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Sample records for full thickness rotator

  1. Lateral eyelid rotation flap: a novel technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Neelam; Batra, Jyoti; Meel, Rachna; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Chawla, Bhavna; Ghose, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study anatomical, functional, and cosmetic outcomes of a novel technique, 'Lateral Eyelid Rotation Flap' for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect. In this prospective interventional study, 10 patients with full thickness eyelid defect measuring 1/2-2/3rd of eyelid width were included. Eyelid reconstruction was performed by single surgeon, using lateral eyelid rotation flap. Anatomic outcome was assessed by analyzing horizontal and vertical palpebral apertures (HPA and VPA), eyelid contour, and lateral canthus. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring tear film break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer's test in both the eyes. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated by patients. Median age of patients was 56 years. Nine cases had full thickness defect following the excision of eyelid malignancy. The mean horizontal defect size was 17 ± 4.2 mm. HPA did not change significantly after surgery. VPA was statistically comparable to contralateral eye at 1-month follow-up. Lateral canthus angle recovered by 3rd month after surgery. TBUT and Schirmer's tests were comparable to contralateral eye. Eight patients graded cosmetic outcome as good to excellent. This is a new, single-stage technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defects, with full thickness eyelid tissue including margin.

  2. Arthroscopic subacromial decompression in the treatment of full thickness rotator cuff tears: a 3- to 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, J E; Levy, H J; Lemak, L J

    1994-10-01

    Arthroscopic subacromial decompression has become an accepted treatment for patients with impingement syndrome; however, its use for full thickness rotator cuff tears continues to be controversial. The purpose of this study is to determine if the results of arthroscopic subacromial decompression alone for full thickness rotator cuff tears deteriorate at long-term follow-up. We reevaluated all 25 patients with full thickness rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression from our original study group. Based on the University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating, 68% of patients were rated as excellent or good at the present mean follow-up of 45.8 months (range 36-72 months). This represents a significant decrease from our initial report of 84% satisfactory results at a mean follow-up of 24.6 months. There was a significant decrease in ratings with regard to pain and function; however, no significant deterioration was noted with regard to motion and strength. Two additional patients required open rotator cuff repair since the time of initial follow-up for a total of six. Large and massive rotator cuff tears fared worse over time as compared with small and moderate size tears. Although 1- to 3-year results of arthroscopic subacromial decompression and rotator cuff debridement were favorable, the long-term follow-up demonstrates deterioration of results. We therefore cannot support the use of decompression and debridement alone in the treatment of repairable full thickness rotator cuff tears.

  3. Operative management of partial- and full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Palumbo, Alessio; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears (RCT) is challenging. In RC tears, a partial (PTRCTs) or full (RCTs) discontinuation of one or more of the muscles or tendons and may occur as a result of traumatic injury or degeneration over a period of years. Many factors seem to contribute to the final outcome and a considerable number of variations during the decision-making process of patients with RCTs exist. Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to guide correct management, and the tear pattern should be carefully evaluated to plan the appropriate repair. Both non-operative and operative treatments are used to relieve pain and restore movement and function of the shoulder. Different surgical options are available. The present review describes the current evidence about diagnosis and management of partial and complete rotator tears.

  4. Single-Row or Double-Row Fixation Technique for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Chaoqun; Chen, Kai; Cheng, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Background The single-row and double-row fixation techniques have been widely used for rotator cuff tears. However, whether the double-row technique produces superior clinical or anatomic outcomes is still considered controversial. This study aims to use meta-analysis to compare the clinical and anatomical outcomes between the two techniques. Methods The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant studies published before November 1, 2012. Studies clearly reporting a comparison of the single-row and double-row techniques were selected. The Constant, ASES, and UCLA scale systems and the rotator cuff integrity rate were evaluated. The weighted mean differences and relative risks were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. The weighted mean differences of the ASES (−0.84; P = 0.04; I2 = 0%) and UCLA (−0.75; P = 0.007; I2 = 0%) scales were significantly low in the single-row group for full-thickness rotator cuff tears. For tear sizes smaller than 3 cm, no significant difference was found between the groups no matter in Constant (P = 0.95; I2 = 0%), ASES (P = 0.77; I2 = 0%), or UCLA (P = 0.24; I2 = 13%) scales. For tear sizes larger than 3 cm, the ASES (−1.95; P = 0.001; I2 = 49%) and UCLA (−1.17; P = 0.006; I2 = 0%) scales were markedly lower in the single-row group. The integrity of the rotator cuff (0.81; P = 0.0004; I2 = 10%) was greater and the partial thickness retear rate (1.93; P = 0.007; I2 = 10%) was less in the double-row group. Full-thickness retears showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.15; I2 = 0%). Conclusion The meta-analysis suggests that the double-row fixation technique increases post-operative rotator cuff integrity and improves the clinical outcomes, especially for full-thickness rotator cuff tears larger than 3 cm. For tear sizes smaller than 3 cm

  5. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery.

  6. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. Significance The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. PMID:26371340

  7. Effects of Rotator Cuff Pathology and Physical Therapy on In Vivo Shoulder Motion and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With a Symptomatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Baumer, Timothy G.; Chan, Derek; Mende, Veronica; Dischler, Jack; Zauel, Roger; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Siegal, Daniel S.; Divine, George; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical therapy (PT) is often prescribed for patients with rotator cuff tears. The extent to which PT influences strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcomes has been studied extensively, but the effect of PT on in vivo joint kinematics is not well understood. Purpose: To assess the influence of symptomatic rotator cuff pathology and the effects of PT on shoulder motion, strength, and patient-reported outcomes. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear and 25 age-matched asymptomatic control subjects were recruited. Shoulder motion was measured using a biplane radiography imaging system, strength was assessed with a Biodex dynamometer, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Data were acquired from the patients before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy. Data were acquired at 1 time point for the control subjects. Results: Compared with the control subjects, patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had significantly worse pain/function scores (P < .01); less ROM (P < .01); lower abduction (ABD), external rotation (ER), and internal rotation (IR) strength (P < .01); less scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05); and lower glenohumeral joint elevation (P < .01). Physical therapy resulted in improved pain/function scores (P < .01), increased ROM (P < .02), increased scapulothoracic posterior tilt (P = .05), increased glenohumeral joint elevation (P = .01), and decreased acromiohumeral distance (AHD) (P = .02). Conclusion: Compared with age-matched controls, patients had worse pain/function scores, less ROM, and lower ABD, ER, and IR strength. Patients also had less scapulothoracic anteroposterior tilt, less glenohumeral joint elevation, and an altered glenohumeral joint contact path. PT resulted in improved pain/function scores, increased ROM, greater posterior

  8. Minimally Important Differences and Change Across Time in Patients Treated Surgically and Non-Surgically for Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimally important difference (MID) is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is perceived by patients as beneficial. The MIDs for the ASES and WORC scores have not been established in a homogenous population of patients with rotator cuff tears. The objective of the present study was to establish the MIDs for patients with known cuff tears who were treated both surgically and non-surgically, and to compare the MIDs over time. Methods: We included 209 subjects with known full-thickness rotator cuff tears who were followed prospectively for two years. The WORC and ASES scores were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. At the final follow-up point patients filled out an end-of-study form which included questions regarding change in their condition after treatment. Results: For those that indicated being minimally better, the change from baseline for the ASES score was -20.57 (-2.94 to -38.20) and for the WORC was 418.60 (70.39 to 766.81); both indicated improvement in outcomes. When converted to the percentage change score the WORC change represented 19.93%. The plots of these new MID values for the ASES and WORC indicate that not only does the operative group improve more than the non-operative group but it does so to an extent that is greater than the MID. The non-operative group also improved across time, but the magnitude did not exceed the MID for either the WORC or the ASES. Conclusion: We found that the ASES and the WORC MIDs in patients with rotator cuff tears is different from that previously reported, and that the operative group change was greater than the non-operative group change. This information will directly improve our ability to: (1) Determine when patients with RCTs are changing in a meaningful manner; (2) Accurately power clinical studies using these outcome measures; (3) Make more informed choices of treatments in these patients. This is the first study to report MIDs for the ASES and WORC

  9. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  10. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  11. Minimum wafer thickness by rotated ingot ID wafering. [Inner Diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient utilization of materials is critical to certain device applications such as silicon for photovoltaics or diodes and gallium-gadolinium-garnet for memories. A variety of slicing techniques has been investigated to minimize wafer thickness and wafer kerf. This paper presents the results of analyses of ID wafering of rotated ingots based on predicted fracture behavior of the wafer as a result of forces during wafering and the properties of the device material. The analytical model indicated that the minimum wafer thickness is controlled by the depth of surface damage and the applied cantilever force. Both of these factors should be minimized. For silicon, a minimum thickness was found to be approximately 200 x 10 - 6th m for conventional sizes of rotated ingot wafering. Fractures through the thickness of the wafer rather than through the center supporting column were found to limit the minimum wafer thickness. The model suggested that the use of a vacuum chuck on the wafer surface to enhance cleavage fracture of the center supporting core and, with silicon, by using 111-line-type ingots could have potential for reducing minimum wafer thickness.

  12. Full tape thickness feature conductors for EMI structures

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Knudson, Richard T.; Smith, Frank R.; Barner, Gregory

    2014-06-10

    Generally annular full tape thickness conductors are formed in single or multiple tape layers, and then stacked to produce an annular solid conductive wall for enclosing an electromagnetic isolation cavity. The conductors may be formed using punch and fill operations, or by flowing conductor-containing material onto the tape edge surfaces that define the interior sidewalls of the cavity.

  13. Radiative flow due to stretchable rotating disk with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    Present article concerns with MHD flow of viscous fluid by a rotating disk with variable thickness. Heat transfer is examined in the presence of thermal radiation. Boundary layer approximation is applied to the partial differential equations. Governing equations are then transformed into ordinary differential equations by utilizing Von Karman transformations. Impact of physical parameters on velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number is presented and examined. It is observed that with an increase in disk thickness and stretching parameter the radial and axial velocities are enhanced. Prandtl number and radiation parameter have opposite behavior for temperature field. Skin friction decays for larger disk thickness index. Magnitude of Nusselt number enhances for larger Prandtl number.

  14. Engineered alternative skin for partial and full-thickness burns

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Quenton

    2014-01-01

    Engineered alternative skin in all its forms and shapes serve to provide temporary or permanent wound closure such as in the case of partial and full-thickness burns. The need for collagen-based regeneration templates is motivated by the fact that dermal regeneration of full-thickness injuries does not occur spontaneously and is inundated by contraction and scarring. Partial-thickness burns in turn can regress as a result of infection and improper treatment and require appropriate treatment. Nylon-silicone laminates such as Biobrane®, and more recently AWBAT®, address this by serving as a temporary barrier. Enhanced collagen-based scaffolds today, although not perfect, remain invaluable. Our initial approach was to characterize the design considerations and explore the use of collagen in the fabrication of a dermal regeneration matrix and a silicone-nylon bilaminate. Here we expand our initial research on scaffold fabrication and explore possible strategies to improve the outcome of collagen-scaffold medicated wound healing. PMID:24651001

  15. Engineered alternative skin for partial and full-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Quenton

    2014-01-01

    Engineered alternative skin in all its forms and shapes serve to provide temporary or permanent wound closure such as in the case of partial and full-thickness burns. The need for collagen-based regeneration templates is motivated by the fact that dermal regeneration of full-thickness injuries does not occur spontaneously and is inundated by contraction and scarring. Partial-thickness burns in turn can regress as a result of infection and improper treatment and require appropriate treatment. Nylon-silicone laminates such as Biobrane(®), and more recently AWBAT(®), address this by serving as a temporary barrier. Enhanced collagen-based scaffolds today, although not perfect, remain invaluable. Our initial approach was to characterize the design considerations and explore the use of collagen in the fabrication of a dermal regeneration matrix and a silicone-nylon bilaminate. Here we expand our initial research on scaffold fabrication and explore possible strategies to improve the outcome of collagen-scaffold medicated wound healing.

  16. Management of full thickness burns to lactating breasts.

    PubMed

    Giele, H P; Nguyen, H; Wood, F; Crocker, A D

    1994-06-01

    A 19-year-old female sustained 8 per cent full thickness petrol flame burns to the neck, chest, breasts, upper abdomen and portions of the right upper limb. The patient had been breast-feeding until the time of the injury. Following assessment of the risks of potential complications such as engorgement, hyperprolactinaemia, mastitis, milk fistulae, glandular loss, scarring and nipple distortion, surgical tangential excision was delayed until bromocriptine produced cessation of lactation and breast involution occurred. This case report demonstrates that consideration of the potential problems in burns to the lactating breasts and prophylactic management can lead to successful healing and probable restoration of function.

  17. Dupuytren Disease Infiltrating a Full-Thickness Skin Graft.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ryckie George; Igali, Laszlo; Figus, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Although the role of the skin in the development and propagation of Dupuytren disease remains unclear, dermofasciectomy and full-thickness skin grafting (FTSG) appears to delay recurrence. In 2011, a 71-year-old, left-handed man presented with recurrent Dupuytren disease in the dominant hand. In 1991, he originally underwent a primary dermofasciectomy and FTSG for Dupuytren disease involving the palmar skin. Twenty years later, the left middle finger was drawn into flexion by a recurrent cord, and the old graft and adjacent palmar skin were clinically involved by fibromatosis. We performed a revision dermofasciectomy and FTSG. Microscopic analysis of the excised graft demonstrated dense infiltration of the entire skin graft by Dupuytren disease, with areas of active and burnt-out fibromatosis distinct from hypertrophic scarring. This report of Dupuytren fibromatosis infiltrating a skin graft raises questions about the pathophysiology of Dupuytren disease.

  18. Transplantation of cultured adult porcine full-thickness retina.

    PubMed

    Engelsberg, Karl; Ghosh, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    In this study we wanted to examine how an adult neuroretina from an animal with an eye similar to the human one survives in vitro. We also wanted to investigate how the culture process affects the adult retina when used in a transplantation paradigm. Full-thickness neuroretinal sheets from adult porcine eyes were dissected into pieces measuring 3 mm in diameter. These were kept in culture for 1-3 days. After this time, the explants were fixed or transplanted subretinally to adult pigs, which were killed after 72-74 days. Transplanted eyes, as well as tissue kept in culture only, were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Explants kept 1 day in vitro (DIV) displayed the normal morphology. In these specimens, single pyknotic cells were evident in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and ganglion cell layer, but were more frequent in the inner nuclear layer (INL). After longer times in vitro, severe degenerative changes appeared. Transplanted explants kept 1 DIV prior to transplantation exhibited normal retinal lamination in two out of four specimens. Transducin and recoverin labeling revealed photoreceptors with inner segments in these grafts. Rod bipolar cells displayed a normal morphology. Vertically arranged Müller cells were also seen in the laminated grafts. Two of the three transplants kept 2 DIV displayed minimal lamination. Eyes with transplants kept 3 DIV prior to transplantation displayed degenerated grafts in all eyes. This study shows that adult porcine neuroretinal explants kept in culture for 1 day display a normal morphology in their major part. Additionally, 1-day explants can survive transplantation with retained morphology even after several months. This indicates the possibility of storing adult donor tissue between harvest and transplantation. The culture system may also be used in the future as a tool for manipulating retinal donor tissue prior to transplantation.

  19. Venous Graft for Full-thickness Palpebral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Marco Pietro Giuseppe; Maxia, Sara; Esposito, Salvatore; Di Giulio, Stefano; Sartore, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Full-thickness palpebral reconstruction is a challenge for most surgeons. The complex structures composing the eyelid must be reconstructed with care both for functional and cosmetic reasons. It is possible to find in literature different methods to reconstruct either the anterior or posterior lamella, based on graft or flaps. Most patients involved in this kind of surgery are elderly. It is important to use easy and fast procedures to minimize the length of the operation and its complications. In our department, we used to reconstruct the anterior lamella by means of a Tenzel or a Mustardé flap, whereas for the posterior lamella, we previously utilized a chondromucosal graft, harvested from nasal septum. Thus, these procedures required general anesthesia and long operatory time. We started using a vein graft for the posterior lamella. In this article, we present a series of 9 patients who underwent complex palpebral reconstruction for oncological reasons. In 5 patients (group A), we reconstructed the tarsoconjunctival layer by a chondromucosal graft, whereas in 4 patients (group B), we used a propulsive vein graft. The follow-up was from 10 to 20 months. The patient satisfaction was high, and we had no relapse in the series. In group A, we had more complications, including ectropion and septal perforations, whereas in group B, the operation was faster and we noted minor complications. In conclusion, the use of a propulsive vein to reconstruct the tarsoconjunctival layer was a reliable, safe, and fast procedure that can be considered in complex palpebral reconstructions. PMID:26034651

  20. Hip Rotational Velocities During the Full Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Gulgin, Heather; Armstrong, Charles; Gribble, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Since labral pathology in professional golfers has been reported, and such pathology has been associated with internal/external hip rotation, quantifying the rotational velocity of the hips during the golf swing may be helpful in understanding the mechanism involved in labral injury. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the peak internal/external rotational velocities of the thigh relative to the pelvis during the golf swing. Fifteen female, collegiate golfers participated in the study. Data were acquired through high-speed three dimensional (3-D) videography using a multi-segment bilateral marker set to define the segments, while the subjects completed multiple repetitions of a drive. The results indicated that the lead hip peak internal rotational velocity was significantly greater than that of the trail hip external rotational velocity (p = 0.003). It appears that the lead hip of a golfer experiences much higher rotational velocities during the downswing than that of the trail hip. In other structures, such as the shoulder, an increased risk of soft tissue injury has been associated with high levels of rotational velocity. This may indicate that, in golfers, the lead hip may be more susceptible to injury such as labral tears than that of the trailing hip. Key points Lead hip of golfer experiences significantly higher rotational velocities than the trail hip. Golfers may be more susceptible to injuries on the lead hip. Clubhead velocities were consistent with elite female golfers. PMID:24149541

  1. Hip rotational velocities during the full golf swing.

    PubMed

    Gulgin, Heather; Armstrong, Charles; Gribble, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Since labral pathology in professional golfers has been reported, and such pathology has been associated with internal/external hip rotation, quantifying the rotational velocity of the hips during the golf swing may be helpful in understanding the mechanism involved in labral injury. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the peak internal/external rotational velocities of the thigh relative to the pelvis during the golf swing. Fifteen female, collegiate golfers participated in the study. Data were acquired through high-speed three dimensional (3-D) videography using a multi-segment bilateral marker set to define the segments, while the subjects completed multiple repetitions of a drive. The results indicated that the lead hip peak internal rotational velocity was significantly greater than that of the trail hip external rotational velocity (p = 0.003). It appears that the lead hip of a golfer experiences much higher rotational velocities during the downswing than that of the trail hip. In other structures, such as the shoulder, an increased risk of soft tissue injury has been associated with high levels of rotational velocity. This may indicate that, in golfers, the lead hip may be more susceptible to injury such as labral tears than that of the trailing hip. Key pointsLead hip of golfer experiences significantly higher rotational velocities than the trail hip.Golfers may be more susceptible to injuries on the lead hip.Clubhead velocities were consistent with elite female golfers.

  2. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha-1, respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha-1). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  3. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  4. Stability of resistive wall modes with plasma rotation and thick wall in ITER scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Chu, M.; Chance, M.; Turnbull, A.

    2004-11-01

    The rotation effect on resistive wall modes (RWMs) is examined for realistically shaped, high-beta tokamak equilibria, including reactor relevant cases with low mach number M and realistic thick walls. For low M, Stabilization of RWMs arises from unusually thin inertial layers. The investigation employs the newly developed adaptive eigenvalue code (AEGIS: Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution), which describes both low and high n modes and is in good agreement with GATO in the benchmark studies. AEGIS is unique in using adaptive methods to resolve such inertial layers with low mach number rotation. This feature is even more desirable for transport barrier cases. Additionally, ITER and reactors have thick conducting walls ( ˜.5-1 m) which are not well modeled as a thin shell. Such thick walls are considered here, including semi-analytical approximations to account for the toroidally segmented nature of real walls.

  5. Effect of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burns in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif; Dincel, Gungor C

    2016-08-01

    The potential of several drugs for full-thickness skin burns has been investigated, but the treatment of such burns remains a challenge in plastic surgery. The present study was designed to determine the effect of systemic and topical administration of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burn wound healing. A total of 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into six groups. Full-thickness skin burns were produced in all the groups, except the control group. Piracetam was administered systemically (piracetam-IV) and topically (piracetam-C) for 14 days, and nimodipine was administered systemically (nimodipine-IV) and topically (nimodipine-C) over the burn wounds for 14 days. The sham group underwent burn injury but was not administered any drug. After 21 days, gross examination and histopathological analysis were performed and the results were compared statistically. Nimodipine-C and nimodipine-IV had no effect on burn wound healing. However, both piracetam-IV and piracetam-C significantly enhanced the healing of the full-thickness skin burn wounds, although the latter was more effective, useful and practical in burn wound healing. The histopathological features of the wounds in the piracetam-C group were closer to those of the control group than those of the other groups. Piracetam-C rather than piracetam-IV may promote full-thickness burn wound healing in rabbits.

  6. Differentiating full thickness macular holes from impending macular holes and macular pseudoholes

    PubMed Central

    Tsujikawa, M.; Ohji, M.; Fujikado, T.; Saito, Y.; Motokura, M.; Ishimoto, I.; Tano, Y.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—The reliability of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) microperimetry in differentiating full thickness macular holes from macular pseudoholes and impending macular holes was evaluated.
METHODS—106 eyes with the clinical diagnosis of full thickness macular holes, macular pseudoholes, and impending (stage 1) macular holes were examined for the presence of deep or relative scotoma using SLO microperimetry. The relation between these scotomas and the clinical diagnosis was studied.
RESULTS—Deep and relative scotomas were detected in all 57 eyes with clinically defined full thickness macular holes. In contrast, among 49 eyes diagnosed with macular pseudoholes or impending macular holes, no deep and only one relative scotoma was observed. The sensitivity of the presence of a deep scotoma as an indicator of the clinical diagnosis of a full thickness macular hole was 100% (57 of 57), and the specificity was 100% (49 of 49). The sensitivity of the presence of a relative scotoma was 100% (57 of 57) and the specificity was 98.0% (48 of 49).
CONCLUSION—With SLO microperimetry, full thickness macular holes can be precisely and objectively distinguished from other conditions that mimic macular holes.

 PMID:9059244

  7. Slip flow by a variable thickness rotating disk subject to magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imtiaz, Maria; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Asghar, Saleem

    Objective of the present study is to determine the characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic flow by a rotating disk having variable thickness. At the fluid-solid interface we consider slip velocity. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of the problem are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Obtained series solutions of velocity are convergent. Impact of embedded parameters on fluid flow and skin friction coefficient is graphically presented. It is observed that axial and radial velocities have an opposite impact on the thickness coefficient of disk. Also surface drag force has a direct relationship with Hartman number.

  8. Skin resurfacing in a circumferential full thickness burn to the penis: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Thompson, Richard; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-08-13

    A circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis is a rarely encountered injury. However, when it does occur, it proves a management challenge to the plastic and burns surgeon in terms of reconstruction. This is due to the need of not only regaining adequate function of the organ, but also because of the need for a pleasing aesthetic outcome. Split-skin grafts have been utilised successfully to resurface full thickness burns of the penis and have given good results. Yet the success of split-skin grafts, especially those applied to an anatomically challenging region of the body such as the penis, depends on a number of carefully thought-out steps. We discuss the case of a circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis which was treated with split-skin grafting and highlight important pitfalls that the plastic and burns surgeon need to be aware of to ensure a successful outcome.

  9. Skin resurfacing in a circumferential full thickness burn to the penis: lessons learnt

    PubMed Central

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Thompson, Richard; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis is a rarely encountered injury. However, when it does occur, it proves a management challenge to the plastic and burns surgeon in terms of reconstruction. This is due to the need of not only regaining adequate function of the organ, but also because of the need for a pleasing aesthetic outcome. Split-skin grafts have been utilised successfully to resurface full thickness burns of the penis and have given good results. Yet the success of split-skin grafts, especially those applied to an anatomically challenging region of the body such as the penis, depends on a number of carefully thought-out steps. We discuss the case of a circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis which was treated with split-skin grafting and highlight important pitfalls that the plastic and burns surgeon need to be aware of to ensure a successful outcome. PMID:23946511

  10. [The cutaneous groin flap for coverage of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect].

    PubMed

    Doebler, O; Spierer, R

    2010-08-01

    A full-thickness defect of the abdominal wall is rare and may occur as a complication of extended abdominal surgery procedures. We report about a 69-year-old patient who was presented to our department with a full-thickness abdominal wall defect and a fully exposed collagen-mesh for reconstructive wound closure. 13 operations with resections of necrotic parts of the abdominal wall were performed following a complicated intraabdominal infection. After debridement and mesh explantation, closure of the remaining defect of the lower abdominal region was achieved by a cutaneous groin flap.

  11. Full-thickness skin graft interposition after temporomandibular joint ankylosis surgery. A study of 31 cases.

    PubMed

    Chossegros, C; Guyot, L; Cheynet, F; Blanc, J L; Cannoni, P

    1999-10-01

    Recurrence is a major problem after release of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Early physiotherapy and choice of interpositional material are important in preventing recurrence. Currently, the most used technique is gap arthroplasty associated with coronoidectomy, temporalis muscle flap interposition and reconstruction of the condylar unit with a costochondral graft. Full-thickness skin graft interposition, using the technique described by Popescu & Vasiliu, can also be used. This retrospective review of 31 patients confirms the reliability of full-thickness skin graft interposition. Results were successful in 90% of the 20 patients with follow-up longer than one year.

  12. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multipurpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  13. Utilization of the scrotum as a full thickness skin graft in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sean; Gottfried, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, intact, male dog was presented for degloving wounds to the distal pelvic limbs due to vehicular trauma. Treatment involved serial debridement of the wounds and use of the scrotal skin as a full thickness, meshed skin graft applied to the dorsal aspect of the left pes with a successful outcome. PMID:21286329

  14. Endoscopic Closure for Full-Thickness Gastrointestinal Defects: Available Applications and Emerging Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Ho, Khek Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full-thickness gastrointestinal defects such as perforation, anastomotic leak, and fistula are severe conditions caused by various types of pathologies. They are more likely to require intensive care and a long hospital stay and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. After intentional full-thickness opening of hollow organs for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, safe and secure closure is urgently required. The currently available advanced endoscopic closing techniques have a major role in the treatment of full-thickness gastrointestinal defects. Appropriate usage of these techniques requires taking into account their advantages and limitations during practical application. We reviewed the available endoscopic modalities, including endoscopic clips, stents, vacuum-assisted closure, gap filling, and suturing devices, discussed their advantages and limitations when treating full-thickness gastrointestinal defects, and explored emerging innovations, including a novel endoluminal surgical platform for versatile suturing and a cell-laden scaffold for effective gap filling. Although these emerging technologies still require further pre-clinical and clinical trials to assess their feasibility and efficacy, the available modalities may be replaced and refined by these new techniques in the near future. PMID:27571898

  15. Full-thickness myotomy is associated with higher rate of postoperative gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Hong; Tan, Yu-Yong; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Li, Chen-Jie; Liu, De-Liang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare long-term occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) between two different types of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia. METHODS We included all patients with achalasia who underwent POEM at our hospital from August 2011 to October 2012 and had complete GERD evaluation with ≥ 3 years of follow-up. They were divided into circular or full-thickness myotomy groups according to the depth of myotomy. Demographics, Eckardt score, manometry results, 24-h pH monitoring, and GERD symptoms were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS We studied 56 patients (32 circular myotomy and 24 full-thickness myotomy) with complete GERD evaluation. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of treatment success (defined as Eckardt score ≤ 3), postoperative Eckardt score, mean basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and 4-s integrated relaxation pressure (4sIRP). Postoperative abnormal esophageal acid exposure was found in 25 patients (44.6%). A total of 13 patients (23.2%) had GERD symptoms and 12 had esophagitis (21.4%). Clinically relevant GERD (abnormal esophageal acid exposure associated with GERD symptoms and/or esophagitis) was diagnosed in 13 patients (23.2%). Multivariate analysis revealed that full-thickness myotomy and low level of postoperative 4sIRP were predictive factors for clinically relevant GERD. CONCLUSION Efficacy and manometry are comparable between achalasia patients treated with circular or full-thickness myotomy. But patients with full-thickness myotomy and low postoperative 4sIRP have more GERD. PMID:27895430

  16. Classification of Full-Thickness Traumatic Macular Holes by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingjing; Liu, Xing; Wu, Ziqiang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Sadda, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To describe morphological features of traumatic macular holes (TMH) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to correlate them with clinical findings. Methods Seventy-three consecutive patients diagnosed with full-thickness TMH involving the fovea underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation followed by horizontal and vertical line scans using the StratusOCT. Retinal thickness at the edges of the holes, apical and basal diameters, and various clinical parameters were recorded. The approximate apical and basal areas and eccentricities of the holes were calculated. Morphological parameters were correlated with clinical findings. Results Based on OCT findings, TMHs were classified into 5 morphological types with varying average retinal thicknesses, apical areas, and basal areas. Patients who presented more than 90 days after injury had greater average retinal thickness (p=0.03) and apex areas (p=0.002) compared to those who presented within 90 days. Older patients developed more circular holes, i.e. less eccentricity of the apex (p=0.04) and base (p=0.01). Interestingly, none of the morphological parameters investigated in the current study correlated with visual acuity. Patients who presented later in the clinical course or who had greater average retinal thicknesses tended to have better vision (p=0.11 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusions OCT evaluation may yield important insights into the pathogenesis and clinical findings of traumatic macular holes. PMID:19092730

  17. Flow and Heat Transfer of Bingham Plastic Fluid over a Rotating Disk with Variable Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyan; Pan, Mingyang; Zheng, Liancun; Ming, Chunying; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-11-01

    This paper studies the steady flow and heat transfer of Bingham plastic fluid over a rotating disk of finite radius with variable thickness radially in boundary layer. The boundary layer flow is caused by the rotating disk when the extra stress is greater than the yield stress of the Bingham fluid. The analyses of the velocity and temperature field related to the variable thickness disk have not been investigated in current literatures. The governing equations are first simplified into ordinary differential equations owing to the generalized von Kármán transformation for seeking solutions easily. Then semi-similarity approximate analytical solutions are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method for different physical parameters. It is found that the Bingham number clearly influences the velocity field distribution, and the skin friction coefficient Cfr is nonlinear growth with respect to the shape parameter m. Additionally, the effects of the involved parameters (i.e. shape parameter m, variable thickness parameter β, Reynolds number Rev, and Prandtl number Pr) on velocity and temperature distribution are investigated and analyzed in detail.

  18. Full thickness burns caused by cyanoacrylate nail glue: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Noemi; Karagergou, Eleni; Jones, Sarah L; Morritt, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Artificial (acrylic) nails are popular cosmetic enhancements that provide the user with the appearance of manicured nails, do not chip or crack, and are generally considered very safe to apply. We report three cases where full thickness thermal burns were sustained from nail glue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) during the application of artificial nails. All three cases underwent surgical debridement and split skin graft reconstruction. We carried out an experiment to characterize the exothermic reaction between nail glue and cotton leggings. The average high temperature produced was 68°C which was sustained for 12.2s which is more than sufficient to cause full thickness burns on skin. We report these cases to increase both professional and public awareness of this serious potential complication associated with the application of artificial nails.

  19. Full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Monteiro, J; Sarmento, M

    2016-12-08

    Knowledge regarding the likelihood of propagation of supraspinatus tears is important to allow an early identification of patients for whom a conservative treatment is more likely to fail, and consequently, to improve their clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for propagation of posterior, central, and anterior full-thickness tears of different sizes using the finite element method. A three-dimensional finite element model of the supraspinatus tendon was generated from the Visible Human Project data. The mechanical behaviour of the tendon was fitted from experimental data using a transversely isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The full-thickness tears were simulated at the supraspinatus tendon insertion by decreasing the interface area. Tear sizes from 10% to 90%, in 10% increments, of the anteroposterior length of the supraspinatus footprint were considered in the posterior, central, and anterior regions of the tendon. For each tear, three finite element analyses were performed for a supraspinatus force of 100N, 200N, and 400N. Considering a correlation between tendon strain and the risk of tear propagation, the simulated tears were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating the volume of tendon for which a maximum strain criterion was not satisfied. The finite element analyses showed a significant impact of tear size and location not only on the magnitude, but also on the patterns of the maximum principal strains. The mechanical outcome of the anterior full-thickness tears was consistently, and significantly, more severe than that of the central or posterior full-thickness tears, which suggests that the anterior tears are at greater risk of propagating than the central or posterior tears.

  20. Full-thickness Scalp Injury Due to Hair Braiding and Weave

    PubMed Central

    Grunzweig, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Full-thickness scalp necrosis secondary to hair weave placement is a rare but serious complication of a common hairstyle. The defects can be large and may necessitate complex reconstruction with hair-bearing tissue. We report on the case of a young woman with extensive scalp loss following tight spiral braiding. The case description illustrates this relatively unknown complication, its treatment, and possible preventative measures. PMID:26495190

  1. Accelerated healing of full-thickness wounds by genipin-crosslinked silk sericin/PVA scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Siritienthong, Tippawan; Srichana, Teerapol; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas

    2013-01-01

    Silk sericin has recently been studied for its advantageous biological properties, including its ability to promote wound healing. This study developed a delivery system to accelerate the healing of full-thickness wounds. Three-dimensional scaffolds were fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), glycerin (as a plasticizer) and genipin (as a crosslinking agent), with or without sericin. The physical and biological properties of the genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds were investigated and compared with those of scaffolds without sericin. The genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds exhibited a higher compressive modulus and greater swelling in water than the scaffolds without sericin. Sericin also exhibited controlled release from the scaffolds. The genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds promoted the attachment and proliferation of L929 mouse fibroblasts. After application to full-thickness rat wounds, the wounds treated with genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds showed a significantly greater reduction in wound size, collagen formation and epithelialization compared with the control scaffolds without sericin but lower numbers of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. These results indicate that the delivery of sericin from the novel genipin-crosslinked scaffolds efficiently healed the wound. Therefore, these genipin-crosslinked sericin/PVA scaffolds represent a promising candidate for the accelerated healing of full-thickness wounds.

  2. Full-thickness skin wound healing using human placenta-derived extracellular matrix containing bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Dong; Yoon, Hyun Soo; Cho, Yong Woo

    2013-02-01

    The human placenta, a complex organ, which facilitates exchange between the fetus and the mother, contains abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components and well-preserved endogenous growth factors. In this study, we designed a new dermal substitute from human placentas for full-thickness wound healing. Highly porous, decellularized ECM sheets were fabricated from human placentas via homogenization, centrifugation, chemical and enzymatic treatments, molding, and freeze-drying. The physical structure and biological composition of human placenta-derived ECM sheets dramatically supported the regeneration of full-thickness wound in vivo. At the early stage, the ECM sheet efficiently absorbed wound exudates and tightly attached to the wound surface. Four weeks after implantation, the wound was completely closed, epidermic cells were well arranged and the bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis was restored. Moreover, hair follicles and microvessels were newly formed in the ECM sheet-implanted wounds. Overall, the ECM sheet produced a dermal substitute with similar cellular organization to that of normal skin. These results suggest that human placenta-derived ECM sheets provide a microenvironment favorable to the growth and differentiation of cells, and positive modulate the healing of full-thickness wounds.

  3. Bubaline Cholecyst Derived Extracellular Matrix for Reconstruction of Full Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Poonam; Sharma, A. K.; Kumar, Naveen; Vellachi, Remya; Mathew, Dayamon D.; Dubey, Prasoon; Singh, Kiranjeet; Shrivastava, Sonal; Shrivastava, Sameer; Maiti, S. K.; Hasan, Anwarul; Singh, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    An acellular cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (b-CEM) of bubaline origin was prepared using anionic biological detergent. Healing potential of b-CEM was compared with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS) and open wound (C) in full thickness skin wounds in rats. Thirty-six clinically healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were randomly divided into three equal groups. Under general anesthesia, a full thickness skin wound (20 × 20 mm2) was created on the dorsum of each rat. The defect in group I was kept as open wound and was taken as control. In group II, the defect was repaired with commercially available collagen sheet (b-CS). In group III, the defect was repaired with cholecyst derived extracellular matrix of bovine origin (b-CEM). Planimetry, wound contracture, and immunological and histological observations were carried out to evaluate healing process. Significantly (P < 0.05) increased wound contraction was observed in b-CEM (III) as compared to control (I) and b-CS (II) on day 21. Histologically, improved epithelization, neovascularization, fibroplasia, and best arranged collagen fibers were observed in b-CEM (III) as early as on postimplantation day 21. These findings indicate that b-CEM have potential for biomedical applications for full thickness skin wound repair in rats. PMID:27127678

  4. Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.

    PubMed

    Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S

    1999-01-01

    An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment.

  5. Robust full-field measurement considering rotation using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Qian, Hao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been widely accepted as a method for displacement and strain measurement and is applied in a variety of engineering fields. Most DIC algorithms encounter errors in measuring the deformation in conditions that involve rotation since they are designed without considering rotation of the deformed object. In this paper, a robust and automated DIC method capable of determining full-field displacement and strain components with random rotations has been presented. The algorithm starts with the determination of the initial position of the seed point in the integer-pixel domain. An approximate rotational angle between the reference and the deformed subset is estimated using an automated feature matching technology. A two-step Newton-Raphson algorithm has been developed for optimizing a suite of variables including displacement, strain and the rotational angle to achieve subpixel accuracy. A reliable propagation scheme, which enables rapid determination of the initial guess for full-field analysis is also proposed. Results from numerical simulations are used to validate the feasibility of the proposed DIC method. An application to 3-point bending with large deflection shows that the algorithm can be employed to measure displacement or strain parameters of the deformed object with arbitrary angles of rotation.

  6. Wound Healing Effects of Rose Placenta in a Mouse Model of Full-Thickness Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Woo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Sang Ho; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Moh, Ji Hong; Kondo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Background Rosa damascena, a type of herb, has been used for wound healing in Eastern folk medicine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rose placenta from R. damascena in a full-thickness wound model in mice. Methods Sixty six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were used. Full-thickness wounds were made with an 8-mm diameter punch. Two wounds were made on each side of the back, and wounds were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Rose placenta (250 µg) was injected in the experimental group, and normal saline was injected in the control group. Wound sizes were measured with digital photography, and specimens were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and CD31. Vessel density was measured. Quantitative analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for EGF was performed. All evaluations were performed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results On days 4, 7, and 10, the wounds treated with rose placenta were significantly smaller. On day 2, VEGF and EGF expression increased in the experimental group. On days 7 and 10, TGF-β1 expression decreased in the experimental group. On day 10, vessel density increased in the experimental group. The increase in EGF on day 2 was confirmed with ELISA. Conclusions Rose placenta was found to be associated with improved wound healing in a mouse full-thickness wound model via increased EGF release. Rose placenta may potentially be a novel drug candidate for enhancing wound healing. PMID:26618114

  7. Burn to leg: full thickness lower limb burn associated with laptop power adaptor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shivali M; Leon-Villapalos, Jorge

    2011-03-10

    There has been much media attention in recent years on laptops and their accessories overheating and even causing fires. Here, the authors report a case of a laptop power adaptor causing a full thickness burn requiring surgical intervention in a young, fit man. The total contact time was less than 1 h. Initial surgical management involved debridement and allografting of the wound due to a concomitant cellulitis. A week later, once the cellulitis had resolved, an autograft was applied. The graft take was satisfactory (100%) and the patient had a good postoperative outcome.

  8. The use of an intra-articular depth guide in the measurement of partial thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; More, Kristie D; Sohmer, Stephen; Nelson, Atiba A; Sciore, Paul; Boorman, Richard; Hollinshead, Robert; Lo, Ian K Y

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the conventional method for determining the percentage of partial thickness rotator cuff tears to a method using an intra-articular depth guide. The clinical utility of the intra-articular depth guide was also examined. Methods. Partial rotator cuff tears were created in cadaveric shoulders. Exposed footprint, total tendon thickness, and percentage of tendon thickness torn were determined using both techniques. The results from the conventional and intra-articular depth guide methods were correlated with the true anatomic measurements. Thirty-two patients were evaluated in the clinical study. Results. Estimates of total tendon thickness (r = 0.41, P = 0.31) or percentage of thickness tears (r = 0.67, P = 0.07) using the conventional method did not correlate well with true tendon thickness. Using the intra-articular depth guide, estimates of exposed footprint (r = 0.92, P = 0.001), total tendon thickness (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and percentage of tendon thickness torn (r = 0.88, P = 0.004) correlated with true anatomic measurements. Seven of 32 patients had their treatment plan altered based on the measurements made by the intra-articular depth guide. Conclusions. The intra-articular depth guide appeared to better correlate with true anatomic measurements. It may be useful during the evaluation and development of treatment plans for partial thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears.

  9. Carbon dioxide laser ablation with immediate autografting in a full-thickness porcine burn model.

    PubMed Central

    Glatter, R D; Goldberg, J S; Schomacker, K T; Compton, C C; Flotte, T J; Bua, D P; Greaves, K W; Nishioka, N S; Sheridan, R L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term clinical and histologic outcome of immediate autografting of full-thickness burn wounds ablated with a high-power continuous-wave CO2 laser to sharply débrided wounds in a porcine model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Continuous-wave CO2 lasers have performed poorly as tools for burn excision because the large amount of thermal damage to viable subeschar tissues precluded successful autografting. However, a new technique, in which a high-power laser is rapidly scanned over the eschar, results in eschar vaporization without significant damage to underlying viable tissues, allowing successful immediate autografting. METHODS: Full-thickness paravertebral burn wounds measuring 36 cm2 were created on 11 farm swine. Wounds were ablated to adipose tissue 48 hours later using either a surgical blade or a 150-Watt continuous-wave CO2 laser deflected by an x-y galvanometric scanner that translated the beam over the tissue surface, removing 200 microm of tissue per scan. Both sites were immediately autografted and serially evaluated clinically and histologically for 180 days. RESULTS: The laser-treated sites were nearly bloodless. The mean residual thermal damage was 0.18+/-0.05 mm. The mean graft take was 96+/-11% in manual sites and 93+/-8% in laser sites. On postoperative day 7, the thickness of granulation tissue at the graft-wound bed interface was greater in laser-debrided sites. By postoperative day 180, the manual and laser sites were histologically identical. Vancouver scar assessment revealed no differences in scarring at postoperative day 180. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term scarring, based on Vancouver scar assessments and histologic evaluation, was equivalent at 6 months in laser-ablated and sharply excised sites. Should this technology become practical, the potential clinical implications include a reduction in surgical blood loss without sacrifice of immediate engraftment rates or long-term outcome. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  10. Frequencies of Nonaxisymmetric F-Modes in Rapidly Rotating Polytropes in Full General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Burkhard; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Korobkin, Oleg; Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel

    The computation of frequencies of nonaxisymmetric f-modes in rapidly rotating stars in full general relativity is a long-standing problem that has not been solved, to date, without resorting to some approximation, such as the slow-rotation approximation or the Cowling approximation. We present the first computation of such frequencies in full general relativity and rapid rotation, without any such approximation. We achieve this by using long-term simulations of oscillating polytropic models with a nonlinear numerical code, where spacetime is evolved in the harmonic formulation. We compare our results to previous results for zero-frequency (neutral modes) that were obtained with a perturbative method, and comment on the relevance of our work to the gravitational-radiation-driven (CFS) secular instability of nonaxisymmetric f-modes.

  11. Topical Hypericum perforatum Improves Tissue Regeneration in Full-Thickness Excisional Wounds in Diabetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Chavoshi-Nejad, Mehdi; Jangholi, Ehsan; Nekouyian, Noushin; Hosseini, Sahar; Seifaee, Amin; Rafiee, Shima; Karimi, Hossein; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Parsa, Yekta; Mohsenikia, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Delayed wound healing process is one of the most important concerns in diabetes. Healing of wounds has four phases, namely, hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a successful repair, all four factors must occur properly. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the healing effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) on full-thickness diabetic skin wounds by using stereological methods. Forty-eight female diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): gel base treated group, HP 5% gel treated group, HP 10% gel treated group, and the control group which received no treatment. A circular 1 cm(2) full-thickness wound was created on the animal's neck and wound area was measured every three days. After sacrificing the animals, skin samples were fixed and prepared for stereological evaluations. Based on the results, HP treated group showed faster wound closure rate in comparison with control and vehicle groups (P < 0.05). In addition, numerical density of fibroblasts, volume density of collagen bundles, and mean diameter and volume densities of the vessels in HP group were significantly higher than control and vehicle groups. The results of this study showed that HP has the ability to improve tissue regeneration by enhancing fibroblast proliferation, collagen bundle synthesis, and revascularization.

  12. Double-skin paddled superficial temporofascial flap for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defect.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Hidir; Geyik, Yilmaz; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    The most common causes of cheek defects include trauma, burn, and tumor resections. In the reconstruction of the defects in this region, it is essential to use similar or adjacent tissue considering the aesthetic and functional properties. For this purpose, numerous local, regional, or distant free flaps were described. The local flaps harvested from the head and neck region are the most frequent methods because of the similar skin color, texture, and compatibility with cheek.In this study, the reconstruction in a 29-year-old male patient who had a full-thickness cheek defect due to tumor resection on the left side was performed, wherein a hairless skin island was carried through the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery for oral mucosa, and a hairy skin island through the parietal branch of the same pedicle was carried for the bearded skin defect. No complication occurred postoperatively and both aesthetic and functional satisfactory results were obtained, providing the oral mucosal and natural beard integrity. Donor-site scarring and temporal alopecia were recorded as the disadvantages of this method.This technique is a useful method for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defects because of its advantages including compatibility of color and texture, reliable blood supply, requiring single-session procedure, and being able to carry 2 different skin islands on the same pedicle.

  13. Development and characterization of a full-thickness acellular porcine cornea matrix for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to produce a natural, acellular matrix from porcine cornea for use as a scaffold in developing a tissue-engineered cornea replacement. Full-thickness, intact porcine corneas were decellularized by immersion in 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The resulting acellular matrices were then characterized and examined specifically for completeness of the decellularization process. Histological analyses of decellularized corneal stromas showed that complete cell and α-Gal removal was achieved, while the major structural proteins including collagen type I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin were retained. DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA within the matrix, and the DNA contents, which reflect the presence of cellular materials, were significantly diminished in the decellularized cornea. The collagen content of the decellularized cornea was well maintained compared with native tissues. Uniaxial tensile testing indicated that decellularization did not significantly compromise the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue (P > 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity assays using rabbit corneal fibroblast cultures excluded the presence of soluble toxins in the biomaterial. In vivo implantation to rabbit interlamellar stromal pockets showed good biocompability. In summary, a full-thickness natural acellular matrix retaining the major structural components and strength of the cornea has been successfully developed. The matrix is biocompatible with cornea-derived cells and has potential for use in corneal transplantation and tissue-engineering applications.

  14. Universal Faraday Rotation in HgTe Wells with Critical Thickness.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, A; Dziom, V; Kvon, Z D; Mikhailov, N N; Pimenov, A

    2016-09-09

    The universal value of the Faraday rotation angle close to the fine structure constant (α≈1/137) is experimentally observed in thin HgTe quantum wells with a thickness on the border between trivial insulating and the topologically nontrivial Dirac phases. The quantized value of the Faraday angle remains robust in the broad range of magnetic fields and gate voltages. Dynamic Hall conductivity of the holelike carriers extracted from the analysis of the transmission data shows a theoretically predicted universal value of σ_{xy}=e^{2}/h, which is consistent with the doubly degenerate Dirac state. On shifting the Fermi level by the gate voltage, the effective sign of the charge carriers changes from positive (holes) to negative (electrons). The electronlike part of the dynamic response does not show quantum plateaus and is well described within the classical Drude model.

  15. Predicting folded beam waveguide absorber behavior using full translational and rotational degree of freedom coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pray, Carl; Campbell, Robert; Hambric, Stephen; Munro, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Folded beam waveguide absorbers (WGAs) have been shown to be effective low-frequency damping devices. Early WGA studies were unable to accurately predict this damping behavior. These studies used only translational degrees of freedom (DOFs), which resulted in the underestimation of the WGA damping performance. A recent study [Munro and Hambric, ``Modeling folded beam waveguide absorber behavior using translational and rotational degree of freedom frequency response function coupling,'' Proc. NOISE-CON 2003] used translational and rotational DOF frequency response functions to predict folded beam WGA behavior when attached to a thick rectangular plate, where the plate and WGA rotational DOFs were estimated using the finite-differencing method. Each plate and WGA DOF was coupled independently using frequency domain substructure synthesis (FDSS) [Jetmundsen et al., ``Generalized frequency domain synthesis,'' J. Am. Helicopter Soc. 55-64, Jan (1988)], and the damping contributions due to each DOF were summed to give the total WGA damping prediction. This method gives a much improved damping estimate from previous methods but is inefficient for complex problems. In this study, all the DOFs for the plate and WGA are combined simultaneously using FDSS to predict the WGA damping behavior and plate response with folded beam WGAs attached.

  16. QSONIC- FULL POTENTIAL TRANSONIC, QUASI-THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW THROUGH A ROTATING TURBOMACHINERY BLADE ROW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, QSONIC, has been developed for calculating the full potential, transonic quasi-three-dimensional flow through a rotating turbomachinery blade row. The need for lighter, more efficient turbomachinery components has led to the consideration of machines with fewer stages, each with blades capable of higher speeds and higher loading. As speeds increase, the numerical problems inherent in the transonic regime have to be resolved. These problems include the calculation of imbedded shock discontinuities and the dual nature of the governing equations, which are elliptic in the subcritical flow regions but become hyperbolic for supersonic zones. QSONIC provides the flow analyst with a fast and reliable means of obtaining the transonic potential flow distribution on a blade-to-blade stream surface of a stationary or rotating turbomachine blade row. QSONIC combines several promising transonic analysis techniques. The full potential equation in conservative form is discretized at each point on a body-fitted period mesh. A mass balance is calculated through the finite volume surrounding each point. Each local volume is corrected in the third dimension for any change in stream-tube thickness along the stream tube. The nonlinear equations for all volumes are of mixed type (elliptic or hyperbolic) depending on the local Mach number. The final result is a block-tridiagonal matrix formulation involving potential corrections at each grid point as the unknowns. The residual of each system of equations is solved along each grid line. At points where the Mach number exceeds unity, the density at the forward (sweeping) edge of the volume is replaced by an artificial density. This method calculates the flow field about a cascade of arbitrary two-dimensional airfoils. Three-dimensional flow is approximated in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for stream-tube convergence and radius change in the through flow direction. Several significant assumptions were made in

  17. The effects of rotational flow, viscosity, thickness, and shape on transonic flutter dip phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.

    1988-01-01

    The transonic flutter dip phenomena on thin airfoils, which are employed for propfan blades, is investigated using an integrated Euler/Navier-Stokes code and a two degrees of freedom typical section structural model. As a part of the code validation, the flutter characteristics of the NACA 64A010 airfoil are also investigated. In addition, the effects of artificial dissipation models, rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, viscosity, airfoil thickness and shape on flutter are investigated. The results obtained with a Euler code for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are in reasonable agreement with published results obtained by using transonic small disturbance and Euler codes. The two artificial dissipation models, one based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a common factor and the other based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a spectral radius, predicted the same flutter speeds except in the recovery region for the case studied. The effects of rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, and viscosity for the Reynold's number studied seem to be negligible or small on the minima of the flutter dip.

  18. The role of topical agents in the healing of full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Watcher, M A; Wheeland, R G

    1989-11-01

    Eight topical agents in current use were studied for their effects on wound contraction and rate of reepithelialization of full-thickness excisions using a porcine animal model. The following agents were applied daily for a period of 27 days: scarlet red ointment, benzoyl peroxide lotion, bacitracin ointment, silver sulfadiazine cream, aloe vera gel, tretinoin cream, capsaicin cream, and mupirocin ointment. The rate of reepithelialization was significantly enhanced by treatment with capsaicin, bacitracin, silver sulfadiazine, and scarlet red, and was markedly retarded by treatment with tretinoin. Wound contraction was significantly retarded by mupirocin, bacitracin, and silver sulfadizine. Knowledge of the effects of topical agents on various aspects of healing allows the clinician to choose the most appropriate material to use in a given clinical situation to optimize the healing process and produce the best final result.

  19. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastric submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria layer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. RESULTS: Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. CONCLUSION: EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended. PMID:25320536

  20. Development of the mechanical properties of engineered skin substitutes after grafting to full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Sander, Edward A; Lynch, Kaari A; Boyce, Steven T

    2014-05-01

    Engineered skin substitutes (ESSs) have been reported to close full-thickness burn wounds but are subject to loss from mechanical shear due to their deficiencies in tensile strength and elasticity. Hypothetically, if the mechanical properties of ESS matched those of native skin, losses due to shear or fracture could be reduced. To consider modifications of the composition of ESS to improve homology with native skin, biomechanical analyses of the current composition of ESS were performed. ESSs consist of a degradable biopolymer scaffold of type I collagen and chondroitin-sulfate (CGS) that is populated sequentially with cultured human dermal fibroblasts (hF) and epidermal keratinocytes (hK). In the current study, the hydrated biopolymer scaffold (CGS), the scaffold populated with hF dermal skin substitute (DSS), or the complete ESS were evaluated mechanically for linear stiffness (N/mm), ultimate tensile load at failure (N), maximum extension at failure (mm), and energy absorbed up to the point of failure (N-mm). These biomechanical end points were also used to evaluate ESS at six weeks after grafting to full-thickness skin wounds in athymic mice and compared to murine autograft or excised murine skin. The data showed statistically significant differences (p <0.05) between ESS in vitro and after grafting for all four structural properties. Grafted ESS differed statistically from murine autograft with respect to maximum extension at failure, and from intact murine skin with respect to linear stiffness and maximum extension. These results demonstrate rapid changes in mechanical properties of ESS after grafting that are comparable to murine autograft. These values provide instruction for improvement of the biomechanical properties of ESS in vitro that may reduce clinical morbidity from graft loss.

  1. Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

  2. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    PubMed

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality.

  3. Cultured Skin Substitutes Reduce Donor Skin Harvesting for Closure of Excised, Full-Thickness Burns

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Steven T.; Kagan, Richard J.; Yakuboff, Kevin P.; Meyer, Nicholas A.; Rieman, Mary T.; Greenhalgh, David G.; Warden, Glenn D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective Comparison of cultured skin substitutes (CSS) and split-thickness skin autograft (AG) was performed to assess whether donor-site harvesting can be reduced quantitatively and whether functional and cosmetic outcome is similar qualitatively in the treatment of patients with massive cutaneous burns. Summary Background Data Cultured skin substitutes consisting of collagen-glycosaminoglycan substrates populated with autologous fibroblasts and keratinocytes have been shown to close full-thickness skin wounds in preclinical and clinical studies with acceptable functional and cosmetic results. Methods Qualitative outcome was compared between CSS and AG in 45 patients on an ordinal scale (0, worst; 10, best) with primary analyses at postoperative day 28 and after about 1 year for erythema, pigmentation, pliability, raised scar, epithelial blistering, and surface texture. In the latest 12 of the 45 patients, tracings were performed of donor skin biopsies and wounds treated with CSS at postoperative days 14 and 28 to calculate percentage engraftment, the ratio of closed wound:donor skin areas, and the percentage of total body surface area closed with CSS. Results Measures of qualitative outcome of CSS or AG were not different statistically at 1 year after grafting. Engraftment at postoperative day 14 exceeded 75% in the 12 patients evaluated. The ratio of closed wound:donor skin areas for CSS at postoperative day 28 was significantly greater than for conventional 4:1 meshed autografts. The percentage of total body surface area closed with CSS at postoperative day 28 was significantly less than with AG. Conclusions The requirement for harvesting of donor skin for CSS was less than for conventional skin autografts. These results suggest that acute-phase recovery of patients with extensive burns is facilitated and that complications are reduced by the use of CSS together with conventional skin grafting. PMID:11807368

  4. A Novel Nude Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Scarring Using Scratched Full Thickness Human Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Alrobaiea, Saad M.; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Tredget, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorder that develops following deep skin injury. HTS can cause deformities, functional disabilities, and aesthetic disfigurements. The pathophysiology of HTS is not understood due to, in part, the lack of an ideal animal model. We hypothesize that human skin with deep dermal wounds grafted onto athymic nude mice will develop a scar similar to HTS. Our aim is to develop a representative animal model of human HTS. Approach: Thirty-six nude mice were grafted with full thickness human skin with deep dermal scratch wound before or 2 weeks after grafting or without scratch. The scratch on the human skin grafts was made using a specially designed jig that creates a wound >0.6 mm in depth. The xenografts were morphologically analyzed by digital photography. Mice were euthanized at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: The mice developed raised and firm scars in the scratched xenografts with more contraction, increased infiltration of macrophage, and myofibroblasts compared to the xenografts without deep dermal scratch wound. Scar thickness and collagen bundle orientation and morphology resembled HTS. The fibrotic scars in the wounded human skin were morphologically and histologically similar to HTS, and human skin epithelial cells persisted in the remodeling tissues for 1 year postengraftment. Innovation and Conclusions: Deep dermal injury in human skin retains its profibrotic nature after transplantation, affording a novel model for the assessment of therapies for the treatment of human fibroproliferative disorders of the skin. PMID:27366591

  5. Assessing the Impact of Mechanical Damage on Full-Thickness Porcine and Human Skin Using an In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dabboue, Hinda; Builles, Nicolas; Frouin, Éric; Scott, Dan; Ramos, Jeanne; Marti-Mestres, Gilberte

    2015-01-01

    For most xenobiotics, the rates of percutaneous absorption are limited by diffusion through the horny layer of skin. However, percutaneous absorption of chemicals may seriously increase when the skin is damaged. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro representative model of mechanically damaged skins. The epidermal barrier was examined following exposure to a razor, a rotating brush, and a microneedle system in comparison to tape-stripping which acted as a reference. Excised full-thickness skins were mounted on a diffusion chamber in order to evaluate the effect of injuries and to mimic physiological conditions. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was greatly increased when the barrier function was compromised. Measurements were made for all the damaged biopsies and observed histologically by microscopy. On human and porcine skins, the tape-stripping application (0 to 40 times) showed a proportional increase in TEWL which highlights the destruction of the stratum corneum. Similar results were obtained for all cosmetic instruments. This is reflected in our study by the nonsignificant difference of the mean TEWL scores between 30 strips and mechanical damage. For a specific appreciation, damaged skins were then selected to qualitatively evaluate the absorption of a chlorogenic acid solution using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26247021

  6. Extracting full-field dynamic strain response of a rotating wind turbine using photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Health monitoring of wind turbines is typically performed using conventional sensors (e.g. strain-gages and accelerometers) that are usually mounted to the nacelle or gearbox. Although many wind turbines stop operating due to blade failures, there are typically few to no sensor mounted on the blades. Placing sensors on the rotating parts of the structure is a challenge due to the wiring and data transmission constraints. Within the current work, an approach to monitor full-field dynamic response of rotating structures (e.g. wind turbine blades or helicopter rotors) is developed and experimentally verified. A wind turbine rotor was used as the test structure and was mounted to a block and horizontally placed on the ground. A pair of bearings connected to the rotor shaft allowed the turbine to freely spin along the shaft. Several optical targets were mounted to the blades and a pair of high-speed cameras was used to monitor the dynamics of the spinning turbine. Displacements of the targets during rotation were measured using three-dimensional point tracking. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible deformation of the blades at target locations. While the structure is rotating, only flap displacements of optical targets (displacements out of the rotation plane) were used in strain prediction process. The measured displacements were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the turbine to extract full-field dynamic strain on the structure. The proposed approach enabled the prediction of dynamic response on the outer surface as well as within the inner points of the structure where no other sensor could be easily mounted. In order to validate the proposed approach, the predicted strain was compared to strain measured at four locations on the spinning blades using a wireless strain-gage system.

  7. Rotational imaging optical coherence tomography for full-body mouse embryonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen; Sudheendran, Narendran; Singh, Manmohan; Larina, Irina V; Dickinson, Mary E; Larin, Kirill V

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used to study mammalian embryonic development with the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolutions and without the need for any contrast enhancement probes. However, the limited imaging depth of traditional OCT might prohibit visualization of the full embryonic body. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new methodology to enhance the imaging range of OCT in embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 10.5 mouse embryos using rotational imaging. Rotational imaging OCT (RI-OCT) enables full-body imaging of mouse embryos by performing multiangle imaging. A series of postprocessing procedures was performed on each cross-section image, resulting in the final composited image. The results demonstrate that RI-OCT is able to improve the visualization of internal mouse embryo structures as compared to conventional OCT.

  8. Rotational imaging optical coherence tomography for full-body mouse embryonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen; Sudheendran, Narendran; Singh, Manmohan; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used to study mammalian embryonic development with the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolutions and without the need for any contrast enhancement probes. However, the limited imaging depth of traditional OCT might prohibit visualization of the full embryonic body. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new methodology to enhance the imaging range of OCT in embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 10.5 mouse embryos using rotational imaging. Rotational imaging OCT (RI-OCT) enables full-body imaging of mouse embryos by performing multiangle imaging. A series of postprocessing procedures was performed on each cross-section image, resulting in the final composited image. The results demonstrate that RI-OCT is able to improve the visualization of internal mouse embryo structures as compared to conventional OCT. PMID:26848543

  9. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (p<0.05) in burn injured wounds. Histological analysis supported objective clinical findings with marked scar-like collagen proliferation within the dermis, increased vascular density, and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration. Observed differences in contracture also correlated with earlier and more prominent myofibroblast differentiation as demonstrated by α-SMA staining. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been

  10. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-05-20

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 {mu}m measurements can be recorded with less than {+-}5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  11. Pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) used to treat full thickness defects in the rabbit model

    SciTech Connect

    Andino, R.V.; Feldman, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Skin ulcers have historically been treated by passive therapy. One active treatment, PEMF, has shown promise. The objective of this study was, therefore, to examine the effects of a current induced by a PEMF on full thickness defects in white New Zealand rabbits. It was hypothesized that the induced current would increase neutrophil, macrophage, and fibroblast proliferation during the wound healing process. This in turn, would lead to an increase in collagen deposition in the wound and thus increase the healing rate. A device which produces a 2.8 mTesla magnetic field at a frequency of 75 Hz was donated by the EBI Corp. and modified so that a rabbit could be fit between its two induction coils. Two rabbits with four 3 x 3 cm wounds each were stimulated for 3.5 hours/day for 1 week and two rabbits with identical wounds were stimulated for the same time period daily but for 2 weeks. These wounds were compared to unstimulated controls. Preliminary results indicate that the healing rate in the PEMF animals increased by about 25-30% and the number of neutrophils is greater in the one week stimulated group. In the two week stimulated group, the collagen deposition is greater, denser and in alignment.

  12. MOSAICPLASTY WITH PERIOSTEAL GRAFT FOR RESURFACING LOCAL FULL-THICKNESS CHONDRAL DEFECTS OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Clinical and functional assessment comparing cases of full-thickness chondral defects (OC) treated with mosaicplasty or mosaicplasty covered with periosteum (mosaicambium). Methods: 20 knees with chondral defect, (10 mosaicplasty/10 mosaicambium) were operated between 1999 and 2005. All patients were clinically assessed preoperatively using the ICRS scale, VAS scale, X-ray and MRI. During 2008, we reviewed patients using the same protocol. For statistical purposes, the patients were divided into two groups, according to the surgical technique. Statistical analysis was performed with EPI2000 program, using chi-squared test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Preoperatively, all patients were in group C/D (ICRS scale). In 2008, 18 cases were in groups A and B according to the ICRS scale (12 in A). Between groups, there were no statistical differences. The X-ray study revealed no changes in 55% of cases. Discussion: With no differences, why mosaicambium option? Morbidity on graft donor zones is not negligible. Mosaicambium uses less chondral grafts, reducing the potential for morbidity at graft donor zones. Conclusion: The mosaicambium technique is an excellent alternative for chondral defects greater than 2 cm2. “… articular cartilage defects are a troublesome thing … they don't heal …”. William Hunter (1718-1783). PMID:26998467

  13. Elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of full thickness skin characterised at micro scales.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Michael L; Chen, Xianfeng; Huang, Han; Kendall, Mark A F

    2013-03-01

    The recent emergence of micro-devices for vaccine delivery into upper layers of the skin holds potential for increased immune responses using physical means to target abundant immune cell populations. A challenge in doing this has been a limited understanding of the skin elastic properties at the micro scale (i.e. on the order of a cell diameter; ~10 μm). Here, we quantify skin's elastic properties at a micro-scale by fabricating customised probes of scales from sub- to super-cellular (0.5 μm-20 μm radius). We then probe full thickness skin; first with force-relaxation experiments and subsequently by elastic indentations. We find that skin's viscoelastic response is scale-independent: consistently a ~40% decrease in normalised force over the first second, followed by further 10% reduction over 10 s. Using Prony series and Hertzian contact analyses, we determined the strain-rate independent elastic moduli of the skin. A high scale dependency was found: the smallest probe encountered the highest elastic modulus (~30 MPa), whereas the 20 μm radius probe was lowest (below 1 MPa). We propose that this may be a result of the load distribution in skin facilitated by the hard corneocytes in the outermost skin layers, and softer living cell layers below.

  14. Comprehensive management of full-thickness luminal defects: The next frontier of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Winder, Joshua S; Pauli, Eric M

    2015-07-10

    Full thickness gastrointestinal defects such as perforations, leaks, and fistulae are a relatively common result of many of the endoscopic and surgical procedures performed in modern health care. As the number of these procedures increases, so too will the number of resultant defects. Historically, these were all treated by open surgical means with the associated morbidity and mortality. With the recent advent of advanced endoscopic techniques, these defects can be treated definitively while avoiding an open surgical procedure. Here we explore the various techniques and tools that are currently available for the treatment of gastrointestinal defects including through the scope clips, endoscopic suturing devices, over the scope clips, sealants, endoluminal stents, endoscopic suction devices, and fistula plugs. As fistulae represent the most recalcitrant of defects, we focus this editorial on a multimodal approach of treatment. This includes optimization of nutrition, treatment of infection, ablation of tracts, removal of foreign bodies, and treatment of distal obstructions. We believe that by addressing all of these factors at the time of attempted closure, the patient is optimized and has the best chance at long-term closure. However, even with all of these factors addressed, failure does occur and in those cases, endoscopic therapies may still play a role in that they allow the patient to avoid a definitive surgical therapy for a time while nutrition is optimized, and infections are addressed.

  15. Beware flammable fingernails. case report: synthetic fingernails result in full thickness burn and terminalisation.

    PubMed

    Arnaout, A; Cubitt, J; Nguyen, D

    2016-06-30

    Having long artificial (acrylic) nails is a current fashion trend, and they are becoming an increasingly popular cosmetic enhancement. We believe that they can be a potential burn hazard to their unknowing users. We present the first reported case in medical literature of a woman whose acrylic nail ignited from a cigarette butt a short distance from the nail while she was taking the final puffs. She sustained a full thickness burn to her dominant left thumb, resulting in terminalisation. Acrylic nails are very flammable and, once ignited, they burn to completion, with the source of flame removed. The temperature at the end of a cigarette can reach 900oC when the smoker takes a puff, which would explain how the artificial nail in our case study ignited. The flammability hazard of artificial fingernails is apparently well known in the beautician community. There are multiple beauty websites and blogs raising awareness of the danger of synthetic nails catching fire. We feel this potential risk should be further highlighted to the public.

  16. An ordinary differential equation model for full thickness wounds and the effects of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bowden, L G; Maini, P K; Moulton, D E; Tang, J B; Wang, X T; Liu, P Y; Byrne, H M

    2014-11-21

    Wound healing is a complex process in which a sequence of interrelated phases contributes to a reduction in wound size. For diabetic patients, many of these processes are compromised, so that wound healing slows down. In this paper we present a simple ordinary differential equation model for wound healing in which attention focusses on the dominant processes that contribute to closure of a full thickness wound. Asymptotic analysis of the resulting model reveals that normal healing occurs in stages: the initial and rapid elastic recoil of the wound is followed by a longer proliferative phase during which growth in the dermis dominates healing. At longer times, fibroblasts exert contractile forces on the dermal tissue, the resulting tension stimulating further dermal tissue growth and enhancing wound closure. By fitting the model to experimental data we find that the major difference between normal and diabetic healing is a marked reduction in the rate of dermal tissue growth for diabetic patients. The model is used to estimate the breakdown of dermal healing into two processes: tissue growth and contraction, the proportions of which provide information about the quality of the healed wound. We show further that increasing dermal tissue growth in the diabetic wound produces closure times similar to those associated with normal healing and we discuss the clinical implications of this hypothesised treatment.

  17. Osteochondral autologous transplantation for the treatment of full-thickness articular cartilage defects of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, M; Bartl, C; Magosch, P; Lichtenberg, S; Habermeyer, P

    2004-09-01

    We performed eight osteochondral autologous transplantations from the knee joint to the shoulder. All patients (six men, two women; mean age 43.1 years) were documented prospectively. In each patient the stage of the osteochondral lesion was Outerbridge grade IV with a mean size of the affected area of 150 mm2. All patients were assessed by using the Constant score for the shoulder and the Lysholm score for the knee. Standard radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy were used to assess the presence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis and the integrity of the grafts. After a mean of 32.6 months (8 to 47), the mean Constant score increased significantly. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed good osseointegration of the osteochondral plugs and congruent articular cartilage at the transplantation site in all but one patient. Second-look arthroscopy performed in two cases revealed a macroscopically good integration of the autograft with an intact articular surface. Osteochondral autologous transplantation in the shoulder appears to offer good clinical results for treating full-thickness osteochondral lesions of the glenohumeral joint. However, our study suggests that the development of osteoarthritis and the progression of pre-existing osteoarthritic changes cannot be altered by this technique.

  18. Numerical simulation of full-penetration laser beam welding of thick aluminium plates with inductive support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Marcel; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional laminar steady-state numerical model was developed to investigate the influence of an alternating current (ac) magnetic field during high-power full-penetration laser welding on the weld pool dynamics and weld cross section of a 20 mm thick aluminium plate in flat position. Three-dimensional heat transfer, fluid dynamics including phase transition and electromagnetic field partial differential equations were solved iteratively with the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics using temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature. Thermocapillary convection at the weld pool surfaces, natural convection and latent heat of solid-liquid phase transition were taken into account in this model. Solidification was modelled by the Carman-Kozeny equation for porous media morphology. The ac magnet was mounted on the root side of the weld specimen. The magnetic field was aligned perpendicular to the welding direction. The flow pattern in the melt and thus also the temperature distribution were significantly changed by the application of oscillating magnetic fields. It was shown that the application of an ac magnetic field to laser beam welding allows for a prevention of the gravity drop-out. The simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian; Jorgensen, Lars N; Liedberg, Ann-Sofie H; Hansson, Christer; Ågren, Magnus S

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that priming of the skin with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) before being injured would enhance wound healing. Four groups, each comprising 20 immunocompetent hairless mice, were exposed to simulated solar irradiation in escalating UVR doses; 0 standard erythema dose (SED) = control, 1 SED, 3 SED and 5 SED. Twenty-four hours after UV irradiation, inflammation was quantified by skin reflectance (erythema) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) tissue levels, and two 6 mm full-thickness excisional wounds and one 3 cm incisional wound were inflicted. Epidermal hyperplasia was assessed by quantitative histology. Five days after wounding, wound coverage by neoepithelium and wound width of the excisional wounds was quantified in hematoxylin-eosin sections, and breaking strength was measured in strips from incisional wounds. Erythema (P < 0.001), MPO levels (P < 0.0005) and epidermal cell layers (P < 0.001) increased dose-dependently by UV exposure of dorsal skin. In the excisional wounds, epithelial coverage decreased (P = 0.024) by increasing the UVR dose, whereas there was no significant difference (P = 0.765) in wound MPO levels. Neither wound width (P = 0.850) nor breaking strength (P = 0.320) differed among the groups. Solar-simulated UVR 24 h before wounding impaired epithelialization but was not detrimental for surgical incisional wound healing.

  20. The Phenion full-thickness skin model for percutaneous absorption testing.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, K; Borgia, S Lombardi; Korting, H C; Mewes, K R; Schäfer-Korting, M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years many efforts have been made to replace dermal toxicity testing of chemicals in the animal by in vitro assays. As a member of a German research consortium, we have previously contributed to the validation of an in vitro test protocol for percutaneous absorption studies on the basis of reconstructed human epidermis and both human and pig skin ex vivo. Aiming to assess the barrier properties of a newly developed reconstructed skin model, this protocol has now been transferred to the Phenion Full-Thickness Skin Model (FT model). The permeation of testosterone and caffeine was quantified in parallel to that of pig skin using Franz-type diffusion cells. In addition, the permeation of benzoic acid and nicotine was studied. As expected, the FT model is more permeable than pig skin, yet its barrier properties are well in accordance with those of reconstructed human epidermis when compared to previous data. In fact, the FT model most efficiently retards testosterone as the compound of highest lipophilicity, which can be explained by an additional uptake by a reservoir formed by the dermis equivalent. Thus, the structure closely parallels human skin. In consequence, the Phenion FT model appears to be suitable for percutaneous absorption studies in hazard analysis and should be subjected to a catch-up validation study.

  1. Evaluation of a bilayered, micropatterned hydrogel dressing for full-thickness wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Dylan B; Drinker, Michael C; Willenberg, Bradley J; Reddy, Shravanthi T; La Perle, Krista MD; Schultz, Gregory S; Brennan, Anthony B

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 12 million wounds are treated in emergency departments throughout the United States every year. The limitations of current treatments for complex, full-thickness wounds are the driving force for the development of new wound treatment devices that result in faster healing of both dermal and epidermal tissue. Here, a bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel dressing that uses microarchitecture to guide two key steps in the proliferative phase of wound healing, re-epithelialization, and revascularization, was evaluated in vitro in a cell migration assay and in vivo in a bipedicle ischemic rat wound model. Results indicate that the Sharklet™-micropatterned apical layer of the dressing increased artificial wound coverage by up to 64%, P = 0.024 in vitro. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that the bilayered dressing construction enhanced overall healing outcomes significantly compared to untreated wounds and that these outcomes were not significantly different from a leading clinically available wound dressing. Collectively, these results demonstrate high potential for this new dressing to effectively accelerate wound healing. PMID:27037279

  2. Evaluation of a bilayered, micropatterned hydrogel dressing for full-thickness wound healing.

    PubMed

    Magin, Chelsea M; Neale, Dylan B; Drinker, Michael C; Willenberg, Bradley J; Reddy, Shravanthi T; La Perle, Krista Md; Schultz, Gregory S; Brennan, Anthony B

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 12 million wounds are treated in emergency departments throughout the United States every year. The limitations of current treatments for complex, full-thickness wounds are the driving force for the development of new wound treatment devices that result in faster healing of both dermal and epidermal tissue. Here, a bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel dressing that uses microarchitecture to guide two key steps in the proliferative phase of wound healing, re-epithelialization, and revascularization, was evaluated in vitro in a cell migration assay and in vivo in a bipedicle ischemic rat wound model. Results indicate that the Sharklet™-micropatterned apical layer of the dressing increased artificial wound coverage by up to 64%, P = 0.024 in vitro. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that the bilayered dressing construction enhanced overall healing outcomes significantly compared to untreated wounds and that these outcomes were not significantly different from a leading clinically available wound dressing. Collectively, these results demonstrate high potential for this new dressing to effectively accelerate wound healing.

  3. Fracture assessment of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    Fracture analysis was applied to full-thickness clad beam specimens containing shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) at beginning of life. The beam specimens were fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include gradients of material properties and residual stresses due to welding and cladding applications. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from load vs load-line displacement and load vs crack-mouth-opening displacement data using finite-element methods and estimation schemes based on the {eta}-factor method. One of the beams experienced a significant amount of precleavage stable ductile tearing. Effects of precleavage tearing on estimates of fracture toughness were investigated using continuum damage models. Fracture toughness results from the clad beam specimens were compared with other deep- and shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) data generated previously from A533 Grade B plate material. Range of scatter for the clad beam data is consistent with that from the laboratory-scale SENB specimens tested at the same temperature.

  4. Fracture behavior of shallow cracks in full-thickness clad beams from an RPV wall section

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1995-04-01

    A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in weld material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from an RPV shell segment that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients and material inhomogeneities in welded regions. The shallow-crack clad beam specimens showed a significant loss of constraint similar to that of other shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens. The stress-based Dodds-Anderson scaling model appears to be effective in adjusting the test data to account for in-plane loss of constraint for uniaxially tested beams, but cannot predict the observed effects of out-of-plane biaxial loading on shallow-crack fracture toughness. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation (based on plastic zone width) performed acceptably when applied to the uniaxial and biaxial shallow-crack fracture toughness data.

  5. Colonic endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) with the over-the-scope device (FTRD): a short case series.

    PubMed

    Marín-Gabriel, José Carlos; Díaz-Tasende, José; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Sarbelio; Del Pozo-García, Andrés J; Ibarrola-Andrés, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The endoscopic treatment of early gastrointestinal neoplasms usually involves the resection of the superficial layers, mucosa and submucosa, of the wall. However, in some circumstances, a full-thickness resection may be necessary. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) may be an adequate approach in challenging lesions such as adenomas or early cancers with severe submucosal fibrosis or small sub-epithelial lesions in the lower GI tract. Furthermore, this novel technique has the potential to spare surgical therapy in a subset of cases. In this paper, we describe our results with the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) in three different situations.

  6. A technique to salvage big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty after inadvertent full-thickness trephination.

    PubMed

    Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    Herein we describe a technique for management of large inadvertent full-thickness trephination during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big-bubble technique without converting to penetrating keratoplasty. First, the anterior chamber is formed with an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Then, the full-thickness wound is secured with one X-type 10-0 nylon suture. A 27-gauge needle is attached to a 2 ml air-filled syringe and inserted into the corneal stroma in the meridian opposite to the site of full-thickness trephination. Air is gently injected to produce a limited area of "big-bubble" detaching Descemet's membrane (DM) from the corneal stroma. The "big bubble" is slowly expanded with injection of OVD. Finally, the recipient stroma is removed, the donor lenticule is placed and the DM tear is secured with one full thickness 10-0 nylon suture.

  7. Endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of gastric stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Wu, Cheng-Rong; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Li-Xin; Xian, Xiang-Shu; Lin, Shu-Juan; Xu, Ning; Cao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) and laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric stromal tumors arising from the muscularis propria. METHODS: Out of 62 gastric stromal tumors arising from the muscularis propria, each > 1.5 cm in diameter, 32 were removed by EFR, and 30 were removed by laparoscopic surgery. The tumor expression of CD34, CD117, Dog-1, S-100, and SMA was assessed immunohistochemically. The operative time, complete resection rate, length of hospital stay, incidence of complications, and recurrence rate were compared between the two groups. Continuous data were compared using independent samples t-tests, and categorical data were compared using χ2 tests. RESULTS: The 32 gastric stromal tumors treated by EFR and the 30 treated by laparoscopic surgery showed similar operative time [20-155 min (mean, 78.5 ± 30.1 min) vs 50-120 min (mean, 80.9 ± 46.7 min), P > 0.05], complete resection rate (100% vs 93.3%, P > 0.05), and length of hospital stay [4-10 d (mean, 5.9 ± 1.4 d) vs 4-19 d (mean, 8.9 ± 3.2 d), P >0.05]. None of the patients treated by EFR experienced complications, whereas two patients treated by laparoscopy required a conversion to laparotomy, and one patient had postoperative gastroparesis. No recurrences were observed in either group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that of the 62 gastric stromal tumors diagnosed by gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasound, six were leiomyomas (SMA-positive), one was a schwannoglioma (S-100 positive), and the remaining 55 were stromal tumors. CONCLUSION: Some gastric stromal tumors arising from the muscularis propria can be completely removed by EFR. EFR could likely replace surgical or laparoscopic procedures for the removal of gastric stromal tumors. PMID:25009400

  8. Topical naltrexone accelerates full-thickness wound closure in type 1 diabetic rats by stimulating angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patricia J; Immonen, Jessica A; Zagon, Ian S

    2013-07-01

    Delays in wound healing often result in infection, chronic ulceration, and possible amputation of extremities. Impaired wound healing is a major complication of the 23 million people in the USA with diabetes, and financial and medical burdens are demanding new treatments for wound healing. Previous studies have demonstrated that topical application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) dissolved in moisturizing cream reverses delays in wound closure in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. A target of NTX's action is DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. In this study, granulation tissue was evaluated to ascertain the specific cellular targets that were impaired in diabetic wounds, as well as those that were enhanced following NTX application. Mast cell number as well as the number of new blood vessels immunoreactive to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies were recorded at 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 20 days following creation of full-thickness dorsal cutaneous wounds in normal and type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats displayed delays in wound closure as well as a reduction in the number of mast cells responding to the injury, and delays in the spatial and temporal expression of FGF-2, VEGF, and α-SMA in capillaries. Topical NTX accelerated the rate of wound closure and stimulated expression of angiogenic factors within granulation tissue of diabetic rats relative to control animals receiving saline in moisturizing cream. These data support observations that a novel biological pathway is impaired under diabetic conditions and can be modulated by topical NTX to enhance proliferative events in wound healing.

  9. Preliminary assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material in full-thickness clad beams

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Iskander, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a testing program that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results form three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the yield strength of the base material. An irradiation-induced increase in yield strength of the weld material could result in a yield stress that exceeds the upper limit where code curves are valid. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may have implications for RPV structural integrity assessments. Analyses of the test data are discussed, including comparisons of measured displacements with finite-element analysis results, applications of toughness estimation techniques, and interpretations of constraint conditions implied by stress-based constraint methodologies. Metallurgical conditions in the region of the cladding heat-affected zone are proposed as a possible explanation for the lower-bound fracture toughness measured with one of the shallow-crack clad beam specimens. Fracture toughness data from the three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack uniaxial beam and cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material.

  10. Dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator with full circle rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yanbing; Wu, Nan; Zhong, Xueyong; Zhang, Biao

    2015-07-01

    Parallel robots are widely used in the academic and industrial fields. In spite of the numerous achievements in the design and dimensional synthesis of the low-mobility parallel robots, few research efforts are directed towards the asymmetric 3-DOF parallel robots whose end-effector can realize 2 translational and 1 rotational(2T1R) motion. In order to develop a manipulator with the capability of full circle rotation to enlarge the workspace, a new 2T1R parallel mechanism is proposed. The modeling approach and kinematic analysis of this proposed mechanism are investigated. Using the method of vector analysis, the inverse kinematic equations are established. This is followed by a vigorous proof that this mechanism attains an annular workspace through its circular rotation and 2 dimensional translations. Taking the first order perturbation of the kinematic equations, the error Jacobian matrix which represents the mapping relationship between the error sources of geometric parameters and the end-effector position errors is derived. With consideration of the constraint conditions of pressure angles and feasible workspace, the dimensional synthesis is conducted with a goal to minimize the global comprehensive performance index. The dimension parameters making the mechanism to have optimal error mapping and kinematic performance are obtained through the optimization algorithm. All these research achievements lay the foundation for the prototype building of such kind of parallel robots.

  11. Forty-Year Follow-up of Full-Thickness Skin Graft After Thermal Burn Injury to the Volar Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hands are commonly affected in severe thermal burn injuries. Resulting contractures lead to significant loss of function. Burn contracture release and skin grafting are necessary to restore hand function. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction of a volar hand burn was performed with full-thickness skin grafting. The patient had a 40-year follow-up to assess the function and cosmesis of the repaired hand. Methods: We report a case in which a 15-month-old boy presented after receiving third-degree burns to the left volar hand, including the flexural aspects of the index, long, and ring fingers by placing it on a hot kitchen stove burner. The patient subsequently underwent scar contracture release and full-thickness skin grafting. Results: Eleven years after reconstruction, further contractures developed associated with the patient's growth, which were reconstructed with repeat full-thickness skin graft from the inguinal region. No recurrence was witnessed afterward and 40 years after initial injury, the patient maintains full activities of daily living and use of his hand in his occupation. Conclusions: There is debate regarding the superiority of split-thickness versus full-thickness grafts during reconstruction. Our case strengthens the argument for durability of a full-thickness skin graft following thermal burn injury. PMID:27555888

  12. Rotating machine fault diagnosis through enhanced stochastic resonance by full-wave signal construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Zhang, Haibin; Kong, Fanrang

    2017-02-01

    This study proposes a full-wave signal construction (FSC) strategy for enhancing rotating machine fault diagnosis by exploiting stochastic resonance (SR). The FSC strategy is utilized to transform a half-wave signal (e.g., an envelope signal) into a full-wave one by conducting a Mirror-Cycle-Add (MCA) operation. The constructed full-wave signal evenly modulates the bistable potential and makes the potential tilt back and forth smoothly. This effect provides the equivalent transition probabilities of particle bounce between the two potential wells. A stable SR output signal with better periodicity, which is beneficial to periodic signal detection, can be obtained. In addition, the MCA operation can improve the input signal-to-noise ratio by enhancing the periodic component while attenuating the noise components. These two advantages make the proposed FSCSR method surpass the traditional SR method in fault signal processing. Performance evaluation is conducted by numerical analysis and experimental verification. The proposed MCA-based FSC strategy has the potential to be a universal signal pre-processing technique. Moreover, the proposed FSCSR method can be used in rotating machine fault diagnosis and other areas related to weak signal detection.

  13. Development of a Full-Thickness Human Gingiva Equivalent Constructed from Immortalized Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Buskermolen, Jeroen K.; Reijnders, Christianne M.A.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Steinberg, Thorsten; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Feilzer, Albert J.; Bakker, Astrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Organotypic models make it possible to investigate the unique properties of oral mucosa in vitro. For gingiva, the use of human primary keratinocytes (KC) and fibroblasts (Fib) is limited due to the availability and size of donor biopsies. The use of physiologically relevant immortalized cell lines would solve these problems. The aim of this study was to develop fully differentiated human gingiva equivalents (GE) constructed entirely from cell lines, to compare them with the primary cell counterpart (Prim), and to test relevance in an in vitro wound healing assay. Reconstructed gingiva epithelium on a gingiva fibroblast-populated collagen hydrogel was constructed from cell lines (keratinocytes: TERT or HPV immortalized; fibroblasts: TERT immortalized) and compared to GE-Prim and native gingiva. GE were characterized by immunohistochemical staining for proliferation (Ki67), epithelial differentiation (K10, K13), and basement membrane (collagen type IV and laminin 5). To test functionality of GE-TERT, full-thickness wounds were introduced. Reepithelialization, fibroblast repopulation of hydrogel, metabolic activity (MTT assay), and (pro-)inflammatory cytokine release (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed during wound closure over 7 days. Significant differences in basal KC cytokine secretion (IL-1α, IL-18, and CXCL8) were only observed between KC-Prim and KC-HPV. When Fib-Prim and Fib-TERT were stimulated with TNF-α, no differences were observed regarding cytokine secretion (IL-6, CXCL8, and CCL2). GE-TERT histology, keratin, and basement membrane protein expression very closely represented native gingiva and GE-Prim. In contrast, the epithelium of GE made with HPV-immortalized KC was disorganized, showing suprabasal proliferating cells, limited keratinocyte differentiation, and the absence of basement membrane proteins. When a wound was introduced into the more physiologically relevant GE-TERT model, an immediate inflammatory response (IL-6, CCL2, and

  14. Tetrodotoxin suppresses thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a rat full thickness thermal injury pain model.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margaux M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Petz, Lawrence N; Korz, Walter; Wong, Donald; Clifford, John L

    2015-10-21

    Burn injuries have been identified as the primary cause of injury in 5% of U.S. military personnel evacuated from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Severe burn-associated pain is typically treated with opioids such as fentanyl, morphine, and methadone. Side effects of opioids include respiratory depression, cardiac depression, decrease in motor and cognitive function, as well as the development of hyperalgesia, tolerance and dependence. These effects have led us to search for novel analgesics for the treatment of burn-associated pain in wounded combat service members. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a selective voltage-gated sodium channel blocker currently in clinical trials as an analgesic. A phase 3 clinical trial for cancer-related pain has been completed and phase 3 clinical trials on chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain are planned. It has also been shown in mice to inhibit the development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. TTX was originally identified as a neurotoxin in marine animals but has now been shown to be safe in humans at therapeutic doses. The antinociceptive effects of TTX are thought to be due to inhibition of Na(+) ion influx required for initiation and conduction of nociceptive impulses. One TTX sensitive sodium channel, Nav1.7, has been shown to be essential in lowering the heat pain threshold after burn injuries. To date, the analgesic effect of TTX has not been tested in burn-associated pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a full thickness thermal injury on the right hind paw. TTX (8 μg/kg) was administered once a day systemically by subcutaneous injection beginning 3 days post thermal injury and continued through 7 days post thermal injury. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were assessed 60 and 120 min post injection on each day of TTX treatment. TTX significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia at all days tested and had a less robust, but statistically significant suppressive effect on mechanical

  15. DS1 MICAS Full-Disk-Rotation Spectra of Mars (1.2-2.8 microns)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2000-10-01

    During November 1999 new global reflectance spectra of Mars for two full rotations were acquired with the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) channel of the MICAS (Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer) aboard DS1 (New Millennium Deep Space 1 S/C). Earlier spectra, acquired in May 1999, had shown very tentative new absorption features between 1.5-1.9 microns, possibly related to surface mineralogy (Soderblom, 2000, LPSC abstract). During the November 1999 sequence Mars was at a much closer range (55 versus 115 million km). The conditions for the November observations were as follows: phase angle 53 deg., heliocentric longitude (Ls) 240 deg. (northern Autumn), sub-S/C latitude 18.1 S, and sub-solar latitude 21.8 S. This is an opportune geometry because most of the surface contrast among surface materials likely to show mineralogical variance is in the belt from the equator to about 40 S (c.f. Viking global color mosaics). The south annual CO2 cap was near its full extent ( 60 S). MICAS acquired 48 spectra in with the SWIR keyhole (16 groups of three on 3-hour centers) covering roughly two full rotations of Mars. Because Mars' sidereal day is about 24h and 40m, the two rotations are shifted about 9 degrees relative to each other; all spectra that were within +/- 5 degrees of each other were averaged to provide longitude coverage every 45 degrees. The data were calibrated using a new MICAS SWIR spectral response file derived Arcturus observations. The new calibration allows extension of the useful spectral range out to 2.7 microns. The highest quality (highest SNR) spectral region is from 1.6 to 2.0 microns bounded on both sides by atmospheric CO2 bands. A series of spectral features are recognized in this band appear to be related to surface mineralogy because their strength is modulated by rotation of the planet. The features were tentatively identified at 1.74 and 1.87 microns in the May data (Soderblom, 2000) are far more clearly visible in the November data

  16. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-11

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition.

  17. Autologous tenocyte implantation, a novel treatment for partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy in an elite athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition. PMID:23314880

  18. Full-thickness skin wound healing using autologous keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts with fibrin: bilayered versus single-layered substitute.

    PubMed

    Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Rameli, Mohd Adha bin P; Low, Kiat Cheong; Law, Jia Xian; Chua, Kien Hui; Latiff, Mazlyzam Bin Abdul; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2014-04-01

    Split-skin grafting (SSG) is the gold standard treatment for full-thickness skin defects. For certain patients, however, an extensive skin lesion resulted in inadequacies of the donor site. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach by using a very small portion of an individual's skin to harvest cells for propagation and biomaterials to support the cells for implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of autologous bilayered tissue-engineered skin (BTES) and single-layer tissue-engineered skin composed of only keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblasts (SLTES-F) as alternatives for full-thickness wound healing in a sheep model. Full-thickness skin biopsies were harvested from adult sheep. Isolated fibroblasts were cultured using medium Ham's F12: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, whereas the keratinocytes were cultured using Define Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium. The BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F were constructed using autologous fibrin as a biomaterial. Eight full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of the body of the sheep. On 4 wounds, polyvinyl chloride rings were used as chambers to prevent cell migration at the edge. The wounds were observed at days 7, 14, and 21. After 3 weeks of implantation, the sheep were euthanized and the skins were harvested. The excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and elastin van Gieson staining. The results showed that BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F promote wound healing in nonchambered and chambered wounds, and BTES demonstrated the best healing potential. In conclusion, BTES proved to be an effective tissue-engineered construct that can promote the healing of full-thickness skin lesions. With the support of further clinical trials, this procedure could be an alternative to SSG for patients with partial- and full-thickness burns.

  19. Mitigation of Faraday rotation in ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full polarimetric SAR imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Shradha; Singh, Gulab

    2016-05-01

    The ionosphere, which extends from 50-450 kms in earth's atmosphere, is a particularly important region with regards electromagnetic wave propagation and radio communications in the L-band and lower frequencies. These ions interact with the traversing electromagnetic wave and cause rotation of polarization of the radar signal. In this paper, a potentially computable method for quantifying Faraday rotation (FR), is discussed with the knowledge of full polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR data and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data. For a well calibrated monostatic, full-pol ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data, the reciprocal symmetry of the received scattering matrix is violated due to FR. Apart from FR, other system parameters like residual system noise, channel amplitude, phase imbalance and cross-talk, also account for the non-symmetry. To correct for the FR effect, firstly the noise correction was performed. PALSAR/PALSAR-2 data was converted into 4×4 covariance matrix to calculate the coherence between cross-polarized elements. Covariance matrix was modified by the coherence factor. For FR corrections, the covariance matrix was converted into 4×4 coherency matrix. The elements of coherency matrix were used to estimate FR angle and correct for FR. Higher mean FR values during ALOS-PALSAR measurements can be seen in regions nearer to the equator and the values gradually decrease with increase in latitude. Moreover, temporal variations in FR can also be noticed over different years (2006-2010), with varying sunspot activities for the Niigata, Japan test site. With increasing sunspot activities expected during ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 observations, more striping effects were observed over Mumbai, India. This data has also been FR corrected, with mean FR values of about 8°, using the above mentioned technique.

  20. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-12-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect.

  1. Oncological resection of lung cancer invading the aortic arch In full thickness using a non-fenestrated endograft.

    PubMed

    Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Martel, Efrén; Clavo, Bernardino; Llontop, Pedro; Calderón-Murgas, César; Raad, Wissam N; Alshehri, Khalid; Ayub, Adil; Jenny Huang, Chyun-Yin; Hussein, Mohamed; Alayón, Santiago; Bhora, Faiz Y

    2016-09-01

    T4 lung cancer invading the full thickness of the aortic arch was completely removed in a 78-year-old lady using a non-fenestrated endograft closing the left subclavian artery origin without performing surgical revascularization. Left thoracotomy and upper lobectomy with resection of superior segment of the lower lobe and full thickness of the infiltrated aorta was performed without covering the aortic defect. The margins of the specimen were free of tumor. The patient survived 32 months. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:412-415. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Air bubble in anterior chamber as indicator of full-thickness incisions in femtosecond-assisted astigmatic keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Vaddavalli, Pravin K; Hurmeric, Volkan; Yoo, Sonia H

    2011-09-01

    Femtosecond-assisted astigmatic keratotomy is predictable and precise but may occasionally lead to a full-thickness incision on the cornea and the attendant complications. The presence of an air bubble in the anterior chamber soon after creation of the keratotomy by the femtosecond laser may indicate a full-thickness incision. We present a case in which recognition of this clinical finding early in the procedure might have prevented undesirable complications, such as leakage of aqueous and the potential for intraocular infection.

  3. In-process tool force and rotation variation to control sheet thickness change in friction stir welding of magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffa, Gianluca; Fratini, Livan; Simoncini, Michela; Forcellese, Archimede

    2016-10-01

    Two different in-process control strategies, developed in order to produce sound joints in AZ31 magnesium alloy by Friction Stir Welding on sheet blanks with a non-uniform thickness, are presented and compared. To this purpose, sheets with dip or hump were machined and welded by either changing the rotational speed or the tool plunging in order to keep constant the vertical force occurring during welding. The mechanical strength of the joints was measured in the zones where the sheets before welding were characterised by different thicknesses. The sheets welded by the two different strategies are characterized by very similar ultimate tensile strength values. Finally, the results showed that the two approaches permit to successfully weld sheets with non-uniform thickness with a reduced loss in the mechanical strength.

  4. [An example of multi-stage reconstruction of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Elsaftawy, Ahmed; Jabłecki, Jerzy; Kaczmarzyk, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction is a highly complex procedure that may requires a multiple stages surgical operations. The aim of a such reconstruction is to close the abdominal wall defect and to create a support for the internal organs. It's a challenge for both general and reconstructive surgery. An incomplete thickness defects of the abdominal wall are so much easier to challenge than complete ones. Also the size of the primary defect determines the way and stages of the operation. Such defects can occur in necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall, after abdominal walls tumors removal, in traffic accidents or after "open abdomen" procedures (acute severe pancreatitis). In this paper the authors present a case of 62-yo patient which was operated because of large intestine perforation with various complications of which the most serious was the abdominal wall defect.

  5. Derive Icebridge Sea-Ice Freeboard and Thickness Data through Full Waveform Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, D.; Harbeck, J. P.; Manizade, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Studinger, M.

    2014-12-01

    The current Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) sea-ice freeboard and thickness data product at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) requires coincident Digital Mapping System (DMS) imagery or Continuous Airborne Mapping By Optical Translator (CAMBOT) imagery to produce. However, some of the IceBridge ATM and Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) sea-ice flights have no coincident imagery data. In particular, the IceBridge "South Basin Transect" flights just north of the Canadian Archipelago have historically been flown under darkness (nighttime) and coincident imagery data are not available. Here we apply an algorithm using ATM waveform parameters to identify leads to derive sea-ice freeboard. ATM waveforms were fitted with Gaussian curves to calculate pulse width, peak location, pulse amplitude, and signal baseline. For each waveform, centroid, skewness, kurtosis, and pulse area were also calculated. Received waveform parameters, such as pulse width, pulse amplitude, pulse area, skewness, kurtosis, and transmitted/received pulse area ratio show a coherent response to variations of geophysical features along an ATM profile. These parameters, combined with elevation, were used to identify leads to enable sea-ice freeboard calculation. A similar algorithm is applied to the LVIS data to calculate sea-ice freeboard. Arctic sea-ice freeboards for ATM and LVIS data with no coincident visual imagery are derived in this study, extending the IceBridge sea-ice record over a large portion of thick multi-year sea ice. The results are evaluated/validated by using ATM data with coincident DMS imagery and near coincident ATM and LVIS data comparison.

  6. Pre-vascularization Enhances Therapeutic Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets in Full Thickness Skin Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Xing, Qi; Zhai, Qiyi; Tahtinen, Mitchell; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Lili; Xu, Yingbin; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Split thickness skin graft (STSG) implantation is one of the standard therapies for full thickness wound repair when full thickness autologous skin grafts (FTG) or skin flap transplants are inapplicable. Combined transplantation of STSG with dermal substitute could enhance its therapeutic effects but the results remain unsatisfactory due to insufficient blood supply at early stages, which causes graft necrosis and fibrosis. Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) sheets are capable of accelerating the wound healing process. We hypothesized that pre-vascularized hMSC sheets would further improve regeneration by providing more versatile angiogenic factors and pre-formed microvessels. In this work, in vitro cultured hMSC cell sheets (HCS) and pre-vascularized hMSC cell sheets (PHCS) were implanted in a rat full thickness skin wound model covered with an autologous STSG. Results demonstrated that the HCS and the PHCS implantations significantly reduced skin contraction and improved cosmetic appearance relative to the STSG control group. The PHCS group experienced the least hemorrhage and necrosis, and lowest inflammatory cell infiltration. It also induced the highest neovascularization in early stages, which established a robust blood micro-circulation to support grafts survival and tissue regeneration. Moreover, the PHCS grafts preserved the largest amount of skin appendages, including hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and developed the smallest epidermal thickness. The superior therapeutic effects seen in PHCS groups were attributed to the elevated presence of growth factors and cytokines in the pre-vascularized cell sheet, which exerted a beneficial paracrine signaling during wound repair. Hence, the strategy of combining STSG with PHCS implantation appears to be a promising approach in regenerative treatment of full thickness skin wounds. PMID:28042321

  7. Net carbon balance of three full crop rotations at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, M.; Brümmer, C.; Kolle, O.; Kutsch, W. L.; Moffat, A. M.; Mukwashi, K.; Truckenbrodt, S. C.; Herbst, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of biosphere-atmosphere CO2 and H2O exchange have been conducted since 2001 at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Germany, thus providing one of the longest EC time series of European croplands. During the experimental period, winter wheat and winter barley were alternately planted with potatoes, sugar beet, rape, and peppermint covering three full crop rotations (2001-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). In this study, data of 14 years of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (E) were re-calculated. Based on these data, we present the net carbon (C) balance (net biome production, NBP) accounting for any additional C input by fertilization and C output by harvest. Further emphasis was placed on the sensitivity of water use efficiency (WUE) and E to climate and crop type. The main aim was to investigate the interannual variability in both NBP and WUE, thus disentangling the impacts of climatic conditions and land management on the net C balance as well as on WUE and E.

  8. The full GHG balance over two crop rotations at an agricultural site near Gebesee, Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo; Brümmer, Christian; Don, Catharina; Dechow, Rene; Fuß, Roland; Freibauer, Annette; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Kolle, Olaf; Ziegler, Waldemar

    2013-04-01

    Gebesee in Thuringia is the eldest cropland eddy covariance (EC) site in Europe. The site has been part of CarboEurope, NitroEurope and IMECC and has been selected to be one of the German Level 1 sites within the European research infrastructure ICOS. Continuous measurements of NEE by EC, NPP by regular harvesting, lateral in- and outputs of carbon and nitrogen as well as climatic parameters have been conducted since 2001. Automated chamber measurements of N2O and CH4 were conducted since 2007. Fluxes of these greenhouse gases (GHG) for the years 2001 - 2006 were calculated based on a Fuzzy Logic model calibrated by means of the chamber measurements. In this study we present NEE, NBP and full GHG balances of over two rotation periods (2001 - 2004 and 2005 - 2009, respectively) comprising four times winter wheat, two times potatoes and one cropping period of oil seed rape, sugar beet and barley each. The GHG balance is dominated by moderate losses of soil organic matter (~120 +/- 50 g C m-2 y-1) and by N2O emissions of about 0.17 g N2O-N m-2 y-1 (50 g C-eq m-2 y-1). The on-site emissions of GHG balance about 43 % of the harvested carbon.

  9. Lehmann rotation of cholesteric droplets: Role of the sample thickness and of the concentration of chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Patrick; Poy, Guilhem

    2015-03-01

    We study the role of the sample thickness d and of the concentration C of chiral molecules during the Lehmann rotation of cholesteric droplets of radius R subjected to a temperature gradient G ⃗. Two configurations are studied depending on how the helix is oriented with respect to G ⃗. The first result is that, at fixed C and R , the rotation velocity ω increases with d when the helix is parallel to G ⃗, whereas it is independent of d when the helix is perpendicular to G ⃗. The second result is that, for a given C ,ω0=limR→0ω (R ) is the same for the two types of droplets independently of d . This suggests that the, as yet unknown, physical mechanism responsible for the droplet rotation is the same in the two types of droplets. The third result is that the Lehmann coefficient ν ¯ defined from the Leslie-like relation ω0=-ν ¯G /γ1 (with γ1 the rotational viscosity) is proportional to the equilibrium twist q . Last, but not least, the ratio R ¯=ν ¯/q depends on the liquid crystal chosen but is independent of the chiral molecule used to dope the liquid crystal.

  10. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  11. Use of Fish Scale-Derived BioCornea to Seal Full-Thickness Corneal Perforations in Pig Models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han-Tse; Huang, Min-Chang; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the use of BioCornea, a fish scale-derived collagen matrix for sealing full-thickness corneal perforations in mini-pigs. Two series of experiments were carried out in 8 Lan-Yu and 3 Göttingen mini-pigs, respectively. A 2mm central full thickness corneal perforation was made with surgical scissors and 2mm trephines. The perforations were sealed immediately by suturing BioCornea to the wounded cornea. The conditions of each patched cornea were followed-up daily for 3 or 4 days. Status of operated eyes was assessed with slit lamp examination or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Animals were sacrificed after the study period and the corneas operated were fixated for histological examination. Both OCT imaging and handheld slit lamp observations indicated that a stable ocular integrity of the perforated corneas was maintained, showing no leakage of aqueous humor, normal depth of anterior chamber and only mild swelling of the wounded cornea. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the patched cornea showed no epithelial ingrowths to the perforated wounds and no severe leucocyte infiltration of the stroma. The fish scale-derived BioCornea is capable to seal full-thickness corneal perforation and stabilize the integrity of ocular anterior chamber in pre-clinic mini-pig models. BioCornea seems to be a safe and effective alternative for emergency treatment of corneal perforations. PMID:26599018

  12. Full-thickness splinted skin wound healing models in db/db and heterozygous mice: implications for wound healing impairment.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Ae; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Covert, Jill; Dubielzig, Richard R; Isseroff, Roslyn Rivkah; Schurr, Michael; Abbott, Nicholas L; McAnulty, Jonathan; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The excisional dorsal full-thickness skin wound model with or without splinting is widely utilized in wound healing studies using diabetic or normal mice. However, the effects of splinting on dermal wound healing have not been fully characterized, and there are limited data on the direct comparison of wound parameters in the splinted model between diabetic and normal mice. We compared full-thickness excisional dermal wound healing in db/db and heterozygous mice by investigating the effects of splinting, semi-occlusive dressing, and poly(ethylene glycol) treatment. Two 8-mm full-thickness wounds were made with or without splinting in db/db and heterozygous mice. Body weights, splint maintenance, wound contraction, wound closure, and histopathological parameters including reepithelialization, wound bed collagen deposition, and inflammation were compared between groups. Our results show that silicone splint application effectively reduced wound contraction in heterozygous and db/db mice. Splinted wounds, as opposed to nonsplinted wounds, exhibited no significant differences in wound closure between heterozygous and db/db mice. Finally, polyethylene glycol and the noncontact dressing had no significant effect on wound healing in heterozygous or db/db mice. We believe these findings will help investigators in selection of the appropriate wound model and data interpretation with fully defined parameters.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of antibiotic-loaded gelatin microsphere/silk fibroin scaffolds in infected full-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yong; Li, Weichang; Jiao, Yanpeng; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming

    2014-07-01

    Despite advances in burn treatment, burn infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, an antibacterial silk fibroin (SF) scaffold for burn treatment was designed; gelatin microspheres (GMs) were impregnated with the antibiotic gentamycin sulfate (GS), and the GS-impregnated GMs were then embedded in a SF matrix to fabricate GS/GM/SF scaffolds. The developed GS/GM/SF scaffolds could serve as a dermal regeneration template in full-thickness burns. The average pore size and porosity of the GS/GM/SF scaffolds were 40-80 μm and 85%, respectively. Furthermore, the drug release rate of the scaffolds was significantly slower than that of either GS/GM or GS/SF scaffolds. And the composite scaffold exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hence, we evaluated the wound-healing effects and antibacterial properties of the GS/GM/SF scaffolds in a rat full-thickness burn infection model. Over 21 days, the GS/GM/SF scaffolds not only significantly reduced burn infection by P. aeruginosa but also accelerated the regeneration of the dermis and exhibited higher epithelialization rates than did GS/SF and SF scaffolds. Thus, GS/GM/SF scaffolds are potentially effective for treatment of full-thickness infected burns, and GS/GM/SF scaffolds are a promising therapeutic tool for severely burned patients.

  14. ROTATION PERIODS OF 34,030 KEPLER MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: THE FULL AUTOCORRELATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; Aigrain, S.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed three years of data from the Kepler space mission to derive rotation periods of main-sequence stars below 6500 K. Our automated autocorrelation-based method detected rotation periods between 0.2 and 70 days for 34,030 (25.6%) of the 133,030 main-sequence Kepler targets (excluding known eclipsing binaries and Kepler Objects of Interest), making this the largest sample of stellar rotation periods to date. In this paper we consider the detailed features of the now well-populated period-temperature distribution and demonstrate that the period bimodality, first seen by McQuillan et al. in the M-dwarf sample, persists to higher masses, becoming less visible above 0.6 M {sub ☉}. We show that these results are globally consistent with the existing ground-based rotation-period data and find that the upper envelope of the period distribution is broadly consistent with a gyrochronological age of 4.5 Gyr, based on the isochrones of Barnes, Mamajek, and Hillenbrand and Meibom et al. We also performed a detailed comparison of our results to those of Reinhold et al. and Nielsen et al., who measured rotation periods of field stars observed by Kepler. We examined the amplitude of periodic variability for the stars with detection rotation periods, and found a typical range between ∼950 ppm (5th percentile) and ∼22,700 ppm (95th percentile), with a median of ∼5600 ppm. We found typically higher amplitudes for shorter periods and lower effective temperatures, with an excess of low-amplitude stars above ∼5400 K.

  15. Full mouth rehabilitation of destroyed dentition with rotational path removable partial denture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hyoung; Heo, Seong-Joo; Kim, Seong-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though implant dentistry is very successful and predictable in treatment of patients with destroyed dentition, there are some cases with limitations to implant therapy. In these cases, alternative treatment modality should be considered. CASE DESCRIPTION A patient with destroyed dentition was rehabilitated with a lateral rotational path removable partial denture. According to the diagnosis, we determined to raise vertical dimension for esthetic and functional restoration. The final restoration was performed after four months of provisional period. CLINICAL IMPLICATION The edentulous patients with compromised esthetics and functions can be successfully treated with a rotational path removable partial denture through adequate treatment planning and precise laboratory procedure. PMID:21165187

  16. Clast Rotation and the Origin of Thick Ultramylonites: the El Pichao Shear Zone (Sierra de Quilmes), NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, N. J.; Hasalova, P.; Weinberg, R. F.; Finch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The El Pichao shear zone in the Sierra de Quilmes, NW Argentina is a 3-7km thick, ductile shear zone between high grade migmatites and low grade metamorphic sequences of an exhumed basement. In the low grade metasediments deformation fabrics vary from protomylonite via mylonite to ultramylonite. These two sequences are separated by a granitic intrusion and intensely intruded by pegmatite dykes. The shear zone overprints all three main rock sequences. The ultramylonite fabrics can reach extreme thicknesses of 1km, which has been seldom observed elsewhere. Thus, the El Pichao Shear Zone provides a unique opportunity to understand differences in strain accommodation at the mylonite-ultramylonite transition, and the nature of thick ultramlyonite sequences. The mylonite sequences contain an anisotropic matrix comprising Bt + Qtz + Ms + Plg + Kfs, with coarse Qtz ribbons, mica bands and feldspar porphyroclasts up to 5 cm in diameter. Qtz ribbons have undergone grain boundary migration recrystallization and have been folded around feldspar clasts. Feldspar clasts have been variably rotated, demonstrated by the orientation of dynamically recrystallized material around the clasts. Three types of deformation behaviour occur simultaneously amongst the feldspar clasts: (i) brittle fracturing, (ii) partial recrystallization, (iii) complete recrystallization. The ultramylonite sequences contain a fine-grained equigranular matrix of Qtz + Ms + Bt + Plg + Kfs with feldspar porphyroclasts. Rotation-induced strain accommodation is demonstrated by the presence of δ-style porphyroclasts and the orientation of micas around clast boundaries. Qtz ribbons or strong S-C fabrics are lacking and the matrix tends to be homogeneous with only weak foliation defined by the preferred orientation of micas. The bulk connectivity of phases in the matrix decreases toward ultramylonite, which suggests a homogenization of the matrix between mylonite and ultramylonite. Quartz c-axis data demonstrates a

  17. Guidewire bias in rotational atherectomy in the angled lesion: evaluation based on the thickness of the ablated intima and media.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Mitsunori; Sueda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masaki; Karakawa, Shinji; Kambe, Masayuki

    2002-07-01

    The effect of guidewire bias on angled-lesion ablation by rotational atherectomy (RA) was assessed by measuring the changes in vertical lumen diameter, horizontal lumen diameter and the intima-media thickness of the coronary artery, using intravascular ultrasound in 10 lesions with an angle greater than 10 degrees. The vertical and horizontal diameters significantly increased after RA. The intima-media thickness at the 4 orthogonal sites significantly decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between vertical diameter change and angle (r=0.642, p=0.045), but none between horizontal diameter change and angle. There was no correlation between intima-media thickness change at 0 degrees and angle; however, at 180 degrees there was a tendency to correlation with angle (r=0.602, p=0.066). These data suggest that in cases of angled lesions, the increase in vertical lumen diameter is caused more by ablation of the 180 degrees wall than by that of the 0 degrees wall, which is brought about by guidewire bias toward the vascular wall at 180 degrees.

  18. Interactions of donor sources and media influence the histo-morphological quality of full-thickness skin models.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julia; Weil, Frederik; Riegler, Christoph; Groeber, Florian; Rebhan, Silke; Kurdyn, Szymon; Alb, Miriam; Kneitz, Hermann; Gelbrich, Götz; Walles, Heike; Mielke, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Human artificial skin models are increasingly employed as non-animal test platforms for research and medical purposes. However, the overall histopathological quality of such models may vary significantly. Therefore, the effects of manufacturing protocols and donor sources on the quality of skin models built-up from fibroblasts and keratinocytes derived from juvenile foreskins is studied. Histo-morphological parameters such as epidermal thickness, number of epidermal cell layers, dermal thickness, dermo-epidermal adhesion and absence of cellular nuclei in the corneal layer are obtained and scored accordingly. In total, 144 full-thickness skin models derived from 16 different donors, built-up in triplicates using three different culture conditions were successfully generated. In univariate analysis both media and donor age affected the quality of skin models significantly. Both parameters remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Performing general linear model analyses we could show that individual medium-donor-interactions influence the quality. These observations suggest that the optimal choice of media may differ from donor to donor and coincides with findings where significant inter-individual variations of growth rates in keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been described. Thus, the consideration of individual medium-donor-interactions may improve the overall quality of human organ models thereby forming a reproducible test platform for sophisticated clinical research.

  19. Facial resurfacing with a monoblock full-thickness skin graft after multiple malignant melanomas excision in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Uygur, Safak; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Ak, Betul

    2012-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by vulnerability of the skin to solar radiation. Increase in sunlight-induced cancer is a direct consequence of an increase in mutated cells of the skin of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. There is no specific technique for facial resurfacing in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In this article, a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple malignant melanomas on her face and radical excision of total facial skin followed by facial resurfacing with monoblock full-thickness skin graft from the abdomen is presented.

  20. No mortality or pancreatic fistula after full-thickness suture pancreaticogastrostomy in 39 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Fatih, Ozdemir; Adil, Baskiran; Cengiz, Ara; Mustafa, Ates; Sagir, Kahraman Ayşegul; Maras, Ozdemir Zeynep; Sezai, Yilmaz

    2015-02-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is considered the standard operation for periampullary tumors. Despite major advances in pancreatic surgery, pancreatic fistula is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Meticulous surgical technique and proper reconstruction of the pancreas are essential to prevent pancreatic fistula. Pancreaticogastrostomy is a safe method for reconstruction of the pancreas after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Regardless of pancreatic texture or duct diameter, the reconstruction is performed by passing full-thickness sutures through both the anterior and posterior sides of the pancreas. In this study, we report 39 cases of reconstruction with pancreaticogastrostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy without mortality or pancreatic fistula.

  1. Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. )

    1986-02-01

    In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

  2. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (151). Acromioclavicular joint geyser sign with chronic full-thickness supraspinatus tendon (SST) tear.

    PubMed

    Khor, Andrew Yu Keat; Wong, Steven Bak Siew

    2014-02-01

    An 82-year-old man presented with neck pain, right upper limb radiculopathy and right shoulder pain. Physical examination revealed a soft lump over the right shoulder joint, as well as reduced range of shoulder movements. On magnetic resonance imaging, the soft lump was shown to be a cystic mass over the acromioclavicular joint and was related to a full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear. This is the classic geyser sign. The pathophysiology and clinical features of the geyser sign, and its imaging features with various imaging modalities, are discussed.

  3. Full-field Deformation Measurement Techniques for a Rotating Composite Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Martin, Richard E.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roth, Don J.

    2012-01-01

    Test methods were developed to view global and local deformation in a composite tube during a test in which the tube is rotating at speeds and torques relevant to rotorcraft shafts. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to provide quantitative displacement measurements during the tests. High speed cameras were used for the DIC measurements in order to capture images at sufficient frame rates and with sufficient resolution while the tube was rotating at speeds up to 5,000 rpm. Surface displacement data was resolved into cylindrical coordinates in order to measure rigid body rotation and global deformation of the tube. Tests were performed on both undamaged and impact damaged tubes in order to evaluate the capability to detect local deformation near an impact damaged site. Measurement of radial displacement clearly indicated a local buckling deformation near the impacted site in both dynamic and static tests. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to investigate variations in fiber architecture within the composite tube and to detect impact damage. No growth in the impact damage area was observed by DIC during dynamic testing or by x-ray CT in post test inspection of the composite tube.

  4. Critical stability of almost adiabatic convection in a rapidly rotating thick spherical shell

    SciTech Connect

    Starchenko, S. V.; Kotelnikova, M. S.

    2013-02-15

    In this work, the convection equations in the almost adiabatic approximation is studied for which the choice of physical parameters is primarily based on possible applications to the hydrodynamics of the deep interiors of the Earth and planets and moons of the terrestrial group. The initial system of partial differential equations (PDEs) was simplified to a single second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure or vertical velocity component to investigate the linear stability of convection. The critical frequencies, modified Rayleigh numbers, and distributions of convection are obtained at various possible Prandtl numbers and in different thick fluid shells. An analytical WKB-type solution was obtained for the case when the inner radius of the shell is much smaller than the outer radius and convective sources are concentrated along the inner boundary.

  5. The Partition Between Terminal Speed and Mass Loss: Thin, Thick, and Rotating Line-Driven Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayley, K. G.; Onifer, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state supersonic line-driven winds are important contributors to wind-blown bubbles in star forming regions. The key input to the bubble in the energy-conserving phase is the wind kinetic-energy flux, which involves both the mass-loss rate and the terminal speed. However, these quantities are themselves self-consistent parameters of the line-driving process, so relate to each other and to the resulting wind optical depth. This complex interrelation between optical depth, mass-loss, and wind speed lies at the heart of line-driven wind theory. Drawing on the successes and insights of ``CAK'' theory, I will convey a simplified view of how to unite these processes using the concept of effective opacity, with attention to the ramifications for nonspherical nebular and wind-blown structures. Recent extensions to nongray optically thick environments such as Wolf-Rayet winds and supernovae are also discussed.

  6. Evidence of healing of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears following arthroscopic augmentation with a collagen implant: a 2-year MRI follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bokor, Desmond John; Sonnabend, David; Deady, Luke; Cass, Ben; Young, Allan; Van Kampen, Craig; Arnoczky, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background partial-thickness rotator cuff tears frequently enlarge due to increased local strain and often progress to full-thickness tears. Studies suggest the addition of new tendinous tissue to injured cuff tendons would significantly decrease peak strain, possibly protecting against tear progression. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a highly-porous collagen implant to induce new tissue formation and limit tear progression when placed on the bursal surface of partial-thickness cuff tears. Methods following arthroscopic subacromial decompression, the implant was attached to the bursal surface of the supraspinatus tendon in a prospective series of 13 consecutive patients with intermediate – (3–6 mm) to high-grade (>6 mm) partial – thickness cuff tears (5 articular, 3 bursal, 5 intra-substance). Tendon thickness, defect size, and tendon quality were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Constant and American Shoulder and Elbow Society scores at the same preoperative and follow-up times. All 13 patients completed all follow-up exams (mean length of follow-up 27.0 months, range 23.3–32.0); no patients were lost to follow-up. Results the implant induced significant new tissue formation in all patients by 3 months (mean increase in tendon thickness 2.2 ± 0.26 mm). This tissue matured over time and became radiologically indistinguishable from the underlying tendon. The partial-thickness cuff tears showed consistent filling of the defects, with complete healing in 7 patients at 12 months, and a progressive improvement in tendon quality in the remaining patients. No tear progression was observed by MRI in any of the patients at 24 months. All clinical scores improved significantly over time. At 24 months, 12 of 13 patients (92%) had satisfactory or better results. Conclusions the results of this clinical study demonstrated

  7. Full-Thickness Excision versus Shaving by Laparoscopy for Intestinal Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Rationale and Potential Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria Antonietta; Palmara, Vittorio Italo; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Sturlese, Emanuele; De Dominici, Rosanna; Alecci, Stefano; D'Amico, Paolo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma) abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is considered the most aggressive presentation of the disease, penetrating more than 5 mm in affected tissues, and it is reported in approximately 20% of all women with endometriosis. DIE can cause a complete distortion of the pelvic anatomy and it mainly involves uterosacral ligaments, bladder, rectovaginal septum, rectum, and rectosigmoid colon. This review describes the state of the art in laparoscopic approach for DIE with a special interest in intestinal involvement, according to recent literature findings. Our attention has been focused particularly on full-thickness excision versus shaving technique in deep endometriosis intestinal involvement. Particularly, the aim of this paper is clarifying from the clinical and methodological points of view the best surgical treatment of deep intestinal endometriosis, since there is no standard of care in the literature and in different surgical settings. Indeed, this review tries to suggest when it is advisable to manage the full-thickness excision or the shaving technique, also analyzing perioperative management, main complications, and surgical outcomes. PMID:27579309

  8. The role of full-thickness skin grafting and steroid injection in the treatment of auricular keloids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nefertiti A; Ortega, F Raymond

    2010-05-01

    Keloids are a response to wound healing that occurs due to hyperproliferation of dermal collagen in response to skin injury (Olabanji et al, Surg Pract. 2005;9:2-7). Multiple modalities have been described in the literature to target these lesions, but treatment and prevention remain a challenge because of the high rate of recurrence (Brissett and Sherris, Facial Plast Surg. 2001;17:263-272; Kelly, Dermatol Ther. 2004;17:212-218; Robles and Berg, Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:26-32; Porter, Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2002;35:207-220, viii). We studied the rate of recurrence of auricular keloids through a technique previously described in the literature (Converse and Stallings, Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972;49:461-463), but over a series of patients. Keloids were treated with total excision in combination with coverage of the resulting defect with a full-thickness skin graft and intradermal injection of triamcinolone acetonide solution at the periphery of the donor and recipient sites. From April 2006 to February 2007, 10 patients with auricular keloids were done using this technique, and during an 11-month follow-up no recurrence was observed. These results support that full-thickness skin grafts can be used to address keloid lesions without recurrence.

  9. Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Healing of Free Full-Thickness Skin Grafts in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    STANLEY, BRYDEN J.; PITT, KATHRYN A.; WEDER, CHRISTIAN D.; FRITZ, MICHELE C.; HAUPTMAN, JOE G.; STEFICEK, BARBARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare healing of free, full-thickness, meshed skin grafts under negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with bolster dressings in dogs. Study design Randomized, controlled experimental study, paired design. Animals Dogs (n =5) Methods Full-thickness skin wounds (4 cm ×1.5cm) were created bilaterally on the antebrachia of 5 dogs (n = 10). Excised skin was grafted to the contralateral limb. Grafts were randomized to NPWT or bolster dressings (control; CON). NPWT was applied continuously for 7 days. Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 17, biopsied on days 0, 4, 7, and 14, and had microbial culture on day 7. Outcome variables were: time to first appearance of granulation tissue, percent graft necrosis, and percent open mesh. Significance was set at P<.05. Histologic findings, culture results, and graft appearance were reported. Results Granulation tissue appeared earlier in the NPWT grafts compared with CON grafts. Percent graft necrosis and remaining open mesh area were both greater in CON grafts compared with NPWT grafts at most time points. Histologic results showed no significant difference in all variables measured, and all cultures were negative. Conclusions Variables of graft acceptance were superior when NPWT was used in the first week post-grafting. Fibroplasia was enhanced, open meshes closed more rapidly and less graft necrosis occurred with NPWT application. More preclinical studies are required to evaluate histologic differences. PMID:23550662

  10. The Healing Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Full-thickness Femoral Articular Cartilage Defects of Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, D.; Babazadeh, M.; Tanideh, N.; Zare, S.; Hoseinzadeh, S.; Torabinejad, S.; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage defect can lead to degradation of subchondral bone and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the healing effect of transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in full-thickness femoral articular cartilage defects in rabbit. Methods: 12 rabbits were equally divided into cell-treated and control groups. In cell-treated group, 2×106 cells of third passage suspended in 1 mL of DMEM was injected into articular defect. The control group just received 1 mL of DMEM. Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% penicillin and streptomycin and 2 mM L-glutamine were used for cell culture. To induce cartilage defect, 4 mm articular cartilage full-thickness defect was created in the knee. For histological evaluation in each group (H&E, safranin-O and toluidine blue), 3 rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks and 3 animals, 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: In cell therapy group post-transplantation, no abnormal gross findings were noticed. Neo-formed tissues in cell-treated groups were translucent with a smooth and intact surface and less irregularity. In cell-treated group after 8 weeks post-transplantation, the overall healing score of experimental knees were superior when compared to other groups. Conclusion: We showed that Ad-MSCs, as an available and non-invasive produced source of cells, could be safely administered in knee osteochondral defects. PMID:26576262

  11. CCL5 and CCL20 mediate immigration of Langerhans cells into the epidermis of full thickness human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Krista; Spiekstra, Sander W; Waaijman, Taco; Breetveld, Melanie; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) play a key role in initiation and regulation of immune responses. Whereas LC migration out of the epidermis upon environmental assault is extensively studied, the mechanisms involved in the (re)population of the epidermis with LC are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the immigration of LC derived from the human MUTZ-3 cell line (MUTZ-LC) into the epidermis of a full thickness skin equivalent, comprising a fully differentiated epidermis on a fibroblast-populated dermis. MUTZ-LC were used to determine which epidermis-derived chemokines play a role in mediating LC trans-dermal migration into the epidermis. We found evidence for a role of keratinocyte-derived CCL5 and CCL20 in the chemo-attraction of MUTZ-LC. Neutralizing antibodies against CCL5 and CCL20 blocked LC migration towards keratinocytes. Secretion of these two chemokines was associated with incorporation of MUTZ-LC into the epidermis of full thickness skin equivalents. In conclusion, our findings suggest that epidermis derived CCL5 and CCL20 are pivotal mediators in recruitment of LC into the epidermis.

  12. Full-Thickness Macular Hole Formation after Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling: Beware the “Omega Sign”

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a clinical sign on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), which may indicate high risk for full-thickness macular hole formation after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Methods. The preoperative SDOCT images of two patients—one with multilaminar hemorrhage from ruptured retinal artery macroaneurysm and one with serous retinal detachment and severe macular schisis from optic pit maculopathy—who developed full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) after ILM peeling were evaluated retrospectively. Results. On the preoperative SDOCT images of both patients there was a thin bridge of tissue on either side of the foveal center with an outer retinal defect. The photoreceptors were displaced laterally away from the foveal center to create an “omega-” shaped configuration of the remaining tissue. Conclusion. “Omega-” shaped configuration on SDOCT may represent a higher risk of FTMH following ILM peeling. Vitreoretinal surgeons may wish to consider this sign in the process of their surgical decision making. PMID:27747120

  13. Electrospun Tropoelastin for Delivery of Therapeutic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Full-Thickness Dermal Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Machula, Hans; Ensley, Burt; Kellar, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the physiological effects of electrospun tropoelastin scaffolds as therapeutic adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) delivery vehicles for the treatment of full-thickness dermal wounds. Approach: Using the process of electrospinning, several prototype microfiber scaffolds were created with tropoelastin. Initial testing of scaffold biocompatibility was performed in vitro through ADSC culture, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for assessment of ADSC attachment, morphology, and new extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. The wound healing effects of ADSC-seeded scaffolds were then evaluated in a murine dermal excisional wound model. Results: For the in vitro study, SEM revealed exceptional biocompatibility of electrospun tropoelastin for ADSCs. In the wound-healing study, ADSC-treated groups demonstrated significantly enhanced wound closure and epithelial thickness compared to controls. Innovation: This is the first report on the use of tropoelastin-based biomaterials as delivery vehicles for therapeutic ADSCs. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that tropoelastin-based ADSC delivery vehicles significantly accelerate wound healing compared to controls that represent the current clinical standard of care. Furthermore, the unique mechanical and biochemical characteristics of tropoelastin may favor its use over other biological or synthetic scaffolds for the treatment of certain pathologies due to its unique intrinsic mechanical properties. PMID:24804156

  14. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastrointestinal lesions using the over-the-scope clip system: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fähndrich, Martin; Sandmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was developed for the closure of gastrointestinal defects but can also be used for endoscopic resection. This report describes the efficacy and safety of endoscopic full-thickness resection (eFTR) using the OTSC system. In this retrospective, observational, open-label case study, a total of 17 patients underwent eFTR using a dual clip and cap technique. The indications were: carcinoids, incompletely resected colon cancers involving the mucosa or submucosa, recurrent fibrosed adenoma of the colon, and submucosal lesions. The technical success was 94 % (16 /17). The complete resection (R0) rate was 100 %. There were no complications. In summary, the described minimally invasive method to perform eFTR of complex gastrointestinal lesions appears to be effective and safe.

  15. Evaluation of a multi-layer adipose-derived stem cell sheet in a full-thickness wound healing model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chih; Grahovac, Tara; Oh, Sun Jung; Ieraci, Matthew; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2013-02-01

    Cell sheet technology has been studied for applications such as bone, ligament and skin regeneration. There has been limited examination of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for cell sheet applications. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate ASC sheet technology for wound healing. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and ASC cell sheets were created on the surface of fibrin-grafted culture dishes. In vitro examination consisted of the histochemical characterization of the ASC sheets. In vivo experiments consisted of implanting single-layer cell sheets, triple-layer cell sheets or non-treated control onto a full-thickness wound defect (including epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat) in nude mice for 3 weeks. Cell sheets were easily peeled off from the culture dishes using forceps. The single- and triple-layer ASC sheets showed complete extracellular structure via hematoxylin & eosin staining. In vivo, the injury area was measured 7, 10, 14 and 21 days post-treatment to assess wound recovery. The ASC sheet-treated groups' injury area was significantly smaller than that of the non-treated control group at all time points except day 21. The triple-layer ASC sheet treatment significantly enhanced wound healing compared to the single-layer ASC sheet at 7, 10 and 14 days. The density of blood vessels showed that ASC cell sheet treatment slightly enhanced total vessel proliferation compared to the empty wound injury treatment. Our studies indicate that ASC sheets present a potentially viable matrix for full-thickness defect wound healing in a mouse model. Consequently, our ASC sheet technology represents a substantial advance in developing various types of three-dimensional tissues.

  16. Assessment of platelet-derived growth factor using A splinted full thickness dermal wound model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Keller, Krista A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E P Scott; Kass, Philip H; Guzman, Sanchez-Migallon David; Park, Shin Ae; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Gustavsen, Kate A; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Wounds in reptiles are a common reason for presentation to a veterinarian. At this time there is limited information on effective topical medications to aid in wound closure. The objectives of this study were to translate the splinted, full-thickness dermal wound model, validated in mice, to the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and to determine the effect of topical becaplermin (BP), a platelet-derived growth factor (0.01%), on the rate of wound closure. Ten bearded dragons were anesthetized and two full-thickness cutaneous wounds were made on the dorsum of each lizard. Encircling splints were applied surrounding each wound and subsequently covered by a semi-occlusive dressing. Five lizards had one wound treated with BP and the adjacent wound treated with a vehicle control. Five additional lizards had one wound treated with saline and the second wound treated with a vehicle control. Wounds were imaged daily, and the wound area was measured using digital image analysis. The change in percentage wound closure over 17 days and the time to 50% wound closure was compared among the four treatment groups. There was no significant difference in wound closure rates between BP-treated and saline-treated wounds or in the time to 50% wound closure between any treatments. Vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to saline-treated wounds closed significantly slower than did BP (P < 0.010), saline (P < 0.001), and vehicle-treated wounds adjacent to BP-treated wounds (P < 0.013). Our preliminary study indicates that the splinted wound model, with modifications, may be used to determine wound closure rates in bearded dragons. When compared with saline, BP did not have a significant effect on wound closure rates, while the vehicle alone delayed wound closure. Histologic analysis of experimentally created wounds throughout the wound healing process is needed to further evaluate the effects of these treatments on reptile dermal wound healing.

  17. Comparative assessment of cultured skin substitutes and native skin autograft for treatment of full-thickness burns.

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, S T; Goretsky, M J; Greenhalgh, D G; Kagan, R J; Rieman, M T; Warden, G D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of cultured skin substitutes (CSSs) and split-thickness autograft (STAG) was performed to assess whether the requirement for autologous skin grafts may be reduced in the treatment of massive burns. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Cultured skin substitutes consisting of collagen-glycosaminoglycan substrates populated with autologous fibroblasts and keratinocytes have been demonstrated to close full-thickness skin wounds in athymic mice and to express normal skin antigens after closure of excised wounds in burn patients. METHODS: Data were collected from 17 patients between days 2 and 14 to determine incidence of exudate, incidence of regrafting, coloration, keratinization, and percentage of site covered by graft (n = 17). Outcome was evaluated on an ordinal scale (0 = worst; 10 = best) beginning at day 14, with primary analyses at 28 days (n = 10) and 1 year (n = 4) for erythema, pigmentation, epithelial blistering, surface roughness, skin suppleness, and raised scar. RESULTS: Sites treated with CSSs had increased incidence of exudate (p = 0.06) and decreased percentage of engraftment (p < 0.05) compared with STAG. Outcome parameters during the first year showed no differences in erythema, blistering, or suppleness. Pigmentation was greater, scar was less raised, but regrafting was more frequent in CSS sites than STAG. No differences in qualitative outcomes were found after 1 year, and antibodies to bovine collagen were not detected in patient sera. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that outcome of engrafted CSSs is not different from STAG and that increased incidence of regrafting is related to decreased percentage of initial engraftment. Increased rates of engraftment of CSSs may lead to improved outcome for closure of burn wounds, allow greater availability of materials for grafting, and reduce requirements for donor skin autograft. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8526581

  18. A cold plasma jet accelerates wound healing in a murine model of full-thickness skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anke; Bekeschus, Sander; Wende, Kristian; Vollmar, Brigitte; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Cold plasma has been successfully applied in several fields of medicine that require, for example, pathogen inactivation, implant functionalization or alteration of cellular activity. Previous studies have provided evidence that plasma supports the healing of wounds owing to its beneficial mixtures of reactive species and modulation of inflammation in cells and tissues. To investigate the wound healing activity of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet in vivo, we examined the cold plasma's efficacy on dermal regeneration in a murine model of dermal full-thickness ear wound. Over 14 days, female mice received daily plasma treatment. Quantitative analysis by transmitted light microscopy demonstrated a significantly accelerated wound re-epithelialization at days 3-9 in comparison with untreated controls. In vitro, cold plasma altered keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, while both cell types showed significant stimulation resulting in accelerated closure of gaps in scratch assays. This plasma effect correlated with the downregulation of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 which is thought to be important in the regulation of wound healing. In addition, plasma induced profound changes in adherence junctions and cytoskeletal dynamics as shown by downregulation of E-cadherin and several integrins as well as actin reorganization. Our results theorize cold plasma to be a beneficial treatment option supplementing existing wound therapies.

  19. X-ray tube-based diffraction enhanced imaging prototype images of full-thickness breast specimens: reader study evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulconer, L. S.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. J.; Koomen, M.; Kuzmiak, C.; Pavic, D.; Livasy, C. A.; Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Cole, E. B.; Zhong, Z.; Pisano, E. D.

    2009-02-01

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted and scattered or refracted x-rays. This leads to image blurring and contrast reduction, hindering the early detection of small or otherwise occult cancers. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for dramatically increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging due to monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. Our laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) utilizing a readily available Tungsten xray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60keV. To demonstrate the clinical utility of our DEI-PR, we acquired images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens on synchrotron-based DEI, DEI-PR and digital mammography systems. A reader study was designed to allow unbiased assessment of system performance when analyzing three systems with dissimilar imaging parameters and requiring analysis of images unfamiliar to radiologists. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and histopathology correlation after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. Preliminary data analysis suggests that our DEI system performed roughly equivalently with the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  20. Improved Methods to Produce Tissue-Engineered Skin Substitutes Suitable for the Permanent Closure of Full-Thickness Skin Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Larouche, Danielle; Cantin-Warren, Laurence; Desgagné, Maxime; Guignard, Rina; Martel, Israël; Ayoub, Akram; Lavoie, Amélie; Gauvin, Robert; Auger, François A.; Moulin, Véronique J.; Germain, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a clinical need for skin substitutes to replace full-thickness skin loss. Our group has developed a bilayered skin substitute produced from the patient's own fibroblasts and keratinocytes referred to as Self-Assembled Skin Substitute (SASS). After cell isolation and expansion, the current time required to produce SASS is 45 days. We aimed to optimize the manufacturing process to standardize the production of SASS and to reduce production time. The new approach consisted in seeding keratinocytes on a fibroblast-derived tissue sheet before its detachment from the culture plate. Four days following keratinocyte seeding, the resulting tissue was stacked on two fibroblast-derived tissue sheets and cultured at the air–liquid interface for 10 days. The resulting total production time was 31 days. An alternative method adapted to more contractile fibroblasts was also developed. It consisted in adding a peripheral frame before seeding fibroblasts in the culture plate. SASSs produced by both new methods shared similar histology, contractile behavior in vitro and in vivo evolution after grafting onto mice when compared with SASSs produced by the 45-day standard method. In conclusion, the new approach for the production of high-quality human skin substitutes should allow an earlier autologous grafting for the treatment of severely burned patients. PMID:27872793

  1. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:27600999

  2. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  3. Topical effectiveness of kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin ointment on removal of necrotic tissue of full-thickness burns in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kooshiar, Hadi; Abbaspour, Hadi; Motamed Al Shariati, Seyed Mohamad; Rakhshandeh, Hasan; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Esmaily, Habibollah; Vahdati Nia, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Formation of necrotic tissues is a major issue affecting treatment of full-thickness burns. This study was designed to compare topical effectiveness of applying kiwifruit versus fibrinolysin on removal of necrotic tissue of burns. Ten adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. For group 1, the right-side wounds were treated with kiwifruit and the other side with fibrinolysin. For group 2, the wounds on the right side were treated with kiwifruit or fibrinolysin, and the left sides were kept as control group 2. All wounds in group 3 were considered as control group 1. The control wounds were left to heal naturally. In each group and for each wound, the time of debridement were noted. The results indicated that for the wounds where kiwifruit was applied, the average time for removal of dead tissue was 5.7 days, which is significantly shorter than the average 18.5 days it took for treatment with fibrinolysin (p = 0.02). However, there were no significant differences between control wounds 1 and 2. Findings of the present study can open new horizons and provide a new treatment modality for patients with deep burns.

  4. Inflight source noise of an advanced full-scale single-rotation propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1991-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full scale SR-7L advanced turboprop which was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream II aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long distance propagation models to predict en route noise. Inflight data were taken for 7 test cases. The sideline directivities measured by the Learjet showed expected maximum levels near 105 degrees from the propeller upstream axis. However, azimuthal directivities based on the maximum observed sideline tone levels showed highest levels below the aircraft. An investigation of the effect of propeller tip speed showed that the tone level of reduction associated with reductions in propeller tip speed is more significant in the horizontal plane than below the aircraft.

  5. [Previously expanded full-thickness skin grafts. Technical principles. Indications in the repair of sequelae of burns. Apropos of 22 cases].

    PubMed

    Foyatier, J L; Gounot, N; Comparin, J P; Delay, E; Masson, C L; Latarjet, J

    1995-06-01

    Burns raise difficult repair problems. Previously expanded full-thickness skin grafts represent a good solution in many situations. Based on their experience of 22 cases, the authors present a review of the various indications for this technique.

  6. Development of ethyl alcohol-precipitated silk sericin/polyvinyl alcohol scaffolds for accelerated healing of full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Siritienthong, Tippawan; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2012-12-15

    Silk sericin has been recently reported for its advantageous biological properties to promote wound healing. In this study, we established that the ethyl alcohol (EtOH) could be used to precipitate sericin and form the stable sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds without the crosslinking. The sericin/PVA scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying and subsequently precipitating in various concentrations of EtOH. The EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds showed denser structure, higher compressive modulus, but lower water swelling ability than the non-precipitated scaffolds. Sericin could be released from the EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds in a sustained manner. After cultured with L929 mouse fibroblasts, the 70 vol% EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds showed the highest potential to promote cell proliferation. After applied to the full-thickness wounds of rats, the 70 vol% EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds showed significantly higher percentage of wound size reduction and higher extent of type III collagen formation and epithelialization, compared with the control scaffolds without sericin. The accelerated wound healing by the 70 vol% EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds was possibly due to (1) the bioactivity of sericin itself to promote wound healing, (2) the sustained release of precipitated sericin from the scaffolds, and (3) the activation and recruitment of wound healing-macrophages by sericin to the wounds. This finding suggested that the EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds were more effective for the wound healing, comparing with the EtOH-precipitated PVA scaffolds without sericin.

  7. Microporous Dermal-Mimetic Electrospun Scaffolds Pre-Seeded with Fibroblasts Promote Tissue Regeneration in Full-Thickness Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Bonvallet, Paul P.; Schultz, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Bain, Jennifer L.; Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Thomas, Steven J.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL) containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344) rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14%) over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold). Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration. Collectively these

  8. Radiologist Evaluation of an X-ray Tube Based Diffraction Enhanced Imaging Prototype Using Full Thickness Breast Specimens.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulconer, L.; Zhong, Z.; Parham, C.; Connor, D. M.; , Kim, E.; Zeng, D.; Livasy, C.; Cole, E.; Kuzmiak, C.; Koomen, M.; Pavic, D.; Pisano, E.

    2009-05-21

    Conventional mammographic image contrast is derived from x-ray absorption, resulting in breast structure visualization due to density gradients that attenuate radiation without distinction between transmitted, scattered, or refracted x-rays. Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) allows for increased contrast with decreased radiation dose compared to conventional mammographic imaging because of monochromatic x-rays, its unique refraction-based contrast mechanism, and excellent scatter rejection. However, a lingering drawback to the clinical translation of DEI has been the requirement for synchrotron radiation. The authors laboratory developed a DEI prototype (DEI-PR) using a readily available tungsten x-ray tube source and traditional DEI crystal optics, providing soft tissue images at 60 keV. Images of full-thickness human breast tissue specimens were acquired on synchrotron-based DEI (DEI-SR), DEI-PR, and digital mammographic systems. A panel of expert radiologists evaluated lesion feature visibility and correlation with pathology after receiving training on the interpretation of refraction contrast mammographic images. For mammographic features (mass, calcification), no significant differences were detected between the DEI-SR and DEI-PR systems. Benign lesions were perceived as better seen by radiologists using the DEI-SR system than the DEI-PR system at the [111] reflectivity, with generalizations limited by small sample size. No significant differences between DEI-SR and DEI-PR were detected for any other lesion type (atypical, cancer) at either crystal reflectivity. Thus, except for benign lesion characterizations, the DEI-PR system's performance was roughly equivalent to that of the traditional DEI system, demonstrating a significant step toward clinical translation of this modality for breast cancer applications.

  9. Reconstructed epidermis and full-thickness skin for absorption testing: influence of the vehicles used on steroid permeation.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Mahmoud, Ashraf; Lombardi Borgia, Simone; Brüggener, Barbara; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schreiber, Sylvia; Mehnert, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    A protocol for percutaneous absorption studies has been validated, based on the use of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) and aqueous solutions of test substances. However, it is often the case that it is more-complex formulations of drugs or chemicals which will make contact with the skin surface. To investigate whether RHE and the reconstructed full-thickness skin model (FT-model) can be used to predict uptake from formulations, we compared the permeation of hydrocortisone and testosterone when applied in emulsion form and as a solution containing the penetration enhancer, ethanol. Human and pig skin and a non-cornified alveolar model served as references. The results were compared with steroid release from the formulations. The permeation rates of the steroids were ranked as: alveolar model > RHE > FT-model, pig skin > human skin. In accordance with the rapid hydrocortisone release from the formulations, the permeation rates of this steroid exceeded those of testosterone. Only minor differences were observed when comparing the testosterone formulations, in terms of release and permeation. However, the ranking of the permeation of the hydrocortisone formulations was: solution > w/o emulsion > o/w emulsion, which permitted the elucidation of penetration enhancing effects, which is not possible with drug release studies. Differences in penetration were most obvious with native skin and reconstructed tissues, which exhibited a well-developed penetration barrier. In conclusion, RHE and skin preparations may be useful in the development of topical dermatics, and in the framework of hazard analysis of toxic compounds and their various formulations.

  10. Reconstruction of anterior auricular conchal defect after malignancy excision: revolving-door flap versus full-thickness skin graft.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Luca Andrea; Figus, Andrea; Fioramonti, Paolo; Mazzocchi, Marco; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2010-05-01

    Skin tumours of the anterior auricular concha are not uncommon. Wider excision and immediate reconstruction are required to reduce the risks of recurrence of the disease, cartilage infection and external ear distortion. Many surgical methods have been described for reconstruction of conchal defects. Post-auricular island flaps, such as the revolving-door (RD) flap, and full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) are the most-performed procedures. Although the RD flap has been fully described, it is not widely accepted and many surgeons, in their daily practice, prefer to use FTSG. It is a common experience that FTSGs are more subjected to centripetal contraction, decreasing the structural firmness of the conchal cavity and affecting functional and aesthetic outcomes. Furthermore, FTSGs are more prone to delay in wound healing due to the difficult access to this region that hinders adequate tie-over dressings. Between March 2003 and January 2007, 40 patients affected by T1 and T2 non-melanotic skin cancer and T1 melanoma of the anterior conchal surface of the external ear were included in a prospective study and randomly assigned to the RD reconstructed group or to the FTSG reconstructed group to investigate, compare and define advantages and disadvantages of both the techniques. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the overall outcome and the colour and texture match. No flap or skin graft total loss was observed. Six patients (30%) showed partial failure of FTSG. The RD group demonstrated excellent cosmetic outcome, ideal colour match, adequate structure of external ear, projection and shape. Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank-sum test demonstrated statistically significant higher scores for the RD group compared to the FTSG group (p<0.0001). The RD harvesting technique is easy and quicker than the FTSG technique. RD flap should be considered as the first choice for reconstruction of anterior auricular conchal defects following wider excision of skin tumours.

  11. Nanotechnology promotes the full-thickness diabetic wound healing effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuejie; Yu, Demin; Wang, Penghua; Xu, Jun; Li, Daiqing; Ding, Min

    2010-01-01

    We utilized a modified double-emulsion method with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as the carrier to prepare recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) nanoparticles. The morphology of the nanoparticles was detected by a transmission electron microscope. The particle size distribution was measured by a laser analyzer with a zeta potential meter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine the rhEGF encapsulation efficiency and release model, and the proliferation of the mouse fibroblasts was analyzed by the MTT method. Diabetic rats with full-thickness wounds were divided into four groups according to different treatments: rhEGF nanoparticles, rhEGF stock solution, empty nanoparticles, and phosphate-buffered saline. Photographs were taken after the treatments to calculate the wound healing rates, and the granulation tissue of the wounds was sampled for pathologic slides. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was assayed by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that the rhEGF nanoparticles were around 193.5 nm (diameter), and the particle size distribution was uniform and dispersible. The encapsulation efficiency was 85.6% and rhEGF release lasted 24 hours. Compared with other groups, the rhEGF nanoparticles promoted the highest level of fibroblast proliferation, and this group showed the fastest healing rate. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells in the rhEGF nanoparticles group was higher than the other groups. We concluded that controlled release of rhEGF encapsulated in the nanoparticles enhanced rhEGF effects to stimulate cell proliferation and shorten the wound healing time.

  12. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B.; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection—first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple

  13. A Cutaneous Full-Thickness Liquid Sulfur Mustard Burn Model in Weanling Swine: Clinical Pathology and Urinary Excretion of Thiodiglycol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    studies.17 Meyer and co-workers con- cluded that, among the domestic species, the pig pro- vides the most suitable experimental model for derma ...i.d. DB-5 bonded phase column of 0.25 (Jim film thickness (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA). Helium was used as the carrier gas at a column head pressure

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dorsal wall length, sole thickness, and rotation of the distal phalanx in the bovine claw using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tsuka, T; Murahata, Y; Azuma, K; Osaki, T; Ito, N; Okamoto, Y; Imagawa, T

    2014-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 800 untrimmed claws (400 inner claws and 400 outer claws) of 200 pairs of bovine hindlimbs to investigate the relationships between dorsal wall length and sole thickness, and between dorsal wall length and the relative rotation angle of distal phalanx-to-sole surface (S-D angle). Sole thickness was 3.8 and 4.0 mm at the apex of the inner claws and outer claws, respectively, with dorsal wall lengths <70 mm. These sole thickness values were less than the critical limit of 5 mm, which is associated with a softer surface following thinning of the soles. A sole thickness of 5 mm at the apex was estimated to correlate with dorsal wall lengths of 72.1 and 72.7 mm for the inner and outer claws, respectively. Sole thickness was 6.1 and 6.4 mm at the apex of the inner and outer claws, respectively, with dorsal wall lengths of 75 mm. These sole thickness values were less than the recommended sole thickness of 7 mm based on the protective function of the soles. A sole thickness >7 mm at the apex was estimated to correlate with a dorsal wall length of 79.8 and 78.4mm for the inner and outer claws, respectively. The S-D angles were recorded as anteversions of 2.9° and 4.7° for the inner and outer claws, respectively, with a dorsal wall length of 75 mm. These values indicate that the distal phalanx is likely to have rotated naturally forward toward the sole surface. The distal phalanx rotated backward to the sole surface at 3.2° and 7.6° for inner claws with dorsal wall lengths of 90-99 and ≥100 mm, respectively; and at 3.5° for outer claws with a dorsal wall length ≥100 mm. Dorsal wall lengths of 85.7 and 97.2 mm were estimated to correlate with a parallel positional relationship of the distal phalanx to the sole surface in the inner and outer claws, respectively.

  15. Wound contraction effects and antibacterial properties of Tualang honey on full-thickness burn wounds in rats in comparison to hydrofibre

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo. Methods Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Under anaesthesia, three full-thickness burn wounds were created on the dorsum of the rats. The full-thickness burn wounds were inoculated with a specific organism (104), namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 12), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 12). The three burn wounds were dressed with Tualang honey, hydrofibre and hydrofibre silver respectively. Swab samples were obtained every 3 days (day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21) for quantitative and semi-quantitative microbiological analyses. Clinical assessments, including observations concerning the appearance and wound size, were measured at the same time. Results There was a rapid 32.26% reduction in wound size by day 6 (p = 0.008) in the Tualang honey-treated wounds, and 49.27% by day 15 (p = 0.005). The wounds remained smaller by day 18 (p < 0.032). Tualang honey-treated rats demonstrated a reduction in bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated wounds (p = 0.005). However, hydrofibre silver and hydrofibre-treated wounds are superior to honey-treated wounds with Acinetobacter baumannii (p = 0.035). There was no statistical significant of antibacterial property in Klebsiella pneumonia inoculated wounds. Conclusions Tualang honey has better results with regards to its control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its wound contraction effects on full-thickness burn wound in vivo

  16. Clinical Outcomes and Safety of Partial Full-Thickness Myotomy versus Circular Muscle Myotomy in Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenyu; Zhang, Jingwen; Ge, Linmei; Xia, Nan; Leng, Jing; Li, Mei; Liu, Yanjie

    2017-01-01

    Background. Here we aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety between partial full-thickness myotomy and circular muscle myotomy during POEM procedure in achalasia patients. Methods. Clinical data of achalasia of cardia (AC) patients who underwent POEM in our center during January 2014 to January 2015 was collected (34 cases). 19 patients who received partial full-thickness myotomy were assigned to group A and 14 patients who received circular muscle myotomy were assigned to group B. The procedure-related parameters between the two groups were compared. Symptom relief rate and postprocedure manometry outcomes were compared to evaluate the efficacy. Procedure-related adverse events and complications were compared to evaluate the safety. Results. (1) Mean operation times were significantly shorter in group A than group B (62.42 ± 23.17 vs 87.86 ± 26.44 min, p < 0.01). (2) Symptom relief rate and postprocedure manometry outcomes had no statistical differences when compared between the two groups (all p > 0.05). (3) Comparison of procedure-related adverse events and complications had no statistical differences (all p > 0.05). Conclusion. Partial full-thickness myotomy had no significant differences in efficacy or safety with circular myotomy, but partial full-thickness myotomy significantly reduced the procedure time. PMID:28316620

  17. Epidermal Stem Cells Cultured on Collagen-Modified Chitin Membrane Induce In Situ Tissue Regeneration of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Li, Xiaojian; Liang, Rong; Guan, Guangxiong; Zhang, Zhi; Cao, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhihe; Mei, Shirley; Liang, Weiguo; Qin, Shennan; Xu, Jiake; Chen, Honghui

    2014-01-01

    A Large scale of full-thickness skin defects is lack of auto-grafts and which requires the engineered skin substitutes for repair and regeneration. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is to expand epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and develop functional substitutes. The other one is the scaffold of the ESCs. Here, we applied type I collagen-modified chitin membrane to form collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM), which has been proved to have a great biocompatibility and degraded totally when it was subcutaneously transplanted into rat skin. ESCs were cultured, and the resulting biofilm was used to cover full-thickness skin defects in nude mice. The transplantation of ESCs- collagen- chitn biomimetic membrane (ESCs-C-CBM) has achieved in situ skin regeneration. In nude mice, compared to controls with collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM) only, the ESCs-C-CBM group had significantly more dermatoglyphs on the skin wound 10 w after surgery, and the new skin was relatively thick, red and elastic. In vivo experiments showed obvious hair follicle cell proliferation in the full-thickness skin defect. Stem cell markers examination showed active ESCs in repair and regeneration of skin. The results indicate that the collagen-modified chitin membrane carry with ESCs has successfully regenerated the whole skin with all the skin appendages and function. PMID:24516553

  18. A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoseob; Han, Dae Hee; Lee, Il Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. Methods We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Results Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. Conclusions A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft. PMID:24665420

  19. The full GHG balance of croplands under seven-year rotation scheme and conventional tillage practices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Sakowska, Karolina; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Uzdzicka, Bogna; Strozecki, Marcin; Polmanska, Daria; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Augustin, Juergen; Necki, Jarek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gases fluxes were measured with chambers on the selected plots of the experimental arable station of Poznan University of Life Sciences in Brody (52o26'N, 16o18'E), Poland. This is a long term experiment, where the same crops are cultivated under the same fertilization treatment schemes (eleven combinations) since 1957. At the blocks of the full 7-year rotation, there are cultivated in permanent rotation: winter wheat ->winter rye -> potato ->spring barley -> triticale and alfalfa (till the second year). GHG fluxes have been measured on plots with the same fertilization level (Nmin-90kg, K2O-120 kg/ha, P2O5-60 kg/ha and Ca), which is very close to the average amount of mineral fertilization applied in western Poland. No catch crops were cultivated between the main crops. The soil was classified as Albic Luviosols according to FAO 2006 classification. CO2 fluxes have been measured monthly since March 2011, while N2O and CH4 fluxes since March 2012 (weekly) and measurements were continued till October 2013. CO2 fluxes were measured with dynamic chambers, while N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured with both static and dynamic chambers approaches (using LOSGATOS gas analyser). Carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) have been modelled for the entire period based on the measured fluxes (different management treatments were included in the model), while N2O and CH4 fluxes were linearly interpolated between campaigns. Taking into account the accumulation periods between 15th of October and 14th of October of the next year the cumulated NEE was negative only in case of alfalfa, winter rye and winter wheat, reaching in average -3.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for alfalfa and winter rye fields and around -0.4 tCO2-C ha-1 for winter wheat in seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. While, cumulated NEE for spring crops (potato and spring barley) was positive for the same periods and reached in average 1.1 tCO2-C ha-1 and 2.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for spring barley and

  20. Pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting for the reconstruction of anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Successful reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn represents a very challenging surgery. Herein we report the first case using pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting to treat this injury with severe infection and exposure of pericardium and ribs in a Chinese patient. Following the performance of chest debridement to remove necrotic and infected tissues and the injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce infection, a pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap was used to cover the exposed pericardium and ribs, and skin grafting from the right leg of the patient was done to cover the exposed vital tissues. The patient was followed up for a total of 3·5 years, and satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes were obtained without complications. This report provides an effective method for the surgeons who encounter similar cases where reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall is required.

  1. Observations on Serial Plasma Citrulline Concentrations in a Patient with Intestinal Ischemia and Full-Thickness Necrosis After Severe Thermal Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    with intestinal ischemia and full-thickness necrosis after severe thermal injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...hospital course (postburn hours 28–39). Our burn center recently reported a rate of intestinal ischemia of 1.7% over a 5-year period.6 Early use of...gut perfu- sion, enterocyte mass loss, and a need for temporary discontinuation of enteral nutrition? A clear definition of intestinal dysfunction and

  2. Efficacy of bubaline fibrin glue on full-thickness pinch and punch skin grafting in a pig.

    PubMed

    Dejyong, Krittee; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Brikshavana, Pasakorn; Durongphongtorn, Sumit

    2017-03-01

    Fibrin glue, which is formed from the action of thrombin (a serine protease) on fibrinogen, has been developed for use as an adhesive to increase the success of skin graft surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate if bubaline fibrin glue would promote skin graft survival in pigs. The grafting was divided into two steps. First, granulation wound preparation was performed in a healthy swine by creating four full-skin depth wounds (3 × 12 cm(2)) at the dorsal part of the loin area on each side. Second, pinch and punch skin grafting, where eight skin discs (0.6 cm diameter) were regularly placed (0.6 cm distance apart) in the granulation tissue bed of each wound, was performed 5 days later. The bubaline fibrin glue was added prior to application of the 16 skin graft discs in two of the wounds, while no glue was added to the other 16 skin graft discs in the other two wounds. The number of surviving graft pieces and histological examination was evaluated after 3, 7, and 14 days post-operation and compared by pairing between the control and the bubaline fibrin glue groups. The number of grafts that remained at 3 and 7 days post-operation and the number of new microvessels at 3 days post-operation were significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in the bubaline fibrin glue group than in the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the number of fibroblasts, the intensity of scarring and the intensity of inflammation between the two groups, except for the significantly lower intensity of inflammation at 7 days post-operation in the bubaline fibrin glue group. In conclusion, bubaline fibrin glue has the advantage of decreasing the skin graft loss by approximately 31.3-37.5% compared with the control group and also promotes angiogenesis.

  3. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-12-01

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  4. The role of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in healing of induced full-thickness skin wound in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Somia H; El-Shal, Amal S; Shalaby, Sally M; Abd-Elbary, Eman; Mazen, Nehad F; Abdel Kader, Rania R

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effect of placenta-derived MSCs (PDMSCs) injection intraregionally and intraperitoneally on healing of induced full thickness mice skin wounds; moreover, the mechanisms by which MSCs exert their effects were also studied. Sixty female mice were divided into three groups after induction of full thickness skin wound; untreated group, wounded mice were injected with MSCs derived from human placenta intraperitoneally or intraregionally. Skin biopsies were obtained 7 and 12 days after wound incision for histological examinations, detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ELISA, and estimation of expression of mouse ICAM-1, Integrin β1, Integrin β3 genes and human albumin and GAPDH genes by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Human placenta derived-MSCs treated groups showed accelerated wound healing than non-treated group. VEGF, Integrin β1, and Integrin β3 levels were significantly increased in the intraregionally and intraperitoneally treated mice as compared to non-treated group at day 7 after wound induction. ICAM-1 showed significant decrease in its expression in treated groups compared with non-treated group. Interestingly, the intraperitoneal MSCs injections showed better results than intraregional one. PDMSCs accelerate full thickness skin wound healing and the intraperitoneal MSCs injections are more effective than intraregional one. MSCs promote wound healing through release of proangiogenic factors as VEGF, increase healing promoting factors as integrin β1 and β3, and decrease proinflammatory cytokines as ICAM-1.

  5. Dynamic reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects using free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takuya; Mihara, Makoto; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Todokoro, Takeshi; Hara, Hisako; Yoshimatu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao; Kadono, Takafumi

    2013-03-01

    Reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Although various reconstructive methods, including artificial mesh, pedicled and free flaps, have been reported, most reported reconstruction of only the fascia layer, leaving the resected rectus abdominis muscle unreconstructed. However, recent studies suggested the importance of dynamic reconstruction with functional muscle in preventing abdominal hernia in the long-term. According to the principle of reconstructive surgery, "replace lost tissue with similar tissue," a functionally and aesthetically ideal reconstruction is to reconstruct all components of the abdominal wall structure, including skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle. We present 2 cases with full-thickness abdominal wall defects in the upper abdominal region, which we reconstructed with a free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis muscle was sutured with the intercostal nerve, and reinnervation was confirmed by electromyography. This method allows reconstruction of all components of the abdominal wall with a single flap, and dynamic reconstruction is achieved which will reduce the risk of postoperative hernia. We believe this method can be a good option for reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects with long-term stability.

  6. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    PubMed

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga

    2015-03-01

    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care.

  7. Successful closure of treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole using inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to present the outcome of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling flap technique for a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full-thickness macular hole (MH). Methods A 52-year-old man presented with complaints of decreased vision and seeing black spot. He was diagnosed to have a flat edge, full-thickness MH, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). He underwent 23G vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted inverted ILM peeling with an inverted flap over the hole followed by fluid gas exchange. Results Postoperative follow-up until 3 months showed successful closure of the MH, which was confirmed by OCT. The best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 6/60 to 6/12 at the final follow-up. Conclusion Using the inverted ILM flap technique, a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II), full thickness MH achieved successful anatomical and functional outcomes. PMID:27785110

  8. Cultivation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix (Matriderm®) and application for full thickness wound coverage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Killat, Jasper; Reimers, Kerstin; Choi, Claudia Y; Jahn, Sabrina; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

    2013-07-11

    New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation.

  9. Cultivation of agarose-based microfluidic hydrogel promotes the development of large, full-thickness, tissue-engineered articular cartilage constructs.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Stephen M; Barabino, Gilda A

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs of clinically relevant sizes continues to be plagued by poor nutrient transport to the interior of the construct. Consequences of poor mass transfer to the construct core include large gradients in cell viability and matrix deposition, as well as inadequate mechanical functionality. Prior literature has shown that embedded microfluidic channels offer the potential to control the spatial and temporal presentation of hydrodynamic and chemical cues within the developing tissue construct toward improved mass transfer. The current state of the art in microfluidic constructs, however, has fallen short of achieving sufficient thickness and robustness of constructs for further development towards translation. Towards this goal, we designed a microfluidic tissue construct and established bioprocessing conditions to meet nutrient transport requirements of a large, full-thickness, articular cartilage construct over a 2 week culture period. Our microfluidic constructs of 2.5 and 5 mm thicknesses showed enhanced cell proliferation relative to statically cultured constructs. These constructs, which are both thick and robust to culture periods of sufficient length to support extracellular matrix development, represent an important improvement over previously reported constructs which were thinner and lacking in extracellular matrix (most likely attributable to too-short culture periods). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Morphision: A method for subjective evaluation of metamorphopsia in patients with unilateral macular pathology (i.e., full thickness macular hole and epiretinal membrane)

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte, Marta; Shunmugam, Manoharan; Laidlaw, D Alistair H; Williamson, Tom H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of clinical tests to quantify spatial components of distortion in patients with full thickness macular holes (FTMH) and epiretinal membranes (ERM). Aim: To develop a test for subjective evaluation of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation in patients with unilateral FTMH or ERM. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study carried out at tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with unilateral macular disease (13 macular epiretinal membranes, 12 full-thickness macular holes), and nine controls (without ocular pathology) underwent ophthalmological examination with logMAR ETDRS visual acuity, near vision and contrast sensitivity assessed. Macular optical coherence tomography and metamorphopsia assessment using Morphision test was also carried out. This test consists of a set of modified Amsler charts for detection, identification, and subjective quantification of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation. Morphision test content and construct validity, and reliability (test-retest method) were evaluated. Sixteen patients completed an unstructured survey on test performance and preference. Results: Every patient with unilateral FTMH or ERM identified a particular chart using Morphision test (content validity). None of the normal subjects without symptoms of metamorphopsia identified any distortion (construct validity). Test-retest showed a 100% consistency for frequency and 67% for amplitude. The mean amplitude difference between measurements was 0.02 degrees (SD = 0.038). The coefficient of repeatability was 0.075. There was a correlation between Morphision amplitude score and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, individually. Conclusions: Morphision test allowed detection and subjective quantification of metamorphopsia in the clinical setting in our patients with unilateral macular epiretinal membranes and full thickness macular holes. PMID:24008785

  11. Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, ZhiHong; Gu, LiJuan; Zhang, DongLiang; Li, Zheng; Li, JingJie; Lee, MiRa; Wang, ChunYan; Wang, Zhen; Cho, JeongHee; Sung, Changkeun

    2012-05-01

    In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days), the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40) was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.

  12. RGTA OTR 4120, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan mimetic, increases wound breaking strength and vasodilatory capability in healing rat full-thickness excisional wounds.

    PubMed

    Tong, Miao; Zbinden, Mariken M; Hekking, Ineke J M; Vermeij, Marcel; Barritault, Denis; van Neck, Johan W

    2008-01-01

    ReGeneraTing Agents (RGTAs), a family of polymers engineered to protect and stabilize heparin-binding growth factors, have been shown to promote tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, the effects of one of these polymers, RGTA OTR4120, on healing of full-thickness excisional wounds in rats were investigated. Two 1.5 cm diameter circular full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the dorsum of a rat. After creation of the wounds, RGTA OTR4120 was applied. The progress of healing was assessed quantitatively by evaluating the wound closure rate, vasodilatory capability, and wound breaking strength. The results showed a triple increase of the local vascular response to heat provocation in the RGTA OTR4120-treated wounds as compared with vehicle-treated wounds. On days 14 and 79 after surgery, the wounds treated with RGTA OTR4120 gained skin strength 12% and 48% of the unwounded skin, respectively, and displayed a significantly increased gain in skin strength when compared with control animals. These results raise the possibility of efficacy of RGTA OTR4120 in accelerating surgically cutaneous wound healing by enhancing the wound breaking strength and improving the microcirculation.

  13. Development, optimization and characterization of a full-thickness tissue engineered human oral mucosal model for biological assessment of dental biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, K; Brook, I M; Van Noort, R; Scutt, A M; Smith, K G; Thornhill, M H

    2008-04-01

    Restorative dental materials and oral health care products come into direct contact with oral mucosa and can cause adverse reactions. In order to obtain an accurate risk assessment, the in vitro test model must reflect the clinical situation as closely as possible. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a three-dimensional full-thickness engineered human oral mucosal model, which can be used for biological assessment of dental materials. In this study human oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated from patients and seeded onto a number of collagen-based and synthetic scaffolds using a variety of cell seeding techniques and grown at the air/liquid interface to construct human oral mucosa equivalents. Suitability of 10 different scaffolds for engineering human oral mucosa was evaluated in terms of biocompatibility, biostability, porosity, and the ability to mimic normal human oral mucosa morphology. Finally an optimized full-thickness engineered human oral mucosa was developed and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining. The oral mucosa reconstruct resembled native human oral mucosa and it has the potential to be used as an accurate and reproducible test model in mucotoxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials.

  14. Concentrated Hypoxia-Preconditioned Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Wounds Healing in Full-Thickness Skin Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Biao; Guo, Shilei; Xu, Fei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the bioactive factors were utilized in exercise and athletic skin injuries. In this research, the concentrated conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which is rich in bioactive factor, is applied in full-thickness skin defect model to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues. The surface markers and the potential of differentiation were analyzed. The conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned stem cells was collected and freeze-dried and then applied on the rat full-thickness skin defect model, and the healing time of each group was recorded. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of skin was assessed by microscope. The characteristics of adipose mesenchymal stem cells were similar to those of other mesenchymal stem cells. The concentration of protein in freeze-dried conditioned medium in 1 mL water was about 15 times higher than in the normal condition medium. In vivo, the concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned conditioned medium can reduce the wound size and accelerate the skin wound healing. The concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium has great effect on rat model of wound healing, and it would be an ideal agent for wound care in clinical application. PMID:27433483

  15. Transepidermal water loss for probing full-thickness skin barrier function: correlation with tritiated water flux, sensitivity to punctures and diverse surfactant exposures.

    PubMed

    Elmahjoubi, Eman; Frum, Yakov; Eccleston, Gillian M; Wilkinson, Simon C; Meidan, Victor M

    2009-10-01

    Skin barrier function is a key parameter to consider when performing in vitro percutaneous absorption studies. Whilst tritiated water flux measurements were often used to assess skin integrity, recent decades have witnessed the emergence of the more rapid and user-friendly transepidermal water loss (TEWL) approach. Yet to date, the nature of the correlation between TEWL and skin barrier function in vitro has still not been comprehensively established. In this study, a novel TEWL device, operating on a cold-induced vapour sink principle, was used to probe the barrier function of full-thickness porcine skin. The method was sufficiently sensitive to show the influence of punctures on barrier function although the observed non-linear pattern suggested tissue swelling processes and/or capillary action could be occurring. The results of various surfactant application experiments strongly suggested that TEWL was indeed largely predictive of skin sample integrity. A key finding was that basal TEWL was linearly correlated with basal tritiated water flux (r(2)=0.80, n=63). Thus, a dedicated TEWL method can be used as a good alternative to water flux measurements for assessing full-thickness skin barrier function.

  16. Technical advance: Langerhans cells derived from a human cell line in a full-thickness skin equivalent undergo allergen-induced maturation and migration.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Krista; Spiekstra, Sander W; Waaijman, Taco; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2011-11-01

    In this report, the construction of a functional, immunocompetent, full-thickness skin equivalent (SE) is described, consisting of an epidermal compartment containing keratinocytes, melanocytes, and human LCs derived from the MUTZ-3 cell line (MUTZ-LC) and a fibroblast-populated dermal compartment. The CD1a(+)Langerin(+)HLA-DR(+) MUTZ-LCs populate the entire epidermis at a similar density to that found in native skin. Exposure of the SE to subtoxic concentrations of the allergens NiSO(4) and resorcinol resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis toward the fibroblast-populated dermal compartment. A significant dose-dependent up-regulation of the DC maturation-related CCR7 and IL-1β transcripts and of CD83 at the protein level upon epidermal exposure to both allergens was observed, indicative of maturation and migration of the epidermally incorporated LC. We have thus successfully developed a reproducible and functional full-thickness SE model containing epidermal MUTZ-LC. This model offers an alternative to animal testing for identifying potential chemical sensitizers and for skin-based vaccination strategies and provides a unique research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions.

  17. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  18. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  19. In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Oriented Scaffold-BMSC Construct for Enhancing Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weimin; Liu, Jian; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has been proven usefulness in cartilage defect repair. For effective cartilage repair, the structural orientation of the cartilage scaffold should mimic that of native articular cartilage, as this orientation is closely linked to cartilage mechanical functions. Using thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) technology, we have fabricated an oriented cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived scaffold with a Young's modulus value 3 times higher than that of a random scaffold. In this study, we test the effectiveness of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-scaffold constructs (cell-oriented and random) in repairing full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits. While histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed efficient cartilage regeneration and cartilaginous matrix secretion at 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation in both groups, the biochemical properties (levels of DNA, GAG, and collagen) and biomechanical values in the oriented scaffold group were higher than that in random group at early time points after implantation. While these differences were not evident at 24 weeks, the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the regenerated cartilage in the oriented scaffold-BMSC construct group were similar to that of native cartilage. These results demonstrate that an oriented scaffold, in combination with differentiated BMSCs can successfully repair full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits, and produce cartilage enhanced biomechanical properties. PMID:26695629

  20. The proximal and distal position of the radius relative to the ulna through a full range of elbow flexion and forearm rotation.

    PubMed

    Quigley, R J; Robicheaux, G W; Lee, T Q

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the position of the radius relative to the ulna through a complete range of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. Twenty cadaveric upper extremities were mounted on a testing jig that allowed simultaneous control of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. The longitudinal position of the radius relative to the ulna was measured using a three-dimensional digitizer at full pronation, mid-pronation (45°), neutral (0°), mid-supination (45°) and full supination at 10°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of elbow flexion. Our results showed that the radius is located distally when in supination and is located more proximally as it is rotated into pronation. The longitudinal position of the radius changes over 9 mm when moving through a complete arc of forearm rotation. The angle of elbow flexion had a secondary effect on the longitudinal position of the radius, causing changes of less than 0.8 mm.

  1. Reconstruction of a four-quadrant full-thickness abdominal wall defect after removal and debridement of an infected mesh hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, C; Schramm, S; Hankiss, J

    2011-02-01

    This case-report shows our experience with a patient, who underwent mesh hernioplasty followed by infection of the mesh and full-thickness loss of the abdominal wall after debridement due to necrosis. The anamnesis included generalised arteriosclerosis, chronic nicotine and alcohol abuse and recurring wound-healing disorders after surgical procedures. The initial infection was treated by radical debridement, targeted antibiotics and V.A.C.(®) Therapy. After this, a staged plastic reconstructive procedure with four pedicled flaps was performed. The functional integrity of the abdominal wall was completely re-established. The patient was able to continue her occupation as a facility manager. Although the use of free flaps is very common in modern plastic and reconstructive surgery, procedures such as pedicled flaps still have their significance for special indications. In this case, a full recovery of the abdominal wall with autologous tissue was successful under difficult vascular conditions by using local flaps.

  2. Comparison of fibrin sealant and staples for attaching split-thickness autologous sheet grafts in patients with deep partial- or full-thickness burn wounds: a phase 1/2 clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gibran, Nicole; Luterman, Arnold; Herndon, David; Lozano, Daniel; Greenhalgh, David G; Grubbs, Lisa; Schofield, Neil; Hantak, Edith; Callahan, Janice D; Schiestl, Nina; Riina, Louis H

    2007-01-01

    We undertook a multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical study to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fibrin sealant containing 4 IU/ml thrombin (FS 4IU) for the attachment of autologous sheet grafts in patients with deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. Fibrin sealant (FS 4IU) was compared with staples for adherence of sheet grafts in 40 patients. Patients had to have burn wounds measuring 40% TBSA or less with two comparable test sites measuring between 1% and 4% TBSA each. Wound beds were prepared before treatment assignment, which was randomized. Percent area of hematoma/seroma at Day 1 (P = .0138) and questionable viability at Day 5 (P = .0182) were significantly less for FS 4IU-treated sites. Median percent area of graft survival on Day 14 was 100% for both treatments (P = .3525). The percentage of completely closed sites generally was greater for FS 4IU-sites on Days 5 to 91; the maximum difference occurred at Day 28 (79.5% vs 59%; P = .0215). The safety profile of FS 4IU was excellent as indicated by the lack of any related serious adverse experiences. These findings indicate that FS 4IU is safe and effective for fixation of skin grafts, with outcomes similar to or better than staple fixation. The data suggest that FS 4IU is a promising candidate for further clinical studies focusing on skin graft adhesion and burn wound healing.

  3. Modelling meltwater delivery to the ice-bed interface through full thickness fractures on outlet glaciers of the western Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clason, C.; Mair, D.; Nienow, P. W.

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic response to increased supraglacial meltwater generation and subsequent influx to the subglacial hydrological system is well documented in temperate glaciers. Meltwater-enhanced acceleration of ice surface velocities, or ‘spring events’, have also more recently been observed on polythermal glaciers and outlet glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). These high velocity events may be a response to increased basal lubrication and basal water pressures when meltwater reaches the subglacial system directly through moulins. Supraglacial meltwater can provide hydrostatic stresses adequate to offset closure due to the lithostatic stress of the ice when streams intersect and enter surface crevasses. A crevasse will continue to propagate through the full ice thickness provided the meltwater head within the crevasse remains sufficient, thereby allowing this flux of meltwater to be delivered to the ice-bed interface. A spatially distributed model for prediction of full ice thickness water-driven fracture and quantification of meltwater delivered to the bed has been produced. The model consists of three major components: the first sub-routine calculates surface tensile stresses from measured ice surface velocities and identifies areas likely to contain crevassing following the Von Mises failure criteria; the second is a degree day melt model and flow routing model run using measured meteorological inputs; the third sub-routine calculates crevasse penetration depths using an established linear elastic fracture mechanics model for propagation of water-filled fractures. The daily outputs of melt modelling weight routing of meltwater across the ice surface, and in turn determine the discharge into crevasses. This allows the supraglacial meltwater head, and thus fracture propagation speed, to vary daily within crevasse depth modelling. The temporal resolution of the model also allows the evolution of moulin formation through the ablation season to be captured. We

  4. Wound dressings composed of copper-doped borate bioactive glass microfibers stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Cheng, Xiangguo; Zhou, Nai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better wound dressings that possess the requisite angiogenic capacity for rapid in situ healing of full-thickness skin wounds. Borate bioactive glass microfibers are showing a remarkable ability to heal soft tissue wounds but little is known about the process and mechanisms of healing. In the present study, wound dressings composed of borate bioactive glass microfibers (diameter = 0.4-1.2 μm; composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 54B2O3, 2P2O5; mol%) doped with 0-3.0 wt.% CuO were created and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the fibers degraded and converted to hydroxyapatite within ∼7 days, releasing ions such as Ca, B and Cu into the medium. In vitro cell culture showed that the ionic dissolution product of the fibers was not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts, promoted HUVEC migration, tubule formation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stimulated the expression of angiogenic-related genes of the fibroblasts. When used to treat full-thickness skin defects in rodents, the Cu-doped fibers (3.0 wt.% CuO) showed a significantly better capacity to stimulate angiogenesis than the undoped fibers and the untreated defects (control) at 7 and 14 days post-surgery. The defects treated with the Cu-doped and undoped fibers showed improved collagen deposition, maturity and orientation when compared to the untreated defects, the improvement shown by the Cu-doped fibers was not markedly better than the undoped fibers at 14 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the Cu-doped borate glass microfibers have a promising capacity to stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects. They also provide valuable data for understanding the role of the microfibers in healing soft tissue wounds.

  5. 2-year postoperative evaluation of a patient with a symptomatic full-thickness patellar cartilage defect repaired with particulated juvenile cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Kevin F; Daner, William; Yao, Jian Q

    2010-06-01

    This case report describes the early results of a 36-year-old man who underwent repair of a symptomatic full-thickness patellar cartilage defect with transplanted particulated juvenile articular cartilage. At 2 years postoperatively, the patient has experienced substantial clinical improvement in both pain and function when evaluated with both International Knee Documentation Committee subjective evaluation and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score outcome measures. Two-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates fill of the defect with repair tissue and near complete resolution of preoperative subchondral bone edema. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case report is the first to report clinical results of this new technique at 2 years postoperatively.

  6. The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabe, N.; Yoshinao, M. )

    1991-07-01

    Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  7. COHORT SAFETY AND EFFICACY STUDY OF SILURON2000 EMULSIFICATION-RESISTANT SILICONE OIL AND F4H5 IN THE TREATMENT OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLE

    PubMed Central

    Pinxten, Anne-Marie; Wong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of using Siluron2000 silicone oil in the treatment of full-thickness macular hole by comparing its propensity to emulsify with emulsification of the “gold standard” Siluron5000, and to assess safety and efficacy of F4H5 (perfluorobutylpentane) in removing emulsified oil droplets from the eye. Methods: A single-center, randomized controlled parallel group trial in 72 patients undergoing vitrectomy for treatment of full-thickness macular hole. The study comprises four treatment groups. First, the total patient group was divided into 2 study arms of 36 patients each, receiving either Siluron2000 or Siluron5000 after vitrectomy with a 3-month follow-up after vitrectomy. Second, F4H5 was used during oil removal in half of the patients in each study arm (18 patients within each study arm) with follow-up at 6 weeks after oil removal. Oil droplets were counted within the removed oil; residual emulsification bubbles were quantified using ultrasound imaging. Results: Safety and efficacy of the oils were comparable. Injection and removal time of Siluron2000 oil was significantly less than that of Siluron5000 oil. Patients treated with F4H5 had borderline significantly less emulsification droplets than those not treated with F4H5. Conclusion: Siluron2000 silicone oil seems to be equally safe and effective as Siluron5000 oil but allows for better handling with the potential of reducing procedure time. The application of F4H5 seems to be safe and effective in reducing residual emulsification. PMID:26066703

  8. Development of a short-term human full-thickness skin organ culture model in vitro under serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Kleszczyński, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W

    2012-09-01

    Skin exerts a variety of important functions to maintain its integrity and viability. It can be used as an experimental ex vivo model to study wound healing, oxidative stress, skin aging, carcinogenesis as well as topical or "systemic" therapeutic intervention in vitro. This report aims to validate a serum-free human full-thickness skin organ culture model with regard to dependency of skin viability on culture duration and location of skin cross-section (1-5) from the outer (section 1) to the inner side (section 5) of a skin specimen (5 × 10 mm). Cultured skin was analyzed in time-dependent manner for structural damage (H&E staining) and 'balance' between proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis [cleavage of caspase-3, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), TUNEL]. First structural disturbances were observed at 48 h (section 3; middle part), increasing with prolonged culture time. Cleavage of caspase-3 and appearance of apoptotic [TUNEL(+)] cells showed significant increase at 72 h in sections 4 and 5, respectively. This correlated to increasing LDH release. Parallel analysis of proliferating [Ki67(+)] cells revealed simultaneous down-regulation within the first 48 h reaching complete absence of Ki67(+) cells at 72 h. These data define an accurate, standardized and robust serum-free short-term ex vivo human full-thickness skin model which is suitable for experimental studies of up to 48 or 72 h in vitro. This model therefore might be used for research related to, e.g., short-term experimentally induced inflammation, UV-induced structural and functional damage, wound healing and substance penetration.

  9. The combined effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor and erythropoietin on full-thickness wound healing in diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joon Pio; Park, Sung Woo

    2014-08-01

    Diabetic wound is a chronic wound in which normal process of wound healing is interrupted. Lack of blood supply, infection and lack of functional growth factors are assumed as some of the conditions that lead to non-healing environment. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts primarily to stimulate epithelial cell growth across wound. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a haematopoietic factor, which stimulates the production, differentiation and maturation of erythroid precursor cells. This study hypothesised combining these two factors, non-healing process of diabetic wound will be compensated and eventually lead to acceleration of wound healing compared with single growth factor treatment. A total of 30 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three treatment groups (single treatment of rh-EPO or rh-EGF or combined treatment on a full-thickness skin wound). To assess the wound healing effects of the components, the wound size and the healing time were measured in each treatment groups. The skin histology was examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating markers was performed. The combined treatment with rh-EPO and rh-EGF improved full-thickness wound significantly (P < 0·05) accelerating 50% healing time with higher expression of Ki-67 compared with single growth factor-treated groups. The combined treatment failed to accelerate the total healing time when compared with single growth factor treatments. However, the significant improvement were found in wound size reduction in the combined treatment group on day 4 against single growth factor-treated groups (P < 0·05). This study demonstrated that the combined treatment of rh-EPO and rh-EGF improved the wound healing possibly through a synergistic action of each growth factor. This application provides further insight into combined growth factor therapy on non-healing diabetic wounds.

  10. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. Methods In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150–200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. Result The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. Conclusions To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196 PMID:23866960

  11. The topical administration of rhEGF-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (rhEGF-NLC) improves healing in a porcine full-thickness excisional wound model.

    PubMed

    Gainza, Garazi; Bonafonte, Diego Celdran; Moreno, Beatriz; Aguirre, José Javier; Gutierrez, Francisco Borja; Villullas, Silvia; Pedraz, José Luis; Igartua, Manoli; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2015-01-10

    The development of an effective treatment able to reduce the healing time of chronic wounds is a major health care need. In this regard, our research group has recently demonstrated the in vivo effectiveness of the topical administration of rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles in healing-impaired db/db mice. Here we report the effectiveness of rhEGF-NLC (rhEGF loaded nanostructured lipid carriers) in a more relevant preclinical model of wound healing, the porcine full-thickness excisional wound model. The rhEGF-NLC showed a particle size of around 335nm, negative surface charge (-27mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency of 94%. rhEGF plasma levels were almost undetectable, suggesting that no systemic absorption occurred, which may minimise potential side effects and improve treatment safety. In vivo healing experiments carried out in large white pigs demonstrated that 20μg of rhEGF-NLC topically administered twice a week increased the wound closure and percentage of healed wounds by day 25, compared with the same number of intralesional administrations of 75μg free rhEGF and empty NLC. Moreover, rhEGF-NLC improved the wound healing quality expressed in terms of number of arranged microvasculature, fibroblast migration and proliferation, collagen deposition and evolution of the inflammatory response. Overall, these findings demonstrated that topically administered rhEGF-NLC may generate de novo intact skin after full thickness injury in a porcine model, thereby confirming their potential clinical application for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  12. A non-contacting approach for full field dynamic strain monitoring of rotating structures using the photogrammetry, finite element, and modal expansion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad

    Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or interior locations where failures may occur. Within this work, an unique expansion algorithm was extended and combined with finite element (FE) modeling and an optical measurement technique to identify the dynamic strain in rotating structures. The merit of the approach is shown by using the approach to predict the dynamic strain on a small non-rotating and rotating wind turbine. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-meter long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. A finite element model of the three wind turbine blades assembled to the hub was created and used to extract resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The FE model was validated and updated using experimental modal tests. For the non-rotating optical test, the turbine was excited using a sinusoidal excitation, a pluck test, arbitrary impacts on three blades, and random force excitations with a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure the displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the work show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for all of the three loading conditions. Similar to the non-rotating case, optical measurements were also preformed on a rotating wind turbine. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible

  13. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ayong; Zhao, Weiqi; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Zixu; Bao, Fangjun; Lu, Weicong; Wang, Qinmei; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were −15.8 to 9.5 μm and −27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry. PMID:26697213

  14. Evaluation of Central Corneal Thickness Using Corneal Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer Corvis ST and Comparison with Pentacam Rotating Scheimpflug System and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Normal Eyes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ayong; Zhao, Weiqi; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Zixu; Bao, Fangjun; Lu, Weicong; Wang, Qinmei; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by corneal dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer Corvis ST in normal eyes and compare the agreement with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug System and ultrasound pachymetry. Methods. 84 right eyes underwent Corvis ST measurements performed by two operators. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. CCT measurements also were obtained from Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry by the first operator. The agreement between the three devices was evaluated with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and Bland-Altman plots. Results. Corvis ST showed high repeatability as indicated by TRT ≤ 13.0 μm, CoV < 0.9%, and ICC > 0.97. The interoperator reproducibility was also excellent. The CoV was <0.9%, and ICC was >0.97. Corvis ST showed significantly lower values than Pentacam and ultrasound pachymetry (P < 0.001). The 95% LoA between Corvis ST and Pentacam or ultrasound pachymetry were -15.8 to 9.5 μm and -27.9 to 12.3 μm, respectively. Conclusions. Corvis ST showed excellent repeatability and interoperator reproducibility of CCT measurements in normal eyes. Corvis ST is interchangeable with Pentacam but not with ultrasound pachymetry.

  15. Computer program for calculating full potential transonic, quasi-three-dimensional flow through a rotating turbomachinery blade row

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A fast, reliable computer code is described for calculating the flow field about a cascade of arbitrary two dimensional airfoils. The method approximates the three dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for stream tube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. A fully conservative solution of the full potential equation is combined with the finite volume technique on a body-fitted periodic mesh, with an artificial density imposed in the transonic region to insure stability and the capture of shock waves. The instructions required to set up and use the code are included. The name of the code is QSONIC. A numerical example is also given to illustrate the output of the program.

  16. A case report on a full-thickness chest wall reconstruction with polypropylene mesh and stainless steel mesh concurrently using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Akimoto, Masataka; Hisayoshi, Takao; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    A full-thickness chest wall resection requires subsequent chest wall reconstruction. A chest wall resection and reconstruction was performed using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, together with polypropylene mesh (Marlex mesh) and stainless steel mesh (SSM). A 71-year-old man was diagnosed as having recurrent lung cancer in the chest wall, and underwent surgical resection. Marlex mesh was sutured to the posterior wall of the surgical defect. A portion of the SSM was adjusted to the size of the defect and cut out. Its edges were folded to make the portion into a plate. This SSM plate was placed anteriorly to the Marlex mesh and sutured to the ribs. The Marlex mesh was folded back on the SSM plate by 2 cm and fixed. After the above procedures, a left-sided TRAM flap was raised through a subcutaneous tunnel up to the defect and sutured to the region. The patient was discharged from hospital 19 days postoperatively. The wound was fine and he had no flail chest or dyspnea, and carcinomatous pain resolved.

  17. Histological evaluation of the healing properties of Dead Sea black mud on full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-al-Basal, Mariam A

    2012-04-01

    Dead Sea (DS) mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. Previous studies confirmed their efficacy in treating the more frequent skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the wound healing potential of natural and compounded skin-care product (facial mask) of DS black mud in BALB/c mice. Two full-thickness excision round wounds were created on the dorsum region of mouse. Each wound of mice test group were treated topically with 50 microL of 0.1% natural or compounded DS black mud or 50 microL of 0.2% nitrofurazone once a day for 2 consecutive days and the mice control group were left untreated. Healing was assessed by measuring the granulation tissue weight and percentage of wound contraction at day 3, 7, 14 and 21 after wounding. In addition to period of epithelialization and histological evaluation of the regenerated wound area at day 7 and 14 after wounding. Results revealed that DS black mud accelerate wound healing process by enhancing granulation, wound contraction, epithelialization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition. This may be due to high content of minerals and trace elements that possibly act as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with enhancement effect on cell proliferation, migration and fibroblast cellular activity. However, the healing property of DS black mud compounded in skin-care product was greater than that of natural black mud, when compared to reference drug, nitrofurazone.

  18. The effect of continuous release of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rh-EGF) in chitosan film on full thickness excisional porcine wounds.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joon Pio; Kim, Yeun Wha; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Sun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of continuously released recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rh-EGF) in chitosan film in full thickness porcine wounds. A total of 10 domestic pigs (Yorkshire species) weighing 18 to 22 kg between the ages of 50 to 60 days were used. The wounds were divided into 3 groups and treated selectively with rh-EGF in chitosan film (EGF 20 ug/wound/d), chitosan film without rh-EGF, or remained as the control group. One hundred percent healing time was observed, and hematoxylin and eosin and Anti Ki-67 antibody immunohistochemical staining were performed. The 100% healing time and Anti Ki-67 antibody immunohistochemical staining showed statistical significance of the rh-EGF chitosan film-treated group against the control group (P < 0.05). But it did not reveal any statistical significance over the chitosan film-treated group. In this preliminary study, although continuous release of rh-EGF in chitosan film accelerates epithelialization, the benefit of the combination of rh-EGF in chitosan cannot be determined over the use of chitosan alone. Further analysis using complex wound models such as diabetes or infection, which may have different pathology in healing, will be needed to evaluate the potential benefit/synergistic effectiveness.

  19. TSG-6 released from intradermally injected mesenchymal stem cells accelerates wound healing and reduces tissue fibrosis in murine full-thickness skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yu; Jiang, Dongsheng; Sindrilaru, Anca; Stegemann, Agatha; Schatz, Susanne; Treiber, Nicolai; Rojewski, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Vander Beken, Seppe; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Böhm, Markus; Seitz, Andreas; Scholz, Natalie; Dürselen, Lutz; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Ignatius, Anita; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Proper activation of macrophages (Mφ) in the inflammatory phase of acute wound healing is essential for physiological tissue repair. However, there is a strong indication that robust Mφ inflammatory responses may be causal for the fibrotic response always accompanying adult wound healing. Using a complementary approach of in vitro and in vivo studies, we here addressed the question of whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-due to their anti-inflammatory properties-would control Mφ activation and tissue fibrosis in a murine model of full-thickness skin wounds. We have shown that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated protein 6 (TSG-6) released from MSCs in co-culture with activated Mφ or following injection into wound margins suppressed the release of TNF-α from activated Mφ and concomitantly induced a switch from a high to an anti-fibrotic low transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/TGF-β3 ratio. This study provides insight into what we believe to be a previously undescribed multifaceted role of MSC-released TSG-6 in wound healing. MSC-released TSG-6 was identified to improve wound healing by limiting Mφ activation, inflammation, and fibrosis. TSG-6 and MSC-based therapies may thus qualify as promising strategies to enhance tissue repair and to prevent excessive tissue fibrosis.

  20. Local full-thickness skin graft of the donor arm--a novel technique for the reduction of donor site morbidity in radial forearm free flap.

    PubMed

    Riecke, B; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Al-Dam, A; Gröbe, A; Blessmann, M; Wikner, J

    2015-08-01

    A novel technique to reduce donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) harvest, using a local full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), is described. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing RFFF for head and neck reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective study. Donor site defect closure was performed with spindle-shaped FTSGs excised from the wavelike skin incision made for the vascular pedicle. Both the removal site of the FTSG on the volar forearm and the covered RFFF donor site healed uneventfully in 29 cases, with no impairment of function related to the skin graft. No skin graft failure and no exposure, tenting, or adherence of the flexor tendons occurred. All patients expressed satisfaction with postoperative pain, the functional outcome, and cosmetic appearance. Primary donor site defect closure could be achieved in all cases with the use of a local FTSG. This graft can be gained at the access incision for the vascular pedicle, avoids expansion of the incision for a local flap technique, and does not prolong wound healing, and thus reduces both donor site and graft site morbidity of the RFFF. This technique leads to an inconspicuous aesthetic result with no apparent relevant functional deficits and avoids the need for a second donor site.

  1. The healing effect of unrestricted somatic stem cells loaded in collagen-modified nanofibrous PHBV scaffold on full-thickness skin defects.

    PubMed

    Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Biazar, Esmaeil; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Rahmati Roodsari, Mohammad; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rad, Hadi; Sahebalzamani, Ali; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Afsordeh, Kobra

    2014-06-01

    Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) loaded in nanofibrous PHBV scaffold can be used for skin regeneration when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rats. Nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds were designed using electrospinning method and then, modified with the immobilized collagen via the plasma method. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, physical and mechanical assays. In this study; nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds loaded with and without USSCs were grafted into the skin defects. The wounds were subsequently investigated at 21 days after grafting. Results of mechanical and physical analyses showed good resilience and compliance to movement as a skin graft. In animal models; all study groups excluding the control group exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen on post-operative Day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells, showed a thin epidermis plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. Thus, the graft of collagen-coated nanofibrous PHBV scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat model.

  2. Evaluation of a canine small intestinal submucosal xenograft and polypropylene mesh as bioscaffolds in an abdominal full-thickness resection model of growing rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A-Jin; Lee, Sung-Ho; Chung, Wook-Hun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chung, Dai-Jung; Do, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the biological scaffold properties of canine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) compared to a those of polypropylene mesh in growing rats with full-thickness abdominal defects. SIS is used to repair musculoskeletal tissue while promoting cell migration and supporting tissue regeneration. Polypropylene mesh is a non-resorbable synthetic material that can endure mechanical tension. Canine SIS was obtained from donor German shepherds, and its porous collagen fiber structure was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A 2.50-cm2 section of canine SIS (SIS group) or mesh (mesh group) was implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, the implants were histopathologically examined and tensile load was tested. One month after surgery, CD68+ macrophage numbers in the SIS group were increased, but the number of CD8+ T cells in this group declined more rapidly than that in rats treated with the mesh. In the SIS group, few adhesions and well-developed autologous abdominal muscle infiltration into the SIS collagen fibers were observed. No significant differences in the tensile load test results were found between the SIS and mesh groups at 24 weeks. Canine SIS may therefore be a suitable replacement for artificial biological scaffolds in small animals. PMID:23628657

  3. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-09-17

    Platinum electrocatalysts supported on high surface area and Vulcan carbon blacks (Pt/HSC, Pt/V) were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups for electrochemical area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) area specific activity (SA) and mass specific activity (MA) at 0.9 V. Films fabricated using several ink formulations and film-drying techniques were characterized for a statistically significant number of independent samples. The highest quality Pt/HSC films exhibited MA 870 ± 91 mA/mgPt and SA 864 ± 56 μA/cm2 Pt while Pt/V had MA 706 ± 42 mA/mgPt and SA 1120 ± 70 μA/cm2 Pt when measured in 0.1 M HClO4, 20 mV/s, 100 kPa O2 and 23±2°C. An enhancement factor of 2.8 in themeasured SA was observable on eliminating Nafion ionomer and employing extremely thin, uniform films (~4.5 μg/cm2 Pt) of Pt/HSC. The ECA for Pt/HSC (99 ± 7 m2/gPt) and Pt/V (65 ± 5 m2/gPt) were statistically invariant and insensitive to film uniformity/thickness/fabrication technique; accordingly, enhancements in MA are wholly attributable to increases in SA. Impedance measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy were used to de-convolute the losses within the catalyst layer and ascribed to the catalyst layer resistance, oxygen diffusion, and sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. The ramifications of these results for proton exchange membrane fuel cells have also been examined.

  4. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness

    DOE PAGES

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; ...

    2015-09-17

    Platinum electrocatalysts supported on high surface area and Vulcan carbon blacks (Pt/HSC, Pt/V) were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups for electrochemical area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) area specific activity (SA) and mass specific activity (MA) at 0.9 V. Films fabricated using several ink formulations and film-drying techniques were characterized for a statistically significant number of independent samples. The highest quality Pt/HSC films exhibited MA 870 ± 91 mA/mgPt and SA 864 ± 56 μA/cm2 Pt while Pt/V had MA 706 ± 42 mA/mgPt and SA 1120 ± 70 μA/cm2 Pt when measured in 0.1 M HClO4,more » 20 mV/s, 100 kPa O2 and 23±2°C. An enhancement factor of 2.8 in themeasured SA was observable on eliminating Nafion ionomer and employing extremely thin, uniform films (~4.5 μg/cm2 Pt) of Pt/HSC. The ECA for Pt/HSC (99 ± 7 m2/gPt) and Pt/V (65 ± 5 m2/gPt) were statistically invariant and insensitive to film uniformity/thickness/fabrication technique; accordingly, enhancements in MA are wholly attributable to increases in SA. Impedance measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy were used to de-convolute the losses within the catalyst layer and ascribed to the catalyst layer resistance, oxygen diffusion, and sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. The ramifications of these results for proton exchange membrane fuel cells have also been examined.« less

  5. The effect of multifunctional polymer-based gels on wound healing in full thickness bacteria-contaminated mouse skin wound models.

    PubMed

    Yates, Cecelia C; Whaley, Diana; Babu, Ranjith; Zhang, Jianying; Krishna, Priya; Beckman, Eric; Pasculle, A William; Wells, Alan

    2007-09-01

    We determined whether a two-part space-conforming polyethylene glycol/dopa polymer-based gel promoted healing of contaminated wounds in mice. This silver-catalysed gel was previously developed to be broadly microbiocidal in vitro while being biocompatible with human wound cell functioning. Full-thickness wounds were created on the backs of mice. The wounds were inoculated with 10(4) CFU of each of four common skin wound contaminants, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Clostridium perfringens. The wounds were then treated with our multifunctional polymer-based gel, the commercially available NewSkin product, or left to heal untreated. The untreated wounds were overtly infected, and presented detectable bacterial loads over the entire 21-day healing period, while the gel and NewSkin groups presented significantly smaller rises in bacterial levels and were cleared of detectable colonies by the third week, with the gel group clearing the bacteria earlier. While all three groups healed their wounds, the polymer-based gel-treated group demonstrated significantly earlier re-epithelialization and dermal maturation (P<0.05). This was reflected in a quick regain of tensile strength. This accelerated dermal maturation and regain in strength was noted in mice treated with the polymer-based gel when compared to wound treated with the commercially available Aquacel-Ag dressing (P<0.05). What distinguishes the polymer-based gel from these other products is that it is incorporated within the healing wound. These preclinical studies show that the anti-microbial polymer gel not only supports but also accelerates healing of bacterially contaminated wounds.

  6. Numbers and distribution of immune cells in the tunica mucosa of the small and large intestine of full-thickness biopsies from healthy pet cats.

    PubMed

    Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Harder, J; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, CD3(+) T lymphocytes and IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells were quantified in the tunica mucosa of the intestinal tract of 12 pet cats without gastrointestinal diseases. The study included full-thickness biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. The distribution and quantification of CD3(+) T cells, IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells within the intestinal tunica mucosa was performed by using immunohistochemical methods and computer-aided morphometry. CD3(+) T cells were significantly prominent in the villi and their numbers increased from duodenum to ileum but decreased towards the colon. The predominant type of plasma cells was IgA(+) cells, followed by IgM(+) cells. The number of IgG(+) cells was generally low compared to the other plasma cell types investigated. The results of the vertical distribution showed that IgA(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells were most numerous in the lower crypt areas, whilst IgG(+) plasma cells accumulated in the upper crypt region with a decline towards the villi and the lower crypt areas of control cats. All types of plasma cells showed a general decline from the duodenum towards the caudal sections of the intestinal tract regarding the horizontal distribution of plasma cells. This study provides a comprehensive overview on the vertical and horizontal distribution and the number of CD3(+) T cells and IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells in the intestinal tunica mucosa of pet cats.

  7. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Ethanol Extract Enhancement of the Efficacy of the Collagen Scaffold in Wound Closure: A Study in a Full-Thickness-Wound Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Somchaichana, Jutamas; Bunaprasert, Tanom; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2012-01-01

    Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. is a Thai herb that is effective in wound healing. We sought to quantitatively determine whether or not the combined application of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. and a collagen scaffold will increase wound closure and angiogenesis. Balb/c mice (body weight: 22–25 g) were anesthetized with sodium thiopental. The dorsal skin incision measuring 1.5 × 1.5 cm was made and then deepened using scissors to produce a full-thickness incision down to the level of the panniculus carnosus. The size of the wound was approximately 10% of the total body surface area. The collagen sheet was implanted onto the wound. Animals were divided into 4 major groups as follows: wound with normal saline (W-NSS), wound treated with 0.3 g/kg BW of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. extract (W-AE (0.3 g/kg.bw)), wound implanted with collagen scaffold (W-Coll), and wound implanted with collagen scaffold and treated with 0.3 g/kg BW of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. (W-Coll-AE combination). On day 14, the W-Coll-AE group showed decreased wound areas and increased capillary vascularity (CV) when compared to the other 3 groups, W-NSS, W-AE0.3, and W-Coll. In the present study, the combination of AE0.3 with collagen showed the best effect on skin angiogenesis and promoted wound closure with less neutrophil infiltration. PMID:23093862

  8. Usefulness of the photoacoustic measurement method for monitoring the regenerative process of full-thickness defects in articular cartilage using tissue-engineering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Masato; Sato, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Toshiyuki; Mitani, Genya; Kaneshiro, Nagatoshi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Mochida, Joji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrated the capability of photoacoustic measurement for viscoelastic characterization. Since tissue viscoelasticity affects the propagation and attenuation of photoacoustic waves generated in the tissue, the relaxation times of the photoacoustic waves give the viscosity-elasticity ratio of the tissue. The relaxation times of photoacoustic waves of articular cartilage tissues engineered under various culture conditions were closely correlated with intrinsic viscosity-elasticity ratios measured by using a conventional viscoelastic analyzer (R > 0.98). In order to apply the photoacoustic measurement method to evaluation of the regeneration of articular cartilage as a method to validate the surgery, the method should enable not only evaluation of engineered tissue during cultivation in vitro but also evaluation after transplantation of engineered tissue in vivo. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of the photoacoustic method for repeated measurement of viscoelastic properties in order to evaluate the process of regeneration of a full-thickness defect in rabbit articular cartilage using allografted tissue-engineered cartilage. Photoacoustic waves were induced by 266- and 355-nm, 5-7 ns, light pulses delivered through an optical silica fiber from an Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and were detected by a piezoelectric transducer, which we had designed. About a 40% difference between the viscosity-elasticity ratio of allografted cartilage that of tissue surrounding the defect was shown just after surgery. The difference was significantly reduced at 4 and 12 postoperative weeks. Therefore, since the photoacoustic measurement method enables assessment of the progress of restoration of the viscoelasticity of articular cartilage, its main function, this method would be useful as an evaluation method in regenerative medicine.

  9. A Dermal Equivalent Engineered with TGF-β3 Expressing Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Amniotic Membrane: Cosmetic Healing of Full-Thickness Skin Wounds in Rats.

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Mehdipour, Ahmad; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Verdi, Javad; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; As'adi, Kamran; Amiri, Fatemeh; Dehghan Harati, Mozhgan; Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher; Karkuki Osguei, Nushin

    2016-12-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) has been shown to decrease scar formation after scheduled topical applications to the cutaneous wounds. This study aimed to continuously deliver TGF-β3, during the early phase of wound healing, by engineering a dermal equivalent (DE) using TGF-β3 expressing bone marrow stromal cells (BM-SCs) and human dehydrated amniotic membrane (hDAM). To engineer a DE, rat BM-SCs were seeded on the hDAM and TGF-β3 was transiently transfected into the BM-SCs using a plasmid vector. Pieces of the dermal equivalent were transplanted onto the full-thickness excisional skin wounds in rats. The process of wound healing was assessed by image analysis, Manchester Scar Scale (MSS), and histopathological studies 7, 14, 21, and 85 days after the excision. The results confirmed accurate construction of recombinant pcDNA3.1-TGF-β3 expression system and showed that the transfected BM-SCs seeded on hDAM expressed TGF-β3 mRNA and protein from day 3 through day 7 after transfection. After implantation of the DE, contraction of the wounds was measured from day 7 through 21 and analyzed by linear regression, which revealed that the rate of wound contraction in all experimental groups was similar. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that transfected BM-SCs decreased retention and recruitment of the cells during the early stage of wound healing, decreased the formation of vascular structures and led to formation of uniformly parallel collagen bundles. MSS scores showed that TGF-β3 secreting cells significantly improved the cosmetic appearance of the healed skin and decreased the scar formation. From these results, it could be concluded that transient secretion of TGF-β3, during the early phase of healing, by BM-SCs seeded on hDAM can improve the cosmetic appearance of the scar in cutaneous wounds without negatively affecting the process of wound repair.

  10. Evaluation of EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) as an in vitro model for skin irritation: studies on aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Ramya; Patlolla, Ram R; Agarwal, Saurab; Babu, R Jayachandra; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitchell; Singh, Mandip S

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the skin irritation effects of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs), C9-C16, found jet fuels using in vitro 3-dimensional EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) skin cultures. The EFT-300 cultures were treated with 2.5microl of HCs and the culture medium and skin samples were collected at 24 and 48h to measure the release of various inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1alpha, IL-6 and IL-8). To validate the in vitro results, in vivo skin irritation studies were carried out in hairless rats by measuring trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema following un-occlusive dermal exposure of HCs for 72h. The MTT tissue viability assay results with the EFT-300 tissue show that 2.5microl/tissue ( approximately 4.1microl/cm(2)) of the HCs did not induce any significant changes in the tissue viability for exposure times up to 48h of exposure. Microscopic observation of the EFT-300 cross-sections indicated that there were no obvious changes in the tissue morphology of the samples at 24h, but after 48h of exposure, tridecane, tetradecane and hexadecane produced a slight thickening and disruption of stratum corneum. Dermal exposures of C12-C16 HCs for 24h significantly increased the expression of IL-1alpha in the skin as well as in the culture medium. Similarly, dermal exposure of all HCs for 24h significantly increased the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the skin as well as in the culture medium in proportion to the HC chain length. As the exposure time increased to 48h, IL-6 concentrations increased 2-fold compared to the IL-6 values at 24h. The in vivo skin irritation data also showed that both TEWL and erythema scores increased with increased HCs chain length (C9-C16). In conclusion, the EFT-300 showed that the skin irritation profile of HCs was in the order of C9C10C11C12

  11. Use of Amniotic Microparticles Coated With Fibroblasts Overexpressing SDF-1α to Create an Environment Conducive to Neovascularization for Repair of Full-Thickness Skin Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-qing; Ji, Shi-zhao; Fang, He; Zheng, Yong-jun; Luo, Peng-fei; Wu, Hai-bin; Wu, Min-juan; Wang, Zhi-hong; Xiao, Shi-chu; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2016-01-01

    As angiogenesis and vasculogenesis involve the complex network structures of various types of cells, extracellular matrix components, and cytokines, it is still difficult to exactly mimic the microenvironment of vascularization in vivo. In our study, we constructed a complex containing highly proliferative fibroblasts that can secrete extracellular matrix components and growth factors to chemotaxize endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in an attempt to create an ideal microenvironment for quick vascularization. Amniotic membrane microparticles (mAM) rich in type IV collagen (COL IV) and laminin (LN) were prepared, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were infected with lentivirus (LV) of overexpression of SDF-1α to construct SDF-1α(ov)HDF. Using the rotary cell culture system (RCCS), mAM was loaded with HDF or SDF-1α(ov)HDF to construct HDF-mAM and SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM complexes. The complexes were able to secrete various types of active peptides (IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β, and bFGF) during in vitro culture. In addition, SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM complex highly expressed SDF-1α. Transwell assay showed SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM complex had an apparent chemotactic effect on EPCs. Transplantation of complexes onto full-thickness skin defects of C57BL mice further demonstrated that SDF-1α expression and the number of peripheral EPCs at days 3, 5, and 7 in the SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM group were significantly higher than that in other groups (p < 0.01). The local microvascular density at day 10 of transplantation showed that the microvascular density in the SDF-1α(ov)HDF-mAM group was significantly higher than that in HDF-mAM group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, HDF-mAM had a strong proliferative activity and could be used to create a sound microenvironment for quick vascularization by secreting multiple cytokines and extracellular matrix components. Overexpression of SDF-1α could chemotaxize EPCs to reach local wounds, thus further accelerating angiogenesis in the transplant site. The

  12. Full-Dimensional Potential Energy and Dipole Moment Surfaces of GeH4 Molecule and Accurate First-Principle Rotationally Resolved Intensity Predictions in the Infrared.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A V; Rey, M; Rodina, A; Krishna, B M; Tyuterev, Vl G

    2016-11-17

    Nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) of the germane molecule are constructed using extended ab initio CCSD(T) calculations at 19 882 points. PES analytical representation is determined as an expansion in nonlinear symmetry adapted products of orthogonal and internal coordinates involving 340 parameters up to eighth order. Minor empirical refinement of the equilibrium geometry and of four quadratic parameters of the PES computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ-DK level of the theory yielded the accuracy below 1 cm(-1) for all experimentally known vibrational band centers of five stable isotopologues of (70)GeH4, (72)GeH4, (73)GeH4, (74)GeH4, and (76)GeH4 up to 8300 cm(-1). The optimized equilibrium bond re = 1.517 594 Å is very close to best ab initio values. Rotational energies up to J = 15 are calculated using potential expansion in normal coordinate tensors with maximum errors of 0.004 and 0.0006 cm(-1) for (74)GeH4 and (76)GeH4. The DMS analytical representation is determined through an expansion in symmetry-adapted products of internal nonlinear coordinates involving 967 parameters up to the sixth order. Vibration-rotation line intensities of five stable germane isotopologues were calculated from purely ab initio DMS using nuclear motion variational calculations with a full account of the tetrahedral symmetry of the molecules. For the first time a good overall agreement of main absorption features with experimental rotationally resolved Pacific Northwest National Laboratory spectra was achieved in the entire range of 700-5300 cm(-1). It was found that very accurate description of state-dependent isotopic shifts is mandatory to correctly describe complex patterns of observed spectra at natural isotopic abundance resulting from the superposition of five stable isotopologues. The data obtained in this work will be made available through the TheoReTS information system.

  13. The Effect of Blade-Section Thickness Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Related Full-Scale Propellers at Mach Numbers up to 0.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D; Steinberg, Seymour

    1953-01-01

    The results of an investigation of two 10-foot-diameter, two-blade NACA propellers are presented for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. These results are compared with those from previous investigations of five related NACA propellers in order to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.

  14. Determination of thickness and elastic constants of aluminum plates from full-field wavelength measurements of single-mode narrowband Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Deán, J Luis; Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Angel F; Fernández, José L

    2008-09-01

    A method based on fitting the theoretical dispersion curves of Lamb waves to experimental data is presented to determine the thickness and two independent elastic constants of aluminum plates a few millimeters thick. The waves are generated by means of the wedge method using a narrowband source, selecting the wedge angle and the acoustic frequency f so that mainly one mode is excited. A self-developed pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry system renders a two dimensional map of the out-of-plane acoustic displacement field at the plate surface, which allows an accurate measurement of the acoustic wavelength lambda(1). For any mode, the relation between lambda(1) and f depends on the three unknown parameters, so at least three experimental measurements (lambda(1i),f(i)) with different frequencies and/or different modes are required to calculate them. The suitability of different Lamb modes to determine each parameter when the others are known is studied, as well as the conditions that the experimental set of values must fulfill to calculate all three parameters. Numerous Lamb modes at different frequencies are generated in each plate, and a fitting is made based on the minimization of the error function, resulting in an accuracy better than 1%.

  15. Stable complex-rotation eigenvalues that correspond to no full resonances in scattering: Examples in positron scattering by the helium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Akinori; Shimamura, Isao

    2004-07-01

    Hyperspherical close-coupling calculations for S- and P-wave positron scattering by He{sup +} ions produce no full resonances in the eigenphase sum {delta}(E) in the two regions of energy E where stable eigenvalues E{sub r}-i{gamma}/2 with large {gamma} were found previously by the complex-rotation method (CRM); {delta}(E) increases only by one radian in the lower-E region, and even decreases almost monotonically in the higher-E region, implying time advance, rather than time delay, due to the collision. However, the peaks found in the trace of time-delay matrix, Tr Q(E), are consistent with the CRM eigenvalues. This suggests that these eigenvalues indeed represent S-matrix poles in the complex-E plane, but that their effects on scattering are almost masked by the background {delta} due to the large {gamma}. This work uses a general relation Tr Q(E)=2({Dirac_h}/2{pi})(d{delta}/dE), proved here for any functional form of {delta}(E), and hence, both on and off resonance. This is a generalization of the well-known single-channel time-delay formula and of the multichannel formula proved previously for the Breit-Wigner resonance with a constant background S matrix.

  16. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  17. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer.

  18. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis with midgut volvulus, distributed in a patchy fashion, is reversible with moderate blood flow: resumption of normal function to non-viable intestine.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hizuru; Uchida, Hiroo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yujiro; Kishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Midgut volvulus is a highly life-threatening condition that carries a high risk of short gut syndrome. We report a case of catastrophic neonatal midgut volvulus in which second-look laparotomy revealed apparently non-viable remnant small intestine but with a moderate blood supply. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis was distributed in a patchy fashion, with non-viable and necrotic areas distributed so widely that no portion of the intestine could be resected. A section of full-thickness necrotic intestine preserved at surgery was able to regenerate, and normal function was restored over a period of 1 month. This case indicated that intestinal resumption may be dependent on blood flow. Even when intestinal viability is questionable, preservation enables the chance of regeneration if moderate blood flow is present.

  19. Detection of subsurface defects and measurement of thickness of screen layers made of graphene and carbon nanotubes with application of full-field optical coherence tomography in Linnik configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynarska, Paulina; Tomczewski, Slawomir; Pakuła, Anna; Wróblewski, Grzegorz; Sloma, Marcin; Salbut, Leszek

    2015-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is noncontact and nondestructive interferometric method which allows visualization of internal structure of an investigated sample. Till now it has found many applications in measurements of biological tissues, technical materials and conservation of art. Optical coherence tomography in full-field configuration is a great technique for visualization of subsurface structures of measured sample with high resolution. In this technique, en-face data acquisition is applied, which allows application of microscope objectives with high numerical aperture while the depth of field is not a problem. These objectives allow obtaining ultra high transverse resolution like in traditional microscopy. Additionally, light sources with broad spectrum, like low cost incandescent lamps (i.e. halogen lamp), allow measurements with micrometer scaleaxial resolution. In this paper the authors present application of full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope for the thickness measurement of layers in flexible display with electrodes made of graphene and carbone nanotubes. Thicknesses of layer have a huge impact on the display parameters. There is a correlation between the thickness of the graphene layer and its electrical resistance. Graphene is a new and very promising material which is durable, flexible and has a good adhesion to diverse substrates. It gives a theoretical possibility to create flexible electronics, such as graphene bendable screens. Using OCT we can evaluate the quality of printed layers and detect subsurface defects.

  20. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma & Platelet-Rich Fibrin with and without Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 on Repairing Full-Thickness Cartilage Defects in Knees of Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Ghasemi, Maryam; Sadeghi-Naini, Mohsen; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to create biomaterial scaffolds like platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) containing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) as a chemokine to induce hyaline cartilage regeneration of rabbit knee in a full thickness defect. Methods: We created a full thickness defect in the trochlear groove of thirty-six bilateral knees of eighteen mature male rabbits. The knees were randomly divided into six groups (group I: untreated control, group II: PRP, group III: PRF, group IV: Gelatin+SDF1, group V: PRP+SDF1, and group VI: PRF+SDF1). After four weeks, the tissue specimens were evaluated by macroscopic examination and histological grading, immunofluorescent staining for collagen type II, and analyzed for cartilage marker genes by real-time PCR. The data were compared using statistical methods (SPSS 20, Kruskal-Wallis test, Bonferroni post hoc test and P<0.05). Results: Macroscopic evaluations revealed that international cartilage repair society (ICRS) scores of the PRF+SDF1 group were higher than other groups. Microscopic analysis showed that the ICRS score of the PRP group was significantly lower than other groups. Immunofluorescent staining for collagen II demonstrated a remarkable distribution of type II collagen in the Gel+SDF1, PRP+SDF1 and PRF+SDF1 groups compared with other groups. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of SOX9 and aggrecan were significantly greater in the PRF+SDF1, PRP+SDF1, Gel+SDF1 and PRF groups than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that implantation of PRF scaffold containing SDF1 led to the greatest evaluation scores of full-thickness lesions in rabbits. PMID:27853331

  1. Central Corneal Thickness Measurement Using Ultrasonic Pachymetry, Rotating Scheimpflug Camera, and Scanning-slit Topography Exclusively in Thin Non-keratoconic Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Mohammad, Kazem; Karimi, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the agreement among Pentacam, Orbscan and ultrasound (US) pachymetry for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in thin corneas with normal topographic pattern. Methods: We included 88 eyes of 44 refractive surgery candidates with thinnest pachymetric readings of 500 micrometers (μm) or less on Orbscan, a normal topographic pattern, no sign of keratoconus, and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20. Pentacam, Orbscan and US were performed in one session by the same examiner. Exclusion criteria were history of ocular surgery, topographic abnormalities suggesting forme fruste keratoconus or keratectasia, and recent contact lens wear. Results: The difference in CCT measurements by US pachymetry and Orbscan II [using an acoustic factor (AF) of 0.92] ranged from −34 to +34 μm. The difference between the thinnest point and central readings measured by US reached 16 μm with Orbscan II (AF: 0.92) and 2 μm with Pentacam. Mean differences between the employed devices were 0.2 μm for Pentacam versus US (P = 0.727), 30.1 μm for uncorrected Orbscan versus US (P < 0.001), 10.4 μm for Orbscan II (AF = 0.92) versus US (P < 0.001), and 0.2 μm for Orbscan II (AF = 0.94) versus US (P = 0.851). Conclusion: In normal thin corneas, Pentacam demonstrated better agreement with US pachymetry as compared to corrected Orbscan readings. Results achieved by Orbscan were better consistent with US pachymetry using an AF of 0.94. We speculate that a dynamically graded AF in reverse proportion to CCT constitutes a better approach for correcting Orbscan measurements. PMID:27621779

  2. Growth factors in porcine full and partial thickness burn repair. Differing targets and effects of keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, and neu differentiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with an occlusive dressing to replicate the standard treatment in human burn patients. We then applied these growth factors to assess their efficacy on several parameters of wound repair: extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production, percent reepithelialization, and new epithelial area. In full thickness burns, only rPDGF-BB and the combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF induced significant changes in burn repair. rPDGF-BB induced marked extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production (P = 0.013) such that the burn defect was filled within several days of escharectomy, but had no effect on new epithelial area or reepithelialization. The combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF in full thickness burns resulted in a highly significant increase in extracellular matrix and granulation tissue area (P = 0.0009) and a significant increase in new epithelial area (P = 0.007), but had no effect on reepithelialization. In deep partial thickness burns, rKGF induced the most consistent changes. Daily application of rKGF induced a highly significant increase in new epithelial area (P < 0.0001) but induced only a modest increase in reepithelialization (83.7% rKGF-treated versus 70.2% control; P = 0.016) 12 days postburn. rKGF also doubled the number of fully reepithelialized burns (P = 0.02) at 13 days postburn, at least partially because of marked stimulation of both epidermal and follicular proliferation as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. In situ hybridization for

  3. Optimizing the management of rotator cuff problems.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, Robert A; Yamaguchi, Ken; Ahmad, Christopher S; Burks, Robert T; Flatow, Evan L; Green, Andrew; Iannotti, Joseph P; Miller, Bruce S; Tashjian, Robert Z; Watters, William C; Weber, Kristy; Turkelson, Charles M; Wies, Janet L; Anderson, Sara; St Andre, Justin; Boyer, Kevin; Raymond, Laura; Sluka, Patrick; McGowan, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Of the 31 recommendations made by the work group, 19 were determined to be inconclusive because of the absence of definitive evidence. Of the remaining recommendations, four were classified as moderate grade, six as weak, and two as consensus statements of expert opinion. The four moderate-grade recommendations include suggestions that exercise and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs be used to manage rotator cuff symptoms in the absence of a full-thickness tear, that routine acromioplasty is not required at the time of rotator cuff repair, that non-cross-linked, porcine small intestine submucosal xenograft patches not be used to manage rotator cuff tears, and that surgeons can advise patients that workers' compensation status correlates with less favorable outcomes after rotator cuff surgery.

  4. Preclinical evaluation of collagen type I scaffolds, including gelatin-collagen microparticles and loaded with a hydroglycolic Calendula officinalis extract in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound.

    PubMed

    Millán, D; Jiménez, R A; Nieto, L E; Linero, I; Laverde, M; Fontanilla, M R

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we have developed collagen type I scaffolds including microparticles of gelatin-collagen type I (SGC) that are able to control the release of a hydroglycolic extract of the Calendula officinalis flower. The main goal of the present work was to carry out the preclinical evaluation of SGC alone or loaded with the C. officinalis extract (SGC-E) in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound. A total of 39 rabbits were distributed in three groups, of 13 animals each. The first group was used to compare wound healing by secondary intention (control) with wound healing observed when wounds were grafted with SGC alone. Comparison of control wounds with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the second group, and comparison of wounds grafted with SGC with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the third group. Clinical follow-ups were carried in all animals after surgery, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed on tissues taken from the healed area and healthy surrounding tissue. Histological and histomorphometric results indicate that grafting of SGC alone favors wound healing and brings a better clinical outcome than grafting SGC-E. In vitro collagenase digestion data suggested that the association of the C. officinalis extract to SGC increased the SGC-E cross-linking, making it difficult to degrade and affecting its biocompatibility.

  5. Platelet-Rich Plasma-Loaded Poly(d,l-lactide)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(d,l-lactide) Hydrogel Dressing Promotes Full-Thickness Skin Wound Healing in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Manle; Chen, Daoyun; Shen, Chaoyong; Shen, Ji; Zhao, Huakun; He, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    Traditional therapeutic methods for skin wounds have many disadvantages, and new wound dressings that can facilitate the healing process are thus urgently needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains multiple growth factors (GFs) and shows a significant capacity to heal soft tissue wounds. However, these GFs have a short half-life and deactivate rapidly; we therefore need a sustained delivery system to overcome this shortcoming. In this study, poly(d,l-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA: PLEL) hydrogel was successfully created as delivery vehicle for PRP GFs and was evaluated systematically. PLEL hydrogel was injectable at room temperature and exhibited a smart thermosensitive in situ gel-formation behavior at body temperature. In vitro cell culture showed PRP-loaded PLEL hydrogel (PRP/PLEL) had little cytotoxicity, and promoted EaHy926 proliferation, migration and tube formation; the factor release assay additionally indicated that PLEL realized the controlled release of PRP GFs for as long as 14 days. When employed to treat rodents’ full-thickness skin defects, PRP/PLEL showed a significantly better ability to raise the number of both newly formed and mature blood vessels compared to the control, PLEL and PRP groups. Furthermore, the PRP/PLEL-treated group displayed faster wound closure, better reepithelialization and collagen formation. Taken together, PRP/PLEL provides a promising strategy for promoting angiogenesis and skin wound healing, which extends the potential of this dressing for clinical application. PMID:27347938

  6. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of silver sulfadiazine 1%, mupirocin 2%, Acticoat and octenidine dihydrochloride in a full-thickness rat burn model contaminated with multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Durgun, Mustafa; Ozalp, Burhan; Tekin, Alicem; Tekin, Recep; Akçay, Cemal; Alabalık, Ulaş

    2012-12-01

    In this study, our aim is to compare the efficacy of different topical antibacterial agents in a rat model contaminated with a multi drug resistant (MDR) standard Acinetobacter baumannii strain. The study was carried out on 40 Sprague-Dawley rats of 250-300 g each. For the purposes of this study, the rats were divided into 5 groups, with 8 rats in each group: Group 1 control; Group 2 silver sulfadiazine; Group 3 mupirocin; Group 4 Acticoat group; and Group 5 octenidine dihydrochloride group. Following to the formation of the full-thickness burn areas in rats, the MDR A. baumannii standard strain was inoculated into the burned area. The rats in all the groups were sacrificed at the end of the 10th day and subjected to histopathological and microbiological evaluation. In the histopathological evaluation, the lowest inflammatory cell response and bacterial density in the eschar and muscle tissues were observed in the Acticoat group. While these results were found to be statistically significant compared to the silver sulfadiazine group, only the bacterial density in the muscle tissue was found as significant in comparison to the mupirocin and octenidine groups. In the microbiological evaluation, the lowest growth in the muscle tissue culture among all the groups was observed in the Acticoat group. The growth in the eschar tissue culture was significantly lower in the Acticoat and octenidine groups in comparison to the silver sulfadiazine group. At the end of the study, it has been observed that Acticoat was effective both in eschar and muscle, while octenidine was effective in eschar tissues in a rat burn model contaminated with MDR A. baumannii.

  7. Maintenance of donor phenotype after full-thickness skin transplantation from mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm) to C57BL/Ka and nude mice and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, M J; HogenEsch, H; Bruijnzeel, P L; Elliott, G R; Zurcher, C

    1995-12-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice (cpdm/cpdm) and is characterized by epithelial hyperproliferation, infiltration by eosinophils and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. To elucidate whether these pathologic features are the result of a local (skin) process or a consequence of a systemic disorder, transplantations were performed of full-thickness grafts of affected skin from cpdm/cpdm mice and normal skin from control (C57BL/Ka) mice on the back of cpdm/cpdm, C57BL/Ka and athymic nude mice. After 3 months, the grafts maintained the histologic phenotype of the donor animal. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 continued to be expressed by basal keratinocytes of the cpdm/cpdm grafts after transplantation. In contrast, the basal keratinocytes of the C57BL/Ka grafts onto cpdm/cpdm mice remained negative for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 3 months after transplantation. An increased number of proliferating keratinocytes was present in the cpdm/cpdm skin-graft transplanted to nudes or to C57BL/Ka mice based on short-term bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the keratinocytes of the control C57BL/Ka skin grafts transplanted to cpdm/cpdm, nude, or C57BL/Ka mice was the same as in the keratinocytes of normal C57BL/Ka mice. This study demonstrates that the pathologic features found in the cpdm/cpdm mice are the result of a disorder in the epidermis or dermis and not due to a systemic defect.

  8. Unleashing the Full Sustainable Potential of Thick Films of Lead-Free Potassium Sodium Niobate (K0.5Na0.5NbO3) by Aqueous Electrophoretic Deposition.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Amit; Pinho, Rui; Dolhen, Morgane; Costa, M Elisabete; Vilarinho, Paula M

    2016-05-31

    A current challenge for the fabrication of functional oxide-based devices is related with the need of environmental and sustainable materials and processes. By considering both lead-free ferroelectrics of potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5NbO3, KNN) and aqueous-based electrophoretic deposition here we demonstrate that an eco-friendly aqueous solution-based process can be used to produce KNN thick coatings with improved electromechanical performance. KNN thick films on platinum substrates with thickness varying between 10 and 15 μm have a dielectric permittivity of 495, dielectric losses of 0.08 at 1 MHz, and a piezoelectric coefficient d33 of ∼70 pC/N. At TC these films display a relative permittivity of 2166 and loss tangent of 0.11 at 1 MHz. A comparison of the physical properties between these films and their bulk ceramics counterparts demonstrates the impact of the aqueous-based electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique for the preparation of lead-free ferroelectric thick films. This opens the door to the possible development of high-performance, lead-free piezoelectric thick films by a sustainable low-cost process, expanding the applicability of lead-free piezoelectrics.

  9. Improved apparatus for predictive diagnosis of rotator cuff disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Anup; Hall, Brittany N.; Thigpen, Charles A.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease impacts over 50% of the population over 60, with reports of incidence being as high as 90% within this population, causing pain and possible loss of function. The rotator cuff is composed of muscles and tendons that work in tandem to support the shoulder. Heavy use of these muscles can lead to rotator cuff tear, with the most common causes is age-related degeneration or sport injuries, both being a function of overuse. Tears ranges in severity from partial thickness tear to total rupture. Diagnostic techniques are based on physical assessment, detailed patient history, and medical imaging; primarily X-ray, MRI and ultrasonography are the chosen modalities for assessment. The final treatment technique and imaging modality; however, is chosen by the clinician is at their discretion. Ultrasound has been shown to have good accuracy for identification and measurement of full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. In this study, we report on the progress and improvement of our method of transduction and analysis of in situ measurement of rotator cuff biomechanics. We have improved the ability of the clinician to apply a uniform force to the underlying musculotendentious tissues while simultaneously obtaining the ultrasound image. This measurement protocol combined with region of interest (ROI) based image processing will help in developing a predictive diagnostic model for treatment of rotator cuff disease and help the clinicians choose the best treatment technique.

  10. US of the shoulder: rotator cuff and non-rotator cuff disorders.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Ellinas, Panagiotis; Takis, Fotios; Tsanis, Antonios; Maris, Ioannis; Batakis, Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has been shown to be an effective imaging modality in the evaluation of both rotator cuff and non-rotator cuff disorders, usually serving in a complementary role to magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder. US technique for shoulder examination depends on patient positioning, scanning protocol for every tendon and anatomic part, and dynamic imaging. The primary US signs for rotator cuff supraspinatus tendon tears are tendon nonvisualization for complete tears, focal tendon defect for full-thickness tears, a hypoechoic defect of the articular side of the tendon for an articular-side partial-thickness tear, and flattening of the bursal surface of the tendon for a bursal-side partial-thickness tear. Secondary US signs such as cortical irregularity of the greater tuberosity and joint and subacromial-subdeltoid bursal fluid are helpful when correlated with the primary signs. Tendon degeneration, tendinosis, and intrasubstance tear are demonstrated as internal heterogeneity. Long-head biceps tendon abnormalities include instability, acute or chronic tear, and tendinosis. The acromioclavicular joint is assessed for dislocation, fluid collection, cysts, and bone erosions. Other non-rotator cuff disorders include synovial disorders such as adhesive capsulitis and synovial osteochondromatosis; degenerative disorders such as osteoarthritis, amyloid arthropathy, hemarthrosis, and chondrocalcinosis; infectious disorders such as septic arthritis and bursitis; and space-occupying lesions.

  11. Rotating Vesta

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronomers combined 146 exposures taken by NASA's Hubble SpaceTelescope to make this 73-frame movie of the asteroid Vesta's rotation.Vesta completes a rotation every 5.34 hours.› Asteroid and...

  12. The Biomechanical Role of Scaffolds in Augmented Rotator Cuff Tendon Repairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    ultimate load (56%-76%) of rotator cuff repairs in a human cadaver model.20 X-Repair augmentation also altered the mode of repair failure: failure by...amore clinically relevant repair and loading conditions in a human cadaver model: full-thickness supraspinatus tendon repairs (with and without...Andreychik D, Ahmad S. Determinants of outcome in the treatment of rotator cuff disease . Clin Orthop Rel Res 1994;308:90-7. 6. Bishop J, Klepps S, Lo IK

  13. Rotational testing.

    PubMed

    Furman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings.

  14. Method of measuring the thickness of radioactive thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Steinberg, R.; Makinen, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Thickness monitor consists of proportional X-ray counter coupled to pulse counting system, copper filter over face of counter, rotatable collimator containing radioactive source, and rotatable shutter. Monitor can be used as integral part of neutron generator. It has been used to measure titanium tritide film thicknesses from 0.1 to 30 micrometers.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells seeded on cross-linked and noncross-linked acellular porcine dermal scaffolds for long-term full-thickness hernia repair in a small animal model.

    PubMed

    Mestak, Ondrej; Matouskova, Eva; Spurkova, Zuzana; Benkova, Kamila; Vesely, Pavel; Mestak, Jan; Molitor, Martin; Pombinho, Antonio; Sukop, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Biological meshes are biomaterials consisting of extracellular matrix that are used in surgery particularly for hernia treatment, thoracic wall reconstruction, or silicone implant-based breast reconstruction. We hypothesized that combination of extracellular matrices with autologous mesenchymal stem cells used for hernia repair would result in increased vascularization and increased strength of incorporation. We cultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells harvested from the inguinal region of Wistar rats on cross-linked and noncross-linked porcine extracellular matrices. In 24 Wistar rats, a standardized 2×4 cm fascial defect was created and repaired with either cross-linked or noncross-linked grafts enriched with stem cells. Non-MSC-enriched grafts were used as controls. The rats were sacrificed at 3 months of age. The specimens were examined for the strength of incorporation, vascularization, cell invasion, foreign body reaction, and capsule formation. Both materials showed cellular ingrowth and neovascularization. Comparison of both tested groups with the controls showed no significant differences in the capsule thickness, foreign body reaction, cellularization, or vascularization. The strength of incorporation of the stem cell-enriched cross-linked extracellular matrix specimens was higher than in acellular specimens, but this result was statistically nonsignificant. In the noncross-linked extracellular matrix, the strength of incorporation was significantly higher in the stem cell group than in the acellular group. Seeding of biological meshes with stem cells does not significantly contribute to their increased vascularization. In cross-linked materials, it does not ensure increased strength of incorporation, in contrast to noncross-linked materials. Owing to the fact that isolation and seeding of stem cells is a very complex procedure, we do not see sufficient benefits for its use in the clinical setting.

  16. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  17. Supergranulation rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Jesper; Beck, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Simple convection models estimate the depth of supergranulation at approximately 15,000 km which suggests that supergranules should rotate at the rate of the plasma in the outer 2% of the Sun by radius. Previous measurements (Snodgrass & Ulrich, 1990; Beck & Schou, 2000) found that supergranules rotate significantly faster than this, with a size-dependent rotation rate. We expand on previous work and show that the torsional oscillation signal seen in the supergranules tracks that obtained for normal modes. We also find that the amplitudes and lifetimes of the supergranulation are size dependent.

  18. Rotational Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)

  19. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  20. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  1. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  2. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is

  3. Revision Rotator Cuff Reconstruction for Large Tears With Retraction: A Novel Technique Using Autogenous Tendon and Autologous Marrow.

    PubMed

    Skoff, Hillel D

    2015-07-01

    Revision rotator cuff reconstruction for large tears with retraction results in a high rate of recurrent cuff tearing. To try to obtain more consistent results, I conducted a study of a technique that addresses the potential factors involved. Ten patients (7 men, 3 women) were enrolled. Mean age was 58 years. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Mean time between primary and revision cuff surgery was 36 months. The cardinal inclusion criterion was a symptomatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear with at least 3 cm of retraction in a shoulder that previously underwent rotator cuff repair. Ultrasound was used for postoperative radiographic assessment of cuff integrity. Validated Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scoring systems were used. Surgical technique included mini-open incision, adequate débridement and mobilization of remaining cuff, reconstitution of cuff defect with autogenous biceps tendon incubated in concentrated autologous bone marrow, and sewing under zero tissue tension. Constant, ASES, and UCLA scores improved significantly (standard error at .001). Ultrasound revealed 0% incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff retearing. In patients with large recurrent retracted rotator cuff tears the technique presented in the current study consistently yields satisfactory clinical results and promotes rotator cuff tissue healing without full-thickness retearing.

  4. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  5. Muscle Gene Expression Patterns in Human Rotator Cuff Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J.; Lieber, Richard L.; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Methods: Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Results: Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Conclusions: Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of

  6. Determination of thickness uniformity of a transparent film based on in-plane ESPI and radial basis function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiangjun; Shao, Xinxing; Yang, Fujun; Yun, Hai

    2016-06-01

    In-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) was developed to determine the thickness uniformity of a transparent film. The method is based on the subsequent spatial carrier patterns caused by the change of the rotation angle. Full-field thickness distribution can be obtained according to the relation between the phase difference and optical path difference generated by film rotation. Moreover, radial basis function was applied to improve the image quality of interference patterns. The main principle and experimental procedure of the method were presented. The errors of measurement results were analyzed. It is shown that the thickness uniformity of the thin film can be measured rapidly and accurately. Also, the refractive index can be determined by the developed method simultaneously.

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of silver-coated dressing, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%), citric acid (3%), and silver sulfadiazine (1%) for topical antibacterial effects against the multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting full-skin thickness burn wounds on rats.

    PubMed

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 10(8) CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp.

  8. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Silver-Coated Dressing, Chlorhexidine Acetate (0.5%), Citric Acid (3%), and Silver Sulfadiazine (1%) for Topical Antibacterial Effects Against the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infecting Full-Skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 108 CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp. PMID:24229034

  9. Single-angle-of-incidence single-element rotating-polarizer (Single SERP) ellipsometer for film-substrate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, A. R. M.

    2013-09-01

    The single-element rotating-polarizer ellipsometer is where a rotating polarizer is inserted into the incident beam and the reflected-signal intensity is detected using a photodetector. The polarizer is either rotated mechanically or electromagnetically. The angle of incidence of the beam is adjusted to detect the angles where the detector signal is dc. The ellipsometric function of the film-substrate system under measurement is of a unity magnitude at those detected angle(s). The number of required measurements (such angles of incidence) is related (directly proportional) to the number of system parameters to be determined: film thickness is one parameter, film optical constant is two parameters, and substrate optical constant is two parameters. The more parameters to be determined, the more the number of measurements required. This creates film-thickness bands, which number and width depend on the system physical properties and the wavelength used for measurement, and where a continuum exists above a certain film-thickness value. Accordingly, full characterization of film-substrate systems is limited to systems with large film thicknesses for the required multiple angles of incidence to exist. In this paper, we use only one detected angle of incidence to fully characterize the film-substrate system. This allows for film-substrate systems with much smaller film thicknesses to be fully characterized. A fast genetic algorithm is used to heuristically obtain all the system parameters: film thickness and optical constants of the film and the substrate, or any subset thereof.

  10. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  12. Meridional circulation in optically thick accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabot, W.; Savedoff, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal imbalances in stars due to rotation are known to drive mass motions in the meridional plane. A preliminary analytic investigation has been made of a similar effect in optically thick accretion disks using conventional thin-disk approximations. It is found that estimated circulation times can be as short as thermal timescales, resulting in rapid transport of heat and angular momentum. This indicates that the simple approximations commonly used are incomplete with regard to detailed, two-dimensional disk structure.

  13. EXERCISE REHABILITATION IN THE NON-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ROTATOR CUFF TEARS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Peter; Ebert, Jay; Joss, Brendan; Bhabra, Gev; Ackland, Tim; Wang, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with age, with full-thickness rotator cuff tears present in approximately 25% of individuals in their sixties, and more than 50% of those in their eighties. While surgery is considered an effective treatment, recurrent tears at the insertion site are common, especially with degenerative tears, which are frequent in the older population. More recently, there has been increasing interest in exercise rehabilitation and physical therapy as a means to manage partial and full thickness tears of the rotator cuff by addressing weakness and functional deficits. Recent studies have suggested that patients opting for physical therapy have demonstrated high satisfaction, an improvement in function, and success in avoiding surgery. When considering the increasing rate of shoulder surgery and the associated economic and social burden rotator cuff surgery places on both the patient and the health care system, non-surgical management such as physical therapy and exercise may, in selected cases, be a treatment alternative to surgical repair. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide an overview of rotator cuff pathology and pathogenesis, and to present an evidence-based case for the role of conservative rehabilitation in the management of rotator cuff injuries. Level of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27104061

  14. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  15. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  16. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  17. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  18. Solute boundary layer on a rotating crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinelli, Michelle L.; Korpela, Seppo A.; Chait, Arnon

    1994-11-01

    A perturbation analysis has been carried out for the solutal boundary layer next to a rotating crystal. Our aim is to extend the classical results of Burton, Prim and Slicher [1] in order to obtain higher order terms in asymptotic expansions for the concentration field and boundary-layer thickness. Expressions for the effective segregation coefficient are directly obtained from the concentration solution in the two limits that correspond to weak and strong rotation.

  19. MASS TRANSFER TO ROTATING DISKS AND ROTATING RINGS IN LAMINAR, TRANSITION, AND FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Law Jr., C.G.; Pierini, P.; Newman, J.

    1980-07-01

    Experimental data and theoretical calculations are presented for the mass-transfer rate to rotating disks and rotating rings when laminar, transition, and fully developed turbulent flow exist upon different portions of the surface. Good agreement of data and the model is obtained for rotating disks and relatively thick rotating rings. Results of the calculations for thin rings generally exceed the experimental data measured in transition and turbulent flow. A y{sup +{sup 3}} form for the eddy diffusivity is used to fit the data. No improvement is noticed with a form involving both y{sup +{sup 3}} and y{sup +{sup 3}}.

  20. Carbon dynamics of intensively managed forest along a full rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.

    2012-12-01

    Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. Management practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil carbon pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net carbon balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. Carbon content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and management effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil carbon model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of carbon balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a carbon sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined effects of the reduction of the LAI, the enhancement of the heterotrophic respiration related to the decomposition of dead materials and the improvement of the mineralization of the large stock of soil organic matter by tillage. At the mature stage, the stand remains consistently a carbon sink and CO2 fluxes were insensitive to thinning. Conversely, the carbon balance was sensitive to climate effects as evidenced by repeated drastic reductions in NEP caused by soil drought. Our data underlines the importance of disturbances linked to forest management for the forest carbon balance during the early stage of tree growth. Since management intensification tends to shorten the forest life cycle and enhance the share of the young stages, our results confirm that the consequence of management operations on the carbon cycle in forest may revert intensified forest stands from a net sink to a source and should be accounted for carefully.

  1. Arthroscopic Transosseous Rotator Cuff Repair: Technical Note, Outcomes, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Black, Eric M.; Lin, Albert; Srikumaran, Uma; Jain, Nitin; Freehill, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to review the authors’ initial experience with arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair. Thirty-one patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair over a 15-month period. Preoperatively, demographics and subjective scores were recorded. Postoperatively, pain levels, subjective shoulder values, satisfaction scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, complications, and reoperations were noted with a minimum 2-year follow-up. The relationships between pre- and intraoperative variables and outcome scores were determined with univariate analysis. Average patient age was 56 years, and 23 patients (74%) were men. Twenty patients (65%) underwent primary rotator cuff repair, and 11 patients (35%) underwent revision repair. Average time to follow-up was 26 months. Average preoperative pain level and subjective shoulder value were 5.1 of 10 and 35%, respectively. Average postoperative scores included pain level of 0.9 of 10, subjective shoulder value of 84%, satisfaction score of 90.6 of 100, and ASES score of 86.3 of 100. There were 3 (9.7%) major and 2 (6%) minor complications. Patients undergoing revision rotator cuff repair had significantly worse outcomes (pain level, subjective shoulder value, ASES score; P<.05) compared with those undergoing primary repair, and cortical augmentation did not significantly affect outcome. Overall, outcomes after arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair are good, although patients undergoing revision repair do not have the same outcomes as those undergoing primary cuff repair. The procedure is not without complications (9.7% major, 6% minor complications). Cortical augmentation may be used to supplement fixation, although it does not necessarily affect outcomes. Patients without such augmentation may be at increased risk for suture cutout through the bone. PMID:25970360

  2. Natural frequencies of twisted rotating plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurti, V.; Kielb, R.

    1984-12-01

    A detailed comparison is presented of the predicted eigenfrequencies of twisted rotating plates as obtained by using two different shape functions. Primarily, rotating twisted plates of two different aspect ratios and two different thickness ratios are considered. The effects of rotation are included by using a "stress smoothing" technique when calculating the augmented stiffness matrix. In addition, the effects of Coriolis acceleration, contributions from membrane behaviour, setting angle and sweep angle are considered. The effects of geometric non-linearity are briefly discussed. Finally, results of a brief study of cambered plates are presented.

  3. Natural frequencies of twisted rotating plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramamurti, V.; Kielb, R.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed comparison is presented of the predicted eigenfrequencies of twisted rotating plates as obtained by using two different shape functions. Primarily, rotating twisted plates of two different aspect ratios and two different thickness ratios are considered. The effects of rotation are included by using a 'stress smoothing' technique when calculating the augmented stiffness matrix. In addition, the effects of Coriolis acceleration, contributions from membrane behavior, setting angle and sweep angle are considered. The effects of geometric nonlinearity are briefly discussed. Finally, results of a brief study of cambered plates are presented.

  4. Rotating blade vibration analysis using shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow shell theory and the Ritz method are employed to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of turbomachinery blades having both camber and twist, rotating with non-zero angles of attack. Frequencies obtained for different degrees of shallowness and thickness are compared with results available in the literature, obtained from finite element analyses of nonrotating blades. Frequencies are also determined for a rotating blade, showing the effects of changing the (1) angular velocity of rotation, (2) disk radius and (3) angle of attack, as well as the significance of the most important body force terms.

  5. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  6. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  7. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  8. The global percutaneous shuttling technique tip for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Murali, Jothi; Gowda, Ashok L; Kaback, Lee; Blaine, Theodore

    2014-04-22

    Most arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs utilize suture passing devices placed through arthroscopic cannulas. These devices are limited by the size of the passing device where the suture is passed through the tendon. An alternative technique has been used in the senior author's practice for the past ten years, where sutures are placed through the rotator cuff tendon using percutaneous passing devices. This technique, dubbed the global percutaneous shuttling technique of rotator cuff repair, affords the placement of sutures from nearly any angle and location in the shoulder, and has the potential advantage of larger suture bites through the tendon edge. These advantages may increase the area of tendon available to compress to the rotator cuff footprint and improve tendon healing and outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the global percutaneous shuttling (GPS) technique and report our results using this method. The GPS technique can be used for any full thickness rotator cuff tear and is particularly useful for massive cuff tears with poor tissue quality. We recently followed up 22 patients with an average follow up of 32 months to validate its usefulness. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved significantly from 37 preoperatively to 90 postoperatively (P<0.0001). This data supports the use of the GPS technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Further biomechanical studies are currently being performed to assess the improvements in tendon footprint area with this technique.

  9. A new tear pattern of the rotator cuff and its treatment: Fosbury flop tears

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J.; Kolo, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe a new full-thickness tear pattern of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing. We describe the specific radiologic signs associated with this tear pattern and the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A prospective radiologic and clinical study collected all patients with a magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram that underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair over a 1 year period. Results: Among 97 patients, five demonstrated a tear of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing. Characteristic radiographic findings included a thicker tendon than normal, the presence of a stump and accumulation of liquid in the superior-medial part of the subacromial bursa, and adhesions between the supraspinatus tendon and the wall of the subacromial bursa. Conclusion: Avulsion of the posterosuperior rotator cuff with reversal healing on its bursal-side is a less common condition. This type of lesion and distinct radiographic signs that can be recognized to facilitate anatomic repair of the rotator cuff. Level of evidence: Level IV. PMID:25709239

  10. Reporting rotator cuff tears on magnetic resonance arthrography using the Snyder’s arthroscopic classification

    PubMed Central

    Aliprandi, Alberto; Messina, Carmelo; Arrigoni, Paolo; Bandirali, Michele; Di Leo, Giovanni; Longo, Stefano; Magnani, Sandro; Mattiuz, Chiara; Randelli, Filippo; Sdao, Silvana; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in evaluating rotator cuff tears (RCTs) using Snyder’s classification for reporting. METHODS One hundred and twenty-six patients (64 males, 62 females; median age 55 years) underwent shoulder MRA and arthroscopy, which represented our reference standard. Surgical arthroscopic reports were reviewed and the reported Snyder’s classification was recorded. MRA examinations were evaluated by two independent radiologists (14 and 5 years’ experience) using Snyder’s classification system, blinded to arthroscopy. Agreement between arthroscopy and MRA on partial- and full-thickness tears was calculated, first regardless of their extent. Then, analysis took into account also the extent of the tear. Interobserver agreement was also calculated the quadratically-weighted Cohen kappa statistics. RESULTS On arthroscopy, 71/126 patients (56%) had a full-thickness RCT. The remaining 55/126 patients (44%) had a partial-thickness RCT. Regardless of tear extent, out of 71 patients with arthroscopically-confirmed full-thickness RCTs, 66 (93%) were correctly scored by both readers. All 55 patients with arthroscopic diagnosis of partial-thickness RCT were correctly assigned as having a partial-thickness RCT at MRA by both readers. Interobserver reproducibility analysis showed total agreement between the two readers in distinguishing partial-thickness from full-thickness RCTs, regardless of tear extent (k = 1.000). With regard to tear extent, in patients in whom a complete tear was correctly diagnosed, correct tear extent was detected in 61/66 cases (92%); in the remaining 5/66 cases (8%), tear extent was underestimated. Agreement was k = 0.955. Interobserver agreement was total (k = 1.000). CONCLUSION MRA shows high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility in evaluating RCTs using the Snyder’s classification for reporting. Snyder’s classification may be adopted for routine reporting of MRA.

  11. Midterm clinical outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Flanagin, Brody A.; Garofalo, Raffaele; Lo, Eddie Y.; Feher, LeeAnne; Castagna, Alessandro; Qin, Huanying; Krishnan, Sumant G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic transosseous (TO) rotator cuff repair has recently emerged as a new option for surgical treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tears. Limited data is available regarding outcomes using this technique. This study evaluated midterm clinical outcomes following a novel arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 107 patients and 109 shoulders underwent arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair for a symptomatic full-thickness tear. Pre and postoperative range of motion (ROM) was compared at an average of 11.8 months. Postoperative outcome scores were obtained at an average of 38.0 months. Statistical analysis was performed to compare pre and postoperative ROM data. Univariate analysis was performed using Student's t-test to compare the effect of other clinical characteristics on final outcome. Results: Statistically significant improvements were noted in forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation (P < 0.0001). Average postoperative subjective shoulder value was 93.7, simple shoulder test 11.6, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score 94.6. According to ASES scores, results for the 109 shoulders available for final follow-up were excellent in 95 (87.1%), good in 8 (7.3%), fair in 3 (2.8%), and poor in 3 (2.8%). There was no difference in ROM or outcome scores in patients who underwent a concomitant biceps procedure (tenodesis or tenotomy) compared with those who did not. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in outcome between patients who underwent either biceps tenodesis or tenotomy. Age, history of injury preceding the onset of pain, tear size, number of TO tunnels required to perform the repair, and presence of fatty infiltration did not correlate with postoperative ROM or subjective outcome measures at final follow-up. Two complications and four failures were noted. Conclusions: Arthroscopic TO rotator cuff repair technique leads to

  12. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  13. Rotation, differential rotation, and gyrochronology of active Kepler stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Timo; Gizon, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Context. In addition to the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets, the high-precision photometry from the CoRoT and Kepler satellites has led to measurements of surface rotation periods for tens of thousands of stars, which can potentially be used to infer stellar ages via gyrochronology. Aims: Our main goal is to derive ages of thousands of field stars using consistent rotation period measurements derived by different methods. Multiple rotation periods are interpreted as surface differential rotation (DR). We study the dependence of DR with rotation period and effective temperature. Methods: We reanalyze a previously studied sample of 24 124 Kepler stars using different approaches based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Each quarter (Q1-Q14) is treated individually using a prewhitening approach. Additionally, the full time series and their different segments are analyzed. Results: For more than 18 500 stars our results are consistent with the rotation periods from McQuillan et al. (2014, ApJS, 211, 24). Of these, more than 12 300 stars show multiple significant peaks, which we interpret as DR. Dependencies of the DR with rotation period and effective temperature could be confirmed, e.g., the relative DR increases with rotation period. Gyrochronology ages between 100 Myr and 10 Gyr were derived for more than 17 000 stars using different gyrochronology relations, most of them with uncertainties dominated by period variations. We find a bimodal age distribution for Teff between 3200-4700 K. The derived ages reveal an empirical activity-age relation using photometric variability as stellar activity proxy. Additionally, we found 1079 stars with extremely stable (mostly short) periods. Half of these periods may be associated with rotation stabilized by non-eclipsing companions, the other half might be due to pulsations. Conclusions: The derived gyrochronology ages are well constrained since more than ~93.0% of the stars seem to be younger than the Sun where calibration is

  14. Outcome and structural integrity of rotator cuff after arthroscopic treatment of large and massive tears with double row technique: a 2-year followup.

    PubMed

    Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge; Herrera, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity.

  15. Outcome and Structural Integrity of Rotator Cuff after Arthroscopic Treatment of Large and Massive Tears with Double Row Technique: A 2-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A.; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity. PMID:23533788

  16. A Prospective Comparative Study of High Resolution Ultrasound and MRI in the Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Tears in a Tertiary Hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Ahluwalia, Ajay; Sharma, Yash Paul; Thakur, Lokesh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the accuracy of high resolution ultrasound (USG) and MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears (RCT) and to determine if high resolution USG compares favorably in sensitivity and specificity to MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Material/Methods In this prospective comparative study, 40 patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff tears underwent both ultrasound and MRI of the shoulder. Out of these 40 patients, 31 patients who had positive findings for rotator cuff tears on ultrasound and/or MRI were finally included in the study while the remaining 9 patients with negative or unrelated findings were excluded. The USG and MRI were interpreted by two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal radiology and blinded to findings of each other. Comparison was done using MRI as a standard reference. Results The agreement between USG and MRI for diagnosis of RCTs was statistically excellent; USG showed a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 100% for full-thickness tears, and a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 98.8% for partial-thickness tears; observed accuracy for full thickness tears was 98.4% and 95.9% for partial thickness tears. The Kappa coefficient of association was 0.91 for full thickness tears and 0.90 for partial thickness tears. Conclusions Considering the comparable diagnostic accuracy of USG and MRI, the former modality can be used as a first-line investigation for diagnosis of RCT. MRI should be used secondarily as a problem-solving tool either following an equivocal shoulder USG or for delineation of anatomy in cases where surgical correction is needed. PMID:27800039

  17. Non-Operative Management of Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Petri, M.; Ettinger, M.; Brand, S.; Stuebig, T.; Krettek, C.; Omar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of nonoperative management for rotator cuff tears remains a matter of debate. Clinical results reported in the literature mainly consist of level IV studies, oftentimes combining a mixed bag of tear sizes and configurations, and are contradictory to some extent. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Most studies show an overall success rate of around 75% for nonoperative treatment. However, the majority of studies also present a progression of tear size and fatty muscle infiltration over time, with however debatable clinical relevance for the patient. Suggested factors associated with progression of a rotator cuff tear are an age of 60 years or older, full-thickness tears, and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles at the time of initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Non-operative management is indicated for patients with lower functional demands and moderate symptoms, and/or of course for those refusing to have surgery. Close routinely monitoring regarding development of tear size should be performed, especially in patients that remain symptomatic during nonoperative treatment. To ensure judicious patient counseling, it has to be taken into account that 1) tears that are initially graded as reparable may become irreparable over time, and 2) results after secondary surgical therapy after failed nonoperative treatment are usually reported to be inferior to those who underwent primary tendon repair. PMID:27708737

  18. Shear rotation numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeff, E.; Misiurewicz, M.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents results on rotation numbers for orientation-preserving torus homeomorphisms homotopic to a Dehn twist. Rotation numbers and the rotation set for such homeomorphisms have been defined and initially investigated by the first author in a previous paper. Here we prove that each rotation number 0951-7715/10/6/017/img5 in the interior of the rotation set is realized by some compact invariant set, and that there is an ergodic measure on that set with mean rotation number 0951-7715/10/6/017/img5. It is also proved that the function which assigns its rotation set to such a homeomorphism is continuous. Finally, a counterexample is presented that shows that rational extremal points of the shear rotation set do not necessarily correspond to any periodic orbits.

  19. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... to these tendons may result in: Rotator cuff tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...

  1. Shaft-Rotation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Signal-processing subsystem generates signal indicative of rotation of shaft from output of accelerometer mounted on housing of bearing supporting shaft. Output of subsystem binary signal at frequency of rotation of shaft. Part of assembly of electronic equipment measuring vibrations in rotating machinery. Accelerometer mounted in such way sensitive to vibrations of shaft perpendicular to axis. Output of accelerometer includes noise and components of vibration at frequencies higher than rotational frequency of shaft.

  2. Hybrid helical snakes and rotators for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.

    1995-06-13

    The spin rotators and Siberian snakes presently envisaged for RHIC utilize helical dipole magnets. The snakes and the rotators each consist of four helices, each with a full twist (360{degrees}) of the field. Here we investigate an alternate layout, namely combinations of helical and pure bending magnet, and show that this may have advantages.

  3. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  4. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  5. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  6. Visualizing molecular unidirectional rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    We directly visualize the spatiotemporal evolution of a unidirectional rotating molecular rotational wave packet. Excited by two time-delayed polarization-skewed ultrashort laser pulses, the cigar- or disk-shaped rotational wave packet is impulsively kicked to unidirectionally rotate as a quantum rotor which afterwards disperses and exhibits field-free revivals. The rich dynamics can be coherently controlled by varying the timing or polarization of the excitation laser pulses. The numerical simulations very well reproduce the experimental observations and intuitively revivify the thoroughgoing evolution of the molecular rotational wave packet of unidirectional spin.

  7. Predictors of human rotation.

    PubMed

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  8. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest

  9. Macular thickness in healthy Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M.; Al-Zwaidi, Fahad M.; Yassin, Sanaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the macular thickness in the eyes of healthy Saudi adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study, including 158 healthy participants between August and December 2015. Mean subject age was 29.9 ± 7.85 years old. All participants underwent full ophthalmic evaluation, including SD-OCT imaging, and axial length measurement. Data from the right eye were included. Mean retinal thickness was determined. Correlations between retinal thickness and gender, age, axial length, and spherical equivalence were analyzed. Results: Mean central retinal thickness was 244.76 ± 23.62 µm, mean axial length was 23.8 ± 1.062 mm (range: 20.5-29 mm) and mean spherical equivalent was -0.31 ± 1.75 diopters (D) (range: -5.50 to +4.25 D). Central subfield (CSF) thickness and foveal volume were significantly lower in women than in men (both p<0.001). Data from the various age groups did not show statistically significant differences in the CSF thickness (p=0.389) or foveal volume (p=0.341). A positive correlation between CSF thickness and axial length (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusion: The normal macular thickness values in healthy Saudi individuals is different from that reported in other ethnic groups, as obtained by SD-OCT. Saudi men had thicker CSF than Saudi women and axial length was positively correlated to the central foveal thickness. PMID:28042632

  10. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  11. How thick is the lithosphere?

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  12. Cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Zhu, Guang; Liu, Ying; Chen, Jun; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Weiqing; Ma, Jusheng; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-07-23

    We demonstrate a cylindrical rotating triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on sliding electrification for harvesting mechanical energy from rotational motion. The rotating TENG is based on a core-shell structure that is made of distinctly different triboelectric materials with alternative strip structures on the surface. The charge transfer is strengthened with the formation of polymer nanoparticles on surfaces. During coaxial rotation, a contact-induced electrification and the relative sliding between the contact surfaces of the core and the shell result in an "in-plane" lateral polarization, which drives the flow of electrons in the external load. A power density of 36.9 W/m(2) (short-circuit current of 90 μA and open-circuit voltage of 410 V) has been achieved by a rotating TENG with 8 strip units at a linear rotational velocity of 1.33 m/s (a rotation rate of 1000 r/min). The output can be further enhanced by integrating more strip units and/or applying larger linear rotational velocity. This rotating TENG can be used as a direct power source to drive small electronics, such as LED bulbs. This study proves the possibility to harvest mechanical energy by TENGs from rotational motion, demonstrating its potential for harvesting the flow energy of air or water for applications such as self-powered environmental sensors and wildlife tracking devices.

  13. Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Meier, J A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-11-28

    Analytical models are developed for the translation and rotation of metallic rods in a uniform electric field. The limits of thin and thick electric double layers are considered. These models include the effect of stripes of different metals along the length of the particle. Modeling results are compared to experimental measurements for metallic rods. Experiments demonstrate the increased alignment of particles with increasing field strength and the increase in degree of alignment of thin versus thick electric double layers. The metal rods polarize in the applied field and align parallel to its direction due to torques on the polarized charge. The torque due to polarization has a second order dependence on the electric field strength. The particles are also shown to have an additional alignment torque component due to non-uniform densities along their length. The orientation distributions of dilute suspensions of particles are also shown to agree well with results predicted by a rotational convective-diffusion equation.

  14. Axisymmetric supersonic flow in rotating impellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W

    1952-01-01

    General equations are developed for isentropic, frictionless, axisymmetric flow in rotating impellers with blade thickness taken into account and with blade forces eliminated in favor of the blade-surface function. It is shown that the total energy of the gas relative to the rotating coordinate system is dependent on the stream function only, and that if the flow upstream of the impeller is vortex-free, a velocity potential exists which is a function of only the radial and axial distances in the impeller. The characteristic equations for supersonic flow are developed and used to investigate flows in several configurations in order to ascertain the effect of variations of the boundary conditions on the internal flow and the work input. Conditions varied are prerotation of the gas, blade turning rate, gas velocity at the blade tips, blade thickness, and sweep of the leading edge.

  15. Rotation and differential rotation of active Kepler stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Timo; Reiners, Ansgar; Basri, Gibor

    2013-12-01

    temperature. The absolute shear ΔΩ slightly increases from ΔΩ = 0.079 rad d-1 at Teff = 3500 K to ΔΩ = 0.096 rad d-1 at Teff = 6000 K. Above 6000 K, ΔΩ shows much larger scatter. The dependence of ΔΩ on rotation period is weak over a large period range. Conclusions: Latitudinal differential rotation measured for the first time in more than 18 000 stars provides a comprehensive picture of stellar surface shear. This picture is consistent with major predictions from mean-field theory, and seems to support these models. To what extent our observations are prone to false positives and selection bias has not been fully explored, and needs to be addressed using other data, including the full Kepler time coverage. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgA table with rotation periods is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A4

  16. Faraday rotation enhancement of gold coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles: comparison of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Dani, Raj Kumar; Wang, Hongwang; Bossmann, Stefan H; Wysin, Gary; Chikan, Viktor

    2011-12-14

    Understanding plasmonic enhancement of nanoscale magnetic materials is important to evaluate their potential for application. In this study, the Faraday rotation (FR) enhancement of gold coated Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NP) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiment shows that the Faraday rotation of a Fe(2)O(3) NP solution changes from approximately 3 rad/Tm to 10 rad/Tm as 5 nm gold shell is coated on a 9.7 nm Fe(2)O(3) core at 632 nm. The results also show how the volume fraction normalized Faraday rotation varies with the gold shell thickness. From the comparison of experiment and calculated Faraday rotation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, it is concluded that the enhancement and shell dependence of Faraday rotation of Fe(2)O(3) NPs is a result of the shifting plasmon resonance of the composite NP. In addition, the clustering of the NPs induces a different phase lag on the Faraday signal, which suggests that the collective response of the magnetic NP aggregates needs to be considered even in solution. From the Faraday phase lag, the estimated time of the full alignment of the magnetic spins of bare (cluster size 160 nm) and gold coated NPs (cluster size 90 nm) are found to be 0.65 and 0.17 μs. The calculation includes a simple theoretical approach based on the Bruggeman theory to account for the aggregation and its effect on the Faraday rotation. The Bruggeman model provides a qualitatively better agreement with the experimentally observed Faraday rotation and points out the importance of making a connection between component properties and the average "effective" optical behavior of the Faraday medium containing magnetic nanoparticles.

  17. Management of In-Season Concurrent Rotator Cuff Tear With Shoulder Instability in Professional Contact Football Athletes; Respect the Career Goals!

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory; Branson, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Professional sports injuries are usually all dealt with at one single operation to return the player to the sport after appropriate rehabilitation. We questioned the assumption that rotator cuff tears must be repaired concurrently with instability syndromes, and aimed to allow a professional rugby league player to achieve career goals by NOT correcting all pathology at one surgery. Case Presentation A professional rugby league player presented with acute shoulder instability on a setting of a chronic full thickness rotator cuff tear. We performed an “in season” arthroscopic stabilization on an elite rugby league player, leaving a previously diagnosed large full thickness rotator cuff tear untreated. This allowed aggressive rehabilitation and return to contact competition at 12 weeks post-surgery. The player achieved a long held career goal of winning a premiership ring before undertaking rotator cuff repair at the end of the season. Latest follow up at seven years (still at elite level) demonstrated an asymptomatic shoulder. Conclusions The assumption that all pathology found at surgical exploration requires correction to play at elite level is not universally correct. We postulate that whilst rotator cuff deficiency has severe long-term sequelae, it is shoulder instability alone that prevents high level contact sports participation. Career goal management is an important part of managing elite level athletes. We have demonstrated that by careful management of the specific pathology preventing participation can allow elite athletes to achieve career goals without compromising long-term health. PMID:27217928

  18. Mounts For Selective Rotation And Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Blade-in-groove bearings stacked to obtain necessary degrees of freedom. Mounting system allows panels to be tilted, rotated, and translated selectively. Developed for large solar reflectors or antennas composed of hexagonal panels about 6 ft. wide and 6 in. thick. With system, each panel tilted around two axes to focus antenna. At same time, each panel translates along these axes to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction without affecting focus.

  19. Rotating cooloing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kley, Wilhelm; Mathews, William G.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the evolution of the hot interstellar medium in a large, slowly rotating elliptical galaxy. Although the rotation assumed is a small fraction of the circular velocity, in accordance with recent observations, it is sufficient to have a profound influence on the X-ray emission and cooling geometry of the interstellar gas. The hot gas cools into a disk that extends out to approximately 10 kpc. The cool, dusty disks observed in the majority of elliptical galaxies may arise naturally from internal cooling rather than from mergers with gas-rich companions. As a result of angular momentum conservation in the cooling flow, the soft X-ray isophotes are quite noticeably flatter than those of the stellar image. The gas temperature is higer along the rotation axis. The rotational velocity of the gas several kiloparcsecs above the central disk far exceeds the local stellar rotation and approaches the local circular velocity as it flows toward the galactic core. The detailed appearance of the X-ray image and velocity field of the X-ray gas provide information about the global rotational properties of giant ellipticals at radii too distant for optical observations. The overall pattern of rotation in these galaxies retains information about the origin of ellipticals, particularly of their merging history. In ellipticals having radio jets, if the jets are aligned with the rotation axis of the inner cooling flow, rotation within the jet could be sustained by the rotating environment. Since most large ellipticals have modest rotation, the X-ray observations at low spatial resolution, when interpreted with spherical theoretical models, give the impression that hot gas undergoes localized cooling to very low temperatures many kiloparcsecs from the galactic core. We suggest that such apparent cooling can result in a natural way as gas cools onto a rotating disk.

  20. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  1. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: • The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schönrich & Binney 2009). • The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). • The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). • The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies

  2. Diamagnetism of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C.

    2011-11-15

    Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.

  3. Wideband rotating junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochernyaev, V. N.

    1993-06-01

    Rotating junctions of coaxial-waveguide and waveguide type with a traveling wave coefficient exceeding 0.8 in a wide frequency range are considered. The design of these junctions is based on a method of the theory of electrodynamic circuits. Numerical results are obtained for rotating junctions of partially filled rectangular waveguide type and their particular cases.

  4. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  5. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  6. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  7. Stresses in rotating composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, James T.-S.; Lin, Chien-Chang

    Stresses in composite cylindrical shells rotating with a constant speed about their longitudinal axis are analyzed. Each ply or ply group is treated as a separate thin layer of homogeneous and orthotropic material under the interfacial stresses as surface loading. There is no limitation on the total thickness of the shell. The circumferential stress, motivated by the conventional thin shell theory, is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness of the layer. The radial stress is determined in terms of the circumferential stress through the equilibrium condition, and an average compatibility condition through the thickness of the thin layer is used. Numerical results using the present analysis show nearly perfect agreement with the exact solution for homogeneous and isotropic cylinders. Some results for cylinders having orthotropic layers are presented for illustrative purposes.

  8. Rotation sensor switch

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, John B.

    1978-01-01

    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops comprises a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal.

  9. A simulation technique for predicting thickness of thermal sprayed coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goedjen, John G.; Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Leissler, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The complexity of many of the components being coated today using the thermal spray process makes the trial and error approach traditionally followed in depositing a uniform coating inadequate, thereby necessitating a more analytical approach to developing robotic trajectories. A two dimensional finite difference simulation model has been developed to predict the thickness of coatings deposited using the thermal spray process. The model couples robotic and component trajectories and thermal spraying parameters to predict coating thickness. Simulations and experimental verification were performed on a rotating disk to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the approach.

  10. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gretchen A; Farris, Ashley L; Sato, Eugene; Gibbons, Michael; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2015-03-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears affect a large portion of the population and result in substantial upper extremity impairment, shoulder weakness, pain, and limited range of motion. Regardless of surgical or conservative treatment, persistent atrophic muscle changes limit functional restoration and may contribute to surgical failure. We hypothesized that deficits in the skeletal muscle progenitor (SMP) cell pool could contribute to poor muscle recovery following tendon repair. Biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing arthroscopic RC surgery. The SMP population was quantified, isolated, and assayed in culture for its ability to proliferate and fuse in vitro and in vivo. The SMP population was larger in muscles from cuffs with partial tears compared with no tears or full thickness tears. However, SMPs from muscles in the partial tear group also exhibited reduced proliferative ability. Cells from all cuff states were able to fuse robustly in culture and engraft when injected into injured mouse muscle, suggesting that when given the correct signals, SMPs are capable of contributing to muscle hypertrophy and regeneration regardless of tear severity. The fact that this does not appear to happen in vivo helps focus future therapeutic targets for promoting muscle recovery following rotator cuff repairs and may help improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.

    1980-11-12

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  12. Simvastatin reduces fibrosis and protects against muscle weakness after massive rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Max E; Korn, Michael A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Harning, Julie A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and disability, and patients with chronic cuff tears often have substantial weakness, fibrosis, inflammation and fat accumulation. Identifying therapies to prevent the development of these pathologies will likely have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Simvastatin is a drug with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in many tissues, but had not previously been studied in the context of rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that following the induction of a massive supraspinatus tear, simvastatin would protect muscles from a loss of force production and fibrosis. Methods We measured changes in muscle fiber contractility, histology and biochemical markers of fibrosis and fatty infiltration in rats that received a full-thickness supraspinatus tear and were treated with either carrier alone or simvastatin. Results Compared to vehicle treated controls, simvastatin did not have an appreciable effect on muscle fiber size, but treatment did increase muscle fiber specific force by 20%. Simvastatin also reduced collagen accumulation by 50%, but did not effect triglyceride content of muscles. Several favorable changes in the expression of genes and other markers of inflammation, fibrosis and regeneration were also observed. Conclusions Simvastatin partially protected muscles from the weakness that occurs as a result of chronic rotator cuff tear. Fibrosis was also markedly reduced in simvastatin treated animals. While further studies are necessary, statin medication could potentially help to improve outcomes for patients with rotator cuff tears. PMID:25213828

  13. Chaotic rotation of Hyperion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Green, J. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1986-01-01

    Thomas et al. (1984) analyzed 14 Voyager 2 images of Saturn's satellite Hyperion and interpreted them to be consistent with a coherent (nonchaotic) rotation period of 13.1 days. This interpretation was criticized by Peale and Wisdom (1984), who argued that the low sampling frequency of Voyager data does not allow chaotic or nonchaotic rotation to be distinguished. New observations obtained with a higher sampling frequency are reported here which conclusively show that the 13.1 day period found by Thomas et al. was not due to coherent rotation.

  14. Method for Design Rotation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    desirability of a rotation as a function of the set of planar angles. Criteria for the symmetry of the design (such as the same set of factor levels for...P is -1. Hence there is no theoretical problem in obtaining rotations of a design; there are only the practical questions Why rotate a design? And...star points, which can be represented in a shorthand notation by the permutations of (±1,0, "’" , 0), and (c) factorial points, which are a two- level

  15. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Methods Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. Results The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). Conclusion The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position. PMID:27434235

  16. Gauge Measures Thicknesses Of Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George R.; Yoshino, Stanley Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tool makes highly repeatable measurements of thickness of penetrable blanket insulation. Includes commercial holder for replaceable knife blades, which holds needle instead of knife. Needle penetrates blanket to establish reference plane. Ballasted slider applies fixed preload to blanket. Technician reads thickness value on scale.

  17. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  18. Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.

  19. Rotating mobile launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus holds remotely piloted arm that accelerates until launching speed is reached. Then vehicle and counterweight at other end of arm are released simultaneously to avoid structural damage from unbalanced rotating forces.

  20. The Rotating Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses theory of the rotating mirror, its use in measuring the velocity of the electrical signal in wires, and the velocity of light. Concludes with a description of the manometric flame apparatus developed for analyzing sound waves. (SK)

  1. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  2. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    Miller RH III, Azar FM, Throckmorton TW. Shoulder and elbow injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. ... Krishnan SG. Rotator cuff and impingement lesions. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  3. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  4. Mixing and segregation dynamics of granular mixtures in rotating tumblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Gabriel

    This thesis presents studies focused on a better understanding mixing and segregation of granular flows in rotating tumblers. Axial segregation of size varying bidisperse granular mixtures in long cylindrical tumblers was studied to understand the dependence of band formation and evolution on the relative concentration of small and large particles and the rotation rate. In attempt to shed new light on the phenomenon, two new approaches to analyze size-varying band forming systems were proposed. One is an analogy between the phase diagram of a granular system and that of a binary chemical system in which band formation is shown to have "phase transitions" analogous to spinodal decomposition and nucleation. The other, a dynamic scaling approach, was applied to coarsening granular patterns similar to that previously used for reacting lamellae in fluid cavity flows. The scaling indicates a universality of band thickness distributions. The critical speed for centrifuging of monodisperse granular materials in rotating tumblers was investigated through experiments in a quasi-2D tumbler. The commonly used dimensionless number is the Froude number, Fr = o 2R/g, which is the measure of the ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces. The generally accepted value for centrifuging of Fr> 1 is not accurate. Preliminary results show that centrifuging depends on more than just Fr. Important factors include the tumbler fill fraction and particle interactions due to friction, but particle size plays only a minor role. Finally, a mixing mechanism without stretching and folding, referred to as "cutting and shuffling," is introduced. The mechanism has theoretical foundations in a relatively new area of mathematics called piecewise isometries (PWI). Mixing of granular materials is considered in a half-full three-dimensional spherical tumbler undergoing a protocol of repeated brief rotations about two different horizontal axes. Experiments for monodisperse particles over several

  5. Rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Crusher, R H

    2000-07-01

    Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments.

  6. Rotational rate sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  7. Rotational spectrum of phenylglycinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, Alcides; Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2014-11-01

    Solid samples of phenylglycinol were vaporized by laser ablation and investigated through rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion using two different techniques: chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrow band molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer, bearing an O-H···N and an N-H···π intramolecular hydrogen bonds, could be successfully identified by comparison of the experimental rotational and 14N nuclear quadruple coupling constants with those predicted theoretically.

  8. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  9. Instability in Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

  10. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  11. Rotational Spectrum of Sarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C4H10FO2P) was observed in the rotationally cold (Trot<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1σ), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm-1. Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G** level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings.

  12. Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Claudius D; Schmidt, Christopher C

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this article is to summarize the current concepts on rotator cuff disease with an emphasis on arthroscopic treatment. Most rotator cuff tears are the result of an ongoing attritional process. Once present, a tear is likely to gradually increase in size. Partial-thickness and subscapularis tears can both be successfully treated arthroscopically if conservative management fails. Partial tears involving greater than 50% of tendon thickness should be repaired. Articular-sided partial tears involving less than 50% of the rotator cuff can reliably be treated with debridement. A more aggressive approach should be considered for low-grade tears (<50%) if they occur on the bursal side. Biomechanical and anatomic studies have shown clear superiority with dual-row fixation compared with single-row techniques. However, current studies have yet to show clear clinical advantage with dual-row over single-row repairs. Biceps tenotomy or tenodesis can reliably provide symptomatic improvement in patients with irreparable massive tears. True pseudoparalysis of the shoulder is a contraindication to this procedure alone and other alternatives should be considered.

  13. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  14. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  15. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Zeynab; Ozevin, Didem

    2015-03-01

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interaction of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.

  16. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Zeynab E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu; Ozevin, Didem E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu

    2015-03-31

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interaction of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.

  17. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  18. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  19. Rotation of a Moonless Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  20. Rotating Rake Turbofan Duct Mode Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental measurement system was developed and implemented by the NASA Glenn Research Center in the 1990s to measure turbofan duct acoustic modes. The system is a continuously rotating radial microphone rake that is inserted into the duct. This Rotating Rake provides a complete map of the acoustic duct modes present in a ducted fan and has been used on a variety of test articles: from a low-speed, concept test rig, to a full-scale production turbofan engine. The Rotating Rake has been critical in developing and evaluating a number of noise reduction concepts as well as providing experimental databases for verification of several aero-acoustic codes. More detailed derivation of the unique Rotating Rake equations are presented in the appendix.

  1. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and

  2. Sensitivity analysis of tip-thickness and slope on the tip strength of spur gear sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Ioannis; Vasileiou, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    For gears working on a specific rotational direction it is possible to change coast side's profile in order to increase strength on the root of the tooth. It is easily appreciated that increasing root's thickness would result in increased strength for tooth's root, but it would also result in decreased tip thickness. A highly decreased tip thickness would deteriorate the overall strength of the tooth. In this paper, in order to define the acceptable limits for tip thickness, a straight line approximation with variable slope was used as coast side tooth profile in order to cover a wide range of values as a first estimate.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the Galactic thick to thin disc transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Wyse, R.; Adibekyan, V.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Pancino, E.; Smiljanic, R.; Jackson, R.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G.; Worley, C. C.; Hourihane, A.; Bergemann, M.; Costado, M. T.; Heiter, U.; Joffre, P.; Lardo, C.; Lind, K.; Maiorca, E.

    2014-07-01

    and, possibly, the azimuthal velocity dispersion decreased. At [M/H] ≈ -0.25 dex and [α/Fe]≈ 0.1 dex, the mean characteristics of the thick disc in vertical distance to the Galactic plane, rotation, rotational dispersion, and stellar orbits' eccentricity agree with that of the thin disc stars of the same metallicity, suggesting a possible connection between these two populations at a certain epoch of the disc evolution. Finally, the results presented here, based only on the first months of the Gaia ESO Survey observations, confirm how crucial large high-resolution spectroscopic surveys outside the solar neighbourhood are today for our understanding of the Milky Way history. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002.Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A5

  4. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  5. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  6. Changes of epidermal thickness in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Kim, You Chan

    2015-04-01

    The stratum corneum and epidermal pigmentation have protective roles against ultraviolet radiation. Because vitiligo skin lacks melanocytes and has no potential to produce pigment, some studies suggested that the epidermis in vitiligo skin is thicker than in normal skin. However, only a few studies investigated epidermal thickness changes in vitiligo, and some of these had relatively small sample sizes. Thus, this study aimed to compare epidermal thickness between vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin in a large cohort. Photos of hematoxylin and eosin–stained slides of vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin were taken under a microscope. The thicknesses of the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and full epidermis were then measured by a computerized image analyzer. A total of 206 patients (412 sections) were included. There were significant differences between vitiligo skin and adjacent normal-appearing skin in the thickness of the stratum corneum (P = 0.009), viable epidermis (P = 0.001), and total epidermis (P = 0.001). An analysis comparing skin biopsied from a sun-exposed area versus a sun-protected area showed that the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, and total epidermis were significantly thicker in vitiligo skin than in normal-appearing skin in sun-exposed areas (P < 0.05), but not in sun-protected areas. We revealed that the epidermis was thicker in vitiligo skin than in normal-appearing skin, especially on sun-exposed skin, and that this may represent a photoprotective role compensating for absent pigmentation.

  7. Predictors of Outcomes after Arthroscopic Double-row Rotator Cuff Repair in 155 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Katthagen, Jan Christoph; Millett, Peter J.; Espinoza-Ervin, Christopher; Horan, Marilee P.; Ho, Charles P.; Warth, Ryan J.; Dornan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze predictors of clinical outcomes of knotted versus knotless double-row self-reinforcing rotator cuff repairs of full-thickness rotator cuff tears with propensity score matching. Methods: Patients with arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus tendon using either a knotted or knotless linked, self-reinforcing double-row technique were included in the study. Preoperative subjective evaluation was performed using the ASES and SF-12 PCS scores. After a minimum two-year follow-up period, ASES and SF-12 PCS scores were collected again along with the SANE score, the QuickDASH score, and patient satisfaction. All data were collected prospectively and retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative ASES and SF-12 PCS scores were then modeled using inverse propensity score weighting in a multiple linear regression model (MLR) with multiple imputations. Age, sex, baseline ASES score, length of follow-up, number of anchors, worker’s compensation, previous cuff repair, and double-row repair technique (knotted or knotless) were the covariates used in this model. Results: 155 shoulders in 151 patients (109 men, 42 women; mean age at time of surgery 59±10 years) were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes data were available for 130 of 148 shoulders (87.8%) after exclusion of seven shoulders (4.5%) that underwent revision rotator cuff repair before final follow up (n=33/39 in the knotted group [84.6%]; n=97/109 [88.9%] in the knotless group).The mean follow-up was 2.9 years (range, 2.0-5.4 years). Overall, postoperative outcomes scores were significantly improved when compared to preoperative baselines (p<0.05), with a median postoperative ASES score of 97 for the entire cohort. Our model showed that previous rotator cuff repair had a significant negative effect on postoperative ASES (β = -12.7, p<0.001) and SF-12 PCS scores (β = -5.0, p = 0.036). A workers’ compensation claim (β = -10.6, p

  8. STRUCTURE OF UNIFORMLY ROTATING STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, Robert G.

    2011-07-10

    Zero-age main-sequence models of uniformly rotating stars have been computed for 10 masses between 1.625 and 8 M{sub sun} and for 21 rotation rates from zero to nearly critical rotation. The surface shape is used to distinguish rotation rather than the surface equatorial velocity or the rotation rate. Using the surface shape is close, but not quite equivalent, to using the ratio of the rotation rate to the critical rotation rate. Using constant shape as the rotation variable means that it and the mass are separable, something that is not true for either the rotation rate or surface equatorial velocity. Thus, a number of properties, including the ratio of the effective temperature anywhere on the surface to the equatorial temperature, are nearly independent of the mass of the model, as long as the rotation rate changes in such a way as to keep the surface shape constant.

  9. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  10. IO Rotation Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During its 1979 flyby, Voyager 2 observed Io only from a distance. However, the volcanic activity discovered by Voyager 1 months earlier was readily visible. This sequence of nine color images was collected using the Blue, Green and Orange filters from about 1.2 million kilometers. A 2.5 hour period is covered during which Io rotates 7 degrees.

    Rotating into view over the limb of Io are the plumes of the volcanoes Amirani (top) and Maui (lower). These plumes are very distinct against the black sky because they are being illuminated from behind. Notice that as Io rotates, the proportion of Io which is sunlit decreases greatly. This changing phase angle is because Io is moving between the spacecraft and the Sun.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1985.

  11. Rotating Aperture System

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  12. Chiral rotational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.

  13. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah T.; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990 to 2007 in the US alone (Ref. 1). As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a nonrotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various non-rotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the prestress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in

  14. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990-2007 in the US alone [1]. As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a non-rotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various nonrotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the pre-stress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in a

  15. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD.

  16. Full Multigrid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Diskin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    FMG3D (full multigrid 3 dimensions) is a pilot computer program that solves equations of fluid flow using a finite difference representation on a structured grid. Infrastructure exists for three dimensions but the current implementation treats only two dimensions. Written in Fortran 90, FMG3D takes advantage of the recursive subroutine feature, dynamic memory allocation, and structured-programming constructs of that language. FMG3D supports multi-block grids with three types of block-to-block interfaces: periodic, C-zero, and C-infinity. For all three types, grid points must match at interfaces. For periodic and C-infinity types, derivatives of grid metrics must be continuous at interfaces. The available equation sets are as follows: scalar elliptic equations, scalar convection equations, and the pressure-Poisson formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. All the equation sets are implemented with nonzero forcing functions to enable the use of user-specified solutions to assist in verification and validation. The equations are solved with a full multigrid scheme using a full approximation scheme to converge the solution on each succeeding grid level. Restriction to the next coarser mesh uses direct injection for variables and full weighting for residual quantities; prolongation of the coarse grid correction from the coarse mesh to the fine mesh uses bilinear interpolation; and prolongation of the coarse grid solution uses bicubic interpolation.

  17. "Care-Full Teaching".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuskey, Patricia Varan; Tango, Robert

    The "Care-Full" teaching process described in this report is an assessment-oriented procedure which monitors the student's specific rate of growth toward defined learning objectives. First, the report briefly delineates eight steps in the process, indicating that teachers and counselors: (1) become aware of the need for assessment; (2) transform…

  18. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  19. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOEpatents

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  20. Liquid-film coating on topographically patterned rotating cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Kumar, Satish

    2017-02-01

    The coating of discrete objects having surface topography is an important step in the manufacturing of a broad variety of products. To develop a fundamental understanding of this problem, we study liquid-film flow on rotating cylinders patterned with sinusoidal topographical features. The Stokes equations, augmented with a term accounting for centrifugal forces, are solved in a rotating reference frame using the Galerkin finite-element method (GFEM). A nonlinear evolution equation for the film thickness based on lubrication theory is also solved numerically and its predictions are compared to those from the GFEM calculations. When gravitational effects are negligible and the rotation rate is sufficiently low, liquid accumulates over the pattern troughs before merging to form multiple larger drops (located over troughs) whose number at steady state depends on the topography wavelength and rotation rate. When the rotation rate is sufficiently high, similar merging events occur, but liquid accumulates over the pattern crests at steady state. When gravitational forces become significant, it is possible to obtain a coating that closely conforms to the surface topography. The GFEM calculations are in agreement with predictions from the lubrication model provided the free-surface curvatures are sufficiently small. For sufficiently large pattern amplitude and film thickness, the GFEM calculations show that recirculation regions inside the troughs can appear and vanish as the cylinder rotates due to the variation of gravitational forces around the cylinder surface. This phenomenon, along with flow reversal over the crests, may strongly influence mixing, mass transport, and heat transport.

  1. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.

    2000-08-29

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  2. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of processing up to 6 tons per hour of dioxin contaminated soil was conducted at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, MS. publish information

  3. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  4. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  5. Effect of rotation on a rotating hot-wire sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to discern the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces on a rotating hot-wire. The probe was calibrated in a wind tunnel as well as in a rotating mode. The effect of rotation was found to be negligibly small. A small change in cold resistance (1.5%) was observed in the rotating wire. The rotation seems to have a negligible effect on the fluid mechanics, heat transfer and material characteristics of the wire. This is a significant conclusion in view of the potential application of the hot-wire probe in a rotating passage (such as turbomachinery).

  6. Anatomical total shoulder replacement with rotator cuff repair for osteoarthritis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Simone, J P; Streubel, P H; Sperling, J W; Schleck, C D; Cofield, R H; Athwal, G S

    2014-02-01

    We assessed the clinical results, radiographic outcomes and complications of patients undergoing total shoulder replacement (TSR) for osteoarthritis with concurrent repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1996 and 2010, 45 of 932 patients (4.8%) undergoing TSR for osteoarthritis underwent rotator cuff repair. The final study group comprised 33 patients with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (3 months to 13 years). Tears were classified into small (10), medium (14), large (9) or massive (0). On a scale of 1 to 5, pain decreased from a mean of 4.7 to 1.7 (p = < 0.0001), the mean forward elevation improved from 99° to 139° (p = < 0.0001), and the mean external rotation improved from 20° (0° to 75°) to 49° (20° to 80°) (p = < 0.0001). The improvement in elevation was greater in those with a small tear (p = 0.03). Radiographic evidence of instability developed in six patients with medium or large tears, indicating lack of rotator cuff healing. In all, six glenoid components, including one with instability, were radiologically at risk of loosening. Complications were noted in five patients, all with medium or large tears; four of these had symptomatic instability and one sustained a late peri-prosthetic fracture. Four patients (12%) required further surgery, three with instability and one with a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture. Consideration should be given to performing rotator cuff repair for stable shoulders during anatomical TSR, but reverse replacement should be considered for older, less active patients with larger tears.

  7. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  8. Model of a rotating magnetic cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Osherovich, V. A.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that magnetic clouds rotate while they propagate antisunward was investigated. Magnetic clouds are modeled as magnetic flux ropes which rotate rigidly about the axis of symmetry. An ideal magnetohydrodynamic model, in which the evolution of the magnetic structure is related to the time evolution of the angular frequency, is developed. A class of 'separable' magnetic fields is employed to reduce the problem to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation for the evolution function, and it is solved numerically. The corresponding effective potential gives rise to two modes of evolution--expansion and oscillation--depending on the energy and on the value of a dimensionless parameter, k. Parameter k depends on the gas pressure, the ratio of the magnetic field components, and the frequency of rotation. There is a critical value of k, k(sub c), above which the oscillatory regime disappears and the flux rope invariably expands, regardless of the energy. Below k(sub c) the energy determines whether the configuration is confined or unbounded. Rotation always helps expansion by lowering the potential barrier. A data example was studied and features which are interpreted as signatures of rotation are presented. The angular speed is comparable to the Alfven speed, and the core of the rotating cloud completes on average one full revolution every three days at 1 AU. The parameter k is calculated from observations, and it is found to be close to, but below, critical. Only three out of the nine clouds examined showed signatures of rotation. Theoretical analysis suggests that close to the Sun rotation effects may play a more important role in the evolution of magnetic clouds than 1 AU.

  9. Compact rotating cup anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.

  10. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  11. Rotating Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Loretta A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a science classroom program with centralized materials, and assistance and workshops for teachers. Classroom materials on one of five topics rotate every six weeks among five schools. Teachers plan specific units to match the arrival of the materials in their schools. (Author/DS)

  12. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  13. Concepts in crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have been a part of civilization since the Middle Ages. With colonization of what would become the United States came new crops of tobacco, cotton, and corn, the first two of which would play significant roles in both the economic beginnings and social fabric of the new country, how ...

  14. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  15. Rotating Saddle Paul Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueckner, Wolfgang; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which a ball is placed in an unstable position on a saddle shape. The ball becomes stable when it is rotated above some threshold angular velocity. The demonstration is a mechanical analog of confining a particle in a "Paul Trap". (DDR)

  16. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  17. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  18. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  19. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

  20. NEA rotations and binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.

    2007-05-01

    Of nearly 3900 near-Earth asteroids known in June 2006, 325 have got estimated rotation periods. NEAs with sizes down to 10 meters have been sampled. Observed spin distribution shows a major changing point around D=200 m. Larger NEAs show a barrier against spin rates >11 d-1 (period P~2.2 h) that shifts to slower rates with increasing equatorial elongation. The spin barrier is interpreted as a critical spin rate for bodies held together by self-gravitation only, suggesting that NEAs larger than 200 m are mostly strenghtless bodies (i.e., with zero tensile strength), so called `rubble piles'. The barrier disappears at D<200 m where most objects rotate too fast to be held together by self-gravitation only, so a non-zero cohesion is implied in the smaller NEAs. The distribution of NEA spin rates in the `rubble pile' range (D>0.2 km) is non-Maxwellian, suggesting that other mechanisms than just collisions worked there. There is a pile up in front of the barrier (P of 2-3 h). It may be related to a spin up mechanism crowding asteroids to the barrier. An excess of slow rotators is seen at P>30 h. The spin-down mechanism has no clear lower limit on spin rate; periods as long as tens of days occur. Most NEAs appear to be in basic spin states with rotation around the principal axis. Excited rotations are present among and actually dominate in slow rotators with damping timescales >4.5 byr. A few tumblers observed among fast rotating coherent objects consistently appear to be more rigid or younger than the larger, rubble-pile tumblers. An abundant population of binary systems among NEAs has been found. The fraction of binaries among NEAs larger than 0.3 km has been estimated to be 15 +/-4%. Primaries of the binary systems concentrate at fast spin rates (periods 2-3 h) and low amplitudes, i.e., they lie just below the spin barrier. The total angular momentum content in the binary systems suggests that they formed at the critical spin rate, and that little or no angular

  1. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  2. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels, 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.

  3. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  4. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  5. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index using phase shifted Coherent Gradient Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disawal, Reena; Suzuki, Takamasa; Prakash, Shashi

    2016-12-01

    We report simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index (RI) using Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) based interferometric setup. The collimated light beam transmitted through the specimen is analyzed using two gratings in tandem and a spatial filtering arrangement. At the imaging plane, the desired orders superpose yielding interference fringes. Phase shifting interferometric (PSI) technique has been used to obtain the phase information directly. For decoding the information of thickness and RI, the specimen is rotated and the variation in interferometric phase before and after the specimen rotation determined. Simultaneous measurement on a glass plate of thickness 6.019 mm and refractive index of 1.4570 has been demonstrated. Detailed uncertainty analysis is also reported. The expanded uncertainty for thickness and RI in the measurement process was determined to be ±0.005 mm and ±0.00008 respectively.

  7. Method and apparatus for ultrasonic characterization through the thickness direction of a moving web

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Theodore; Hall, Maclin S.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the caliper and/or the ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web of material using ultrasonic pulses generated by a rotatable wheel ultrasound apparatus. The apparatus includes a first liquid-filled tire and either a second liquid-filled tire forming a nip or a rotatable cylinder that supports a thin moving web of material such as a moving web of paper and forms a nip with the first liquid-filled tire. The components of ultrasonic transit time through the tires and fluid held within the tires may be resolved and separately employed to determine the separate contributions of the two tire thicknesses and the two fluid paths to the total path length that lies between two ultrasonic transducer surfaces contained within the tires in support of caliper measurements. The present invention provides the benefit of obtaining a transit time and caliper measurement at any point in time as a specimen passes through the nip of rotating tires and eliminates inaccuracies arising from nonuniform tire circumferential thickness by accurately retaining point-to-point specimen transit time and caliper variation information, rather than an average obtained through one or more tire rotations. Morever, ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web may be determined independent of small variations in the wheel axle spacing, tire thickness, and liquid and tire temperatures.

  8. Full Tolerant Archiving System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

    2013-10-01

    The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

  9. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  10. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  11. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  12. Toward Full Spatiotemporal Control on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia; Stockman, Mark I.; Nelson, Keith

    2007-10-01

    We introduce an approach to implement full coherent control on nanometer length scales. It is based on spatio-temporal modulation of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) fields at the thick edge of a nanowedge. The SPP wavepackets propagating toward the sharp edge of this nanowedge are compressed and adiabatically concentrated at a nanofocus, forming an ultrashort pulse of local fields. The one-dimensional spatial profile and temporal waveform of this pulse are completely coherently controlled.

  13. Toward full spatiotemporal control on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia; Stockman, Mark I; Nelson, Keith

    2007-10-01

    We introduce an approach to implement full coherent control on nanometer length scales. It is based on spatiotemporal modulation of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) fields at the thick edge of a nanowedge. The SPP wavepackets propagating toward the sharp edge of this nanowedge are compressed and adiabatically concentrated at a nanofocus, forming an ultrashort pulse of local fields. The profile of the focused waveform as a function of time and one spatial dimension is completely coherently controlled.

  14. Optimized dynamic rotation with wedges.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I I; Morrill, S M; Lane, R G

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic rotation is a computer-controlled therapy technique utilizing an automated multileaf collimator in which the radiation beam shape changes dynamically as the treatment machine rotates about the patient so that at each instant the beam shape matches the projected shape of the target volume. In simple dynamic rotation, the dose rate remains constant during rotation. For optimized dynamic rotation, the dose rate is varied as a function of gantry angle. Optimum dose rate at each gantry angle is computed by linear programming. Wedges can be included in the optimized dynamic rotation therapy by using additional rotations. Simple and optimized dynamic rotation treatment plans, with and without wedges, for a pancreatic tumor have been compared using optimization cost function values, normal tissue complication probabilities, and positive difference statistic values. For planning purposes, a continuous rotation is approximated by static beams at a number of gantry angles equally spaced about the patient. In theory, the quality of optimized treatment planning solutions should improve as the number of static beams increases. The addition of wedges should further improve dose distributions. For the case studied, no significant improvements were seen for more than 36 beam angles. Open and wedged optimized dynamic rotations were better than simple dynamic rotation, but wedged optimized dynamic rotation showed no definitive improvement over open beam optimized dynamic rotation.

  15. Transient analysis for damping identification in rotating composite beams with integral damping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Clifford B.; Wereley, Norman M.

    1996-10-01

    The first objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of damping identification algorithms. The second objective is to determine the feasibility of damping augmentation in rotating composite beams via passive constrained layer damping (PCLD). Damping identification schemes were applied to four rectangular cross-section laminated composite beams with cocured integral damping layers over the span of the beam. The cocured beam consisted of a twenty-ply balanced and symmetric cross-ply Gr/Ep composite host structure, a top and bottom damping layer of viscoelastic material (VEM), and a 2-ply Gr/Ep constraining layer sandwiching the viscoelastic material to the host structure. Four VEM thicknesses were considered: 0, 5, 10, and 15 mils. The cantilevered beams were tested at rotational speeds ranging from 0 to 900 RPM in a vacuum chamber. Excitation in bending was provided using piezo actuators, and the bending response was measured using full strain gauge bridges. Transient data were analysed using logarithmic decrement, a Hilbert transform technique, and an FFT- based moving block analysis. When compared to the beam with no VEM, a 19.2% volume fraction (15 mil layer) of viscoelastic in the beam produced a 400% increase in damping ratio in the non-rotating case, while at 900 RPM, the damping ratio increased only 360%. Overall structural damping was reduced as a function of RPM, due to centrifugal stiffening.

  16. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  17. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  18. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  19. Incremental full configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The incremental expansion provides a polynomial scaling method for computing electronic correlation energies. This article details a new algorithm and implementation for the incremental expansion of full configuration interaction (FCI), called iFCI. By dividing the problem into n-body interaction terms, accurate correlation energies can be recovered at low n in a highly parallel computation. Additionally, relatively low-cost approximations are possible in iFCI by solving for each incremental energy to within a specified threshold. Herein, systematic tests show that FCI-quality energies can be asymptotically reached for cases where dynamic correlation is dominant as well as where static correlation is vital. To further reduce computational costs and allow iFCI to reach larger systems, a select-CI approach (heat-bath CI) requiring two parameters is incorporated. Finally, iFCI provides the first estimate of FCI energies for hexatriene with a polarized double zeta basis set, which has 32 electrons correlated in 118 orbitals, corresponding to a FCI dimension of over 1038.

  20. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  1. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident liear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  2. A call for rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, Gregory

    “Needed: highly motivated geoscientists willing to slow the pace of their research for 1-2 years while managing federal government support of their discipline. Assured: change of perspective; no change in pay. Contact your National Science Foundation Program Director for details.—No, this isn't an NSF job announcement; this is an open letter to members of the Earth science community from a recently “retired” NSF rotator concerned by the small number of researchers interested in a Washington tour. I learned firsthand the extent to which an individual in this position is entrusted with decision-making powers, and as a result, I believe that each of us in the research community should feel responsible for ensuring that highly qualified people serve as rotators.

  3. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Garibaldi, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  4. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, Josè L.

    2014-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O-H...N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N-H...π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  5. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, M. Eugenia Cabezas, Carlos Mata, Santiago Alonso, Josè L.

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  6. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  7. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  8. On rotational conical flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, Carlo

    1952-01-01

    Some general properties of isoenergetic rotational conical fields are determined. For such fields, provided the physical parameters of the fluid flow are known on a conical reference surface, it being understood that they satisfy certain imposed conditions, it is shown how to construct the hodographs in the various meridional semiplanes, as the envelope of either the tangents to the hodographs or of the osculatory circles.

  9. Rotating housing turbine

    DOEpatents

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  10. Sheep embryonic stem-like cells transplanted in full-thickness cartilage defects.

    PubMed

    Dattena, Maria; Pilichi, Susanna; Rocca, Stefano; Mara, Laura; Casu, Sara; Masala, Gerolamo; Manunta, Lucia; Manunta, Andrea; Passino, Eraldo Sanna; Pool, Roy R; Cappai, Pietro

    2009-03-01

    Articular cartilage regeneration is limited. Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines provide a source of totipotent cells for regenerating cartilage. Anatomical, biomechanical, physiological and immunological similarities between humans and sheep make this animal an optimal experimental model. This study examines the repair process of articular cartilage in sheep after transplantation of ES-like cells isolated from inner cell masses (ICMs) derived from in vitro-produced (IVP) vitrified embryos. Thirty-five ES-like colonies from 40 IVP embryos, positive for stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs), were pooled in groups of two or three, embedded in fibrin glue and transplanted into osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyles of 14 ewes. Empty defect (ED) and cell-free glue (G) in the controlateral stifle joint served as controls. The Y gene sequence was used to detect ES-like cells in the repair tissue by in situ hybridization (ISH). Two ewes were euthanized at 1 month post-operatively, three each at 2 and 6 months and four at 12 months. Repairing tissue was examined by biomechanical, macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical (collagen type II) and ISH assays. Scores of all treatments showed no statistical significant differences among treatment groups at a given time period, although ES-like grafts showed a tendency toward a better healing process. ISH was positive in all ES-like specimens. This study demonstrates that ES-like cells transplanted into cartilage defects stimulate the repair process to promote better organization and tissue bulk. However, the small number of cells applied and the short interval between surgery and euthanasia might have negatively affected the results.

  11. Preparation of Inactivated Human Skin Using High Hydrostatic Pressurization for Full-Thickness Skin Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Pham Hieu; Morimoto, Naoki; Mahara, Atsushi; Jinno, Chizuru; Shima, Koji; Ogino, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Kakudo, Natsuko; Inoie, Masukazu; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujisato, Toshia; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) technology is safe and useful for producing various kinds of decellularized tissue. However, the preparation of decellularized or inactivated skin using HHP has not been reported. The objective of this study was thus to prepare inactivated skin from human skin using HHP, and to explore the appropriate conditions of pressurization to inactivate skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. Human skin samples of 8 mm in diameter were packed in bags filled with normal saline solution (NSS) or distilled water (DW), and then pressurized at 0, 100, 150, 200 and 1000 MPa for 10 minutes. The viability of skin after HHP was evaluated using WST-8 assay. Outgrowth cells from pressurized skin and the viability of pressurized skin after cultivation for 14 days were also evaluated. The pressurized skin was subjected to histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemical staining of type IV collagen for the basement membrane of epidermis and capillaries, and immunohistochemical staining of von Willebrand factor (vWF) for capillaries. Then, human cultured epidermis (CE) was applied on the pressurized skin and implanted into the subcutis of nude mice; specimens were subsequently obtained 14 days after implantation. Skin samples pressurized at more than 200 MPa were inactivated in both NSS and DW. The basement membrane and capillaries remained intact in all groups according to histological and immunohistological evaluations, and collagen fibers showed no apparent damage by SEM. CE took on skin pressurized at 150 and 200 MPa after implantation, whereas it did not take on skin pressurized at 1000 MPa. These results indicate that human skin could be inactivated after pressurization at more than 200 MPa, but skin pressurized at 1000 MPa had some damage to the dermis that prevented the taking of CE. Therefore, pressurization at 200 MPa is optimal for preparing inactivated skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. PMID:26226373

  12. Use of Myocardial Matrix in a Chitosan-Based Full-Thickness Heart Patch

    PubMed Central

    Pok, Seokwon; Benavides, Omar M.; Hallal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A novel cardiac scaffold comprised of decellularized porcine heart matrix was investigated for use as a biodegradable patch with a potential for surgical reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. Powdered heart matrix solution was blended with chitosan and lyophilized to form three-dimensional scaffolds. For this investigation, we examined the influence of different blending ratios of heart matrix to chitosan on porosity and mechanical properties, then gene expression and electrophysiological function of invading neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) compared to type-A gelatin/chitosan composite scaffolds. Heart matrix/chitosan-blended hydrogels (1.6 mg/mL heart matrix) had similar porosity (109±34 μm), and elastic modulus (13.2±4.0 kPa) as previously published gelatin/chitosan scaffolds. Heart matrix/chitosan hydrogels maintained>80% viability and had higher NRVM retention (∼1000 cells/mm2) than gelatin/chitosan scaffolds. There was a significant increase in α-myosin heavy chain and connexin-43 expression in NRVM cultured on heart matrix/chitosan scaffolds after 14 days compared with gelatin/chitosan scaffolds. Further, heart matrix/chitosan scaffolds had significantly higher conduction velocity (12.6±4.9 cm/s) and contractile stress (0.79±0.13 mN/mm2) than gelatin/chitosan scaffolds. In summary, NRVM cultured on heart matrix scaffold showed improvements in contractile and electrophysiological function. PMID:24433519

  13. Subchondral bone overgrowth in the presence of full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Ian J P; La Valette, David P

    2005-12-01

    Between October 2000 and December 2003, 252 autologous chondrocyte implants were performed in 183 patients. Eighty lesions showed overgrowth of the subchondral bone plate under the chondral lesion, this was termed a "bone boss." Thirty-seven were on the medial femoral condyle (MFC), 18 on the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), 21 in the trochlea and 4 on the patella. There was a statistically significant association between the LFC and "bone boss." The lesions showing this finding were of a larger area (3.4 cm2 and 2.8 cm2 respectively, p=0.006), and had more diffuse chondral changes than lesions without. The patients with a "bone boss" had a tendency to longer duration of symptoms (85.3 months and 64.3 months respectively, p=0.089). The "bone bosses" were resected back to the level of the surrounding subchondral bone prior to implantation. Radiological and clinical follow-up showed no statistical difference between the two groups. A discussion of the possible aetiology of the "bone boss" is made.

  14. Full-thickness tissue engineered skin constructed with autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, LiJuan; Nan, Xue; Wang, YunFang; Guan, LiDong; Bai, CiXian; Shi, ShuangShuang; Yuan, HongFeng; Chen, Lin; Liu, Daqing; Pei, Xuetao

    2007-08-01

    To explore the feasibility of repairing clinical cutaneous deficiency, autogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and differentiated into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro supplemented with different inducing factors and biomaterials to construct functional tissueengineered skin. The results showed that after 72 h induction, BMSCs displayed morphologic changes such as typical epidermal cell arrangement, from spindle shape to round or oval; tonofibrils, melanosomes and keratohyaline granules were observed under a transmission electronic microscope. The differentiated cells expressed epidermal stem cell surface marker CK19 (59.66% +/- 4.2%) and epidermal cells differentiation marker CK10. In addition, the induced epidermal cells acquired the anti-radiation capacity featured by lowered apoptosis following exposure to UVB. On the other hand, the collagen microfibrils deposition was noticed under a transmission electronic microscope after differentiating into dermis fibroblasts; RT-PCR identified collagen type I mRNA expression in differentiated cells; radioimmunoassay detected the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (up to 115.06 pg/mL and 0.84 ng/mL, respectively). Further in vivo implanting BMSCs with scaffold material shortened skin wound repair significantly. In one word, autogenic BMSCs have the potential to differentiate into epidermal cells and fibroblasts in vitro, and show clinical feasibility acting as epidermis-like and dermis-like seed cells in skin engineering.

  15. Full-Thickness Thermal Injury Delays Wound Closure in a Murine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    without the application of a skin graft or a skin substitute graft. Furthermore, the effect of interval burn eschar excision on wound closure is also re...primary intention with surgical closure or the application of a skin graft or skin substitute graft, or (2) healing by secondary intention through a...the closure of severe burns and chronic wounds using cultured human autologous keratinocytes in a nat- ural fibrin matrix. Cell Tissue Bank 2004;5:89

  16. Topical grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract promotes repair of full thickness wound in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Ali A; Aghel, Nasrin; Rashidi, Iran; Gholampur-Aghdami, Ali

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract (GSE) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential activity of grape seed hydroalcoholic extract in wound healing in rabbits. Rabbits of either sex were subjected to a 20 × 20 mm square excision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into seven experimental groups, as negative and positive control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Positive control and eucerin groups received phenytoin cream (1%) and topical eucerin, respectively, twice a day from the beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment groups were treated topically by cream of GSE (2, 5, 10 and 70% w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. For evaluation of the percentage of wound healing, area of the wound was measured daily. Histological studies were performed on the 7th and 15th days of treatments. After complete healing, hydroxyproline content and tensile strength measurement of tissue samples were done. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between GSE treatments groups and eucerin animals (P < 0·05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with 2% GSE had best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content and higher tissue resistance). We concluded that the extract of 2% GSE administered topically has a good potential to promote wound healing in wound model of rabbits.

  17. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  18. Rotating Connection for Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manges, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Cable reel provides electrical connections between fixed structure and rotating one. Reel carries power and signal lines while allowing rotating structure to turn up to 360 degrees with respect to fixed structure. Reel replaces sliprings. Can be used to electrically connect arm of robot with body. Reel releases cable to rotating part as it turns and takes up cable as rotating part comes back to its starting position, without tangling, twisting, or kinking.

  19. Rotating black hole hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David; Wills, Danielle

    2013-06-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.

  20. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  1. Snakes and spin rotators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1990-06-18

    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10{sup {minus}4} will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  2. OH "Rotational" Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Matsiev, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is customary to determine temperatures in the mesosphere and MLT by using Boltzmann plots based on the distributions of the lowest rotational levels in the bands of the OH Meinel system, assuming that populations in these levels are in LTE with the kinetic temperature. The higher rotational levels are clearly not in LTE, and using sky spectra from the large telescopes (Keck, VLT) has now shown that this assumption is invalid even for low rotational levels [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al. 2014]. The apparent temperatures derived from such Boltzmann plots show an upward trend with increasing OH vibrational level, from v = 2 to v = 9, with reproducible structure such that there is always a peak at v = 8. Over this range of vibrational levels, the "temperature" increase with increasing altitude is on the order of 15-20 K. At the same time, the modeled kinetic temperature is decreasing, as the OH layer lies below the mesopause, and rocket/satellite measurements indicate that the highest levels have the highest altitude. Since this technique of kinetic temperature assessment has been in use for many years, it is important to realize that the procedure is flawed, most likely due to the details of the relaxation processes of OH(v).

  3. A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld

    SciTech Connect

    Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel; Rocha, Roldão da E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx

    2013-02-01

    Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.

  4. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  5. The rotation of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Earth rotation studies are reviewed for the 1987-1990 time period. It is noted that the emphasis in these studies has shifted from improvements in the observational techniques to interpreting and gaining greater understanding of the variations of the earth rotations. There have been progressive improvements in the accuracy and the temporal resolution of earth rotation measurements.

  6. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  7. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  8. On the Product of Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkler, G.; Trenkler, D.

    2008-01-01

    Using the elementary tools of matrix theory, we show that the product of two rotations in the three-dimensional Euclidean space is a rotation again. For this purpose, three types of rotation matrices are identified which are of simple structure. One of them is the identity matrix, and each of the other two types can be uniquely characterized by…

  9. Adaptation in a rotating artificial gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1998-01-01

    The centripetal force generated by a rotating space vehicle is a potential source of artificial gravity. Minimizing the cost of such a vehicle dictates using the smallest radius and highest rotation rate possible, but head movements made at high rotation rates generate disorienting, nauseogenic cross-coupled semicircular canal stimulation. Early studies suggested 3 or 4 rpm as the highest rate at which humans could adapt to this vestibular stimulus. These studies neglected the concomitant Coriolis force actions on the head/neck system. We assessed non-vestibular Coriolis effects by measuring arm and leg movements made in the center of a rotating room turning at 10 rpm and found that movement endpoints and trajectories are initially deviated; however, subjects readily adapt with 10-20 additional movements, even without seeing their errors. Equilibrium point theories of motor control errantly predict that Coriolis forces will not cause movement endpoint errors so that subjects will not have to adapt their reaching movements during rotation. Adaptation of movement trajectory acquired during Coriolis force perturbations of one arm transfers to the unexposed arm but there is no intermanual transfer of endpoint adaptation indicating that neuromotor representations of movement endpoint and trajectory are separable and can adapt independently, also contradictory to equilibrium point theories. Touching a surface at the end of reaching movements is required for complete endpoint adaptation in darkness but trajectory adapts completely with or without terminal contact. We have also made the first kinematic measurements of unconstrained head movements during rotation, these movements show rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations. Our results point to methods for achieving full compensation for rotation up to 10 rpm. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Transport Phenomena in Thin Rotating Liquid Films Including: Nucleate Boiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, Amir

    2005-01-01

    In this grant, experimental, numerical and analytical studies of heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk have been conducted. Heat transfer coefficients were measured experimentally in a rotating disk heat transfer apparatus where the disk was heated from below with electrical resistance heaters. The heat transfer measurements were supplemented by experimental characterization of the liquid film thickness using a novel laser based technique. The heat transfer measurements show that the disk rotation plays an important role on enhancement of heat transfer primarily through the thinning of the liquid film. Experiments covered both momentum and rotation dominated regimes of the flow and heat transfer in this apparatus. Heat transfer measurements have been extended to include evaporation and nucleate boiling and these experiments are continuing in our laboratory. Empirical correlations have also been developed to provide useful information for design of compact high efficiency heat transfer devices. The experimental work has been supplemented by numerical and analytical analyses of the same problem. Both numerical and analytical results have been found to agree reasonably well with the experimental results on liquid film thickness and heat transfer Coefficients/Nusselt numbers. The numerical simulations include the free surface liquid film flow and heat transfer under disk rotation including the conjugate effects. The analytical analysis utilizes an integral boundary layer approach from which

  11. Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs I: Regimes of Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SNe Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super-Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly uniform rotation and strongly differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri ≤slant 0.1, we find both the low-viscosity Zahn regime with a nonmonotonic angular velocity profile and a new differential rotation regime for which the viscosity is high and scales linearly with the shear, σ. Employment of Kelvin–Helmholtz viscosity alone yields differential rotation. Large values of Ri ≫ 1 produce a regime of nearly uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as {σ }3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.

  12. Spatially Resolved Gas Kinematics within a Lyα Nebula: Evidence for Large-scale Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (~100-200 km s-1), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s-1 over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  13. SPATIALLY RESOLVED GAS KINEMATICS WITHIN A Lyα NEBULA: EVIDENCE FOR LARGE-SCALE ROTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-20

    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (∼100-200 km s{sup –1}), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s{sup –1} over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  14. Friction boosted by spontaneous epitaxial rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-03-01

    It is well known in surface science that incommensurate adsorbed monolayers undergo a spontaneous, energy-lowering epitaxial rotation from aligned to misaligned relative to a periodic substrate. We show first of all that a model 2D colloidal monolayer in an optical lattice, of recent importance as a frictional model, also develops in full equilibrium a small rotation angle, easy to detect in the Moiré pattern. The colloidal monolayer misalignment is then shown by extensive sliding simulations to increase the dynamic friction by a considerable factor over the aligned case. More generally, this example suggests that spontaneous rotations are rather ubiquitous and should not be ignored in all tribological phenomena between mismatched lattices. This work was mainly supported by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320796-MODPHYSFRICT, and partly by SINERGIA contract CRSII2 136287, by PRIN/COFIN Contract 2010LLKJBX 004, by COST Action MP1303.

  15. Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: Navigating the Diagnosis-Management Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeremy; McCreesh, Karen; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Ginn, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Synopsis The hallmark characteristics of rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy are pain and weakness, experienced most commonly during shoulder external rotation and elevation. Assessment is complicated by nonspecific clinical tests and the poor correlation between structural failure and symptoms. As such, diagnosis is best reached by exclusion of other potential sources of symptoms. Symptomatic incidence and prevalence data currently cannot be determined with confidence, primarily as a consequence of a lack of diagnostic accuracy, as well as the uncertainty as to the location of symptoms. People with symptoms of RC tendinopathy should derive considerable comfort from research that consistently demonstrates improvement in symptoms with a well-structured and graduated exercise program. This improvement is equivalent to outcomes reported in surgical trials, with the additional generalized benefits of exercise, less sick leave, a faster return to work, and reduced costs to the health care system. This evidence covers the spectrum of conditions that include symptomatic RC tendinopathy and atraumatic partial- and full-thickness RC tears. The principles guiding exercise treatment for RC tendinopathy include relative rest, modification of painful activities, an exercise strategy that initially does not exacerbate pain, controlled reloading, and gradual progression from simple to complex shoulder movements. Evidence also exists for a specific exercise program being beneficial for people with massive inoperable tears of the RC. Education is an essential component of rehabilitation, and attention to lifestyle factors (smoking cessation, nutrition, stress, and sleep management) may enhance outcomes. Outcomes may also be enhanced by subgrouping RC tendinopathy presentations and directing treatment strategies according to the clinical presentation and the patient's response to shoulder symptom modification procedures outlined herein. There are substantial deficits in our knowledge

  16. Muscle architectural changes after massive human rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Michael C; Sato, Eugene J; Bachasson, Damien; Cheng, Timothy; Azimi, Hassan; Schenk, Simon; Engler, Adam J; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears lead to negative structural and functional changes in the associated musculature. The structural features of muscle that predict function are termed "muscle architecture." Although the architectural features of "normal" rotator cuff muscles are known, they are poorly understood in the context of cuff pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tear and repair on RC muscle architecture. To this end thirty cadaveric shoulders were grouped into one of four categories based on tear magnitude: Intact, Full-thickness tear (FTT), Massive tear (MT), or Intervention if sutures or hardware were present, and key parameters of muscle architecture were measured. We found that muscle mass and fiber length decreased proportionally with tear size, with significant differences between all groups. Conversely, sarcomere number was reduced in both FTT and MT with no significant difference between these two groups, in large part because sarcomere length was significantly reduced in MT but not FTT. The loss of muscle mass in FTT is due, in part, to subtraction of serial sarcomeres, which may help preserve sarcomere length. This indicates that function in FTT may be impaired, but there is some remaining mechanical loading to maintain "normal" sarcomere length-tension relationships. However, the changes resulting from MT suggest more severe limitations in force-generating capacity because sarcomere length-tension relationships are no longer normal. The architectural deficits observed in MT muscles may indicate deeper deficiencies in muscle adaptability to length change, which could negatively impact RC function despite successful anatomical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2089-2095, 2016.

  17. Axisymmetric buckling of laminated thick annular spherical cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumir, P. C.; Dube, G. P.; Mallick, A.

    2005-03-01

    Axisymmetric buckling analysis is presented for moderately thick laminated shallow annular spherical cap under transverse load. Buckling under central ring load and uniformly distributed transverse load, applied statically or as a step function load is considered. The central circular opening is either free or plugged by a rigid central mass or reinforced by a rigid ring. Annular spherical caps have been analysed for clamped and simple supports with movable and immovable inplane edge conditions. The governing equations of the Marguerre-type, first order shear deformation shallow shell theory (FSDT), formulated in terms of transverse deflection w, the rotation ψ of the normal to the midsurface and the stress function Φ, are solved by the orthogonal point collocation method. Typical numerical results for static and dynamic buckling loads for FSDT are compared with the classical lamination theory and the dependence of the effect of the shear deformation on the thickness parameter for various boundary conditions is investigated.

  18. Tidal tectonics and lateral variations of lithospheric thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthe, M.

    2012-09-01

    Most icy satellites of the outer planets show prominent tectonic features on a global scale which can be due to periodic tides, polar wander, despinning, contraction (or expansion), orbital recession and convection [1]. Among these causes, periodic tides stand out because they can explain recent tectonic activity on Europa [2] and Enceladus [3, 4] whereas other mechanisms (apart from convection) most likely occurred in the far past. Periodic tides include diurnal tides associated with an eccentric orbit (obliquity tides are usually negligible) and nonsynchronous rotation. Until now, tidal stresses have been computed under the assumption of spherical symmetry [5]. However the thickness of the lithosphere (or ice crust) is affected (1) by solar insolation, making it thinner at the equator, and (2) by internal heating, making it thinner for example at the south pole of Enceladus (where active plumes have been detected by the probe Cassini). I compute here tidal stresses assuming that the lithospheric thickness varies with latitude.

  19. Lonsdaleite Films with Nanometer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, Alexander G; Sorokin, Pavel B

    2014-02-06

    We investigate the properties of potentially the stiffest quasi-2-D films with lonsdaleite structure. Using a combination of ab initio and empirical potential approaches, we analyze the elastic properties of lonsdaleite films in both elastic and inelastic regimes and compare them with graphene and diamond films. We review possible fabrication methods of lonsdaleite films using the pure nanoscale "bottom-up" paradigm: by connecting carbon layers in multilayered graphene. We propose the realization of this method in two ways: by applying direct pressure and by using the recently proposed chemically induced phase transition. For both cases, we construct the phase diagrams depending on temperature, pressure, and film thickness. Finally, we consider the electronic properties of lonsdaleite films and establish the nonlinear dependence of the band gap on the films' thicknesses and their lower effective masses in comparison with bulk crystal.

  20. Measurement of opaque film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Jaarinen, J.; Reyes, C.; Oppenheim, I. C.; Favro, L. D.; Kuo, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental framework for thickness measurements of thin metal films by low frequency thermal waves is described. Although it is assumed that the films are opaque and the substrates are comparatively poor thermal conductors, the theory is easily extended to other cases of technological interest. A brief description is given of the thermal waves and the experimental arrangement and parameters. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated for making absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivities of isotropic substrate materials. This measurement on pure elemental solids provides a check on the three dimensional theory in the limiting case of zero film thickness. The theoretical framework is then presented, along with numerical calculations and corresponding experimental results for the case of copper films on a glass substrate.

  1. Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scase, M. M.; Baldwin, K. A.; Hill, R. J. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of rotation upon the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. We consider a two-layer system with an axis of rotation that is perpendicular to the interface between the layers. In general, we find that a wave mode's growth rate may be reduced by rotation. We further show that in some cases, unstable axisymmetric wave modes may be stabilized by rotating the system above a critical rotation rate associated with the mode's wavelength, the Atwood number, and the flow's aspect ratio.

  2. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  3. Impact of deposition-rate fluctuations on thin-film thickness and uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Joli B.

    2016-11-04

    Variations in deposition rate are superimposed on a thin-film–deposition model with planetary rotation to determine the impact on film thickness. Variations in magnitude and frequency of the fluctuations relative to the speed of planetary revolution lead to thickness errors and uniformity variations up to 3%. Sufficiently rapid oscillations in the deposition rate have a negligible impact, while slow oscillations are found to be problematic, leading to changes in the nominal film thickness. Finally, superimposing noise as random fluctuations in the deposition rate has a negligible impact, confirming the importance of any underlying harmonic oscillations in deposition rate or source operation.

  4. An X-ray monitor for measurement of a titanium tritide target thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Steinberg, R.

    1972-01-01

    An X-ray device capable of measuring titanium tritide film thickness from 0.1 to 30 micrometers has been built and tested. The monitor was designed for use in a rotating target system which used thick targets and incorporated a sputtering electrode to remove depleted layers from the target surface. The thickness measurement can be done in the presence of an intense background of bremsstrahlung and characteristic titanium X-radiation. A measurement can be accomplished in situ in two hours with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  6. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  7. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  8. Reliability of forced internal rotation and active internal rotation to assess lateral instability of the biceps pulley

    PubMed Central

    ARRIGONI, PAOLO; ROSE, GIACOMO DELLE; D’AMBROSI, RICCARDO; ROTUNDO, GIORGIO; CAMPAGNA, VINCENZO; PIRANI, PIERGIORGIO; PANASCÌ, MANLIO; PETRICCIOLI, DARIO; BERTONE, CELESTE; GRASSO, ANDREA; LATTE, CARMINE; COSTA, ALBERTO; VIOLA, GINO; DE GIORGI, SILVANA; PANELLA, ANTONELLO; PADUA, ROBERTO; BECCARINI, ALESSANDRO; SALCHER, BARBARA; OLIVIERI, MATTEO; MUGNAINI, MARCO; PANNONE, ANTONELLO; CEOLDO, CHIARA; LONGO, UMILE GIUSEPPE; DENARO, VINCENZO; CERCIELLO, SIMONE; PANNI, ALFREDO SCHIAVONE; AVANZI, PAOLO; ZORZI, CLAUDIO; RAGONE, VINCENZA; CASTAGNA, ALESSANDRO; RANDELLI, PIETRO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between positive painful forced internal rotation (FIR) and lateral pulley instability in the presence of a pre-diagnosed posterosuperior cuff tear. The same investigation was conducted for painful active internal rotation (AIR). Methods a multicenter prospective study was conducted in a series of patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic posterosuperior cuff repair. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) was administered. The VAS score at rest, DASH score, and presence/absence of pain on FIR and AIR were recorded and their relationships with lesions of the lateral pulley, cuff tear patterns and shape of lesions were analyzed. Results the study population consisted of 115 patients (mean age: 55.1 years) recruited from 12 centers. The dominant arm was affected in 72 cases (62.6%). The average anteroposterior extension of the lesion was 1.61 cm. The mean preoperative VAS and DASH scores were 6.1 and 41.8, respectively. FIR and AIR were positive in 94 (81.7%) and 85 (73.9%) cases, respectively. The lateral pulley was compromised in 50 cases (43.4%). Cuff tears were partial articular in 35 patients (30.4%), complete in 61 (53%), and partial bursal in 19 (16.5%). No statistical correlation between positive FIR or AIR and lateral pulley lesions was detected. Positive FIR and AIR were statistically associated with complete lesions. Negative FIR was associated with the presence of partial articular tears. Conclusions painful FIR in the presence of a postero-superior cuff tear does not indicate lateral pulley instability. When a cuff tear is suspected, positive FIR and AIR are suggestive of full-thickness tear patterns while a negative FIR suggests a partial articular lesion. Level of evidence: level I, validating cohort study with good reference standards. PMID:26151035

  9. Regimes of Internal Rotation in Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Ghosh, Pranab

    2017-01-01

    Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SN Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super--Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly-uniform and strongly-differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri < 0.1, we find both the low-viscosity Zahn regime with a non-monotonic angular velocity profile and a new differential rotation regime for which the viscosity is high and scales linearly with the shear, σ. Employment of Kelvin-Helmholtz viscosity alone yields differential rotation. Large values of Ri >> 1 produce a regime of nearly-uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as σ3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.

  10. ROTATING PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Hammel, J.E.; Longmire, C.L.; Nagle, D.E.; Ribe, F.L.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-10-24

    ABS>A method and device are described for obtaining fusion reactions. The basic concept is that of using crossed electric and magnetic fields to induce a plasma rotation in which the ionized particles follow a circumferential drift orbit on wldch a cyclotron mode of motion is superimposed, the net result being a cycloidal motion about the axis of symmetry. The discharge tube has a radial electric field and a longitudinal magnetic field. Mirror machine geometry is utilized. The device avoids reliance on the pinch effect and its associated instability problems. (AEC)

  11. Rotational isomerism of vinylmethyltelluride

    SciTech Connect

    Keiko, V.V.; Sinegovskaya, L.M.; Gusarova, N.K.; Tatarinova, A.A.; Kalinina, N.A.; Trofimov, B.A.

    1987-08-10

    In the IR spectrum of solutions of vinylmethyltelluride in n-heptane the doublet form of the valence oscillation band of the double bond is due to rotational isomerism. By analyzing the temperature dependence of the doublet shape, the low-frequency component of the doublet was identified as the s-cis-rotamer. The differences in the enthalpies (4.6 +/- 0.2 kJ/mole) and entropies (-11.1 +/- 0.3 e.u.) of the vinylmethyltelluride rotamers have been calculated and it has been shown that the p,..pi..-conjugation in its molecule is weaker by a factor of 2 than in vinylmethylsulfide.

  12. Is There an Association Between the “Critical Shoulder Angle” and Clinical Outcome after Rotator Cuff Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Jacob Matthew; Nathani, Amit; Robbins, Christopher; Gagnier, Joel Joseph; Bedi, Asheesh; Miller, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Variations in scapular morphology have been associated with the development of atraumatic rotator cuff tears (RCT). Current theories suggest a morphologic predisposition for altered shoulder biomechanics favoring the development of RCTs. The critical shoulder angle (CSA) is a radiographic measure that accounts for both glenoid inclination and lateral extension of the acromion, and angles >35 degrees are reported to be correlated with the development of degenerative RCTs. The impact of the CSA on outcomes following rotator cuff repair (RCR) has not previously been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the CSA and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair. Methods: As part of a prospective observational cohort study we obtained CSA measurements for 144 patients with documented full-thickness RCTs who were followed up for a minimum of 48 weeks. Patients were then stratified based on RCT etiology and treatment. Demographic data as well as The Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain were collected at baseline, four, eight, 16, 32 and 48 weeks. The CSA for all of the patients was measured retrospectively, with all assessors being blinded to the data and we calculated interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to measure agreement. The statistical analysis included longitudinal multilevel regression modeling to investigate the association of the CSA and the WORC, ASES and VAS for pain. Results: Controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, patients with CSAs less than 38 degrees reported better outcome scores over time compared to those with CSAs greater than 38 degrees (WORC: B=-106.6, p=0.025, ASES: B=4.83, p=0.0001, VAS: B=-12.99, p=0.0001). Interobserver and intraobserver reliability for CSA measurements resulted in an ICC of 0.969 and 0.982 respectively, indicating excellent agreement. Conclusion: We found

  13. Application of the Ultrasonic Oil Film Thickness Measurement System in Bearing Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chong; Hu, Jian-ping; Liu, Zhen-xia; Lu, Ya-guo; Hao, Yu-ya

    2014-06-01

    The oil film thickness in aero-engine bearing chamber influences the heat transfer capacity of the bearing chamber wall, so measuring oil film thickness accuspeedly is essential to the design and thermal analysis of lubricating oil system. In this paper, software and hardware of an ultrasonic measurement system based on pulse echo technique, which measures the oil film thickness in bearing chamber, are established. The hardware system mainly consists of signal acquisition card, probe, delay block and the corresponding cables. Functions as measurement parameter setup, real-time display of measured waveforms, post-processing and so on are included in the measurement software. Finally, the oil film thickness of the wall is measured with the measurement system developed. Signal quality of the dynamic measurement is analyzed. Comparison and analysis of different oil film thickness under different rotation rates are conducted.

  14. Optical rotation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotge, J. R.; Simmons, B. J.; Kroncke, G. T.; Stech, D. J.

    1986-05-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on passive ring laser rotation sensor technology. Initial efforts were performed on supportive projects, e.g., laser stabilization, followed by a 0.62 sq m passive resonant ring laser gyro (PRRLG), leading to the development of a 60 sq m system mounted on the pneumatically supported isolation test platform (Iso-Pad) at FJSRL. Numerous sub-system tasks and a feasibility 0.62 sq m PRRLG were completed, supporting projections of very high resolution performance by a large 60 sq m PRRLG. The expected performance of the large PRRLG, on the order of 10 to the minus 10th power ERU (earth rate units), would provide an accurate error model applicable to Air Force operational ring laser gyros, a new source of geophysical data, e.g., earth wobble and variations in earth rotation, a proven design concept applicable to Air Force sensor needs as reference to MX instruments tests, and relativity experiments. This report documents the many accomplishments leading to, and the status of the large PRRLG at the date of the PRRLG stop order, November 1985.

  15. Digital rotation measurement unit

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, S.N.

    1983-09-30

    A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

  16. Rotating Wheel Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer

    2016-11-01

    For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.

  17. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  18. In vivo healthy knee kinematics during dynamic full flexion.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Satoshi; Moro-oka, Taka-aki; Dunbar, Nicholas J; Miura, Hiromasa; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Banks, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Healthy knee kinematics during dynamic full flexion were evaluated using 3D-to-2D model registration techniques. Continuous knee motions were recorded during full flexion in a lunge from 85° to 150°. Medial and lateral tibiofemoral contacts and femoral internal-external and varus-valgus rotations were analyzed as a function of knee flexion angle. The medial tibiofemoral contact translated anteroposteriorly, but remained on the center of the medial compartment. On the other hand, the lateral tibiofemoral contact translated posteriorly to the edge of the tibial surface at 150° flexion. The femur exhibited external and valgus rotation relative to the tibia over the entire activity and reached 30° external and 5° valgus rotations at 150° flexion. Kinematics' data during dynamic full flexion may provide important insight as to the designing of high-flexion total knee prostheses.

  19. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Bifurcations of rotating waves in rotating spherical shell convection.

    PubMed

    Feudel, F; Tuckerman, L S; Gellert, M; Seehafer, N

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics and bifurcations of convective waves in rotating and buoyancy-driven spherical Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated numerically. The solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced by means of path-following methods, by varying the Rayleigh number as a control parameter for different rotation rates. The dependence of the azimuthal drift frequency of the RWs on the Ekman and Rayleigh numbers is determined and discussed. The influence of the rotation rate on the generation and stability of secondary branches is demonstrated. Multistability is typical in the parameter range considered.

  1. Visualizing rotations and composition of rotations with the Rodrigues vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdenebro, Angel G.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the mathematical treatment of three-dimensional rotations can be simplified, and its geometrical understanding improved, using the Rodrigues vector representation. We present a novel geometrical interpretation of the Rodrigues vector. Based on this interpretation and simple geometrical considerations, we derive the Euler-Rodrigues formula, Cayley’s rotation formula and the composition law for finite rotations. The level of this discussion should be suitable for undergraduate physics or engineering courses where rotations are discussed.

  2. Effects of substrate rotation in oblique-incidence metal(100) epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yunsic; Mills, Mary E.; Borovikov, Valery; Amar, Jacques G.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of substrate rotation on the surface morphology in oblique-incidence metal(100) epitaxial growth are studied via kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified model, and compared with previous results obtained without rotation. In general, we find that substrate rotation leads to two main effects. At high deposition angles with respect to the substrate normal, rotation leads to a significant change in the surface morphology. In particular, it leads to isotropic mounds and pyramids with (111) facets rather than the anisotropic ripples and rods observed in the absence of rotation. Due to the existence of rapid transport on these facets, the lateral feature size increases approximately linearly with film thickness. Due to the fact that substrate rotation tends to reduce the effects of shadowing, the surface roughness is also decreased compared to the roughness in the absence of rotation. While this leads to a moderate reduction in the roughness for the case of ballistic deposition, the effect is significantly larger in the case of deposition with attraction. In the case of ballistic deposition, we also find that the surface roughness increases with rotation rate Ω for Ω<1 rev/monolayer (ML) before saturating at larger rotation rates ( Ω>1 rev/ML). In contrast, for the case of attraction the surface roughness exhibits a negligible dependence on rotation rate for finite rotation rate.

  3. Determining mean thickness of the oxide layer by mapping the surface of a silicon sphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jitao; Li, Yan; Wu, Xuejian; Luo, Zhiyong; Wei, Haoyun

    2010-03-29

    To determine Avogadro constant with a relative uncertainty of better than 2 x 10(-8), the mean thickness of the oxide layer grown non-uniformly on the silicon sphere should be determined with about 0.1 nm uncertainty. An effective and flexible mapping strategy is proposed, which is insensitive to the angle resolution of the sphere-rotating mechanism. In this method, a sphere-rotating mechanism is associated with spectroscopic ellipsometer to determine the distribution of the layer, and a weighted mean method based on equal-area projection theory is applied to estimate the mean thickness. The spectroscopic ellipsometer is calibrated by X-ray reflectivity method. Within 12 hours, eight hundred positions on the silicon sphere are measured twice. The mean thickness is determined to be 4.23 nm with an uncertainty of 0.13 nm, which is in the acceptable level for the Avogadro project.

  4. High thickness acrylamide photopolymer for peristrophic multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, M.; Fernández, E.; Márquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Pascual, I.

    2006-05-01

    The acrylamide photolymers are considered interesting materials for holographic media. They have high diffraction efficiency (ratio of the intensities of the diffracted and the incident beams), an intermediate energetic sensitivity among other materials and post-processing steps are not necessary, therefore the media is not altered. The layers of these materials, about 1 mm thick, are a suitable media for recording many diffraction gratings in the same volume of photopolymer using peristrophic multiplexing technique, with great practical importance in the field of holographic memories type WORM (write once read many). In this work we study the recording of diffraction gratings by peristrophic multiplexing with axis of rotation perpendicular to the recording media. The photopolymer is composed of acrylamide as the polymerizable monomer, triethanolamine as radical generator, yellowish eosin as sensitizer and a binder of polyvinyl alcohol. We analyze the holographic behaviour of the material during recording and reconstruction of diffraction gratings using a continuous Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) at an intensity of 5 mW/cm2 as recording laser. The response of the material is monitored after recording with an He-Ne laser. We study the recording process of unslanted diffraction gratings of 1125 lines/mm. The diffraction efficiency of each hologram is seen to decrease as the number of holograms recorded increases, due to consumption of the available dynamic range, in a constant exposure scheduling. It can be seen that the photopolymer works well with high energy levels, without excessive dispersion of light by noise gratings. In order to homogenize the diffraction efficiency of each hologram we use the method proposed by Pu. This method is designed to share all or part of the avaliable dynamic range of the recording material among the holograms to be multiplexed. Using exposure schedules derived from this method we have used 3 scheduling recordings from the algorithm used

  5. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    SciTech Connect

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-09-15

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  6. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulčinas, A; Vaitekonis, Š

    2017-03-10

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  7. Torque Simulator for Rotating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. T.

    1982-01-01

    New torque brake simulates varying levels of friction in bearings of rotating body. Rolling-tail torque brake uses magnetic force to produce friction between rotating part and stationary part. Simulator electronics produce positive or negative feedback signal, depending on direction of rotation. New system allows for first time in-depth study of effects of tail-fin spin rates on pitch-, yaw-, and roll-control characteristics.

  8. Internal rotation of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Goode, P. R.; Gough, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Leibacher, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency difference between prograde and retrograde sectoral solar oscillations is analyzed to determine the rotation rate of the solar interior, assuming no latitudinal dependence. Much of the solar interior rotates slightly less rapidly than the surface, while the innermost part apparently rotates more rapidly. The resulting solar gravitational quadrupole moment is J2 = (1.7 + or - 0.4) x 10 to the -7th and provides a negligible contribution to current planetary tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  9. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulčinas, A.; Vaitekonis, Š.

    2017-03-01

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  10. Rotating Detonation Engine Operation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    MdotH2 = mass flow of hydrogen MdotAir = mass flow of air PCB = Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor PDE = Pulsed Detonation Engine RDE = Rotating ...and unsteady thrust output of PDEs . One of the new designs was the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE). An RDE operates by exhausting an initial...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0003 ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE OPERATION (PREPRINT) James A. Suchocki and Sheng-Tao John Yu The Ohio State

  11. Uniformly Rotating Single Substance Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Charles Michael Leo

    This dissertation explicitly and in detail solves the extended rotator problem in the uncharged relativistic classical cases of most physical interest. It shows that no plausible relativistic solutions exist in the literature of the extended rotator and that the point rotator solutions sometimes ballyhooed are not to be taken seriously. Explicit energy speedratio functions, angular momentum speedratio functions, Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and other important characteristic functions of the state of uniform rotation of the extended body are detailed. This dissertation does not retreat to an 'analysis' of just the point rotator --which so many others have done and done incorrectly, or at best misleadingly, by hiding implausible assumptions in manifestly covariant formats. Assumptions in the model are not hidden but are brought out and analyzed as to their relevance for highlighting the core of the uniform rotation physics. Neither does the author hide any ignorance of the internal holding field for the rotator. Formulae for the characteristic Minimum Holding Field are explicitly given and their relativistic relevance is shown. The demonstration that such fields can be ignored in the energy and angular momentum expressions is completely detailed. The explicit Stress-Energy Tensor for the entire closed rotator system is given with all that entails as to the inescapability of the results from out of that mathematics. The generality of the finiteness of the extreme relativistic rotational limit is detailed and explained with its stark essential contrast to the infinite limit in the case of extreme relativistic translation of a body. The rotator is shown to possess a rich mathematical structure. Many elegant interconnection formulae are found as well as new Hamiltonian formulae --sometimes of considerable complexity. Exact rotator formulae as well as graphs, tables, and even interesting approximations are provided. New nonlinear differential equations are discovered and

  12. Granular flow along the interior surface of rotating cones

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1984-04-26

    Relationships are developed between the effective cone half-angle, ..cap alpha../sub eff/, and the actual cone half-angle, ..cap alpha.., for subcritical flow of granular material along the inside surface of a rotating cone. Rotational speed must be high enough to keep the granular material against the wall. If ..cap alpha../sub eff/ is between the wall friction angle, phi/sub w/ and the angle of repose, phi/sub r/, the flowrate may be controlled at the exit and depends on the exit aperture area and the rotational speed. Laboratory experiments show that exit control is possible over the entire range of effective cone half-angles from phi/sub w/ < ..cap alpha../sub eff/ < phi/sub r/ and even beyond these limits. The most uniform thickness of granular material is obtained when the cone half-angle is close to phi/sub r/.

  13. The rotation of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goody, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A historical review of the use of three independent techniques for measuring the rotational rate is presented. The approaches examined are: (1) using theoretical interior models together with observations of the oblateness and the gravitational moment; (2) studying periodic fluctuations in the brightness; and (3) spectrographically measuring the Doppler shifts (line tilts). Measurements of line tilts obtained using the Kitt Peak National Observation 4 meter telescope with a Cassegrain echelle to high obtain high spectral dispersion and large image are discussed and compared with results obtained by Muench and Hipplelein (1980) and by Hayes and Belton (1977). The possibility of using speckel imaging techniques to detect the motion of features across the disc in the 6091 methane band, and with more suitable image intensifiers, in the 7261 band is considered.

  14. PLT rotating pumped limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.

    1984-07-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.

  15. Asteroid Ida Rotation Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This montage of 14 images (the time order is right to left, bottom to top) shows Ida as it appeared in the field of view of Galileo's camera on August 28, 1993. Asteroid Ida rotates once every 4 hours, 39 minutes and clockwise when viewed from above the north pole; these images cover about one Ida 'day.' This sequence has been used to create a 3-D model that shows Ida to be almost croissant shaped. The earliest view (lower right) was taken from a range of 240,000 kilometers (150,000 miles), 5.4 hours before closest approach. The asteroid Ida draws its name from mythology, in which the Greek god Zeus was raised by the nymph Ida.

  16. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l < 60. The observationally constrained kinetic energy is approximately a thousandth of the theoretical prediction, suggesting the prevalence of an intrinsically different paradigm of turbulence. A fundamental question arises: what mechanism of turbulence transports the heat ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  17. Rotating Gravity Gradiometer Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The application of a Rotating Gravity Gradiometer (RGG) system on board a Lunar Polar Orbiter (LPO) for the measurement of the Lunar gravity field was investigated. A data collection simulation study shows that a gradiometer will give significantly better gravity data than a doppler tracking system for the altitudes under consideration for the LOP, that the present demonstrated sensitivity of the RGG is adequate for measurement of the Lunar gravity gradient field, and that a single RGG instrument will provide almost as much data for geophysical interpretation as an orthogonal three axis RGG system. An engineering study of the RGG sensor/LPO spacecraft interface characteristics shows that the RGG systems under consideration are compatible with the present models of the LPO spacecraft.

  18. Rotating gravity gradiometer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Two rotating gravity gradiometer (RGG) sensors, along with all the external electronics needed to operate them, and the fixtures and special test equipment needed to fill and align the bearings, were assembled in a laboratory, and inspected. The thermal noise threshold of the RGG can be lowered by replacing a damping resistor in the first stage electronics by an active artificial resistor that generates less random voltage noise per unit bandwidth than the Johnson noise from the resistor it replaces. The artificial resistor circuit consists of an operational amplifier, three resistors, and a small DC to DC floating power supply. These are small enough to be retrofitted to the present circuit boards inside the RGG rotor in place of the 3 Megohm resistor. Using the artificial resistor, the thermal noise of the RGG-2 sensor can be lowered from 0.3 Eotvos to 0.15 Eotvos for a 10 sec integration time.

  19. Rotation Curves of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnajs, Agris J.

    One can obtain a fairly good understanding of the relation between axially symmetric mass distributions and the rotation curves they produce without resorting to calculations. However it does require a break with tradition. The first step consists of replacing quantities such as surface density, volume density, and circular velocity with the mass in a ring, mass in a spherical shell, and the square of the circular velocity, or more precisely with 2 pi G r mu(r), 4 pi G r^2 rho(r), and Vc^2 (r). These three quantities all have the same dimensions, and are related to each other by scale-free linear operators. The second step consists of introducing ln(r) as the coordinate. On the log scale the scale-free operators becomes the more familiar convolution operations. Convolutions are easily handled by Fourier techniques and a surface density can be converted into a rotation curve or volume density in a small fraction of a second. A simple plot of 2 pi G r mu(r) as a function of ln(r) reveals the relative contributions of different radii to Vc^2(r). Such a plot also constitutes a sanity test for the fitting of various laws to photometric data. There are numerous examples in the literature of excellent fits to the tails that lack data or are poor fits around the maximum of 2 pi G r mu(r). I will discuss some exact relations between the above three quantities as well as some empirical observations such as the near equality of the maxima of 2 pi G r mu(r) and Vc^2 (r) curves for flat mass distributions.

  20. Plasma rotation induced by RF

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V. S.; Chiu, S. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698; Omelchenko, Y. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698

    1999-09-20

    Plasma rotation has many beneficial effects on tokamak operation including stabilization of MHD and microturbulence to improve the beta limit and confinement. Contrary to present-day tokamaks, neutral beams may not be effective in driving rotation in fusion reactors; hence the investigation of radiofrequency (RF) induced plasma rotation is of great interest and potential importance. This paper reviews the experimental results of RF induced rotation and possible physical mechanisms, suggested by theories, to explain the observations. This subject is only in the infancy of its research and many challenging issues remained to be understood and resolved. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1992-09-15

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

  2. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body.

  3. On the rotation and pitching of flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yaqing; Ji, Sheng; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were performed to characterize the flow-induced rotation and pitching of various flat plates as a function of the thickness ratio, the location of the axis of rotation and turbulence levels. High-resolution telemetry, laser tachometer, and hotwire were used to get time series of the plates motions and the signature of the wake flow at a specific location. Results show that a minor axis offset can induce high-order modes in the plate rotation under low turbulence due to torque unbalance. The spectral decomposition of the flow velocity in the plate wake reveals the existence of a dominating high-frequency mode that corresponds to a static-like vortex shedding occurring at the maximum plate pitch, where the characteristic length scale is the projected width at maximum pitch. The plate thickness ratio shows inverse relation with the angular velocity. A simple model is derived to explain the linear relation between pitching frequency and wind speed. The spectra of the plate rotation show nonlinear relation with the incoming turbulence, and the dominating role of the generated vortices in the plate motions.

  4. Spontaneous Core Rotation in Ferrofluid Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krekhov, Alexei; Shliomis, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Ferrofluid flow along a tube of radius R in a constant axial magnetic field is revisited. Our analytical solution and numerical simulations predict a transition from an initially axial flow to a steady swirling one. The swirl dynamo arises above some critical pressure drop and magnetic field strength. The new flow pattern consists of two phases of different symmetry: The flow in the core resembles Poiseuille flow in a rotating tube of the radius r*thickness R -r*, where the flow remains purely axial. These phases are separated by a thin domain wall. The swirl appearance is accompanied with a sharp increase in the flow rate that might serve for the detection of the swirling instability.

  5. Image Rotation Does Not Rotate Smooth Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stone, Leland S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Subjects viewing a drifting noise pattern make reflexive smooth eye movements in the direction of motion, which follow rapid changes in movement direction. These responses are unaffected by rotations of the pattern, suggesting that there is no coupling between visually sensed rotation and the direction of ocular following.

  6. Modeling rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers: Rotation axes, bistability, and controllability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkati, Farshad; Fu, Henry Chien

    2014-12-01

    Magnetically actuated microswimmers have recently attracted attention due to many possible biomedical applications. In this study we investigate the dynamics of rigid magnetically rotated microswimmers with permanent magnetic dipoles. Our approach uses a boundary element method to calculate a mobility matrix, accurate for arbitrary geometries, which is then used to identify the steady periodically rotating orbits in a co-rotating body-fixed frame. We evaluate the stability of each of these orbits. We map the magnetoviscous behavior as a function of dimensionless Mason number and as a function of the angle that the magnetic field makes with its rotation axis. We describe the wobbling motion of these swimmers by investigating how the rotation axis changes as a function of experimental parameters. We show that for a given magnetic field strength and rotation frequency, swimmers can have more than one stable periodic orbit with different rotation axes. Finally, we demonstrate that one can improve the controllability of these types of microswimmers by adjusting the relative angle between the magnetic field and its axis of rotation.

  7. FULL POLARIZATION SPECTRA OF 3C 279

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, D. C.; Lister, M. L.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Wardle, J. F. C. E-mail: mlister@physics.purdue.edu E-mail: mfa@umich.edu

    2009-05-01

    We report the results of parsec-scale, multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations of the core region of 3C 279 in Stokes I, linear polarization, and circular polarization. These full polarization spectra are modeled by radiative transfer simulations to constrain the magnetic field and particle properties of the parsec-scale jet in 3C 279. We find that the polarization properties of the core region, including the amount of linear polarization, the amount and sign of Faraday rotation, and the amount and sign of circular polarization can be explained by a consistent physical picture. The base of the jet, component D, is modeled as an inhomogeneous Blandford-Koenigl style conical jet dominated by a vector-ordered poloidal magnetic field along the jet axis, and we estimate its net magnetic flux. This poloidal field is responsible for the linear and circular polarization from this inhomogeneous component. Farther down the jet, the magnetic field in two homogeneous features is dominated by local shocks and a smaller fraction of vector-ordered poloidal field remains along the jet axis. This remaining poloidal field provides internal Faraday rotation which drives Faraday conversion of linear polarization into circular polarization from these components. In this picture, we find the jet to be kinetically dominated by protons with the radiating particles being dominated by electrons at an approximate fraction of {approx}>75%, still allowing the potential for a significant admixture of positrons. Based on the amounts of Faraday conversion deduced for the homogeneous components, we find a plausible range for the lower cutoff in the relativistic particle energy spectrum to be 5 {approx}< {gamma} {sub l} {approx}< 35. The physical picture described here is not unique if the observed Faraday rotation and depolarization occur in screens external to the jet; however, we find the joint explanation of linear and circular polarization observations from a single set of

  8. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    DOEpatents

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  9. Rotatable superconducting cyclotron adapted for medical use

    DOEpatents

    Blosser, Henry G.; Johnson, David A.; Riedel, Jack; Burleigh, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    A superconducting cyclotron (10) rotatable on a support structure (11) in an arc of about 180.degree. around a pivot axis (A--A) and particularly adapted for medical use is described. The rotatable support structure (13, 15) is balanced by being counterweighted (14) so as to allow rotation of the cyclotron and a beam (12), such as a subparticle (neutron) or atomic particle beam, from the cyclotron in the arc around a patient. Flexible hose (25) is moveably attached to the support structure for providing a liquified gas which is supercooled to near 0.degree. K. to an inlet means (122) to a chamber (105) around superconducting coils (101, 102). The liquid (34) level in the cyclotron is maintained approximately half full so that rotation of the support structure and cyclotron through the 180.degree. can be accomplished without spilling the liquid from the cyclotron. With the coils vertically oriented, each turn of the winding is approximately half immersed in liquid (34) and half exposed to cold gas and adequate cooling to maintain superconducting temperatures in the section of coil above the liquid level is provided by the combination of cold gas/vapor and by the conductive flow of heat along each turn of the winding from the half above the liquid to the half below.

  10. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  11. Rotational molding of bio-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Forleo, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    This paper is aimed to study the suitability of bio-polymers, including poly-lactic acid (PLLA) and Mater-Bi, for the production of hollow components by rotational molding. In order to reduce the brittleness of PLLA, the material was mixed with two different plasticizers, bis-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG). The materials were characterized in terms of sinterability. To this purpose, thermomechanical (TMA) analysis was performed at different heating rates, in order to identify the endset temperatures of densification and the onset temperatures of degradation. Results obtained indicated that the materials are characterized by a very fast sintering process, occurring just above the melting temperature, and an adequately high onset of degradation. The difference between the onset of degradation and the endset of sintering, defined as the processing window of the polymer, is sufficiently wide, indicating that the polymers can be efficiently processed by rotational molding. Therefore, a laboratory scale apparatus was used for the production of PLLA and Mater-Bi prototypes. The materials were processed using very similar conditions to those used for LLDPE. The production of void-free samples of uniform wall thickness was considered as an indication of the potentiality of the process for the production of biodegradable containers.

  12. Through thick and thin: Structure of the Galactic thick disc from extragalactic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Irwin, M.; Gilmore, G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Tolstoy, E.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.

    2013-07-01

    . This population was earlier detected, but our more detailed analysis provides robust estimates of its location (|Z| < 1 kpc), metallicity (-2 < [M/H] < -1 dex) and azimuthal orbital velocity (Vφ ~ 120 km s-1). Conclusions: Given the chemo-dynamical properties of the over-density towards the Carina line-of-sight, we suggest that it represents the metal-poor tail of the canonical thick disc. In spite of the small number of stars available, we suggest that this metal-weak thick disc follows the often suggested canonical thick disc velocity-metallicity correlation of ∂Vφ/∂ [M/H] ~ 40-50 km s-1 dex-1. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile, ESO Large Programme 171.B-0588 (DART) and 171.B-0520(A).Full Tables 2 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A12

  13. Spatially homogeneous rotating world models.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozsvath, I.

    1971-01-01

    The mathematical problem encountered when looking for the simplest expanding and rotating model of the universe without the compactness condition for the space sections is formulated. The Lagrangian function is derived for four different rotating universes simultaneously. These models correspond in a certain sense to Godel's (1950) ?symmetric case.'

  14. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  15. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    PubMed

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  16. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  17. STRONG DEPENDENCE OF THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE ON PLANETARY ROTATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-05-20

    Planetary rotation rate is a key parameter in determining atmospheric circulation and hence the spatial pattern of clouds. Since clouds can exert a dominant control on planetary radiation balance, rotation rate could be critical for determining the mean planetary climate. Here we investigate this idea using a three-dimensional general circulation model with a sophisticated cloud scheme. We find that slowly rotating planets (like Venus) can maintain an Earth-like climate at nearly twice the stellar flux as rapidly rotating planets (like Earth). This suggests that many exoplanets previously believed to be too hot may actually be habitable, depending on their rotation rate. The explanation for this behavior is that slowly rotating planets have a weak Coriolis force and long daytime illumination, which promotes strong convergence and convection in the substellar region. This produces a large area of optically thick clouds, which greatly increases the planetary albedo. In contrast, on rapidly rotating planets a much narrower belt of clouds form in the deep tropics, leading to a relatively low albedo. A particularly striking example of the importance of rotation rate suggested by our simulations is that a planet with modern Earth's atmosphere, in Venus' orbit, and with modern Venus' (slow) rotation rate would be habitable. This would imply that if Venus went through a runaway greenhouse, it had a higher rotation rate at that time.

  18. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Robert

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  19. Keplerian Rotation of Our Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnaciński, P.; Młynik, T.

    2017-04-01

    It is common to attribute a flat rotation curve to our Galaxy. However, in a recent paper, Galazutdinov et al. obtained a Keplerian rotation curve for interstellar clouds in the outer parts of the Galaxy. They calculated the distances from equivalent widths of interstellar CaII lines. The radial velocity was also measured on the interstellar CaII absorption line. We verify the results of Galazutdinov et al. based on observations of old open clusters. We propose that the observations of flat and Keplerian rotation curves may be caused by the assumption of circular orbits. The application of formulas derived with the assumption of circular orbits to elliptical ones may mimics the flat rotation curve. The interstellar clouds with cross-sections larger than stars may have almost circular orbits, and the derived rotation curve will be Keplerian.

  20. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.