. These results suggest that the aroused behavioral state is stabilized by positive feedback between two neuropeptides. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Publications - PDF 95-33E | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 95-33E Publication Details Title: Geologic hazards map of the Charley River D-1, C-1, and part of the B-1 quadrangles, east-central Alaska Authors: Pinney, D.S., Clough, J.G., Reifenstuhl, R.R ., Reifenstuhl, R.R., and Liss, S.A., 1995, Geologic hazards map of the Charley River D-1, C-1, and part of the B

  4. Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farshchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.

  5. Evaluation of five full-text drug databases by pharmacy students, faculty, and librarians: do the groups agree?

    PubMed

    Kupferberg, Natalie; Jones Hartel, Lynda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of five full-text drug databases as evaluated by medical librarians, pharmacy faculty, and pharmacy students at an academic health center. Study findings and recommendations are offered as guidance to librarians responsible for purchasing decisions. Four pharmacy students, four pharmacy faculty members, and four medical librarians answered ten drug information questions using the databases AHFS Drug Information (STAT!Ref); DRUGDEX (Micromedex); eFacts (Drug Facts and Comparisons); Lexi-Drugs Online (Lexi-Comp); and the PDR Electronic Library (Micromedex). Participants noted whether each database contained answers to the questions and evaluated each database on ease of navigation, screen readability, overall satisfaction, and product recommendation. While each study group found that DRUGDEX provided the most direct answers to the ten questions, faculty members gave Lexi-Drugs the highest overall rating. Students favored eFacts. The faculty and students found the PDR least useful. Librarians ranked DRUGDEX the highest and AHFS the lowest. The comments of pharmacy faculty and students show that these groups preferred concise, easy-to-use sources; librarians focused on the comprehensiveness, layout, and supporting references of the databases. This study demonstrates the importance of consulting with primary clientele before purchasing databases. Although there are many online drug databases to consider, present findings offer strong support for eFacts, Lexi-Drugs, and DRUGDEX.

  6. Evaluation of five full-text drug databases by pharmacy students, faculty, and librarians: do the groups agree?

    PubMed Central

    Kupferberg, Natalie; Hartel, Lynda Jones

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of five full-text drug databases as evaluated by medical librarians, pharmacy faculty, and pharmacy students at an academic health center. Study findings and recommendations are offered as guidance to librarians responsible for purchasing decisions. Methods: Four pharmacy students, four pharmacy faculty members, and four medical librarians answered ten drug information questions using the databases AHFS Drug Information (STAT!Ref); DRUGDEX (Micromedex); eFacts (Drug Facts and Comparisons); Lexi-Drugs Online (Lexi-Comp); and the PDR Electronic Library (Micromedex). Participants noted whether each database contained answers to the questions and evaluated each database on ease of navigation, screen readability, overall satisfaction, and product recommendation. Results: While each study group found that DRUGDEX provided the most direct answers to the ten questions, faculty members gave Lexi-Drugs the highest overall rating. Students favored eFacts. The faculty and students found the PDR least useful. Librarians ranked DRUGDEX the highest and AHFS the lowest. The comments of pharmacy faculty and students show that these groups preferred concise, easy-to-use sources; librarians focused on the comprehensiveness, layout, and supporting references of the databases. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of consulting with primary clientele before purchasing databases. Although there are many online drug databases to consider, present findings offer strong support for eFacts, Lexi-Drugs, and DRUGDEX. PMID:14762464

  7. The photon PDF from high-mass Drell–Yan data at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Giuli, F.

    2017-06-15

    Achieving the highest precision for theoretical predictions at the LHC requires the calculation of hard-scattering cross sections that include perturbative QCD corrections up to (N)NNLO and electroweak (EW) corrections up to NLO. Parton distribution functions (PDFs) need to be provided with matching accuracy, which in the case of QED effects involves introducing the photon parton distribution of the proton, xγ(x,Q2) . In this work a determination of the photon PDF from fits to recent ATLAS measurements of high-mass Drell–Yan dilepton production atmore » $$\\sqrt{s}$$=8 TeV is presented. This analysis is based on the xFitter framework, and has required improvements both in the APFEL program, to account for NLO QED effects, and in the aMCfast interface to account for the photon-initiated contributions in the EW calculations within MadGraph5_aMC@NLO. The results are compared with other recent QED fits and determinations of the photon PDF, consistent results are found.« less

  8. Multi-variate joint PDF for non-Gaussianities: exact formulation and generic approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis

    2013-06-01

    We provide an exact expression for the multi-variate joint probability distribution function of non-Gaussian fields primordially arising from local transformations of a Gaussian field. This kind of non-Gaussianity is generated in many models of inflation. We apply our expression to the non-Gaussianity estimation from Cosmic Microwave Background maps and the halo mass function where we obtain analytical expressions. We also provide analytic approximations and their range of validity. For the Cosmic Microwave Background we give a fast way to compute the PDF which is valid up to more than 7σ for f{sub NL} values (both true and sampled) not ruledmore » out by current observations, which consists of expressing the PDF as a combination of bispectrum and trispectrum of the temperature maps. The resulting expression is valid for any kind of non-Gaussianity and is not limited to the local type. The above results may serve as the basis for a fully Bayesian analysis of the non-Gaussianity parameter.« less

  9. Molecular Studies on MIC1/PDF in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    expression of secreted MIC-1 protein (Aim 2). Moreover, the functions of MIC-1 have been studied in vitro by using specific antibody directed against MIC-1... antibody M2 (Sigma). The FLAG tag was inserted at the 3’-translated region of the MIC-l/PDF cDNA. A double stranded, synthetic oligonucleotide was designed...B) Lower panel showed the coomassie blue of specific antibody directed against stained gel as a loading control. MIC-1 protein. More specifically

  10. Methylation of zebularine: a quantum mechanical study incorporating interactive 3D pdf graphs.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Lalitha; Vasilyev, Vladislav; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-20

    Methylation of a cytidine deaminase inhibitor, 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidone (i.e., zebularine (zeb)), which produces 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-methyl-2-pyrimidinone (d5), has been investigated using density functional theory models. The optimized structures of zeb and d5 and the valence orbitals primarily responsible for the methylation in d5 are presented using state-of-the-art interactive (on a computer or online) three-dimensional (3D) graphics in a portable document format (pdf) file, 3D-PDF (http://www.web3d.org/x3d/vrml/ ). The facility to embed 3D molecular structures into pdf documents has been developed jointly at Swinburne University of Technology and the National Computational Infrastructure, the Australian National University. The methyl fragment in the base moiety shows little effect on the sugar puckering but apparently affects anisotropic properties, such as condensed Fukui functions. Binding energy spectra, both valence space and core space, are noticeably affected; in particular, in the outer-valence space (e.g., IP < 20 eV). The methyl fragment delocalizes and diffuses into almost all valence space, but orbitals 8 (57a, IP = 12.57 eV), 18 (47a, IP = 14.70 eV), and 37 (28a, IP = 22.15 eV) are identified as fingerprint for the methyl fragment. In the inner shell, however, the impact of the methyl can be localized and identified by chemical shift. A small, global, red shift is found for the O-K, N-K and sugar C-K spectra, whereas the base C-K spectrum exhibits apparent methyl-related changes.

  11. Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belochitski, A.; Krueger, S. K.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Cheng, A.

    2017-12-01

    A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity, and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation, and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, comparatively few new prognostic variables needs to be introduced, making the technique computationally efficient. In the base version of SHOC it is SGS turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and in the developmental version — SGS TKE, and variances of total water and moist static energy (MSE). SHOC is now incorporated into a version of GFS that will become a part of the NOAA Next Generation Global Prediction System based around NOAA GFDL's FV3 dynamical core, NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) coupled modeling infrastructure software, and a set novel physical parameterizations. Turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those produced by the boundary layer turbulence and shallow convection parameterizations. Large scale microphysics scheme is no longer used to calculate cloud fraction or the large-scale condensation/deposition. Instead, SHOC provides these quantities. Radiative transfer parameterization uses cloudiness computed by SHOC. An outstanding problem with implementation of SHOC in the NCEP global models is excessively large high level tropical cloudiness. Comparison of the moments of the SGS PDF diagnosed by SHOC to the moments calculated in a GigaLES simulation of tropical deep convection case (GATE), shows that SHOC diagnoses too narrow PDF distributions of total cloud water and MSE in the areas of deep convective detrainment. A subsequent sensitivity study of SHOC's diagnosed cloud fraction (CF) to higher order input moments of the SGS PDF

  12. Drosophila DH31 Neuropeptide and PDF Receptor Regulate Night-Onset Temperature Preference.

    PubMed

    Goda, Tadahiro; Tang, Xin; Umezaki, Yujiro; Chu, Michelle L; Kunst, Michael; Nitabach, Michael N; Hamada, Fumika N

    2016-11-16

    Body temperature exhibits rhythmic fluctuations over a 24 h period (Refinetti and Menaker, 1992) and decreases during the night, which is associated with sleep initiation (Gilbert et al., 2004; Kräuchi, 2007a,b). However, the underlying mechanism of this temperature decrease is largely unknown. We have previously shown that Drosophila exhibit a daily temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which their preferred temperatures increase during the daytime and then decrease at the transition from day to night (night-onset) (Kaneko et al., 2012). Because Drosophila are small ectotherms, their body temperature is very close to that of the ambient temperature (Stevenson, 1985), suggesting that their TPR generates their body temperature rhythm. Here, we demonstrate that the neuropeptide diuretic hormone 31 (DH31) and pigment-dispersing factor receptor (PDFR) contribute to regulate the preferred temperature decrease at night-onset. We show that PDFR and tethered-DH31 expression in dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s) restore the preferred temperature decrease at night-onset, suggesting that DH31 acts on PDFR in DN2s. Notably, we previously showed that the molecular clock in DN2s is important for TPR. Although PDF (another ligand of PDFR) is a critical factor for locomotor activity rhythms, Pdf mutants exhibit normal preferred temperature decreases at night-onset. This suggests that DH31-PDFR signaling specifically regulates a preferred temperature decrease at night-onset. Thus, we propose that night-onset TPR and locomotor activity rhythms are differentially controlled not only by clock neurons but also by neuropeptide signaling in the brain. Body temperature rhythm (BTR) is fundamental for the maintenance of functions essential for homeostasis, such as generating metabolic energy and sleep. One major unsolved question is how body temperature decreases dramatically during the night. Previously, we demonstrated that a BTR-like mechanism, referred to as temperature preference rhythm (TPR

  13. An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Li, Shan; Wang, Hu; Ren, Zhuyin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive simulations of turbulent premixed flames over a wide range of Damköhler numbers in the framework of Probability Density Function (PDF) method still remain challenging due to the deficiency in current micro-mixing models. In this work, a hybrid micro-mixing model, valid in both the flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime, is proposed. A priori testing of this model is first performed by examining the conditional scalar dissipation rate and conditional scalar diffusion in a 3-D direct numerical simulation dataset of a temporally evolving turbulent slot jet flame of lean premixed H2-air in the thin reaction zone regime. Then, this new model is applied to PDF simulations of the Piloted Premixed Jet Burner (PPJB) flames, which are a set of highly shear turbulent premixed flames and feature strong turbulence-chemistry interaction at high Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. Supported by NSFC 51476087 and NSFC 91441202.

  14. The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The accurate prediction of turbulent combustion is still beyond reach for today's computation techniques. It is the consensus of the combustion profession that the predictions of chemically reacting flow were poor if conventional turbulence models were used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature, pressure, and density produces excessively large errors. The probability density function (PDF) method is the only alternative at the present time that uses local instant values of the temperature, density, etc. in predicting chemical reaction rate, and thus it is the only viable approach for turbulent combustion calculations.

  15. Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehyun; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. Methodology We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR) tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT) to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. Results/Conclusions The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total) randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19

  16. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-13

    Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR) tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT) to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total) randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for text

  17. Leaving the structural ivory tower, assisted by interactive 3D PDF.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravin; Ziegler, Alexander; Grahn, Alexander; Hee, Chee Seng; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The ability to embed interactive three-dimensional (3D) models into electronic publications in portable document format (PDF) greatly enhances the accessibility of molecular structures. Here, we report advances in this procedure and discuss what is needed to develop this format into a truly useful tool for the structural biology community as well as for readers who are less well trained in molecular visualization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulations of Spray Reacting Flows in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar PDF Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulations of the Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar probability density function (PDF) method. The flow field is calculated by using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS and URANS) with nonlinear turbulence models, and when the scalar PDF method is invoked, the energy and compositions or species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of an ensemble averaged density-weighted fine-grained probability density function that is referred to here as the averaged probability density function (APDF). A nonlinear model for closing the convection term of the scalar APDF equation is used in the presented simulations and will be briefly described. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar PDF method in both improving the simulation quality and reducing the computing cost are observed.

  19. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  20. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  1. The Arabization of a Full-Text Database Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayen, Emily Gallup; And Others

    The 1981 design specifications for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical Information Network (ENSTINET) stipulated that major end-user facilities of the system should be bilingual in English and Arabic. Many characteristics of the Arabic alphabet and language impact computer applications, and there exists no universally accepted character…

  2. Integrating GPCR-specific information with full text articles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the continued growth in the volume both of experimental G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) data and of the related peer-reviewed literature, the ability of GPCR researchers to keep up-to-date is becoming increasingly curtailed. Results We present work that integrates the biological data and annotations in the GPCR information system (GPCRDB) with next-generation methods for intelligently exploring, visualising and interacting with the scientific articles used to disseminate them. This solution automatically retrieves relevant information from GPCRDB and displays it both within and as an adjunct to an article. Conclusions This approach allows researchers to extract more knowledge more swiftly from literature. Importantly, it allows reinterpretation of data in articles published before GPCR structure data became widely available, thereby rescuing these valuable data from long-dormant sources. PMID:21910883

  3. Microfilm and Computer Full Text of Archival Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-13

    0ulNr N TED . t ao 0 a-E Wk an a-.f- 0 ma n 4 NNl V -U% C-4 M IC 041 aN, 4- N ACC 40 Wa f 44 NM C, W0 ’a-V CO a. "... 0~ ( 0 a IA v =0 a *0 M4 . aa co a 0...a40 40 0 I.- I. S 0 $- I - I W4.- -t . - 0S -(. a . (5c-c - o Q 0 L 0t 0 C - I .1 Wun O .4 tO4 0 0 w M r u c * I- 44 m 0 .0 ce *n in 00 0CF O(! C M P

  4. Automated PDF highlighting to support faster curation of literature for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghan; Oellrich, Anika; Girges, Christine; de Bono, Bernard; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease are devastating and costly illnesses, a source of major global burden. In order to provide successful interventions for patients and reduce costs, both causes and pathological processes need to be understood. The ApiNATOMY project aims to contribute to our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders by manually curating and abstracting data from the vast body of literature amassed on these illnesses. As curation is labour-intensive, we aimed to speed up the process by automatically highlighting those parts of the PDF document of primary importance to the curator. Using techniques similar to those of summarisation, we developed an algorithm that relies on linguistic, semantic and spatial features. Employing this algorithm on a test set manually corrected for tool imprecision, we achieved a macro F 1 -measure of 0.51, which is an increase of 132% compared to the best bag-of-words baseline model. A user based evaluation was also conducted to assess the usefulness of the methodology on 40 unseen publications, which reveals that in 85% of cases all highlighted sentences are relevant to the curation task and in about 65% of the cases, the highlights are sufficient to support the knowledge curation task without needing to consult the full text. In conclusion, we believe that these are promising results for a step in automating the recognition of curation-relevant sentences. Refining our approach to pre-digest papers will lead to faster processing and cost reduction in the curation process. https://github.com/KHP-Informatics/NapEasy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. On recontamination and directional-bias problems in Monte Carlo simulation of PDF turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    Turbulent combustion can not be simulated adequately by conventional moment closure turbulence models. The difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is in general an exponential function of the temperature, and the higher order correlations in the conventional moment closure models of the chemical source term can not be neglected, making the applications of such models impractical. The probability density function (pdf) method offers an attractive alternative: in a pdf model, the chemical source terms are closed and do not require additional models. A grid dependent Monte Carlo scheme was studied, since it is a logical alternative, wherein the number of computer operations increases only linearly with the increase of number of independent variables, as compared to the exponential increase in a conventional finite difference scheme. A new algorithm was devised that satisfies a restriction in the case of pure diffusion or uniform flow problems. Although for nonuniform flows absolute conservation seems impossible, the present scheme has reduced the error considerably.

  6. The role of PDF neurons in setting the preferred temperature before dawn in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Roessingh, Sanne; Hayley, Sean E; Chu, Michelle L; Tanaka, Nobuaki K; Wolfgang, Werner; Song, Seongho; Stanewsky, Ralf; Hamada, Fumika N

    2017-05-02

    Animals have sophisticated homeostatic controls. While mammalian body temperature fluctuates throughout the day, small ectotherms, such as Drosophila achieve a body temperature rhythm (BTR) through their preference of environmental temperature. Here, we demonstrate that pigment dispersing factor (PDF) neurons play an important role in setting preferred temperature before dawn. We show that small lateral ventral neurons (sLNvs), a subset of PDF neurons, activate the dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s), the main circadian clock cells that regulate temperature preference rhythm (TPR). The number of temporal contacts between sLNvs and DN2s peak before dawn. Our data suggest that the thermosensory anterior cells (ACs) likely contact sLNvs via serotonin signaling. Together, the ACs-sLNs-DN2s neural circuit regulates the proper setting of temperature preference before dawn. Given that sLNvs are important for sleep and that BTR and sleep have a close temporal relationship, our data highlight a possible neuronal interaction between body temperature and sleep regulation.

  7. Suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in PbPb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Zykunov, V; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; 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Tali, B; Turkcapar, S; Zorbakir, I S; Zorbilmez, C; Bilin, B; Bilmis, S; Isildak, B; Karapinar, G; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Yetkin, E A; Yetkin, T; Cakir, A; Cankocak, K; Sen, S; Grynyov, B; Levchuk, L; Sorokin, P; Aggleton, R; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Burns, D; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Jacob, J; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Baber, M; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Burton, D; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Di Maria, R; Dunne, P; Elwood, A; Futyan, D; Haddad, Y; Hall, G; Iles, G; James, T; Lane, R; Laner, C; Lucas, R; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Penning, B; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Seez, C; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Berry, E; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Jesus, O; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Spencer, E; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Breto, G; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Everaerts, P; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Takasugi, E; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Shrinivas, A; Si, W; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Mullin, S D; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Apresyan, A; Bendavid, J; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Lawhorn, J M; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Azzolini, V; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cremonesi, M; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, J R; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Diamond, B; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Bruner, C; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Kenny, R P; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Tatar, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bartek, R; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Kumar, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Mc Donald, J; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Shi, X; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, E; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Nash, K; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear modification factor [Formula: see text] and the azimuthal anisotropy coefficient [Formula: see text] of prompt and nonprompt (i.e. those from decays of b hadrons) [Formula: see text] mesons, measured from PbPb and pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] at the LHC, are reported. The results are presented in several event centrality intervals and several kinematic regions, for transverse momenta [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], extending down to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] in the [Formula: see text] range. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] is found to be nonzero, but with no strong dependence on centrality, rapidity, or [Formula: see text] over the full kinematic range studied. The measured [Formula: see text] of nonprompt [Formula: see text] is consistent with zero. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] exhibits a suppression that increases from peripheral to central collisions but does not vary strongly as a function of either y or [Formula: see text] in the fiducial range. The nonprompt [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] shows a suppression which becomes stronger as rapidity or [Formula: see text] increases. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of open and hidden charm, and of open charm and beauty, are compared.

  8. From average to local structure: a Rietveld and an atomic pair distribution function (PDF) study of selenium clusters in zeolite-NdY.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A M Milinda; Donner, Wolfgang; Brunelli, Michela; Castro-Colin, Miguel; Jacobson, Allan J; Moss, Simon C

    2009-09-23

    The structure of Se particles in the approximately 13 A diameter alpha-cages of zeolite NdY has been determined by Rietveld refinement and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray data. With the diffuse scattering subtracted an average structure comprised of an undistorted framework containing nanoclusters of 20 Se atoms is observed. The intracluster correlations and the cluster-framework correlations which give rise to diffuse scattering were modeled by using PDF analysis.

  9. Double-labelled in situ hybridization reveals the lack of co-localization of mRNAs for the circadian neuropeptide PDF and FMRFamide in brains of the flies Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ayami; Takano, Katsuhiro; Yoshida, Taichi; Takeda, Yukimasa; Yokotani, Satoru; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2007-06-01

    Many lines of evidence have suggested that neuropeptides other than pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved in regulating insect circadian rhythms, and FMRFamide-related peptides are additional candidates acting as such neuromodulators. Double-immunolabelling in insect brains with anti-crustacean beta-PDH and anti-FMRFamide antibodies had previously suggested that insect PDF and FMRFamide-like peptides may coexist in the same cells. However, it is critical for this kind of comparative investigations to use antibodies of proven specificity, to eliminate the possibility of both reciprocal cross-reactivity and the detection of unknown peptides. In the present study, we achieved the cDNA cloning of an fmrf mRNA from the housefly Musca domestica, for which co-localization of FMRFamide and PDF peptides was previously suggested. In order to examine the possible co-expression of this gene with the pdf gene, we carried out double-labelled in situ hybridization for simultaneous detection of both pdf and fmrf mRNAs in housefly, Musca brains. The results clearly indicated that they occur in distinctly different cells. This was also proven for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by similar double-labelled in situ hybridization. The results thus revealed no reason to evoke the physiological release of FMRFamide and PDF peptides from the same neurons.

  10. Automated PDF highlighting to support faster curation of literature for Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Oellrich, Anika; Girges, Christine; de Bono, Bernard; Hubbard, Tim J.P.; Dobson, Richard J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease are devastating and costly illnesses, a source of major global burden. In order to provide successful interventions for patients and reduce costs, both causes and pathological processes need to be understood. The ApiNATOMY project aims to contribute to our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders by manually curating and abstracting data from the vast body of literature amassed on these illnesses. As curation is labour-intensive, we aimed to speed up the process by automatically highlighting those parts of the PDF document of primary importance to the curator. Using techniques similar to those of summarisation, we developed an algorithm that relies on linguistic, semantic and spatial features. Employing this algorithm on a test set manually corrected for tool imprecision, we achieved a macro F1-measure of 0.51, which is an increase of 132% compared to the best bag-of-words baseline model. A user based evaluation was also conducted to assess the usefulness of the methodology on 40 unseen publications, which reveals that in 85% of cases all highlighted sentences are relevant to the curation task and in about 65% of the cases, the highlights are sufficient to support the knowledge curation task without needing to consult the full text. In conclusion, we believe that these are promising results for a step in automating the recognition of curation-relevant sentences. Refining our approach to pre-digest papers will lead to faster processing and cost reduction in the curation process. Database URL: https://github.com/KHP-Informatics/NapEasy PMID:28365743

  11. Publications - PDF 98-37A v. 1.1 | Alaska Division of Geological &

    Science.gov Websites

    main content DGGS PDF 98-37A v. 1.1 Publication Details Title: Geologic map of the Tanana A-1 and A-2 ., 1998, Geologic map of the Tanana A-1 and A-2 quadrangles, central Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological & Other Oversized Sheets Maps & Other Oversized Sheets Sheet 1 Preliminary geologic map of the

  12. Discrepancies between meeting abstracts and subsequent full text publications in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Theman, Todd A; Labow, Brian I; Taghinia, Amir

    2014-08-01

    Research abstracts presented during the proceedings of an annual meeting are often cited and can influence clinical practice. Prior studies show that roughly 50% of abstracts at American Society for Surgery of the Hand meetings are eventually published. Yet, it is unknown how often the results or conclusions of published studies differ from the podium presentation. The objective of this study was to quantify the differences between abstracts presented during the annual meeting of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the resulting manuscripts. We retrospectively reviewed every abstract delivered as a podium presentation at the American Society for Surgery of the Hand annual meeting from 2000 to 2010. We searched the PubMed database for matching publications and compared authorship, country of origin, hypothesis, study design and methodology, changes in study groups or populations, results, and conclusions. Of 798 total abstracts, we analyzed 719 involving the hand, wrist, and brachial plexus. Fifty-six different journals published 393 of the abstracts, for a 49% publication rate. Mean time to publication was 18 months with a median of 14 and maximum of 122 months. There were inconsistencies between the results and/or conclusions in 14% of full-length articles compared with the abstract presented at the meeting. A total of 9% of articles were published with fewer subjects. Authorships changes were noted in 54% of publications. Abstracts represent preliminary investigations and major and minor changes occur before subsequent publication. Caution should be exercised in referencing abstracts or altering clinical practice based on their content. Economic/decision analysis IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903).

  14. Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  15. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  16. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    For obtaining a description of reactive flows in porous media, apart from the geometrical complications of resolving the velocities and scalar values, one has to deal with the additional reactive term in the transport equation. An accurate description of the interface of the reacting fluids - which is strongly influenced by dispersion- is essential for resolving this term. In REV-based simulations the reactive term needs to be modeled taking sub-REV fluctuations and possibly non-Fickian dispersion into account. Non-Fickian dispersion has been observed in strongly heterogeneous domains and in early phases of transport. A fully resolved solution of the Navier-Stokes and transport equations which yields a detailed description of the flow properties, dispersion, interfaces of fluids, etc. however, is not practical for domains containing more than a few thousand grains, due to the huge computational effort required. Through Probability Density Function (PDF) based methods, the velocity distribution in the pore space can facilitate the understanding and modelling of non-Fickian dispersion [1,2]. Our aim is to model the transition between non-Fickian and Fickian dispersion in a random sphere pack within the framework of a PDF based transport model proposed by Meyer and Tchelepi [1,3]. They proposed a stochastic transport model where velocity components of tracer particles are represented by a continuous Markovian stochastic process. In addition to [3], we consider the effects of pore scale diffusion and formulate a different stochastic equation for the increments in velocity space from first principles. To assess the terms in this equation, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation on a random sphere pack. We extracted the PDFs and statistical moments (up to the 4th moment) of the stream-wise velocity, u, and first and second order velocity derivatives both independent and conditioned on velocity. By using this data and

  17. Characterization of Oxygen Defect Clusters in UO2+ x Using Neutron Scattering and PDF Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Garcia, Philippe; Lechelle, Jacques; Miard, Audrey; Desgranges, Lionel; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Simeone, David; Fischer, Henry E

    2018-06-18

    In hyper-stoichiometric uranium oxide, both neutron diffraction work and, more recently, theoretical analyses report the existence of clusters such as the 2:2:2 cluster, comprising two anion vacancies and two types of anion interstitials. However, little is known about whether there exists a region of low deviation-from-stoichiometry in which defects remain isolated, or indeed whether at high deviation-from-stoichiometry defect clusters prevail that contain more excess oxygen atoms than the di-interstitial cluster. In this study, we report pair distribution function (PDF) analyses of UO 2 and UO 2+ x ( x ≈ 0.007 and x ≈ 0.16) samples obtained from high-temperature in situ neutron scattering experiments. PDF refinement for the lower deviation from stoichiometry sample suggests the system is too dilute to differentiate between isolated defects and di-interstitial clusters. For the UO 2.16 sample, several defect structures are tested, and it is found that the data are best represented assuming the presence of center-occupied cuboctahedra.

  18. Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life--interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering.

  19. The role of PDF neurons in setting the preferred temperature before dawn in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Roessingh, Sanne; Hayley, Sean E; Chu, Michelle L; Tanaka, Nobuaki K; Wolfgang, Werner; Song, Seongho; Stanewsky, Ralf; Hamada, Fumika N

    2017-01-01

    Animals have sophisticated homeostatic controls. While mammalian body temperature fluctuates throughout the day, small ectotherms, such as Drosophila achieve a body temperature rhythm (BTR) through their preference of environmental temperature. Here, we demonstrate that pigment dispersing factor (PDF) neurons play an important role in setting preferred temperature before dawn. We show that small lateral ventral neurons (sLNvs), a subset of PDF neurons, activate the dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s), the main circadian clock cells that regulate temperature preference rhythm (TPR). The number of temporal contacts between sLNvs and DN2s peak before dawn. Our data suggest that the thermosensory anterior cells (ACs) likely contact sLNvs via serotonin signaling. Together, the ACs-sLNs-DN2s neural circuit regulates the proper setting of temperature preference before dawn. Given that sLNvs are important for sleep and that BTR and sleep have a close temporal relationship, our data highlight a possible neuronal interaction between body temperature and sleep regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23206.001 PMID:28463109

  20. Efficient computation of PDF-based characteristics from diffusion MR signal.

    PubMed

    Assemlal, Haz-Edine; Tschumperlé, David; Brun, Luc

    2008-01-01

    We present a general method for the computation of PDF-based characteristics of the tissue micro-architecture in MR imaging. The approach relies on the approximation of the MR signal by a series expansion based on Spherical Harmonics and Laguerre-Gaussian functions, followed by a simple projection step that is efficiently done in a finite dimensional space. The resulting algorithm is generic, flexible and is able to compute a large set of useful characteristics of the local tissues structure. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing results on synthetic and real MR datasets acquired in a clinical time-frame.

  1. A k-omega multivariate beta PDF for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexopoulos, G. A.; Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent attempt by the authors at predicting measurements in coaxial supersonic turbulent reacting mixing layers involving H2 and air, a number of discrepancies involving the concentrations and their variances were noted. The turbulence model employed was a one-equation model based on the turbulent kinetic energy. This required the specification of a length scale. In an attempt at detecting the cause of the discrepancy, a coupled k-omega joint probability density function (PDF) is employed in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes solver. The results show that improvements resulting from a k-omega model are quite modest.

  2. Aberrant Axonal Arborization of PDF Neurons Induced by Aβ42-Mediated JNK Activation Underlies Sleep Disturbance in an Alzheimer's Model.

    PubMed

    Song, Qian; Feng, Ge; Huang, Zehua; Chen, Xiaoman; Chen, Zhaohuan; Ping, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Impaired sleep patterns are common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cellular mechanisms underlying sleep disturbance in AD remain largely unknown. Here, using a Drosophila Aβ42 AD model, we show that Aβ42 markedly decreases sleep in a large population, which is accompanied with postdevelopmental axonal arborization of wake-promoting pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neurons. The arborization is mediated in part via JNK activation and can be reversed by decreasing JNK signaling activity. Axonal arborization and impaired sleep are correlated in Aβ42 and JNK kinase hemipterous mutant flies. Image reconstruction revealed that these aberrant fibers preferentially project to pars intercerebralis (PI), a fly brain region analogous to the mammalian hypothalamus. Moreover, PDF signaling in PI neurons was found to modulate sleep/wake activities, suggesting that excessive release of PDF by these aberrant fibers may lead to the impaired sleep in Aβ42 flies. Finally, inhibition of JNK activation in Aβ42 flies restores nighttime sleep loss, decreases Aβ42 accumulation, and attenuates neurodegeneration. These data provide a new mechanism by which sleep disturbance could be induced by Aβ42 burden, a key initiator of a complex pathogenic cascade in AD.

  3. Teaching Expository Text Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose; Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David

    2006-01-01

    Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks (Armbruster, 1991). Expository text…

  4. The probability density function (PDF) of Lagrangian Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnir, B.

    2012-12-01

    The statistical theory of Lagrangian turbulence is derived from the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation. Assuming that the noise in fully-developed turbulence is a generic noise determined by the general theorems in probability, the central limit theorem and the large deviation principle, we are able to formulate and solve the Kolmogorov-Hopf equation for the invariant measure of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations. The intermittency corrections to the scaling exponents of the structure functions require a multiplicative (multipling the fluid velocity) noise in the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation. We let this multiplicative noise, in the equation, consists of a simple (Poisson) jump process and then show how the Feynmann-Kac formula produces the log-Poissonian processes, found by She and Leveque, Waymire and Dubrulle. These log-Poissonian processes give the intermittency corrections that agree with modern direct Navier-Stokes simulations (DNS) and experiments. The probability density function (PDF) plays a key role when direct Navier-Stokes simulations or experimental results are compared to theory. The statistical theory of turbulence is determined, including the scaling of the structure functions of turbulence, by the invariant measure of the Navier-Stokes equation and the PDFs for the various statistics (one-point, two-point, N-point) can be obtained by taking the trace of the corresponding invariant measures. Hopf derived in 1952 a functional equation for the characteristic function (Fourier transform) of the invariant measure. In distinction to the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation, this is a linear functional differential equation. The PDFs obtained from the invariant measures for the velocity differences (two-point statistics) are shown to be the four parameter generalized hyperbolic distributions, found by Barndorff-Nilsen. These PDF have heavy tails and a convex peak at the origin. A suitable projection of the Kolmogorov-Hopf equations is the

  5. Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

  6. Simplified generation of biomedical 3D surface model data for embedding into 3D portable document format (PDF) files for publication and education.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Ganslandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the model data in the necessary Universal 3D (U3D) file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U3D--it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating 3D PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes.

  7. The association between states' texting regulations and the prevalence of texting while driving among U.S. high school students.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2015-12-01

    To determine which distracted driving laws were associated with decreased texting while driving among U.S. teenage drivers. Data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey were merged with states' distracted driving legislation. The prevalence of texting while driving was assessed for different laws using log-binomial regression. Approximately 39.0% of students reported texting while driving at least once in the 30 days before survey. Compared to states with universal texting bans along with young driver all cellphone bans, the adjusted ratio of texting while driving was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.16) in states with no bans, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.11-1.58) for young driver bans only, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.00-1.52) in states with bans for young drivers but no young driver all cellphone bans, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.66-1.19) in states with universal texting bans. The prevalence of texting was 28% less in states with delays of full licensure for texting offenses (prevalence ratio = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88). Universal texting bans along with young driver all cellphone bans may be more effective in reducing texting while driving. Delays of full licensure may dissuade young drivers from texting and driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between states’ texting regulations and the prevalence of texting while driving among U.S. high school students

    PubMed Central

    Rudisill, Toni M.; Zhu, Motao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine which distracted driving laws were associated with decreased texting while driving among U.S. teenage drivers. Methods Data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey were merged with state’s distracted driving legislation. The prevalence of texting while driving was assessed for different laws using log-binomial regression. Results Approximately 39.0% of students reported texting while driving at least once in the 30 days before survey. Compared to states with universal texting bans along with young driver all cellphone bans, the adjusted ratio of texting while driving was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77–1.16) in states with no bans, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.11–1.58) for young driver bans only, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.00–1.52) in states with bans for young drivers but no young driver all cellphone bans, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.66–1.19) in states with universal texting bans. The prevalence of texting was 28% less in states with delays of full licensure for texting offenses (prevalence ratio = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59–0.88). Conclusions Universal texting bans along with young driver all cellphone bans may be more effective in reducing texting while driving. Delays of full licensure may dissuade young drivers from texting and driving. PMID:26688117

  9. Open-Source Tools for Enhancing Full-Text Searching of OPACs: Use of Koha, Greenstone and Fedora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuradha, K. T.; Sivakaminathan, R.; Kumar, P. Arun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are many library automation packages available as open-source software, comprising two modules: staff-client module and online public access catalogue (OPAC). Although the OPAC of these library automation packages provides advanced features of searching and retrieval of bibliographic records, none of them facilitate full-text…

  10. The impact of LHC jet data on the MMHT PDF fit at NNLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Thorne, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the impact of the high precision ATLAS and CMS 7 TeV measurements of inclusive jet production on the MMHT global PDF analysis at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). This is made possible by the recent completion of the long-term project to calculate the NNLO corrections to the hard cross section. We find that a good description of the ATLAS data is not possible with the default treatment of experimental systematic errors, and propose a simplified solution that retains the dominant physical information of the data. We then investigate the fit quality and the impact on the gluon PDF central value and uncertainty when the ATLAS and CMS data are included in a MMHT fit. We consider both common choices for the factorization and renormalization scale, namely the inclusive jet transverse momentum, p_\\perp , and the leading jet p_\\perp , as well as the different jet radii for which the ATLAS and CMS data are made available. We find that the impact of these data on the gluon is relatively insensitive to these inputs, in particular the scale choice, while the inclusion of NNLO corrections tends to improve the data description somewhat and has a qualitatively similar though not identical impact on the gluon in comparison to NLO.

  11. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    PubMed Central

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  12. Comparative antimicrobial characterization of LBM415 (NVP PDF-713), a new peptide deformylase inhibitor of clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Cleeland, Roy; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-04-01

    LBM415 (NVP PDF-713) is the first member of the peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor class being developed for clinical trials as a parenteral and oral agent for treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract disease and serious infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant gram-positive cocci. In this study susceptibility testing results from 1,306 recent clinical isolates selected to over-represent resistance trends among the species were summarized. All staphylococci (153 strains; MIC at which 90% of isolates were inhibited [MIC90], 2 microg/ml), Streptococcus pneumoniae (170 strains; MIC90, 1 microg/ml), other streptococci (150 strains; MIC90, 1 microg/ml), enterococci (104 strains; MIC90, 4 microg/ml), Moraxella catarrhalis (103 strains; MIC90, 0.5 microg/ml), and Legionella pneumophila (50 strains; MIC90, 0.12 microg/ml) were inhibited at < or = 8 microg of LBM415/ml, as were 97% of Haemophilus influenzae isolates (300 strains; MIC90, 4 to 8 microg/ml). Among other bacterial groups, 100% of gram-positive and -negative anaerobes, including 22 Bacteroides spp. strains (31 strains total; MIC90, 1 microg/ml), were inhibited by < or = 4 microg/ml, whereas Enterobacteriaceae (112 strains) and most nonfermentative bacilli (107 strains) were not inhibited at readily achievable concentrations. The compound was found to have a dominantly bacteriostatic action, and spontaneous single-step mutational rates occurred at low levels (10(-6) to <10(-8)). Drug interaction studies failed to identify any class-specific synergistic interactions, nor were antagonistic interactions observed. Variations in broth and agar MIC test conditions demonstrated that, whereas the agar-based method trended towards a 1-log2 dilution-higher MIC than the broth method and was inoculum dependent, other variations in incubation environment, medium supplements, pH, or calcium concentration had little influence on LBM415 MIC results. Use of the efflux inhibitor phe-arg-beta-naphthylamide showed an

  13. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Context and Structure in Automated Full-Text Information Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-29

    Meisei, Makayo, Nitsuko and Tamura, all of Japan; Goldstar, Samsung and OPC of South Korea, and Sun Moon Star of Taiwan; AT&T says the practices have...IN MALAYSIA [ ... ] Another example topic description is shown below: Topic 034 <dom> Domain: Science and Technology <title>Topic: Entities Involved In

  15. Toward a Model of Text Comprehension and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintsch, Walter; Van Dijk, Teun A.

    1978-01-01

    Described is the system of mental operations occurring in text comprehension and in recall and summarization. A processing model is outlined: 1) the meaning elements of a text become organized into a coherent whole, 2) the full meaning of the text is condensed into its gist, and 3) new texts are generated from the comprehension processes.…

  16. Publication rates of full-text journal articles converted from abstracts presented during the 22nd Turkish National Urology Congress

    PubMed Central

    Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Kayalı, Yunus; Tok, Adem; Tepeler, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the publication rates of full-text journal articles converted from the abstracts presented in the 22nd Turkish National Urology Congress in 2012. Material and Methods A total of 576 abstracts accepted for presentation at the 22nd Turkish National Urology Association Meeting were identified from the published abstract book. The abstracts were categorized into subsections such as endourology and pediatric urology. The subsequent publication rate for the studies was evaluated by scanning PubMed Medline. Abstracts published before the proceedings were excluded from the study. Results The abstracts were categorized as being presented orally (n=155), by poster (n=421), or by video (n=78). Of the 28 (18.3%) of 155 oral and 34 (8.15%) of 421 poster presentations, were subsequently published in several journals until March 2015. The publication rates of the abstracts based on urology subsections were as follows: neurology (25%), andrology (18.6%), endourology (17.2%), urolithiasis (15.3%), general urology (12.5%), infectious diseases (7.14%), pediatric urology (6.25%), uro-gynecology (6.06%), reconstructive urology (5.8%), and urooncology (3.8%). The average time to publication was 11.77 (0–33) months. Conclusion This is the first study assessing the publication rates of abstracts presented at a Turkish National Urology Congress. It reveals that more qualified randomized studies need to be done to improve the rate of publication. PMID:27011876

  17. Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

    This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

  18. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  19. On recontamination and directional-bias problems in Monte Carlo simulation of PDF turbulence models. [probability density function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1992-01-01

    Turbulent combustion can not be simulated adequately by conventional moment closure turbulent models. The probability density function (PDF) method offers an attractive alternative: in a PDF model, the chemical source terms are closed and do not require additional models. Because the number of computational operations grows only linearly in the Monte Carlo scheme, it is chosen over finite differencing schemes. A grid dependent Monte Carlo scheme following J.Y. Chen and W. Kollmann has been studied in the present work. It was found that in order to conserve the mass fractions absolutely, one needs to add further restrictions to the scheme, namely alpha(sub j) + gamma(sub j) = alpha(sub j - 1) + gamma(sub j + 1). A new algorithm was devised that satisfied this restriction in the case of pure diffusion or uniform flow problems. Using examples, it is shown that absolute conservation can be achieved. Although for non-uniform flows absolute conservation seems impossible, the present scheme has reduced the error considerably.

  20. Traffic incident management handbook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-09-01

    The full-text of this handbook is available online in PDF format, with a link from the Federal Railroad Administration home page. Rail-highway grade crossing safety and operational problems involve two components-the highway and the railroad. The hig...

  1. Commercial broth microdilution panel validation and reproducibility trials for NVP PDF-713 (LBM 415), a novel inhibitor of bacterial peptide deformylase.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, T R; Moet, G J; Jones, R N

    2004-09-01

    NVP PDF-713 (LBM 415) is a peptide deformylase inhibitor being progressed into clinical trials. Dry-form broth microdilution panels of NVP PDF-713 were compared to reference MIC panels of 552 recent clinical isolates. Most (99.2%) dry-form MIC results were within +/- 1 log(2) dilution of the reference panel MICs. Of the bacteria tested, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae showed a bias towards higher and lower MICs, respectively. Same-day and between-day reproducibility tests showed that 98.9% and 96.7% of MIC values, respectively, were within +/- 1 log(2) dilution step, thereby demonstrating a high degree of reliability of the dry-form MIC product for clinical studies.

  2. Turbulent piloted partially-premixed flames with varying levels of O2/N2: stability limits and PDF calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juddoo, Mrinal; Masri, Assaad R.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports measured stability limits and PDF calculations of piloted, turbulent flames of compressed natural gas (CNG) partially-premixed with either pure oxygen, or with varying levels of O2/N2. Stability limits are presented for flames of CNG fuel premixed with up to 20% oxygen as well as CNG-O2-N2 fuel where the O2 content is varied from 8 to 22% by volume. Calculations are presented for (i) Sydney flame B [Masri et al. 1988] which uses pure CNG as well as flames B15 to B25 where the CNG is partially-premixed with 15-25% oxygen by volume, respectively and (ii) Sandia methane-air (1:3 by volume) flame E [Barlow et al. 2005] as well as new flames E15 and E25 that are partially-premixed with 'reconstituted air' where the O2 content in nitrogen is 15 and 25% by volume, respectively. The calculations solve a transported PDF of composition using a particle-based Monte Carlo method and employ the EMST mixing model as well as detailed chemical kinetics. The addition of oxygen to the fuel increases stability, shortens the flames, broadens the reaction zone, and shifts the stoichiometric mixture fraction towards the inner side of the jet. It is found that for pure CNG flames where the reaction zone is narrow (∼0.1 in mixture fraction space), the PDF calculations fail to reproduce the correct level of local extinction on approach to blow-off. A broadening in the reaction zone up to about 0.25 in mixture fraction space is needed for the PDF/EMST approach to be able to capture these finite-rate chemistry effects. It is also found that for the same level of partial premixing, increasing the O2/N2 ratio increases the maximum levels of CO and NO but shifts the peak to richer mixture fractions. Over the range of oxygenation investigated here, stability limits have shown to improve almost linearly with increasing oxygen levels in the fuel and with increasing the contribution of release rate from the pilot.

  3. Heat shock factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b are involved in the regulation of Pdf1.2 expression and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  4. Heat Shock Factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdf1.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses. PMID:19529832

  5. In Situ Flow MAS NMR Spectroscopy and Synchrotron PDF Analyses of the Local Response of the Brønsted Acidic Site in SAPO-34 during Hydration at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Lundvall, Fredrik; Checchia, Stefano; Lind, Anna; Wragg, David S; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Arstad, Bjørnar

    2018-02-19

    In situ flow magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based pair distribution function (PDF) analyses were applied to study water's interactions with the Brønsted acidic site and the surrounding framework in the SAPO-34 catalyst at temperatures up to 300 °C for NMR spectroscopy and 700 °C for PDF. 29 Si enrichment of the sample enabled detailed NMR spectroscopy investigations of the T-atom generating the Brønsted site. By NMR spectroscopy, we observed dehydration above 100 °C and a coalescence of Si peaks due to local framework adjustments. Towards 300 °C, the NMR spectroscopy data indicated highly mobile acidic protons. In situ total X-ray scattering measurements analyzed by PDF showed clear changes in the Al local environment in the 250-300 °C region, as the Al-O bond lengths showed a sudden change. This fell within the same temperature range as the increased Brønsted proton mobility. We suggest that the active site in this catalyst under industrial conditions comprises not only the Brønsted proton but also SiO 4 . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work proposing a structural model of a SAPO catalyst by atomic PDF analysis. The combination of synchrotron PDF analysis with in situ NMR spectroscopy is promising in revealing the dynamic features of a working catalyst. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Text Generation: The Problem of Text Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, William C.

    One of the major problems in artificial intelligence (AI) text generation is text organization; a poorly organized text can be unreadable or even misleading. A comparison of two AI approaches to text organization--McKeown's TEXT system and Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST)--shows that, although they share many assumptions about the nature of text,…

  7. CD-I and Full Motion Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-chih

    1991-01-01

    Describes compact disc interactive (CD-I) as a multimedia home entertainment system that combines audio, visual, text, graphic, and interactive capabilities. Full-screen video and full-motion video (FMV) are explained, hardware for FMV decoding is described, software is briefly discussed, and CD-I titles planned for future production are listed.…

  8. Capturing the Full Potential of the Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model (STORM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Lucas Thesis Co-Advisor Dashi I. Singham Thesis Co-Advisor Rachel Silvestrini Second Reader Robert F. Dell Chair, Department of...significance for which the observed data indicates that the null hypothesis should be rejected (Wackerly, Mendenhall III, & Scheaffer, 2008. The vast...pdf Wackerly, D., Mendenhall III, W., & Scheaffer, R. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. 75 INITIAL

  9. Dihadron production at the LHC: full next-to-leading BFKL calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, Francesco G.; Ivanov, Dmitry Yu.; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    The study of the inclusive production of a pair of charged light hadrons (a "dihadron" system) featuring high transverse momenta and well separated in rapidity represents a clear channel for the test of the BFKL dynamics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This process has much in common with the well-known Mueller-Navelet jet production; however, hadrons can be detected at much smaller values of the transverse momentum than jets, thus allowing to explore an additional kinematic range, supplementary to the one studied with Mueller-Navelet jets. Furthermore, it makes it possible to constrain not only the parton densities (PDFs) for the initial proton, but also the parton fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the detected hadron in the final state. Here, we present the first full NLA BFKL analysis for cross sections and azimuthal angle correlations for dihadrons produced in the LHC kinematic ranges. We make use of the Brodsky-Lapage-Mackenzie optimization method to set the values of the renormalization scale and study the effect of choosing different values for the factorization scale. We also gauge the uncertainty coming from the use of different PDF and FF parametrizations.

  10. Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, S. K.; Belochitski, A.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Pincus, R.

    2015-12-01

    A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, only one new prognostic variable, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), needs to be intoduced, making the technique computationally efficient.SHOC code was adopted for a global model environment from its origins in a cloud resolving model, and incorporated into NCEP GFS. SHOC was first tested in a non-interactive mode, a configuration where SHOC receives inputs from the host model, but its outputs are not returned to the GFS. In this configuration: a) SGS TKE values produced by GFS SHOC are consistent with those produced by SHOC in a CRM, b) SGS TKE in GFS SHOC exhibits a well defined diurnal cycle, c) there's enhanced boundary layer turbulence in the subtropical stratocumulus and tropical transition-to-cumulus areas d) buoyancy flux diagnosed from the assumed PDF is consistent with independently calculated Brunt-Vaisala frequency in identifying stable and unstable regions.Next, SHOC was coupled to GFS, namely turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those currently produced by the GFS boundary layer and shallow convection schemes (Han and Pan, 2011), as well as condensation and cloud fraction diagnosed from the SGS PDF replace those calculated in the current large-scale cloudines scheme (Zhao and Carr, 1997). Ongoing activities consist of debugging the fully coupled GFS/SHOC.Future work will consist of evaluating model performance and tuning the physics if necessary, by performing medium-range NWP forecasts with prescribed initial conditions, and AMIP-type climate

  11. Saddle Slow Manifolds and Canard Orbits in [Formula: see text] and Application to the Full Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Cris R; Krauskopf, Bernd; Osinga, Hinke M

    2018-04-19

    Many physiological phenomena have the property that some variables evolve much faster than others. For example, neuron models typically involve observable differences in time scales. The Hodgkin-Huxley model is well known for explaining the ionic mechanism that generates the action potential in the squid giant axon. Rubin and Wechselberger (Biol. Cybern. 97:5-32, 2007) nondimensionalized this model and obtained a singularly perturbed system with two fast, two slow variables, and an explicit time-scale ratio ε. The dynamics of this system are complex and feature periodic orbits with a series of action potentials separated by small-amplitude oscillations (SAOs); also referred to as mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs). The slow dynamics of this system are organized by two-dimensional locally invariant manifolds called slow manifolds which can be either attracting or of saddle type.In this paper, we introduce a general approach for computing two-dimensional saddle slow manifolds and their stable and unstable fast manifolds. We also develop a technique for detecting and continuing associated canard orbits, which arise from the interaction between attracting and saddle slow manifolds, and provide a mechanism for the organization of SAOs in [Formula: see text]. We first test our approach with an extended four-dimensional normal form of a folded node. Our results demonstrate that our computations give reliable approximations of slow manifolds and canard orbits of this model. Our computational approach is then utilized to investigate the role of saddle slow manifolds and associated canard orbits of the full Hodgkin-Huxley model in organizing MMOs and determining the firing rates of action potentials. For ε sufficiently large, canard orbits are arranged in pairs of twin canard orbits with the same number of SAOs. We illustrate how twin canard orbits partition the attracting slow manifold into a number of ribbons that play the role of sectors of rotations. The upshot is that we

  12. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yuuichi; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2014-09-01

    A diverse range of organisms shows physiological and behavioural rhythms with various periods. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms with an approximately 24 h period in both Drosophila and mammals, while less attention has been paid to ultradian rhythms with shorter periods. We used a video-tracking method to monitor the movement of single flies, and clear ultradian rhythms were detected in the locomotor behaviour of wild type and clock mutant flies kept under constant dark conditions. In particular, the Pigment-dispersing factor mutant (Pdf 01) demonstrated a precise and robust ultradian rhythmicity, which was not temperature compensated. Our results suggest that Drosophila has an endogenous ultradian oscillator that is masked by circadian rhythmic behaviours.

  13. DN1(p) circadian neurons coordinate acute light and PDF inputs to produce robust daily behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoying; Chung, Brian Y; Lear, Bridget C; Kilman, Valerie L; Liu, Yixiao; Mahesh, Guruswamy; Meissner, Rose-Anne; Hardin, Paul E; Allada, Ravi

    2010-04-13

    Daily behaviors in animals are determined by the interplay between internal timing signals from circadian clocks and environmental stimuli such as light. How these signals are integrated to produce timely and adaptive behavior is unclear. The fruit fly Drosophila exhibits clock-driven activity increases that anticipate dawn and dusk and free-running rhythms under constant conditions. Flies also respond to the onset of light and dark with acute increases in activity. Mutants of a novel ion channel, narrow abdomen (na), lack a robust increase in activity in response to light and show reduced anticipatory behavior and free-running rhythms, providing a genetic link between photic responses and circadian clock function. We used tissue-specific rescue of na to demonstrate a role for approximately 16-20 circadian pacemaker neurons, a subset of the posterior dorsal neurons 1 (DN1(p)s), in mediating the acute response to the onset of light as well as morning anticipatory behavior. Circadian pacemaker neurons expressing the neuropeptide PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) are especially important for morning anticipation and free-running rhythms and send projections to the DN1(p)s. We also demonstrate that DN1(p)Pdfr expression is sufficient to rescue, at least partially, Pdfr morning anticipation defects as well as defects in free-running rhythms, including those in DN1 molecular clocks. Additionally, these DN1 clocks in wild-type flies are more strongly reset to timing changes in PDF clocks than other pacemaker neurons, suggesting that they are direct targets. Taking these results together, we demonstrate that the DN1(p)s lie at the nexus of PDF and photic signaling to produce appropriate daily behavior.

  14. Texting Teens in Transition: The Use of Text Messages in Clinical Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, David B

    2014-01-01

    and informal language, the passive teen, interaction with health care providers, texting teens in transition, texting as a mechanism to initiate other forms of communication, affirmation, and the nurse as an educator. Benefits of texting were identified as flexibility, ability to respond over time, information presented in byte-sized amounts, and information directly related to patient questions. Risks of texting were identified as the possibility that interactions may not be in-depth, distraction of teen and researcher, and invasiveness. Conclusions Text messaging was useful in collecting data regarding the use of the MyHealth Passport. Text messaging resulted in conversations with the teens that were sometimes in-depth and meaningful, especially when combined with other communication modalities. Using text messaging in a manner resulting in full conversations with the patients requires more study and may benefit from protocols and the use of solid theoretical foundations that would standardize the interaction so that more conclusions could be drawn. PMID:25379624

  15. Texting teens in transition: the use of text messages in clinical intervention research.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Gwen R; Ballantyne, Ross T; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Nicholas, David B; Mackie, Andrew S

    2014-11-06

    teen, interaction with health care providers, texting teens in transition, texting as a mechanism to initiate other forms of communication, affirmation, and the nurse as an educator. Benefits of texting were identified as flexibility, ability to respond over time, information presented in byte-sized amounts, and information directly related to patient questions. Risks of texting were identified as the possibility that interactions may not be in-depth, distraction of teen and researcher, and invasiveness. Text messaging was useful in collecting data regarding the use of the MyHealth Passport. Text messaging resulted in conversations with the teens that were sometimes in-depth and meaningful, especially when combined with other communication modalities. Using text messaging in a manner resulting in full conversations with the patients requires more study and may benefit from protocols and the use of solid theoretical foundations that would standardize the interaction so that more conclusions could be drawn.

  16. Linguistic Features of Middle School Environmental Education Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenhansa, Suporn; Schleppegrell, Mary

    1998-01-01

    The language used in environmental education texts has linguistic features that affect students' comprehension of concepts and their ability to envision solutions to environmental problems. Findings indicate that features of texts such as abstract nouns and lack of explicit agents impede students' full comprehension of complex issues and obscure…

  17. A composition joint PDF method for the modeling of spray flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses an extension of the probability density function (PDF) method to the modeling of spray flames to evaluate the limitations and capabilities of this method in the modeling of gas-turbine combustor flows. The comparisons show that the general features of the flowfield are correctly predicted by the present solution procedure. The present solution appears to provide a better representation of the temperature field, particularly, in the reverse-velocity zone. The overpredictions in the centerline velocity could be attributed to the following reasons: (1) the use of k-epsilon turbulence model is known to be less precise in highly swirling flows and (2) the swirl number used here is reported to be estimated rather than measured.

  18. eMeteorNews: website and PDF journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, P.; Kacerek, R.; Koukal, J.; Miskotte, K.; Piffl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Amateur meteor workers have always been interested to exchange information and experience. In the past this was only possible via personal contacts by letter or by specialized journals. With internet a much faster medium became available and plenty of websites, mailing lists, Facebook groups, etc., have been created in order to communicate about meteors. Today there is a wealth of meteor data circulating on internet, but the information is very scattered and not directly available to everyone. The authors have been considering how to organize an easy access to the many different meteor related publications. The best solution for the current needs of amateur meteor observers proved to be a dedicated website combined with a PDF journal, both being free available without any subscription fee or registration requirement. The authors decided to start with this project and in March 2016 the website meteornews.org has been created. A first issue of eMeteorNews was prepared in April 2016. The year 2016 will be a test period for this project. The mission statement of this project is: "Minimizing overhead and editorial constraints to assure a swift exchange of information dedicated to all fields of active amateur meteor work."

  19. Measurement of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elkafrawy, T; Mahrous, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Arleo, F; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Mukherjee, S; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Cherepanov, V; Flügge, G; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; 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Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Kenny, R P; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Kumar, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Rupprecht, N; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Shi, X; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.

  20. A k-omega-multivariate beta PDF for supersonic combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexopoulos, G. A.; Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to study the interaction between combustion and turbulence in supersonic flows, an assumed PDF has been employed. This makes it possible to calculate the time average of the chemical source terms that appear in the species conservation equations. In order to determine the averages indicated in an equation, two transport equations, one for the temperature (enthalpy) variance and one for Q, are required. Model equations are formulated for such quantities. The turbulent time scale controls the evolution. An algebraic model similar to that used by Eklund et al was used in an attempt to predict the recent measurements of Cheng et al. Predictions were satisfactory before ignition but were less satisfactory after ignition. One of the reasons for this behavior is the inadequacy of the algebraic turbulence model employed. Because of this, the objective of this work is to develop a k-omega model to remedy the situation.

  1. PDF calculation of scalar mixing layer with simple chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzaki, Takao; Pope, Stephen B.

    1999-11-01

    A joint velocity-composition-turbulent frequency PDF(JPDF) model is used to simulate reactive mixing layer in a grid-generated turbulence with the influence of second-order irreversible chemical reactions. To investigate the effects of molecular mixing, a gas flow and a liquid flow are simulated. For a gas flow, the oxidation reaction (NO+ O3 arrow NO2 +O2 ) between nitricoxide (NO) and ozone (O3 ) is used. For a liquid flow, the saponification reaction(NaOH+HCOOCH3 arrow HCOONa+CH_3OH) between sodiumhydroxide(NaOH) and methylformate(HCOOCH_3) is used. The both cases are moderately fast reactions. Therefore, reactive scalar statistics are affected by turbulent mixing. The results of caliculation are compared with experimental data of Komori et al.(1994) and Bilger et al.(1991)

  2. Improving text recall with multiple summaries.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan

    2012-06-01

    QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in the body of the document where the summarized ideas are discussed in full. To examine the influence of QS summaries on participants' perceptions of text quality (i.e., comprehensibility, structure, and interest) and recall, an experimental - control group design compared the effects of a QS text with a structured abstract (SA) text. Forty psychology students participated voluntarily or received course credits. Students first read a control (SA) or experimental (QS) text on flashbulb memory (FBM). Next, their perceptions of text quality were measured through a questionnaire. Recall was assessed with an open answer test with items for facts, comprehension and higher order information. Perceptions of text quality did not vary across conditions. But QS did lead to significantly and substantially (d= 1.57) higher overall recall scores. Participants with the QS text performed significantly better on all item types than participants with the SA text. Studying a QS text led to a substantial improvement in recall compared to an SA text. Further research is needed to examine how readers study QS texts and whether a text model hypothesis or a repetition effect hypothesis accounts for the effectiveness. The first hypothesis posits that the QS summaries support the reader in constructing a text schema. The second attributes the effects of these summaries to their repetition of text topics. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Are figure legends sufficient? Evaluating the contribution of associated text to biomedical figure comprehension.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Johnston, Mark; Cohen, Aaron

    2009-01-06

    Biomedical scientists need to access figures to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. However, figures are difficult to comprehend without associated text (e.g., figure legend and other reference text). We are developing automated systems to extract the relevant explanatory information along with figures extracted from full text articles. Such systems could be very useful in improving figure retrieval and in reducing the workload of biomedical scientists, who otherwise have to retrieve and read the entire full-text journal article to determine which figures are relevant to their research. As a crucial step, we studied the importance of associated text in biomedical figure comprehension. Twenty subjects evaluated three figure-text combinations: figure+legend, figure+legend+title+abstract, and figure+full-text. Using a Likert scale, each subject scored each figure+text according to the extent to which the subject thought he/she understood the meaning of the figure and the confidence in providing the assigned score. Additionally, each subject entered a free text summary for each figure-text. We identified missing information using indicator words present within the text summaries. Both the Likert scores and the missing information were statistically analyzed for differences among the figure-text types. We also evaluated the quality of text summaries with the text-summarization evaluation method the ROUGE score. Our results showed statistically significant differences in figure comprehension when varying levels of text were provided. When the full-text article is not available, presenting just the figure+legend left biomedical researchers lacking 39-68% of the information about a figure as compared to having complete figure comprehension; adding the title and abstract improved the situation, but still left biomedical researchers missing 30% of the information. When the full-text article is available, figure comprehension

  4. Are figure legends sufficient? Evaluating the contribution of associated text to biomedical figure comprehension

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomedical scientists need to access figures to validate research facts and to formulate or to test novel research hypotheses. However, figures are difficult to comprehend without associated text (e.g., figure legend and other reference text). We are developing automated systems to extract the relevant explanatory information along with figures extracted from full text articles. Such systems could be very useful in improving figure retrieval and in reducing the workload of biomedical scientists, who otherwise have to retrieve and read the entire full-text journal article to determine which figures are relevant to their research. As a crucial step, we studied the importance of associated text in biomedical figure comprehension. Methods Twenty subjects evaluated three figure-text combinations: figure+legend, figure+legend+title+abstract, and figure+full-text. Using a Likert scale, each subject scored each figure+text according to the extent to which the subject thought he/she understood the meaning of the figure and the confidence in providing the assigned score. Additionally, each subject entered a free text summary for each figure-text. We identified missing information using indicator words present within the text summaries. Both the Likert scores and the missing information were statistically analyzed for differences among the figure-text types. We also evaluated the quality of text summaries with the text-summarization evaluation method the ROUGE score. Results Our results showed statistically significant differences in figure comprehension when varying levels of text were provided. When the full-text article is not available, presenting just the figure+legend left biomedical researchers lacking 39–68% of the information about a figure as compared to having complete figure comprehension; adding the title and abstract improved the situation, but still left biomedical researchers missing 30% of the information. When the full-text article is available

  5. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Methodologies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the full text of the following full and short papers on methodologies from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Methodology for Learning Pattern Analysis from Web Logs by Interpreting Web Page Contents" (Chih-Kai Chang and…

  7. Full-text publication rate of abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings (2010-2012): a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Komagamine, Junpei; Yabuki, Taku

    2018-06-22

    To determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings and the factors associated with publication. A retrospective observational study. All abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings (2010-2012). Publication rates were determined by searching the MEDLINE database for full-text articles published by September 2017. Data on presentation format (oral vs poster), affiliation of the first author, number of authors, number of involved institutions, journal of publication and publication date were abstracted. Of the 1003 abstracts evaluated, 38 (3.8%, 95% CI 2.6% to 5.0%) were subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in the MEDLINE database. The median time to publication was 15.5 months (IQR, 9.3-29.3 months). More than 95% of published abstracts were published within 4 years. The publications appeared in 23 different journals (21 English-language journals and two Japanese-language journals). Based on univariate analysis using binary logistic regression, publication was more frequent for oral presentations (7.3%vs2.0% for poster presentations; OR 3.91,95% CI 1.98 to 7.75), and for first authors affiliated with university-associated institutions (6.4%vs2.4% for first authors affiliated with non-university-associated institutions; OR 2.75,95% CI 1.42 to 5.30). Based on multivariate analysis, oral presentation and first author affiliation with a university-associated institution were still the only independent predictive factors for publication (adjusted OR 3.50(95% CI 1.72 to 7.12) and adjusted OR 2.35(95% CI 1.19 to 4.63), respectively). Even among 151 abstracts presented orally by first authors affiliated with a university-associated institution, only 18 abstracts (11.9%) were subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings was extremely low. Further studies are

  8. Energy dependence of forward-rapidity [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production in pp collisions at the LHC.

    PubMed

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Beltran, L G E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boca, G; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bonomi, G; Bonora, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buhler, P; Buitron, S A I; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Capon, A A; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Concas, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Costanza, S; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Duggal, A K; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eulisse, G; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Fabbietti, L; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Francisco, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gajdosova, K; Gallio, M; Galvan, C D; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garg, K; Garg, P; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Gay Ducati, M B; Germain, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Greiner, L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosa, F; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Gruber, L; Grull, F R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Guzman, I B; Haake, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, F; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hohlweger, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Hughes, C; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Isakov, V; Islam, M S; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacak, B; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jaelani, S; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jercic, M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Khatun, A; Khuntia, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Kileng, B; Kim, D; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, J; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kundu, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lapidus, K; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lavicka, R; Lazaridis, L; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lehner, S; Lehrbach, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Litichevskyi, V; Ljunggren, H M; Llope, W J; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Loncar, P; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lupi, M; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, J A L; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastroserio, A; Mathis, A M; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzilli, M; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Mhlanga, S; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mihaylov, D L; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Münning, K; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Myers, C J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Negrao De Oliveira, R A; Nellen, L; Nesbo, S V; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Ohlson, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Oravec, M; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pacik, V; Pagano, D; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Palni, P; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Panebianco, S; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, J; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Pathak, S P; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Peng, X; Pereira, L G; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pezzi, R P; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Poppenborg, H; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Pozdniakov, V; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Rana, D B; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Ratza, V; Ravasenga, I; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Rokita, P S; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Rotondi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rueda, O V; Rui, R; Russo, R; Rustamov, A; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Saarinen, S; Sadhu, S; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Saha, S K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sandoval, A; Sarkar, D; Sarkar, N; Sarma, P; Sas, M H P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Scheid, H S; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, M O; Schmidt, M; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sett, P; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Sheikh, A I; Shigaki, K; Shou, Q; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Sozzi, F; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stenlund, E; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Sumowidagdo, S; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Szabo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thakur, D; Thakur, S; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Tikhonov, A; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Tripathy, S; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Trzeciak, B A; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Umaka, E N; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vala, M; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vázquez Doce, O; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Velure, A; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Vértesi, R; Vickovic, L; Vigolo, S; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Voscek, D; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Willems, G A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Witt, W E; Yalcin, S; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zimmermann, S; Zinovjev, G; Zmeskal, J

    2017-01-01

    We present results on transverse momentum ([Formula: see text]) and rapidity ([Formula: see text]) differential production cross sections, mean transverse momentum and mean transverse momentum square of inclusive [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at forward rapidity ([Formula: see text]) as well as [Formula: see text]-to-[Formula: see text] cross section ratios. These quantities are measured in pp collisions at center of mass energies [Formula: see text] and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector. Both charmonium states are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel, using the muon spectrometer. A comprehensive comparison to inclusive charmonium cross sections measured at [Formula: see text], 7 and 8 TeV is performed. A comparison to non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and fixed-order next-to-leading logarithm calculations, which describe prompt and non-prompt charmonium production respectively, is also presented. A good description of the data is obtained over the full [Formula: see text] range, provided that both contributions are summed. In particular, it is found that for [Formula: see text] GeV/ c the non-prompt contribution reaches up to 50% of the total charmonium yield.

  9. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  10. Dynamic programming re-ranking for PPI interactor and pair extraction in full-text articles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Experimentally verified protein-protein interactions (PPIs) cannot be easily retrieved by researchers unless they are stored in PPI databases. The curation of such databases can be facilitated by employing text-mining systems to identify genes which play the interactor role in PPIs and to map these genes to unique database identifiers (interactor normalization task or INT) and then to return a list of interaction pairs for each article (interaction pair task or IPT). These two tasks are evaluated in terms of the area under curve of the interpolated precision/recall (AUC iP/R) score because the order of identifiers in the output list is important for ease of curation. Results Our INT system developed for the BioCreAtIvE II.5 INT challenge achieved a promising AUC iP/R of 43.5% by using a support vector machine (SVM)-based ranking procedure. Using our new re-ranking algorithm, we have been able to improve system performance (AUC iP/R) by 1.84%. Our experimental results also show that with the re-ranked INT results, our unsupervised IPT system can achieve a competitive AUC iP/R of 23.86%, which outperforms the best BC II.5 INT system by 1.64%. Compared to using only SVM ranked INT results, using re-ranked INT results boosts AUC iP/R by 7.84%. Statistical significance t-test results show that our INT/IPT system with re-ranking outperforms that without re-ranking by a statistically significant difference. Conclusions In this paper, we present a new re-ranking algorithm that considers co-occurrence among identifiers in an article to improve INT and IPT ranking results. Combining the re-ranked INT results with an unsupervised approach to find associations among interactors, the proposed method can boost the IPT performance. We also implement score computation using dynamic programming, which is faster and more efficient than traditional approaches. PMID:21342534

  11. Dynamic programming re-ranking for PPI interactor and pair extraction in full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Lai, Po-Ting

    2011-02-23

    Experimentally verified protein-protein interactions (PPIs) cannot be easily retrieved by researchers unless they are stored in PPI databases. The curation of such databases can be facilitated by employing text-mining systems to identify genes which play the interactor role in PPIs and to map these genes to unique database identifiers (interactor normalization task or INT) and then to return a list of interaction pairs for each article (interaction pair task or IPT). These two tasks are evaluated in terms of the area under curve of the interpolated precision/recall (AUC iP/R) score because the order of identifiers in the output list is important for ease of curation. Our INT system developed for the BioCreAtIvE II.5 INT challenge achieved a promising AUC iP/R of 43.5% by using a support vector machine (SVM)-based ranking procedure. Using our new re-ranking algorithm, we have been able to improve system performance (AUC iP/R) by 1.84%. Our experimental results also show that with the re-ranked INT results, our unsupervised IPT system can achieve a competitive AUC iP/R of 23.86%, which outperforms the best BC II.5 INT system by 1.64%. Compared to using only SVM ranked INT results, using re-ranked INT results boosts AUC iP/R by 7.84%. Statistical significance t-test results show that our INT/IPT system with re-ranking outperforms that without re-ranking by a statistically significant difference. In this paper, we present a new re-ranking algorithm that considers co-occurrence among identifiers in an article to improve INT and IPT ranking results. Combining the re-ranked INT results with an unsupervised approach to find associations among interactors, the proposed method can boost the IPT performance. We also implement score computation using dynamic programming, which is faster and more efficient than traditional approaches.

  12. Evaluation of arctic multibeam sonar data quality using nadir crossover error analysis and compilation of a full-resolution data product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Mayer, Larry A.; Calder, Brian A.; Armstrong, Andrew A.

    2014-05-01

    We document a new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry compilation for the Canada Basin and Chukchi Borderland in the Arctic Ocean - United States Arctic Multibeam Compilation (USAMBC Version 1.0). The compilation preserves the highest native resolution of the bathymetric data, allowing for more detailed interpretation of seafloor morphology than has been previously possible. The compilation was created from multibeam bathymetry data available through openly accessible government and academic repositories. Much of the new data was collected during dedicated mapping cruises in support of the United States effort to map extended continental shelf regions beyond the 200 nm Exclusive Economic Zone. Data quality was evaluated using nadir-beam crossover-error statistics, making it possible to assess the precision of multibeam depth soundings collected from a wide range of vessels and sonar systems. Data were compiled into a single high-resolution grid through a vertical stacking method, preserving the highest quality data source in any specific grid cell. The crossover-error analysis and method of data compilation can be applied to other multi-source multibeam data sets, and is particularly useful for government agencies targeting extended continental shelf regions but with limited hydrographic capabilities. Both the gridded compilation and an easily distributed geospatial PDF map are freely available through the University of New Hampshire's Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (ccom.unh.edu/theme/law-sea). The geospatial pdf is a full resolution, small file-size product that supports interpretation of Arctic seafloor morphology without the need for specialized gridding/visualization software.

  13. Automatic Text Summarization for Indonesian Language Using TextTeaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, D.; Pasaribu, A.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    Text summarization is one of the solution for information overload. Reducing text without losing the meaning not only can save time to read, but also maintain the reader’s understanding. One of many algorithms to summarize text is TextTeaser. Originally, this algorithm is intended to be used for text in English. However, due to TextTeaser algorithm does not consider the meaning of the text, we implement this algorithm for text in Indonesian language. This algorithm calculates four elements, such as title feature, sentence length, sentence position and keyword frequency. We utilize TextRank, an unsupervised and language independent text summarization algorithm, to evaluate the summarized text yielded by TextTeaser. The result shows that the TextTeaser algorithm needs more improvement to obtain better accuracy.

  14. A Genetic RNAi Screen for IP3/Ca2+ Coupled GPCRs in Drosophila Identifies the PdfR as a Regulator of Insect Flight

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tarjani; Sadaf, Sufia; Hasan, Gaiti

    2013-01-01

    Insect flight is regulated by various sensory inputs and neuromodulatory circuits which function in synchrony to control and fine-tune the final behavioral outcome. The cellular and molecular bases of flight neuromodulatory circuits are not well defined. In Drosophila melanogaster, it is known that neuronal IP3 receptor mediated Ca2+ signaling and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) are required for air-puff stimulated adult flight. However, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate intracellular Ca2+ signaling in the context of flight are unknown in Drosophila. We performed a genetic RNAi screen to identify GPCRs that regulate flight by activating the IP3 receptor. Among the 108 GPCRs screened, we discovered 5 IP3/Ca2+ linked GPCRs that are necessary for maintenance of air-puff stimulated flight. Analysis of their temporal requirement established that while some GPCRs are required only during flight circuit development, others are required both in pupal development as well as during adult flight. Interestingly, our study identified the Pigment Dispersing Factor Receptor (PdfR) as a regulator of flight circuit development and as a modulator of acute flight. From the analysis of PdfR expressing neurons relevant for flight and its well-defined roles in other behavioral paradigms, we propose that PdfR signaling functions systemically to integrate multiple sensory inputs and modulate downstream motor behavior. PMID:24098151

  15. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  16. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  17. Comparison of conference abstracts and presentations with full-text articles in the health technology assessments of rapidly evolving technologies.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Y; Dodd, S; Dickson, R; Walley, T; Haycox, A; Williamson, P R

    2006-02-01

    To assess the extent of use of data from conference abstracts and presentations in health technology assessments (HTAs) provided as part of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) appraisal process. Also to assess the methodological quality of trials from conference abstracts and presentations, the consistency of reporting major outcomes between these sources and subsequent full-length publications, the effect of inclusion or exclusion of data from these sources on the meta-analysis pooled effect estimates, and the timeliness of availability of data from these sources and full articles in relation to the development of technology assessment reviews (TARs). A survey of seven TAR groups. An audit of published TARs: included all NICE TARs published between January 2000 and October 2004. Case studies of selected TARs. Analyses of the results of the survey and audit were presented as a descriptive summary and in a tabular format. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to compare the effect of inclusion of data from abstracts and presentations on the meta-analysis pooled effect estimates by including data from both abstracts/presentations and full papers, and data from only full publications, included in the original TAR. These analyses were then compared with meta-analysis of data from trials that have subsequently been published in full. All seven TAR groups completed and returned the survey. Five out of seven groups reported a general policy that included searching for and including studies available as conference abstracts/presentations. Five groups responded that if they included data from these sources they would carry out methodological quality assessment of studies from these sources using the same assessment tools as for full publications, and manage the data from these sources in the same way as fully published reports. All groups reported that if relevant outcome data were reported in both an abstract/presentation and a full publication

  18. Tri-Texts: A Potential Next Step for Paired Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciecierski, Lisa M.; Bintz, William P.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of tri-texts as a potential next step from paired texts following a collaborative inquiry with fifth-grade students. Paired texts are two texts intertextually connected, whereas tri-texts are three texts connected this way. The authors begin the article with a short literature review highlighting some of the…

  19. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, or WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf). [67 FR 67559, Nov. 6...

  20. An assumed pdf approach for the calculation of supersonic mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Drummond, J. P.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to predict the effect that turbulent mixing has on the extent of combustion, a one-equation turbulence model is added to an existing Navier-Stokes solver with finite-rate chemistry. To average the chemical-source terms appearing in the species-continuity equations, an assumed pdf approach is also used. This code was used to analyze the mixing and combustion caused by the mixing layer formed by supersonic coaxial H2-air streams. The chemistry model employed allows for the formation of H2O2 and HO2. Comparisons are made with recent measurements using laser Raman diagnostics. Comparisons include temperature and its rms, and concentrations of H2, O2, N2, H2O, and OH. In general, good agreement with experiment was noted.

  1. AzTEC Survey of the Central Molecular Zone: Modeling Dust SEDs and N-PDF with Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuping; Wang, Daniel; Wilson, Grant; Gutermuth, Robert; Heyer, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We present the AzTEC/LMT survey of dust continuum at 1.1mm on the central ˜ 200pc (CMZ) of our Galaxy. A joint SED analysis of all existing dust continuum surveys on the CMZ is performed, from 160µm to 1.1mm. Our analysis follows a MCMC sampling strategy incorporating the knowledge of PSFs in different maps, which provides unprecedented spacial resolution on distributions of dust temperature, column density and emissivity index. The dense clumps in the CMZ typically show low dust temperature ( 20K), with no significant sign of buried star formation, and a weak evolution of higher emissivity index toward dense peak. A new model is proposed, allowing for varying dust temperature inside a cloud and self-shielding of dust emission, which leads to similar conclusions on dust temperature and grain properties. We further apply a hierarchical Bayesian analysis to infer the column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), while simultaneously removing the Galactic foreground and background emission. The N-PDF shows a steep power-law profile with α > 3, indicating that formation of dense structures are suppressed.

  2. CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

  3. A determination of the charm content of the proton: The NNPDF Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ball, Richard D; Bertone, Valerio; Bonvini, Marco; Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We present an unbiased determination of the charm content of the proton, in which the charm parton distribution function (PDF) is parametrized on the same footing as the light quarks and the gluon in a global PDF analysis. This determination relies on the NLO calculation of deep-inelastic structure functions in the FONLL scheme, generalized to account for massive charm-initiated contributions. When the EMC charm structure function dataset is included, it is well described by the fit, and PDF uncertainties in the fitted charm PDF are significantly reduced. We then find that the fitted charm PDF vanishes within uncertainties at a scale [Formula: see text] GeV for all [Formula: see text], independent of the value of [Formula: see text] used in the coefficient functions. We also find some evidence that the charm PDF at large [Formula: see text] and low scales does not vanish, but rather has an "intrinsic" component, very weakly scale dependent and almost independent of the value of [Formula: see text], carrying less than [Formula: see text] of the total momentum of the proton. The uncertainties in all other PDFs are only slightly increased by the inclusion of fitted charm, while the dependence of these PDFs on [Formula: see text] is reduced. The increased stability with respect to [Formula: see text] persists at high scales and is the main implication of our results for LHC phenomenology. Our results show that if the EMC data are correct, then the usual approach in which charm is perturbatively generated leads to biased results for the charm PDF, though at small x this bias could be reabsorbed if the uncertainty due to the charm mass and missing higher orders were included. We show that LHC data for processes, such as high [Formula: see text] and large rapidity charm pair production and [Formula: see text] production, have the potential to confirm or disprove the implications of the EMC data.

  4. Text mining for the biocuration workflow

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A. P. C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H.; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G.; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on ‘Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow’ at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community. PMID:22513129

  5. Text mining for the biocuration workflow.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A P C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on 'Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow' at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community.

  6. Partition of Ni between olivine and sulfide: the effect of temperature, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, M. E.; Macrae, N. D.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental distribution coefficient for Ni/ Fe exchange between olivine and monosulfide (KD3) is 35.6±1.1 at 1385° C, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 8.87} ,f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 1.02} , and olivine of composition Fo96 to Fo92. These are the physicochemical conditions appropriate to hypothesized sulfur-saturated komatiite magma. The present experiments equilibrated natural olivine grains with sulfide-oxide liquid in the presence of a (Mg, Fe)-alumino-silicate melt. By a variety of different experimental procedures, K D3 is shown to be essentially constant at about 30 to 35 in the temperature range 900 to 1400° C, for olivine of composition Fo97 to FoO, monosulfide composition with up to 70 mol. % NiS, and a wide range of f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }.

  7. A continuous mixing model for pdf simulations and its applications to combusting shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.; Chen, J.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in this work. A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models.

  8. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; ...

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as depositedmore » (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb 3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb 3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb 3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb 6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb 3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb 3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.« less

  9. Text-Dependent Questions: Reflecting and Transcending the Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelé, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Posing text-dependent questions is crucial for facilitating students' comprehension of the text. However, text-dependent questions should not merely ask students to reflect the author's literal or even inferential meaning. The author's message is the starting place for comprehension, rather than the end goal or object of comprehension. The text…

  10. PDF Weaving - Linking Inventory Data and Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis in the Study of how Disturbance Affects Forest Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, S. P.; Patterson, P.; Garrard, C.

    2014-12-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are likely a primary mechanism by which a changing climate will affect storage of carbon in forested ecosystems. Accordingly, the National Forest System (NFS) has been mandated to assess the role of disturbance (harvests, fires, insects, etc.) on carbon storage in each of its planning units. We have developed a process which combines 1990-era maps of forest structure and composition with high-quality maps of subsequent disturbance type and magnitude to track the impact of disturbance on carbon storage. This process, called the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), uses the maps to apply empirically calibrated carbon dynamics built into a widely used management tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). While ForCaMF offers locally specific insights into the effect of historical or hypothetical disturbance trends on carbon storage, its dependence upon the interaction of several maps and a carbon model poses a complex challenge in terms of tracking uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis is an attractive option for tracking the combined effects of error in several constituent inputs as they impact overall uncertainty. Monte Carlo methods iteratively simulate alternative values for each input and quantify how much outputs vary as a result. Variation of each input is controlled by a Probability Density Function (PDF). We introduce a technique called "PDF Weaving," which constructs PDFs that ensure that simulated uncertainty precisely aligns with uncertainty estimates that can be derived from inventory data. This hard link with inventory data (derived in this case from FIA - the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program) both provides empirical calibration and establishes consistency with other types of assessments (e.g., habitat and water) for which NFS depends upon FIA data. Results from the NFS Northern Region will be used to illustrate PDF weaving and insights gained from ForCaMF about the role of disturbance in carbon

  11. EBooks as PDF Files, in EPub Format or as Interactive IBooks? Digital Books in Physics Lessons of Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the different capabilities of ebooks in the pdf, epub and ibook format in science teaching evaluated at the BG/BRG Schwechat. Over the recent years the school equipped with 100 personal computers and 28 iPads has become one of the leading e-learning schools in Austria. iPads show their advantages in the context of blended…

  12. Resolution analysis of marine seismic full waveform data by Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A.; Sekar, A.; Hoversten, G. M.; Albertin, U.

    2015-12-01

    The Bayesian posterior density function (PDF) of earth models that fit full waveform seismic data convey information on the uncertainty with which the elastic model parameters are resolved. In this work, we apply the trans-dimensional reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (RJ-MCMC) for the 1D inversion of noisy synthetic full-waveform seismic data in the frequency-wavenumber domain. While seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) is a powerful method for characterizing subsurface elastic parameters, the uncertainty in the inverted models has remained poorly known, if at all and is highly initial model dependent. The Bayesian method we use is trans-dimensional in that the number of model layers is not fixed, and flexible such that the layer boundaries are free to move around. The resulting parameterization does not require regularization to stabilize the inversion. Depth resolution is traded off with the number of layers, providing an estimate of uncertainty in elastic parameters (compressional and shear velocities Vp and Vs as well as density) with depth. We find that in the absence of additional constraints, Bayesian inversion can result in a wide range of posterior PDFs on Vp, Vs and density. These PDFs range from being clustered around the true model, to those that contain little resolution of any particular features other than those in the near surface, depending on the particular data and target geometry. We present results for a suite of different frequencies and offset ranges, examining the differences in the posterior model densities thus derived. Though these results are for a 1D earth, they are applicable to areas with simple, layered geology and provide valuable insight into the resolving capabilities of FWI, as well as highlight the challenges in solving a highly non-linear problem. The RJ-MCMC method also presents a tantalizing possibility for extension to 2D and 3D Bayesian inversion of full waveform seismic data in the future, as it objectively

  13. Guiding Students through Expository Text with Text Feature Walks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The Text Feature Walk is a structure created and employed by the authors that guides students in the reading of text features in order to access prior knowledge, make connections, and set a purpose for reading expository text. Results from a pilot study are described in order to illustrate the benefits of using the Text Feature Walk over…

  14. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  15. Text Analysis: Critical Component of Planning for Text-Based Discussion Focused on Comprehension of Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2018-01-01

    This investigation focuses on a tool used in a reading methods course to introduce reading specialist candidates to text analysis as a critical component of planning for text-based discussions. Unlike planning that focuses mainly on important text content or information, a text analysis approach focuses both on content and how that content is…

  16. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  17. What's so Simple about Simplified Texts? A Computational and Psycholinguistic Investigation of Text Comprehension and Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Yang, Hae Sung; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess both text comprehension and processing time of authentic texts and these same texts simplified to beginning and intermediate levels. Forty-eight second language learners each read 9 texts (3 different authentic, beginning, and intermediate level texts). Repeated measures ANOVAs…

  18. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Blichfeld, Anders B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Wood, Suzannah R.; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C.; Iversen, Bo B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-01-01

    By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The ‘tfPDF’ method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films. PMID:26306190

  19. Possible costs associated with investigating and mitigating geologic hazards in rural areas of western San Mateo County, California with a section on using the USGS website to determine the cost of developing property for residences in rural parts of San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Roberts, Sebastian; Cotton, William R.; Kropp, Alan L.; Wright, Robert H.; Zinn, Erik N.; Digital database by Roberts, Sebastian; Mills, Suzanne K.; Barnes, Jason B.; Marsolek, Joanna E.

    2000-01-01

    This publication consists of a digital map database on a geohazards web site, http://kaibab.wr.usgs.gov/geohazweb/intro.htm, this text, and 43 digital map images available for downloading at this site. The report is stored as several digital files, in ARC export (uncompressed) format for the database, and Postscript and PDF formats for the map images. Several of the source data layers for the images have already been released in other publications by the USGS and are available for downloading on the Internet. These source layers are not included in this digital database, but rather a reference is given for the web site where the data can be found in digital format. The exported ARC coverages and grids lie in UTM zone 10 projection. The pamphlet, which only describes the content and character of the digital map database, is included as Postscript, PDF, and ASCII text files and is also available on paper as USGS Open-File Report 00-127. The full versatility of the spatial database is realized by importing the ARC export files into ARC/INFO or an equivalent GIS. Other GIS packages, including MapInfo and ARCVIEW, can also use the ARC export files. The Postscript map image can be used for viewing or plotting in computer systems with sufficient capacity, and the considerably smaller PDF image files can be viewed or plotted in full or in part from Adobe ACROBAT software running on Macintosh, PC, or UNIX platforms.

  20. Pdf modeling for premixed turbulent combustion based on the properties of iso-concentration surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervisch, L.; Kollmann, W.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.

    1994-01-01

    In premixed turbulent flames the presence of intense mixing zones located in front of and behind the flame surface leads to a requirement to study the behavior of iso-concentration surfaces defined for all values of the progress variable (equal to unity in burnt gases and to zero in fresh mixtures). To support this study, some theoretical and mathematical tools devoted to level surfaces are first developed. Then a database of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames is generated and used to investigate the internal structure of the flame brush, and a new pdf model based on the properties of iso-surfaces is proposed.

  1. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    PubMed

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  2. [Birth of otology illustrated by original texts].

    PubMed

    Mudry, A

    2001-12-01

    To be born, to appear, to begin. Though setting the birth of otology in the 19th century may seem a bit pretentious, the texts published at that time are ample proof of the fact. The combined impact of technical, scientific, medical and social factors led to the development of otology as a medical specialty. We discuss these different aspects in this article, illustrating them with extracts from the texts of the era. Once could say that the first half of the 19th century was a period of gestation for otology that was to come into full bloom during the second half of the same century.

  3. Condensed Representation of Sentences in Graphic Displays of Text Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ways in which sentences may be represented in a condensed form in graphic displays of a sentence dependency structure. A prototype of a text structure management system, TEXNET, is described; a quantitative evaluation of automatic abbreviation schemes is presented; full-text compression is discussed; and additional research is suggested.…

  4. A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao

    2015-04-02

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly

  5. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  6. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  7. Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vyverman, Michaël; De Baets, Bernard; Fack, Veerle; Dawyndt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared. PMID:22584621

  8. Production of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV.

    PubMed

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Chauvin, A; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Costanza, S; Crkovská, J; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Souza, R D; Degenhardt, H F; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Di Ruzza, B; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; 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Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sandoval, A; Sarkar, D; Sarkar, N; Sarma, P; Sas, M H P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Scheid, H S; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schmidt, M O; Schmidt, M; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sett, P; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Sheikh, A I; Shigaki, K; Shou, Q; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Song, J; Song, M; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Sozzi, F; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stenlund, E; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Sumowidagdo, S; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Szabo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thakur, D; Thakur, S; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Tikhonov, A; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Tripathy, S; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Trzeciak, B A; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Umaka, E N; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vala, M; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vázquez Doce, O; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Velure, A; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Vértesi, R; Vickovic, L; Vigolo, S; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Voscek, D; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Willems, G A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Witt, W E; Yalcin, S; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zaporozhets, S; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zimmermann, S; Zinovjev, G; Zmeskal, J

    2017-01-01

    The transverse momentum distributions of the strange and double-strange hyperon resonances ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) produced in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV were measured in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] for event classes corresponding to different charged-particle multiplicity densities, [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text]. The mean transverse momentum values are presented as a function of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text], as well as a function of the particle masses and compared with previous results on hyperon production. The integrated yield ratios of excited to ground-state hyperons are constant as a function of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text]. The equivalent ratios to pions exhibit an increase with [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text], depending on their strangeness content.

  9. SU-F-T-191: 4D Dose Reconstruction of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Based On Breathing Probability Density Function (PDF) From 4D Cone Beam Projection Images: A Study for Lung Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J; Ding, X; Liang, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With energy repainting in lung IMPT, the dose delivered is approximate to the convolution of dose in each phase with corresponding breathing PDF. This study is to compute breathing PDF weighted 4D dose in lung IMPT treatment and compare to its initial robust plan. Methods: Six lung patients were evaluated in this study. Amsterdam shroud image were generated from pre-treatment 4D cone-beam projections. Diaphragm motion curve was extract from the shroud image and the breathing PDF was generated. Each patient was planned to 60 Gy (12GyX5). In initial plans, ITV density on average CT was overridden with its maximummore » value for planning, using two IMPT beams with robust optimization (5mm uncertainty in patient position and 3.5% range uncertainty). The plan was applied to all 4D CT phases. The dose in each phase was deformed to a reference phase. 4D dose is reconstructed by summing all these doses based on corresponding weighting from the PDF. Plan parameters, including maximum dose (Dmax), ITV V100, homogeneity index (HI=D2/D98), R50 (50%IDL/ITV), and the lung-GTV’s V12.5 and V5 were compared between the reconstructed 4D dose to initial plans. Results: The Dmax is significantly less dose in the reconstructed 4D dose, 68.12±3.5Gy, vs. 70.1±4.3Gy in the initial plans (p=0.015). No significant difference is found for the ITV V100, HI, and R50, 92.2%±15.4% vs. 96.3%±2.5% (p=0.565), 1.033±0.016 vs. 1.038±0.017 (p=0.548), 19.2±12.1 vs. 18.1±11.6 (p=0.265), for the 4D dose and initial plans, respectively. The lung-GTV V12.5 and V5 are significantly high in the 4D dose, 13.9%±4.8% vs. 13.0%±4.6% (p=0.021) and 17.6%±5.4% vs. 16.9%±5.2% (p=0.011), respectively. Conclusion: 4D dose reconstruction based on phase PDF can be used to evaluate the dose received by the patient. A robust optimization based on the phase PDF may even further improve patient care.« less

  10. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; 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    2017-01-01

    The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  11. The Impact of Text Browsing on Text Retrieval Performance.<