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Sample records for fully open-air conditions

  1. Uniform, stable, and efficient planar-heterojunction perovskite solar cells by facile low-pressure chemical vapor deposition under fully open-air conditions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Paifeng; Liu, Zhaofan; Xia, Wei; Yuan, Chenchen; Cheng, Jigui; Lu, Yingwei

    2015-02-04

    Recently, hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted extensive attention due to their high efficiency and simple preparing process. Herein, a facile low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technology is first developed to fabricate PSCs, which can effectively reduce the over-rapid intercalating reaction rate and easily overcome this blocking issue during the solution process. As a result, the prepared uniform perovskite films exhibit good crystallization, strong absorption, and long carrier diffusion length. More strikingly, CH3NH3PbI3 absorbers by LPCVD demonstrate excellent moisture-resistant feature even under laser illumination and high-temperature conditions, which indicates that our proprietary method is very suitable for the future low-cost, nonvacuum production of the new generation photovoltaic devices. Finally, high efficiency of 12.73% is successfully achieved under fully open-air conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of efficient PSCs with such a high humidity above 60%.

  2. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

  3. Effects of elevated ozone concentration on CH4 and N2O emission from paddy soil under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haoye; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated ozone concentration (E-O3) on CH4 and N2O emission from paddies with two rice cultivars: an inbred Indica cultivar Yangdao 6 (YD6) and a hybrid one II-you 084 (IIY084), under fully open-air field conditions in China. A mean 26.7% enhancement of ozone concentration above the ambient level (A-O3) significantly reduced CH4 emission at tillering and flowering stages leading to a reduction of seasonal integral CH4 emission by 29.6% on average across the two cultivars. The reduced CH4 emission is associated with O3-induced reduction in the whole-plant biomass (-13.2%), root biomass (-34.7%), and maximum tiller number (-10.3%), all of which curbed the carbon supply for belowground CH4 production and its release from submerged soil to atmosphere. Although no significant difference was detected between the cultivars in the CH4 emission response to E-O3, a larger decrease in CH4 emission with IIY084 (-33.2%) than that with YD6 (-7.0%) was observed at tillering stage, which may be due to the larger reduction in tiller number in IIY084 by E-O3. Additionally, E-O3 reduced seasonal mean NOx flux by 5.7% and 11.8% with IIY084 and YD6, respectively, but the effects were not significant statistically. We found that the relative response of CH4 emission to E-O3 was not significantly different from those reported in open-top chamber experiments. This study has thus confirmed that increasing ozone concentration would mitigate the global warming potential of CH4 and suggested consideration of the feedback mechanism between ozone and its precursor emission into the projection of future ozone effects on terrestrial ecosystem.

  4. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO₂] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Season-long elevation of ozone concentration to projected 2050 levels under fully open-air conditions substantially decreases the growth and production of soybean.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patrick B; Mies, Timothy A; Bollero, Germán A; Nelson, Randall L; Long, Stephen P

    2006-01-01

    Mean surface ozone concentration is predicted to increase 23% by 2050. Previous chamber studies of crops report large yield losses caused by elevation of tropospheric ozone, and have been the basis for projecting economic loss. This is the first study with a food crop (soybean, Glycine max) using free-air gas concentration enrichment (FACE) technology for ozone fumigation. A 23% increase in ozone concentration from an average daytime ambient 56 p.p.b. to a treatment 69 p.p.b. over two growing seasons decreased seed yield by 20%. Total above-ground net primary production decreased by 17% without altering dry mass allocation among shoot organs, except seed. Fewer live leaves and decreased photosynthesis in late grain filling appear to drive the ozone-induced losses in production and yield. These results validate previous chamber studies suggesting that soybean yields will decrease under increasing ozone exposure. In fact, these results suggest that when treated under open-air conditions yield losses may be even greater than the large losses already reported in earlier chamber studies. Yield losses with elevated ozone were greater in the second year following a severe hailstorm, suggesting that losses caused by ozone might be exacerbated by extreme climatic events.

  6. Global food insecurity. Treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields

    PubMed Central

    Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Leakey, Andrew D.B; Morgan, Patrick B

    2005-01-01

    Predictions of yield for the globe's major grain and legume arable crops suggest that, with a moderate temperature increase, production may increase in the temperate zone, but decline in the tropics. In total, global food supply may show little change. This security comes from inclusion of the direct effect of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, [CO2], which significantly stimulates yield by decreasing photorespiration in C3 crops and transpiration in all crops. Evidence for a large response to [CO2] is largely based on studies made within chambers at small scales, which would be considered unacceptable for standard agronomic trials of new cultivars or agrochemicals. Yet, predictions of the globe's future food security are based on such inadequate information. Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology now allows investigation of the effects of rising [CO2] and ozone on field crops under fully open-air conditions at an agronomic scale. Experiments with rice, wheat, maize and soybean show smaller increases in yield than anticipated from studies in chambers. Experiments with increased ozone show large yield losses (20%), which are not accounted for in projections of global food security. These findings suggest that current projections of global food security are overoptimistic. The fertilization effect of CO2 is less than that used in many models, while rising ozone will cause large yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere. Unfortunately, FACE studies have been limited in geographical extent and interactive effects of CO2, ozone and temperature have yet to be studied. Without more extensive study of the effects of these changes at an agronomic scale in the open air, our ever-more sophisticated models will continue to have feet of clay. PMID:16433090

  7. Long-term growth of soybean at elevated [CO2] does not cause acclimation of stomatal conductance under fully open-air conditions.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Accurately predicting plant function and global biogeochemical cycles later in this century will be complicated if stomatal conductance (g(s)) acclimates to growth at elevated [CO(2)], in the sense of a long-term alteration of the response of g(s) to [CO(2)], humidity (h) and/or photosynthetic rate (A). If so, photosynthetic and stomatal models will require parameterization at each growth [CO(2)] of interest. Photosynthetic acclimation to long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)] occurs frequently. Acclimation of g(s) has rarely been examined, even though stomatal density commonly changes with growth [CO(2)]. Soybean was grown under field conditions at ambient [CO(2)] (378 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO(2)] (552 micromol mol(-1)) using free-air [CO(2)] enrichment (FACE). This study tested for stomatal acclimation by parameterizing and validating the widely used Ball et al. model (1987, Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol IV, 221-224) with measurements of leaf gas exchange. The dependence of g(s) on A, h and [CO(2)] at the leaf surface was unaltered by long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)]. This suggests that the commonly observed decrease in g(s) under elevated [CO(2)] is due entirely to the direct instantaneous effect of [CO(2)] on g(s) and that there is no longer-term acclimation of g(s) independent of photosynthetic acclimation. The model accurately predicted g(s) for soybean growing under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] in the field. Model parameters under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] were indistinguishable, demonstrating that stomatal function under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] could be modelled without the need for parameterization at each growth [CO(2)].

  8. Hourly and seasonal variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of soybean grown at future CO(2) and ozone concentrations for 3 years under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Heady, Lindsey E; Morgan, Patrick B; Dohleman, Frank G; McGrath, Justin M; Gillespie, Kelly M; Wittig, Victoria E; Rogers, Alistair; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2006-11-01

    It is anticipated that enrichment of the atmosphere with CO(2) will increase photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants. Analysis of controlled environment studies conducted to date indicates that plant growth at concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) anticipated for 2050 ( approximately 550 micromol mol(-1)) will stimulate leaf photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) by 20 to 40%. Simultaneously, concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O(3)]) are expected to increase by 2050, and growth in controlled environments at elevated [O(3)] significantly reduces A. However, the simultaneous effects of both increases on a major crop under open-air conditions have never been tested. Over three consecutive growing seasons > 4700 individual measurements of A, photosynthetic electron transport (J(PSII)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were measured on Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean). Experimental treatments used free-air gas concentration enrichment (FACE) technology in a fully replicated, factorial complete block design. The mean A in the control plots was 14.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1). At elevated [CO(2)], mean A was 24% higher and the treatment effect was statistically significant on 80% of days. There was a strong positive correlation between daytime maximum temperatures and mean daily integrated A at elevated [CO(2)], which accounted for much of the variation in CO(2) effect among days. The effect of elevated [CO(2)] on photosynthesis also tended to be greater under water stress conditions. The elevated [O(3)] treatment had no statistically significant effect on mean A, g(s) or J(PSII) on newly expanded leaves. Combined elevation of [CO(2)] and [O(3)] resulted in a slightly smaller increase in average A than when [CO(2)] alone was elevated, and was significantly greater than the control on 67% of days. Thus, the change in atmospheric composition predicted for the middle of this century will, based on the results of a 3 year open-air field experiment, have smaller

  9. Meteorological conditions are associated with physical activities performed in open-air settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker C.; Market, Patrick; Hyder, Melissa; Sara, Pyle A.

    2008-01-01

    Meteorological conditions (MC) are believed to modify physical activity. However, studies in this area are limited and none have looked at the associations between MC and physical activity in open-air settings. Therefore, we examined the relationships between MC and physical activities performed on sidewalks/streets and outdoor oval tracks. Observation techniques were used to count individuals walking to school, exercising on oval tracks and walking/jogging/biking on sidewalks/streets. Meteorological conditions were obtained from an Automated Surface Observing System located at a nearby airport for the same time periods physical activities were observed. On weekdays, fewer children were seen walking to school and more bicyclists were observed on sidewalks/streets as wind speed increased ( p < 0.05). Ambient and apparent temperatures were positively ( p < 0.05) and humidity and barometric pressure negatively ( p < 0.005) related to the number of individuals walking on the track. Meteorological conditions were not significantly associated with physical activities observed on weekends. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that apparent temperature (+), barometric pressure (-) and dew point (-) accounted for 58.0% of the variance in the number of walkers on the track. A significant proportion of the variance (>30%) in the number of joggers and the length of time they jogged was accounted for by apparent temperature (+) and dew point (-). We found that meteorological conditions are related to physical activity in open-air settings. The results embellish the context in which environmental-physical activity relationships should be interpreted and provide important information for researchers applying the observation method in open-air settings.

  10. Over-expressing the C(3) photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO(2) fumigation (FACE).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David M; Locke, Anna M; Khozaei, Mahdi; Raines, Christine A; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2011-08-31

    Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C(3) plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (V(c,max)), or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J). At current atmospheric [CO(2)] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO(2)] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A) should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO(2)] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C(3) cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC 3.1.3.17) has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT) tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO(2)] (585 ppm) under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO(2)] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A') more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO(2)] via downregulation of V(c,max) in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and J(max)) for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO(2)] compared to ambient grown plants. These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C(3) crops grown at [CO(2)] expected by the middle of the 21st century.

  11. Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (Vc,max), or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J). At current atmospheric [CO2] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO2] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A) should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO2] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C3 cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC 3.1.3.17) has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT) tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO2] (585 ppm) under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO2] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A') more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] via downregulation of Vc,max in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and Jmax) for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient grown plants. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C3 crops grown at [CO2] expected by the middle of the 21st century. PMID:21884586

  12. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in open air conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, A. I.; Ferris, N. P.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the Open Air Factor (OAF) and daylight on the survival of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus held as captured aerosols on spider microthreads has been investigated. Virus inactivation due to OAF was slight. Similarly, the effect of daylight on the survival of virus was not marked. The results are discussed in relation to the airborne spread of FMD virus in nature. PMID:168250

  13. Effects of fully open-air [CO2] elevation on leaf photosynthesis and ultrastructure of Isatis indigotica fort.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xingyu; Li, Ping; Feng, Yongxiang; Han, Xue; Gao, Ji; Lin, Erda; Han, Yuanhuai

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine relies heavily on herbs, yet there is no information on how these herb plants would respond to climate change. In order to gain insight into such response, we studied the effect of elevated [CO2] on Isatis indigotica Fort, one of the most popular Chinese herb plants. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure and biomass yield in response to elevated [CO2] (550±19 µmol mol(-1)) were determined at the Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Photosynthetic ability of I. indigotica was improved under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (P N), water use efficiency (WUE) and maximum rate of electron transport (J max) of upper most fully-expended leaves, but not stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration ratio (Tr) and maximum velocity of carboxylation (V c,max). Elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf intrinsic efficiency of PSII (Fv'/Fm') and quantum yield of PSII(ΦPS II ), but decreased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and did not affect leaf proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP) and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). The structural chloroplast membrane, grana layer and stroma thylakoid membranes were intact under elevated [CO2], though more starch grains were accumulated within the chloroplasts than that of under ambient [CO2]. While the yield of I. indigotica was higher due to the improved photosynthesis under elevated [CO2], the content of adenosine, one of the functional ingredients in indigowoad root was not affected.

  14. Effects of Fully Open-Air [CO2] Elevation on Leaf Photosynthesis and Ultrastructure of Isatis indigotica Fort

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xingyu; Li, Ping; Feng, Yongxiang; Han, Xue; Gao, Ji; Lin, Erda; Han, Yuanhuai

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine relies heavily on herbs, yet there is no information on how these herb plants would respond to climate change. In order to gain insight into such response, we studied the effect of elevated [CO2] on Isatis indigotica Fort, one of the most popular Chinese herb plants. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure and biomass yield in response to elevated [CO2] (550±19 µmol mol–1) were determined at the Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Photosynthetic ability of I. indigotica was improved under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (PN), water use efficiency (WUE) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) of upper most fully-expended leaves, but not stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration ratio (Tr) and maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vc,max). Elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf intrinsic efficiency of PSII (Fv’/Fm’) and quantum yield of PSII(ΦPSII), but decreased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and did not affect leaf proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP) and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). The structural chloroplast membrane, grana layer and stroma thylakoid membranes were intact under elevated [CO2], though more starch grains were accumulated within the chloroplasts than that of under ambient [CO2]. While the yield of I. indigotica was higher due to the improved photosynthesis under elevated [CO2], the content of adenosine, one of the functional ingredients in indigowoad root was not affected. PMID:24058596

  15. A comparative study of the decomposition of pig carcasses in a methyl methacrylate box and open air conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the process of decomposition is essential in establishing the postmortem interval. However, despite the fact that insects are important players in body decomposition, their exact function within the decay process is still unclear. There is also limited knowledge as to how the decomposition process occurs in the absence of insects. In the present study, we compared the decomposition of a pig carcass in open air with that of one placed in a methyl methacrylate box to prevent insect contact. The pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box was in the fresh stage for 1 day, the bloated stage from 2 d to 11 d, and underwent deflated decay from 12 d. In contrast, the pig carcass in open air went through the fresh, bloated, active decay and post-decay stages; and 22.3 h (0.93 d), 62.47 h (2.60 d), 123.63 h (5.15 d) and 246.5 h (10.27 d) following the start of the experiment respectively, prior to entering the skeletonization stage. A large amount of soft tissue were remained on the pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box on 26 d, while only scattered bones remained on the pig carcass in open air. The results indicate that insects greatly accelerate the decomposition process.

  16. Open-air multispectral fluorescence-guided surgery platform for intraoperative detection of malignant tissue under ambient lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrooz, Ali; Vasquez, Kristine O.; Waterman, Peter; Meganck, Jeff; Peterson, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Peter; Kempner, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Intraoperative resection of tumors currently relies upon the surgeon's ability to visually locate and palpate tumor nodules. Undetected residual malignant tissue often results in the need for additional treatment or surgical intervention. The Solaris platform is a multispectral open-air fluorescence imaging system designed for translational fluorescence-guided surgery. Solaris supports video-rate imaging in four fixed fluorescence channels ranging from visible to near infrared, and a multispectral channel equipped with a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) for multispectral image acquisition (520-620 nm). Identification of tumor margins using reagents emitting in the visible spectrum (400-650 nm), such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), present challenges considering the presence of auto-fluorescence from tissue and food in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To overcome this, Solaris acquires LCTF-based multispectral images, and by applying an automated spectral unmixing algorithm to the data, separates reagent fluorescence from tissue and food auto-fluorescence. The unmixing algorithm uses vertex component analysis to automatically extract the primary pure spectra, and resolves the reagent fluorescent signal using non-negative least squares. For validation, intraoperative in vivo studies were carried out in tumor-bearing rodents injected with FITC-dextran reagent that is primarily residing in malignant tissue 24 hours post injection. In the absence of unmixing, fluorescence from tumors is not distinguishable from that of surrounding tissue. Upon spectral unmixing, the FITC-labeled malignant regions become well defined and detectable. The results of these studies substantiate the multispectral power of Solaris in resolving FITC-based agent signal in deep tumor masses, under ambient and surgical light, and enhancing the ability to surgically resect them.

  17. [Influence of industrial pollution of ambient air on health of workers engaged into open air activities in cold conditions].

    PubMed

    Chashchin, V P; Siurin, S A; Gudkov, A B; Popova, O N; Voronin, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on assessment of occupational exposure to air pollutants and related health effects in3792 outdoor workers engaged in operations performed in the vicinity of non-ferrous metallurgical facilities in Far North. Findings are that during cold season repeated climate and weather conditions are associated with higher level of chemical hazards and dust in surface air. At the air temperature below -17 degrees C, maximal single concentrations of major pollutants can exceed MAC up to 10 times. With that, transitory disablement morbidity parameters and occupational accidents frequency increase significantly. The workers with long exposure to cooling meteorological factors and air pollution demonstrate significantly increased prevalence of respiratory and circulatory diseases, despite relatively low levels of sculpture dioxide and dust in the air, not exceeding the occupational exposure limits. It has been concluded that severe cold is to be considered asa factor increasing occupational risk at air polluted outdoor worksites dueto more intense air pollution, higher traumatism risk and lower efficiency of filter antidust masks respiratory PPE and due to modification of the toxic effects.

  18. Conditions for the use of infrared camera diagnostics in energy auditing of the objects exposed to open air space at isothermal sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczek, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Convective and radiation heat transfer take place between various objects placed in open air space and their surroundings. These phenomena bring about heat losses from pipelines, building walls, roofs and other objects. One of the main tasks in energy auditing is the reduction of excessive heat losses. In the case of a low sky temperature, the radiation heat exchange is very intensive and the temperature of the top part of the horizontal pipelines or walls is lower than the temperature of their bottom parts. Quite often this temperature is also lower than the temperature of the surrounding atmospheric air. In the case of overhead heat pipelines placed in open air space, it is the ground and sky that constitute the surroundings. The aforementioned elements of surroundings usually have different values of temperature. Thus, these circumstances bring about difficulties during infrared inspections because only one ambient temperature which represents radiation of all surrounding elements must be known during the thermovision measurements. This work is aimed at the development of a method for determination of an equivalent ambient temperature representing the thermal radiation of the surrounding elements of the object under consideration placed in open air space, which could be applied at a fairly uniform temperature of the sky during the thermovision measurements as well as for the calculation of radiative heat losses.

  19. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  20. How will soybeans respond to elevated temperatures when grown at future CO2 concentrations under fully open air field conditions (FACE)?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevating CO2 and temperature both influence plant productivity through their direct effects on photosynthesis. This is true because O2 and CO2 compete for same active sites of ribulose bisphophate carboxylase-oxygenase (rubisco). Increasing temperature increases oxygenation relative to carboxylati...

  1. America's Open-Air Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William H., III

    1970-01-01

    Discusses U.S. National Parks as natural laboratories for the study of ecology, geology, earth science, and botany. Suggests activities which will enable children to more fully appreciate the great age of the earth, its history, the complexity of its structure and composition, and the myriad plants and animals which inhabit it. (BR)

  2. America's Open-Air Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William H., III

    1970-01-01

    Discusses U.S. National Parks as natural laboratories for the study of ecology, geology, earth science, and botany. Suggests activities which will enable children to more fully appreciate the great age of the earth, its history, the complexity of its structure and composition, and the myriad plants and animals which inhabit it. (BR)

  3. Production of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; del Val, J.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted much attention as a subject of investigation due to their well-known properties, such as good conductivity, antibacterial and catalytic effects, etc. They are used in many different areas, such as medicine, industrial applications, scientific investigation, etc. There are different techniques for producing Ag nanoparticles, chemical, electrochemical, sonochemical, etc. These methods often lead to impurities together with nanoparticles or colloidal solutions. In this work, laser ablation of solids in open air conditions (LASOA) is used to produce silver nanoparticles and collect them on glass substrates. Production and deposition of silver nanoparticles are integrated in the same step to reduce the process. The obtained particles are analysed and the nanoparticles formation mechanism is discussed. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles consisted of Ag nanoparticles showing rounded shape with diameters ranging from few to 50 nm

  4. The Open-Air School Movement in English Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Marjorie

    1977-01-01

    Begun in the early 1900s, the open-air school movement marked a new chapter in preventive medicine. The schools took undernourished slum students and provided them with food and a hygienic environment. Within half a century the open-air schools had outlived their usefulness because of a social revolution. (Author/IRT)

  5. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  6. Open air demolition of facilities highly contaminated with plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, E.R.; Lackey, M.B.; Stevens, J.M.; Zinsli, L.C.

    2007-07-01

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than 'hands on' techniques. (authors)

  7. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-05-31

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques.

  8. Efficient Semantic Segmentation of Man-Made Scenes Using Fully-Connected Conditional Random Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihao; Yang, Michael Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we explore semantic segmentation of man-made scenes using fully connected conditional random field (CRF). Images of man-made scenes display strong contextual dependencies in the spatial structures. Fully connected CRFs can model long-range connections within the image of man-made scenes and make use of contextual information of scene structures. The pairwise edge potentials of fully connected CRF models are defined by a linear combination of Gaussian kernels. Using filter-based mean field algorithm, the inference is very efficient. Our experimental results demonstrate that fully connected CRF performs better than previous state-of-the-art approaches on both eTRIMS dataset and LabelMeFacade dataset.

  9. A Comparison of Joint Model and Fully Conditional Specification Imputation for Multilevel Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Stephen A.; Enders, Craig K.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple imputation methods can generally be divided into two broad frameworks: joint model (JM) imputation and fully conditional specification (FCS) imputation. JM draws missing values simultaneously for all incomplete variables using a multivariate distribution, whereas FCS imputes variables one at a time from a series of univariate conditional…

  10. Leaf morphology and ultrastructure responses to elevated O3 in transgenic Bt (cry1Ab/cry1Ac) rice and conventional rice under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Liu, Biao; Li, Chunhua; Zeng, Qing; Hao, Mingzhuo; Han, Zhengmin; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Xiaogang; Shen, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone severely affects not only yield but also the morphology, structure and physiological functions of plants. Because of concerns regarding the potential environmental risk of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor changes in transgenic insect-resistant rice under the projected high tropospheric ozone before its commercial release. Using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the changes in leaf morphology and leaf ultrastructure of two rice varieties grown in plastic pots, transgenic Bt Shanyou 63 (Bt-SY63, carrying a fusion gene of cry1Ab and cry1Ac) and its non-transgenic counterpart (SY63), in elevated O3 (E-O3) versus ambient O3 (A-O3) after 64-DAS (Days after seeding), 85-DAS and 102-DAS. Our results indicated that E-O3 had no significant effects on leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, stomatal length and stomatal density for both Bt-SY63 and SY63. E-O3 increased the leaf thickness of Bt-SY63, but decreased that of SY63. O3 stress caused early swelling of the thylakoids of chloroplasts, a significant increase in the proportion of total plastoglobule area in the entire cell area (PCAP) and a significant decrease in the proportion of total starch grain area in the entire cell area (SCAP), suggesting that E-O3 accelerated the leaf senescence of the two rice genotypes. Compared with SY63, E-O3 caused early swelling of the thylakoids of chloroplasts and more substantial breakdown of chloroplasts in Bt-SY63. Our results suggest that the incorporation of cry1Ab/Ac into SY63 could induce unintentional changes in some parts of plant morphology and that O3 stress results in greater leaf damage to Bt-SY63 than to SY63, with the former coupled with higher O3 sensitivity in CCAP (the proportions of total chloroplast area in the entire cell area), PCAP and SCAP. This study provides valuable baseline information for the prospective commercial release of transgenic crops under the projected future climate.

  11. The effect of boundary conditions on VIV of a fully submerged flexible cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edraki, Mahdiar; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in a re-circulating water tunnel, in which Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a fully submerged, tension-dominated cylinder with different boundary conditions was studied. While in most previous studies, either the cylinder was not fully submerged in flow or the boundary conditions for the cylinder were different at the two ends, in the current study the cylinder is fully submerged and the boundary conditions are carefully controlled. The cylinder was held fixed at both ends and was placed perpendicular to the uniform incoming flow direction. Different symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions for the cylinder, i.e., clamped-clamped, simply supported, and clamped-hinged were tested. Continuous response of the cylinder in both the crossflow and inline directions were reconstructed from limited number of measurement points based on modal expansion theorem modified using Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC). Amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations were studied in the reduced velocity range of U* = 5.5-32.5 and the Reynolds number range of Re = 200-1220. Modes up to four were excited in the crossflow direction for a cylinder with a length of L =0.3 m and an aspect ratio of 73.

  12. 35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air visitor center in 1962, it was enclosed and a heating system installed in 1984 to allow use through the cooler months and help reduce vandalism. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents for the management of benign biliary conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, J; Taberna-Arana, L; Jimeno-Ayllón, C; Martínez-Fernández, R; Serrano-Sánchez, L; Reyes-Guevara, A K; Viñuelas-Chicano, M; Gómez-Ruiz, C J; Morillas-Ariño, M J; Pérez-García, J I; Pérez-Vigara, G; Pérez-Sola, A

    2010-09-01

    biliary self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have the advantage of being inserted undeployed with very small sizes and provide, when fully opened, large diameters for biliary drainage. However, their use in benign conditions has been very limited, mainly because of difficulty in their extraction. We present our initial experience with a fully covered SEMS (Wallflex) for the management of benign problems of the bile duct. in a prospective study, stents of 8 mm in diameter and 4, 6 or 8 cm long were inserted by means of ERCP. These SEMS were chosen when according to medical judgement it was thought that diameters greater than 10 French (3.3 mm) were needed for proper biliary drainage. Stents were extracted also endoscopically, several months later when deemed clinically appropriate. twenty biliary SEMS were inserted. Reasons for insertion were: large intrahepatic biliary fistula after hydatid cyst surgery (1), perforation of the papillary area following endoscopic sphincterotomy (2), coaxial insertion to achieve patency in obstructed uncovered stents inserted in benign conditions (3), benign strictures (7), multiple and large common bile duct stones that could not be extracted because of tapering and stricturing of the distal common bile duct (7). In all cases, successful biliary drainage was achieved and there were no complications from insertion. Stents were easily extracted after a mean time of 132 days (36-270) in place. Complete resolution of biliary problems was obtained in 14 patients (70%). in our initial experience, the fully covered Wallflex biliary stent was removed without any complication after being in place in the common bile duct for a mean time of over four months. Therefore, it could be used in the management of benign biliary conditions.

  14. Fully Electrical Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators with Contact Thermal Resistance Under Different Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siouane, Saima; Jovanović, Slaviša; Poure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply electronic circuits by converting the waste thermal into electrical energy. This generated electrical power is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the TEG module's hot and cold sides. Depending on the applications, TEGs can be used either under constant temperature gradient between heat reservoirs or constant heat flow conditions. Moreover, the generated electrical power of a TEG depends not only on these operating conditions, but also on the contact thermal resistance. The influence of the contact thermal resistance on the generated electrical power have already been extensively reported in the literature. However, as reported in Park et al. (Energy Convers Manag 86:233, 2014) and Montecucco and Knox (IEEE Trans Power Electron 30:828, 2015), while designing TEG-powered circuit and systems, a TEG module is mostly modeled with a Thévenin equivalent circuit whose resistance is constant and voltage proportional to the temperature gradient applied to the TEG's terminals. This widely used simplified electrical TEG model is inaccurate and not suitable under constant heat flow conditions or when the contact thermal resistance is considered. Moreover, it does not provide realistic behaviour corresponding to the physical phenomena taking place in a TEG. Therefore, from the circuit designer's point of view, faithful and fully electrical TEG models under different operating conditions are needed. Such models are mainly necessary to design and evaluate the power conditioning electronic stages and the maximum power point tracking algorithms of a TEG power supply. In this study, these fully electrical models with the contact thermal resistance taken into account are presented and the analytical expressions of the Thévenin equivalent circuit parameters are provided.

  15. Experimental and numerical study of open-air active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fifi, Salman Amsari

    The topic of my thesis is Experimental and Numerical Study of Open Air Active Cooling. The present research is intended to investigate experimentally and Numerically the effectiveness of cooling large open areas like stadiums, shopping malls, national gardens, amusement parks, zoos, transportation facilities and government facilities or even in buildings outdoor gardens and patios. Our cooling systems are simple cooling fans with different diameters and a mist system. This type of cooling systems has been chosen among the others to guarantee less energy consumption, which will make it the most favorable and applicable for cooling such places mentioned above. In the experiments, the main focus is to study the temperature domain as a function of different fan diameters aerodynamically similar in different heights till we come up with an empirical relationship that can determine the temperature domain for different fan diameters and for different heights of these fans. The experimental part has two stages. The first stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of airspeed and profile for three different fan diameters and for different heights without mist, while the second stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of temperature and profile for the three different diameter fans and for different heights with mist. The computational study is devoted to built an experimentally verified mathematical model to be used in the design and optimization of water mist cooling systems, and to compare the mathematical results to the experimental results and to get an insight of how to apply such evaporative mist cooling for different places for different conditions. In this study, numerical solution is presented based on experimental conditions, such dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, operating pressure and fan airspeed. In the computational study, all experimental conditions are kept the same for the three fans except the fan airspeed

  16. Microfluidic perfusion culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under fully defined culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Ryosuke; Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kondo, Yuki; Yamada, Rotaro; Tachikawa, Saoko; Satoh, Taku; Kurisaki, Akira; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source for drug screening. For this application, self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is required, and undefined factors in the culture conditions are not desirable. Microfluidic perfusion culture allows the production of small volume cultures with precisely controlled microenvironments, and is applicable to high-throughput cellular environment screening. Here, we developed a microfluidic perfusion culture system for hiPSCs that uses a microchamber array chip under defined extracellular matrix (ECM) and culture medium conditions. By screening various ECMs we determined that fibronectin and laminin are appropriate for microfluidic devices made out of the most popular material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We found that the growth rate of hiPSCs under pressure-driven perfusion culture conditions was higher than under static culture conditions in the microchamber array. We applied our new system to self-renewal and differentiation cultures of hiPSCs, and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the state of the hiPSCs was successfully controlled. The effects of three antitumor drugs on hiPSCs were comparable between microchamber array and 96-well plates. We believe that our system will be a platform technology for future large-scale screening of fully defined conditions for differentiation cultures on integrated microfluidic devices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by arc discharge in open air.

    PubMed

    Paladugu, Mohan Chand; Maneesh, K; Nair, P Kesavan; Haridoss, Prathap

    2005-05-01

    In this work Carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by arc discharge in open air. A TIG welding ac/dc inverter was used as the power source for arc discharge. During each run of the arc discharge based synthesis, the anode was a low purity (approximately 85% C by weight) graphite rod. The effect of varying the atmosphere on the yield of soot of the carbon nanotube containing carbon soot has been studied. Various soots were produced, purified by oxidation and characterized to confirm formation of carbon nanotubes and their relative quality, using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD. It was found that the yield of soot formed on the cathode is higher when synthesis is carried out in open air than when carried out in a flowing argon atmosphere. When synthesized in open air, using a 7.2-mm-diameter graphite rod as anode, the yield of soot was around 50% by weight of the graphite consumed. Current and voltage for arcing were at identical starting values in all the experiments. This modified method does not require a controlled atmosphere as in the case of a conventional arc discharge method of synthesis and hence the cost of production may be reduced.

  18. A Fully Automated Drosophila Olfactory Classical Conditioning and Testing System for Behavioral Learning and Memory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L.; Page, Terry L.; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    Background Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. New Method The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. Results The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24 hours) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. Comparison with Existing Methods The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ~$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. Conclusions This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays

  19. A fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical conditioning and testing system for behavioral learning and memory assessment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L; Page, Terry L; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-03-01

    Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24h) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ∼$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological iron oxidation by Gallionella spp. in drinking water production under fully aerated conditions.

    PubMed

    de Vet, W W J M; Dinkla, I J T; Rietveld, L C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-01

    Iron oxidation under neutral conditions (pH 6.5-8) may be a homo- or heterogeneous chemically- or a biologically-mediated process. The chemical oxidation is supposed to outpace the biological process under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7-8). The iron oxidation kinetics and growth of Gallionella spp. - obligatory chemolithotrophic iron oxidizers - were assessed in natural, organic carbon-containing water, in continuous lab-scale reactors and full-scale groundwater trickling filters in the Netherlands. From Gallionella cell numbers determined by qPCR, balances were made for all systems. The homogeneous chemical iron oxidation occurred in accordance with the literature, but was retarded by a low water temperature (13 °C). The contribution of the heterogeneous chemical oxidation was, despite the presence of freshly formed iron oxyhydroxides, much lower than in previous studies in ultrapure water. This could be caused by the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on the iron oxide surfaces. In the oxygen-saturated natural water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7, Gallionella spp. grew uninhibited and biological iron oxidation was an important, and probably the dominant, process. Gallionella growth was not even inhibited in a full-scale filter after plate aeration. From this we conclude that Gallionella spp. can grow under neutral pH and fully aerated conditions when the chemical iron oxidation is retarded by low water temperature and inhibition of the autocatalytic iron oxidation.

  1. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  2. Synthesising Uniform Gas Hydrate in Natural Porous Media under Partially Saturated and Fully Water Saturated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, E. V.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Kwon, T.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of laboratory techniques used to measure the geophysical properties of sediment hosted gas hydrates assume a uniform distribution of hydrate in the pore space in order for results to be interpreted correctly. Of the several methods for hydrate synthesis in the laboratory, the technique thought to produce the most homogeneous specimens is the partial water saturation method. There is also a method thought by some to produce homogeneous hydrate in water saturated sediments - the excess water method. X-ray CT scanning has shown that at low (10%) and high (60%) initial starting water saturations, hydrate formation is indeed relatively uniform across a sand specimen, when formed under partially saturated conditions. However, at water saturations between 30-40%, hydrate formation is no longer evenly distributed across the same sand core when using this method. Until recently, the excess water method had not been investigated with X-ray imaging, and so actual hydrate distribution within a sediment is unknown when formed in these conditions. In an effort to identify a reliable method that will result in uniform methane hydrate formation in sediment cores, several different procedures were investigated using the partial water saturation method: 1. Using an additive to the pore water in the form of salt or a biological initiator; 2. Mixing kaolinite into the sand pack and 3. Freezing of the moist sand before pressurization with methane. Additionally, hydrate was formed in fully water saturated conditions by use of the excess water method. In each experiment, X-ray CT scanning was utilized in order to observe the distribution of the hydrate inside the sand, and determine the effectiveness of each technique at producing a uniform hydrate bearing sediment.

  3. Stories from OpenAQ, a Global and Grassroots Open Air Quality Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Flasher, J. C.; Veerman, O.; Scalamogna, A.; Silva, D.; Salmon, M.; Buuralda, D.; DeWitt, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution, responsible for more deaths each year than HIV/AIDS and malaria, combined, is a global public health crisis. Yet many scientific questions, including those directly relevant for policy, remain unanswered when it comes to the impact of air pollution on health in highly polluted environments. Often, specific solutions to improving air quality are local and sustained through public engagement, policy and monitoring. Both the overarching science of air quality and health and local solutions rely on access to reliable, timely air quality data. Over the past year, the OpenAQ community has opened up existing disparate air quality data in 24 countries through an open source platform (openaq.org) so that communities around the world can use it to advance science, public engagement, and policy. We will share stories of communities, from Delhi to Ulaanbaatar and from scientists to journalists, using open air quality data from our platform to advance their fight against air inequality. We will share recent research we have conducted on best practices for engaging different communities and building tools that enable the public to fully unleash the power of open air quality data to fight air inequality. The subsequent open-source tools (github.com/openaq) we have developed from this research and our entire data-sharing platform may be of interest to other open data communities.

  4. A Fully Conditional Specification Approach to Multilevel Imputation of Categorical and Continuous Variables.

    PubMed

    Enders, Craig K; Keller, Brian T; Levy, Roy

    2017-05-29

    Specialized imputation routines for multilevel data are widely available in software packages, but these methods are generally not equipped to handle a wide range of complexities that are typical of behavioral science data. In particular, existing imputation schemes differ in their ability to handle random slopes, categorical variables, differential relations at Level-1 and Level-2, and incomplete Level-2 variables. Given the limitations of existing imputation tools, the purpose of this manuscript is to describe a flexible imputation approach that can accommodate a diverse set of 2-level analysis problems that includes any of the aforementioned features. The procedure employs a fully conditional specification (also known as chained equations) approach with a latent variable formulation for handling incomplete categorical variables. Computer simulations suggest that the proposed procedure works quite well, with trivial biases in most cases. We provide a software program that implements the imputation strategy, and we use an artificial data set to illustrate its use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Multiple imputation of covariates by fully conditional specification: Accommodating the substantive model

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, Shaun R; White, Ian R; Carpenter, James R

    2015-01-01

    Missing covariate data commonly occur in epidemiological and clinical research, and are often dealt with using multiple imputation. Imputation of partially observed covariates is complicated if the substantive model is non-linear (e.g. Cox proportional hazards model), or contains non-linear (e.g. squared) or interaction terms, and standard software implementations of multiple imputation may impute covariates from models that are incompatible with such substantive models. We show how imputation by fully conditional specification, a popular approach for performing multiple imputation, can be modified so that covariates are imputed from models which are compatible with the substantive model. We investigate through simulation the performance of this proposal, and compare it with existing approaches. Simulation results suggest our proposal gives consistent estimates for a range of common substantive models, including models which contain non-linear covariate effects or interactions, provided data are missing at random and the assumed imputation models are correctly specified and mutually compatible. Stata software implementing the approach is freely available. PMID:24525487

  6. Multiple imputation of covariates by fully conditional specification: Accommodating the substantive model.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan W; Seaman, Shaun R; White, Ian R; Carpenter, James R

    2015-08-01

    Missing covariate data commonly occur in epidemiological and clinical research, and are often dealt with using multiple imputation. Imputation of partially observed covariates is complicated if the substantive model is non-linear (e.g. Cox proportional hazards model), or contains non-linear (e.g. squared) or interaction terms, and standard software implementations of multiple imputation may impute covariates from models that are incompatible with such substantive models. We show how imputation by fully conditional specification, a popular approach for performing multiple imputation, can be modified so that covariates are imputed from models which are compatible with the substantive model. We investigate through simulation the performance of this proposal, and compare it with existing approaches. Simulation results suggest our proposal gives consistent estimates for a range of common substantive models, including models which contain non-linear covariate effects or interactions, provided data are missing at random and the assumed imputation models are correctly specified and mutually compatible. Stata software implementing the approach is freely available. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Impact of Boundary Conditions on Pumping in a Fully Bounded Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Xin, P.; Li, L.; Luo, J.

    2014-12-01

    The flow field may be affected by aquifer boundaries, when pumping in a small-scale aquifer or a long term pumping activity is required especially under a large pumping rate. Using potential theory, the image-well method and superposition principle, analytical solutions are derived for pumping in a fully bounded rectangular aquifer with five different boundary condition scenarios: (1) one constant-head boundary (in horizontal direction in plan view) and three impermeable boundaries, (2) two parallel constant-head boundaries (in horizontal direction) and two parallel impermeable boundaries (in vertical direction), (3) two pairs of orthogonal impermeable and constant-head boundaries, (4) three constant-head boundaries and one impermeable boundary, and (5) four constant-head boundaries. For each scenario, closed-form expressions are derived in three different types: (1) summation of the series in horizontal and vertical directions; (2) summation of the series in horizontal direction and exact potential in vertical direction, and (3) summation of the series in vertical direction and exact potential in horizontal direction. It is found that all the three types of closed-form expressions can produce an accurate potential for scenarios (3)-(5). For scenarios (1) and (2), by contrast, the third type closed-form expression can yield an accurate solution, while the second type close-form expression always generates an unacceptable solution. Therefore, the third type closed-form is recommended to solve the potential of a flow field created by a pumping well subjected to multiple impermeable and/or constant-head boundary conditions, due to its accuracy as well as computational efficiency.

  8. Oscillations of a sessile droplet in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenchenko, A. E.; Beskachko, V. P.

    2013-11-01

    The open system consisting of a sessile drop, a neutral gas, and a substrate is analyzed by numerical methods. The mode with constant contact angle is considered. The model takes into account evaporation from drop surface, free and forced convection in gas, buoyancy, and Marangoni effect in the liquid phase. It was established that every considered mechanical and thermodynamical disturbance of the system leads to the drop surface oscillations, and thus a drop in an open air oscillates almost inevitably. The displacement of the liquid-gas interface due to oscillations is analyzed in terms of its impact on the accuracy of measurement of the surface tension by sessile drop method.

  9. Oscillations of a sessile droplet in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Korenchenko, A. E.; Beskachko, V. P.

    2013-11-15

    The open system consisting of a sessile drop, a neutral gas, and a substrate is analyzed by numerical methods. The mode with constant contact angle is considered. The model takes into account evaporation from drop surface, free and forced convection in gas, buoyancy, and Marangoni effect in the liquid phase. It was established that every considered mechanical and thermodynamical disturbance of the system leads to the drop surface oscillations, and thus a drop in an open air oscillates almost inevitably. The displacement of the liquid-gas interface due to oscillations is analyzed in terms of its impact on the accuracy of measurement of the surface tension by sessile drop method.

  10. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  12. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.

  13. A stochastically fully connected conditional random field framework for super resolution OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroomand, A.; Tan, B.; Wong, A.; Bizheva, K.

    2017-02-01

    A number of factors can degrade the resolution and contrast of OCT images, such as: (1) changes of the OCT pointspread function (PSF) resulting from wavelength dependent scattering and absorption of light along the imaging depth (2) speckle noise, as well as (3) motion artifacts. We propose a new Super Resolution OCT (SR OCT) imaging framework that takes advantage of a Stochastically Fully Connected Conditional Random Field (SF-CRF) model to generate a Super Resolved OCT (SR OCT) image of higher quality from a set of Low-Resolution OCT (LR OCT) images. The proposed SF-CRF SR OCT imaging is able to simultaneously compensate for all of the factors mentioned above, that degrade the OCT image quality, using a unified computational framework. The proposed SF-CRF SR OCT imaging framework was tested on a set of simulated LR human retinal OCT images generated from a high resolution, high contrast retinal image, and on a set of in-vivo, high resolution, high contrast rat retinal OCT images. The reconstructed SR OCT images show considerably higher spatial resolution, less speckle noise and higher contrast compared to other tested methods. Visual assessment of the results demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed approach in better preservation of fine details and structures of the imaged sample, retaining biological tissue boundaries while reducing speckle noise using a unified computational framework. Quantitative evaluation using both Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Edge Preservation (EP) parameter also showed superior performance of the proposed SF-CRF SR OCT approach compared to other image processing approaches.

  14. Fully kinetic 3D simulations of the Hermean magnetosphere under realistic conditions: a new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Jorge; Gonzalez-Herrero, Diego; Lembège, Bertrand; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Simulations of the magnetosphere of planets are usually performed using the MHD and the hybrid approaches. However, these two methods still rely on approximations for the computation of the pressure tensor, and require the neutrality of the plasma at every point of the domain by construction. These approximations undermine the role of electrons on the emergence of plasma features in the magnetosphere of planets. The high mobility of electrons, their characteristic time and space scales, and the lack of perfect neutrality, are the source of many observed phenomena in the magnetospheres, including the turbulence energy cascade, the magnetic reconnection, the particle acceleration in the shock front and the formation of current systems around the magnetosphere. Fully kinetic codes are extremely demanding of computing time, and have been unable to perform simulations of the full magnetosphere at the real scales of a planet with realistic plasma conditions. This is caused by two main reasons: 1) explicit codes must resolve the electron scales limiting the time and space discretisation, and 2) current versions of semi-implicit codes are unstable for cell sizes larger than a few Debye lengths. In this work we present new simulations performed with ECsim, an Energy Conserving semi-implicit method [1], that can overcome these two barriers. We compare the solutions obtained with ECsim with the solutions obtained by the classic semi-implicit code iPic3D [2]. The new simulations with ECsim demand a larger computational effort, but the time and space discretisations are larger than those in iPic3D allowing for a faster simulation time of the full planetary environment. The new code, ECsim, can reach a resolution allowing the capture of significant large scale physics without loosing kinetic electron information, such as wave-electron interaction and non-Maxwellian electron velocity distributions [3]. The code is able to better capture the thickness of the different boundary

  15. Open-Air Biowarfare Testing and the Evolution of Values

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The United States and the United Kingdom ended outdoor biological warfare testing in populated areas nearly half a century ago. Yet, the conduct, health effects, and propriety of those tests remain controversial. The varied views reflect the limits of currently available test information and evolving societal values on research involving human subjects. Western political culture has changed since the early days of the American and British testing programs. People have become less reluctant to question authority, and institutional review boards must now pre-approve research involving human subjects. Further, the heightened stringency of laboratory containment has accentuated the safety gap between a confined test space and one without physical boundaries. All this makes it less likely that masses of people would again be unwittingly subjected to secret open-air biological warfare tests. PMID:27564984

  16. Comparison of the Actuator Line Model with Fully Resolved Simulations in Complex Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihing, Pascal; Schulz, Christoph; Lutz, Thorsten; Krämer, Ewald

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper the actuator line method is compared with fully resolved wind turbine simulations in offshore and complex terrain applications. In such flow fields, which are characterized by non-homogeneous and unsteady velocity distributions in the rotor plane, unsteady aerodynamic effects are likely and it is unclear how these characterize the wake development and load behavior of the wind turbine. The wake properties and loads are therefore compared for the case of a 5 MW wind turbine operating in a typical maritime atmosphere and a 2.4 MW onshore turbine located at a complex terrain site downstream of an escarpment. It was found that the actuator line predicts the wake structure, wake deflection and wake deficit in good agreement with the fully resolved simulation. However, an overestimation of velocity fluctuations was observed.

  17. High-Performance Fully Printable Perovskite Solar Cells via Blade-Coating Technique under the Ambient Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhibin; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Zuo, Fan; Kim, Jong H.; Liang, Po-Wei; Jen, Alex K. -Y.

    2015-04-30

    A fully printable perovskite solar cell (PVSC) is demonstrated using a blade-coating technique under ambient conditions with controlled humidity. The influence of humidity on perovskite's crystallization is systematically investigated to realize the ambient processing condition. A high power conversion efficiency of 10.44% is achieved after optimizing the blade-coating process and, more importantly, a high-performance flexible PVSC is demonstrated for the first time. A high efficiency of 7.14% is achieved.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions.

    PubMed

    Thiberge, Stephan; Nechushtan, Amotz; Sprinzak, David; Gileadi, Opher; Behar, Vered; Zik, Ory; Chowers, Yehuda; Michaeli, Shulamit; Schlessinger, Joseph; Moses, Elisha

    2004-03-09

    A capability for scanning electron microscopy of wet biological specimens is presented. A membrane that is transparent to electrons protects the fully hydrated sample from the vacuum. The result is a hybrid technique combining the ease of use and ability to see into cells of optical microscopy with the higher resolution of electron microscopy. The resolution of low-contrast materials is approximately 100 nm, whereas in high-contrast materials the resolution can reach 10 nm. Standard immunogold techniques and heavy-metal stains can be applied and viewed in the fluid to improve the contrast. Images present a striking combination of whole-cell morphology with a wealth of internal details. A possibility for direct inspection of tissue slices transpires, imaging only the external layer of cells. Simultaneous imaging with photons excited by the electrons incorporates data on material distribution, indicating a potential for multilabeling and specific scintillating markers.

  19. Dual-Comb Spectroscopy in the Open Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, Greg B.; Klose, Andrew; Diddams, Scott; Coddington, Ian; Giorgetta, Fabrizio; Sinclair, Laura; Baumann, Esther; Truong, Gar-Wing; Ycas, Gabriel; Swann, William C.; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2015-06-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is arguably the natural successor to FTIR. Based on the interference between two frequency combs, this technique can record broadband spectra with a resolution better than 0.0003 wn. Like FTIR, dual-comb spectroscopy measures an entire spectrum simultaneously, allowing for suppression of systematic errors related to temporal dynamics of the sample. Unlike FTIR it records the entire spectrum with virtually no instrument lineshape or error in the frequency axis. The lack of moving parts in dual-comb spectroscopy means that spectra can be recorded in milliseconds to microseconds with the desired signal-to-noise being the only real constrain on the minimum recording time. Finally the high spacial beam quality of the frequency combs allows for increased sensitivity through long interaction paths either in free-space, multi-pass cells or enhancement cavities. This talk will explore the recent use of dual-comb spectroscopy in the near-infrared to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane and water concentrations over a 2-km outdoor open-air path. Due to many of the strengths just mentioned, precisions of <1 ppm for CO_2 and <3 ppb for CH_4 in 5 min are achieved making this system very attractive for carbon monitoring at length scales relevant to carbon transport models. Additionally this presentation will address recent work on robust, compact, and portable dual-comb spectrometers as well as dual-comb spectroscopy further into the IR.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  1. Instrumenting the Seitengraben Hydrology Open Air Laboratory (HOAL), Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, Günter

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to advance the understanding of water related flow and transport processes in catchments which is important in the context of environmental technology, planning and management for estimating floods, assessing nutrients and analysing hygienic risks. A Hydrology Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) will be established which consists of a well instrumented research catchment in Lower Austria. There are four main innovative steps in this project that are aimed at addressing some of the limitations of previous studies. (a) Longitudinal profiles of stream temperatures will be measured using the novel technique of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) from which the patterns of lateral recharge along a stream can be inferred. (b) New genetic markers for faecal hazard analysis will be developed and applied to trace microbial transport in surface and ground waters at the catchment scale. (c) Surface flow patterns within the catchment will be inferred by video camera systems. (d) The above innovative measurement techniques will be complemented by an array of observational methods to allow a holistic assessment of water related processes at the catchment scale including water quantity, water quality and solids. The instruments are connected by a high speed Local Area Network. The data will be combined by modelling the catchment dynamics of the relevant processes. The project will take advantage of a Doctoral Programme (DK) on "Water Resource Systems" that has recently been funded by the Austrian Science Foundation. Experience - including pitfalls - with instrumenting the catchment will be reported in this presentation.

  2. T=0 partition functions for Potts antiferromagnets on lattice strips with fully periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Chiuan; Shrock, Robert

    2001-03-01

    We present exact calculations of the zero-temperature partition function for the q-state Potts antiferromagnet (equivalently, the chromatic polynomial) for families of arbitrarily long strip graphs of the square and triangular lattices with width Ly=4 and boundary conditions that are doubly periodic or doubly periodic with reversed orientation (i.e., of torus or Klein bottle type). These boundary conditions have the advantage of removing edge effects. In the limit of infinite length, we calculate the exponent of the entropy, W( q) and determine the continuous locus B where it is singular. We also give results for toroidal strips involving “crossing subgraphs”; these make possible a unified treatment of torus and Klein bottle boundary conditions and enable us to prove that for a given strip, the locus B is the same for these boundary conditions.

  3. Surface-engineered substrates for improved human pluripotent stem cell culture under fully defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Saha, Krishanu; Mei, Ying; Reisterer, Colin M; Pyzocha, Neena Kenton; Yang, Jing; Muffat, Julien; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-11-15

    The current gold standard for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells requires the use of a feeder layer of cells. Here, we develop a spatially defined culture system based on UV/ozone radiation modification of typical cell culture plastics to define a favorable surface environment for human pluripotent stem cell culture. Chemical and geometrical optimization of the surfaces enables control of early cell aggregation from fully dissociated cells, as predicted from a numerical model of cell migration, and results in significant increases in cell growth of undifferentiated cells. These chemically defined xeno-free substrates generate more than three times the number of cells than feeder-containing substrates per surface area. Further, reprogramming and typical gene-targeting protocols can be readily performed on these engineered surfaces. These substrates provide an attractive cell culture platform for the production of clinically relevant factor-free reprogrammed cells from patient tissue samples and facilitate the definition of standardized scale-up friendly methods for disease modeling and cell therapeutic applications.

  4. Surface-engineered substrates for improved human pluripotent stem cell culture under fully defined conditions

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Krishanu; Mei, Ying; Reisterer, Colin M.; Pyzocha, Neena Kenton; Yang, Jing; Muffat, Julien; Davies, Martyn C.; Alexander, Morgan R.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The current gold standard for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells requires the use of a feeder layer of cells. Here, we develop a spatially defined culture system based on UV/ozone radiation modification of typical cell culture plastics to define a favorable surface environment for human pluripotent stem cell culture. Chemical and geometrical optimization of the surfaces enables control of early cell aggregation from fully dissociated cells, as predicted from a numerical model of cell migration, and results in significant increases in cell growth of undifferentiated cells. These chemically defined xeno-free substrates generate more than three times the number of cells than feeder-containing substrates per surface area. Further, reprogramming and typical gene-targeting protocols can be readily performed on these engineered surfaces. These substrates provide an attractive cell culture platform for the production of clinically relevant factor-free reprogrammed cells from patient tissue samples and facilitate the definition of standardized scale-up friendly methods for disease modeling and cell therapeutic applications. PMID:22065768

  5. Health Maintenance Deficits in a Fully Insured Population of Adolescents With Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sainato, Rebecca; Flores, Michelle; Malloy, Allison; Geaney, Casey; Rajnik, Michael; Ottolini, Martin; Weisse, Martin

    2017-06-01

    The current national monitoring of routine wellness care and vaccine uptake does not provide data on health maintenance among pediatric populations with chronic medical conditions. In this case-control study that analyzes wellness visits and vaccine uptake among adolescents, ages 16 to 18 years, we identified 938 without (controls) and 74 with (cases) 1 of 12 specific chronic medical conditions. The PPSV23 (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for these 12 conditions and served as a measure of uptake for medically indicated vaccines. Our controls were twice as likely as cases to have a documented well visit in the past year, and there was a significantly higher proportion of controls than cases vaccinated with Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis), MCV-4 (quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate), and HPV (human papillomavirus), all P < .05. More than 60% of cases failed to receive PPSV23. Adolescents with chronic medical conditions are at high risk of neglecting routine health maintenance.

  6. Treatment of “Bacterial Cystitis” in Fully Automatic Mechanical Models Simulating Conditions of Bacterial Growth in the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, F.; Mackintosh, I. P.; Greenwood, D.; Watson, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    Two fully automatic models are described in which growing cultures can be continuously diluted and periodically discharged producing conditions of growth resembling those of the infected urinary bladder. Both models generate a continuous record of the opacity of the growing culture and the second model also generates a record of the Eh. The effect of adding ampicillin to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli growing in these conditions is described and the relation of the results to human therapy is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4577943

  7. The viability and performance under hot conditions of featherless broilers versus fully feathered broilers.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Y; Druyan, S; Yadgary, L; Hadad, Y; Cahaner, A

    2011-01-01

    Hot conditions decrease the difference between ambient temperature (AT) and the average temperature of the body surface. A smaller difference reduces the rate of sensible heat loss of excessive internal heat, elevates the body temperature (BT), and may lead to mortality during heat waves. Under conditions of chronic heat, broilers avoid lethal BT elevation by reducing their feed intake; consequently, growth rate and meat yield are lower. Practices to avoid hot conditions are costly, whereas breeding for heat tolerance offers a sustainable approach. Being featherless was shown to provide heat tolerance; this was reevaluated in experimental broilers with a growth rate similar to that of contemporary commercial broilers. In experiment 1, 26 featherless birds and 49 feathered siblings (sibs) were reared at warm AT and exposed to moderate and acute heat waves. The featherless birds maintained normal BT under a moderate heat wave, with a slight elevation under an acute heat wave, and only 1 bird died. In contrast, the heat waves led to a significant elevation in BT of the feathered sibs, and 34% of them died. In experiment 2, featherless broilers were compared with feathered sibs and commercial broilers at 2 AT treatments: a constant temperature of 25°C (control AT) or a constant temperature of 35°C (hot AT). The birds were reared to 46 or 53 d at the control and hot AT, respectively, and the measured traits included BT, growth, and weight of the whole body and carcass parts (breast meat, legs, wings, and skin). At the hot AT, only the featherless broilers maintained a normal BT; their mean d 46 BW (2,031g) was significantly higher than that of birds maintained at the control AT, and it increased to 2,400 g on d 53, much higher than the corresponding means of all feathered broilers (approximately 1,700 g only). Featherless broilers had significantly higher breast meat yield (approximately 20% in both AT), lower skin weight, and supposedly better wing quality. These

  8. Thermal traction contact performance evaluation under fully flooded and starved conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Ultra high speed traction tests were performed on two traction fluids commonly employed. Traction data on these fluids is required for purposes of traction drive design optimization techniques. To obtain the traction data, an existing twin disc traction test machine was employed. This machine was modified to accommodate the range of test variables. All the data reported was obtained under conditions of side slip, a technique whereby only low power levels are required to simulate real traction drive contacts. Theoretical traction predictions were performed for a representative number of curves that showed the influence of rolling velocity, of contact pressure and of aspect ratio. To establish the accuracy of the thermal model the predictions were performed ith increasing levels of independence of experimentally determined parameters. In the final resulting prediction only two non linear thermal parameters were used for the prediction of 15 different traction curves covering the entire range of variables as used in the investigation, with the exception of the influence of asperity traction. Comparison of these theoretical curves and corresponding experimental traces show very good agreement.

  9. Analytical Solution and Symbolic Computation for the Temperature Distribution of the Annular Fin under Fully Wet-Surface Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koonprasert, Sanoe; Sangsawang, Rilrada

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the analytical solutions and symbolic computations for the temperature distribution of the annular fin under fully-wet surface condition. During the process of dehumidification, the annular fin is separated into two regions. The mathematical models for each region are based on the conservation of energy principle. An assumption used in this paper is the humidity ratio of the saturated air on the wet surface varies linearly with the local fin temperature. The mathematical models are solved by the Cauchy-Euler Equation and modified Bessel Equation to form analytical solutions. Besides, the symbolic computations are shown by the Maple software to visualize the temperature distribution along the fin.

  10. Optical and RF electrical characteristics of atmospheric pressure open-air hollow slot microplasmas and application to bacterial inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, R.; Stan, O.; Rahman, A.; Littlefield, E.; Hoshimiya, K.; Yalin, A. P.; Sharma, A.; Pruden, A.; Moore, C. A.; Yu, Z.; Collins, G. J.

    2005-06-01

    We report electrical properties of radio frequency (RF)-driven hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air but with uniform luminous discharges at RF current densities of the order of A cm-2. We employ interelectrode separations of 100-600 µm to achieve this open-air operation but because the linear slot dimension of our electrode designs are of extended length, we can achieve, for example, open-air slot shaped plasmas 30 cm in length. This creates a linear plasma source for wide area plasma driven surface treatment applications. RF voltages at frequencies of 4-60 MHz are applied to an interior electrode to both ignite and sustain the plasma between electrodes. The outer slotted electrode is grounded. Illustrative absolute emission of optical spectra from this source is presented in the region from 100 to 400 nm as well as total oxygen radical fluxes from the source. We present both RF breakdown and sustaining voltage measurements as well as impedance values measured for the microplasmas, which use flowing rare gas in the interelectrode region exiting into open air. The requirement for rare gas flow is necessary to get uniform plasmas of dimensions over 30 cm, but is a practical disadvantage. In one mode of operation we create an out-flowing afterglow plasma plume, which extends 1-3 mm from the grounded open slot allowing for treatment of work pieces placed millimetres away from the grounded electrode. This afterglow configuration also allows for lower gas temperatures impinging on substrates, than the use of active plasmas. Work pieces are not required to be part of any electrical circuit, bringing additional practical advantages. We present a crude lumped parameter equivalent circuit model to analyse the effects of changing RF sheaths with frequency of excitation and applied RF current to better understand the relative roles of sheath and bulk plasma behaviour observed in electrical characteristics. Estimates of the bulk plasma densities are also provided

  11. A dynamic thermal model for design and control of an 800-element open-air radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, Michael; Greve, Albert

    2011-09-01

    In earlier work we have described the thermal modelling for design and control of a fully insulated, and sometimes ventilated, high precision radio telescope. For such an insulated telescope the modelling of the time-variable dynamic influence of the thermal environment (air, sky and ground radiation, insolation) is relatively simple. The modelling becomes however quite complex for an open-air radio telescope where each individual member of the reflector backup structure (BUS) and the support structure (fork or yoke) is exposed under a different and time-dependent aspect angle to the thermal environment, which applies in particular to solar radiation. We present a time-dependent 800-element thermal model of an open-air telescope. Using the IRAM 30-m radio telescope as the basic mechanical structure, we explain how the temperature induced, real-time pointing and reflector surface deformations can be derived when using as input the day of the year, the thermal environment, and the geographic position of the telescope and its changing pointing direction. Thermal modelling and results similar to those reported here can be used for radio telescope design and real-time control of pointing and surface adjustment of a telescope with active panels.

  12. Critical assessment of day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Kundu Chowdhury, Anirban; Debsarkar, Anupam; Chakrabarty, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research work is to assess day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Prevailing traffic noise level in terms of A-weighted equivalent noise level (Leq) at the microenvironment was in excess of 12.6 ± 2.1 dB(A) from the day time standard of 65 dB(A) for commercial area recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. Noise Climate and Traffic Noise Index of the microenvironment were accounted for 13 ± 1.8 dB(A) and 88.8 ± 6.1 dB(A) respectively. A correlation analysis explored that prevailing traffic noise level of the microenvironment had weak negative (-0.21; p < 0.01) and very weak positive (0.19; p < 0.01) correlation with air temperature and relative humidity. A Varimax rotated principal component analysis explored that motorized traffic volume had moderate positive loading with background noise component (L90, L95, L99) and prevailing traffic noise level had very strong positive loading with peak noise component (L1, L5, L10). Background and peak noise component cumulatively explained 80.98 % of variance in the data set. Traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City was higher than the standard recommended by CPCB of India. It was highly annoying also. Air temperature and relative humidity had little influence and the peak noise component had the most significant influence on the prevailing traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment. Therefore, traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city can be reduced with careful honking and driving.

  13. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  14. Identifying and Reducing Health Risks Associated with Open-Air Burn Pits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    open-air burn pits. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Burn Pit Registry, incinerator, gasification, recycling, composting , particulate matter. 16...Registry, incinerator, gasification, recycling, composting , particulate matter. Classification: Unclassified DOD...burn pits must be replaced by alternative disposal methods (e.g. incineration, landfill, recycling, composting , Host Nation disposal, or a

  15. The first Neanderthal remains from an open-air Middle Palaeolithic site in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Hovers, Erella; Ekshtain, Ravid; Malinski-Buller, Ariel; Agha, Nuha; Barash, Alon; Mayer, Daniella E Bar-Yosef; Benazzi, Stefano; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Levin, Lihi; Greenbaum, Noam; Mitki, Netta; Oxilia, Gregorio; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel; Soudack, Michalle; Yeshurun, Reuven; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Nir, Nadav; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Rak, Yoel; Barzilai, Omry

    2017-06-07

    The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel. The hominin remains represent three individuals: EQH1, a nondiagnostic skull fragment; EQH2, an upper right third molar (RM(3)); and EQH3, lower limb bones of a young Neandertal male. EQH2 and EQH3 constitute the first diagnostic anatomical remains of Neandertals at an open-air site in the Levant. The optically stimulated luminescence ages suggest that Neandertals repeatedly visited 'Ein Qashish between 70 and 60 ka. The discovery of Neandertals at open-air sites during the late MP reinforces the view that Neandertals were a resilient population in the Levant shortly before Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens populated the region.

  16. Diffuse discharge produced by repetitive nanosecond pulses in open air, nitrogen, and helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Zhang, Cheng; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Zhang, Dongdong; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Ren, Chengyan; Shutko, Yuliya V.; Yan, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric-pressure gas discharge driven by high voltage pulses with fast rise-time and short duration has attracted significant attention for various plasma applications. In this paper, discharges were generated in a highly non-uniform electric field by point-plane gaps in open air by four repetitive nanosecond-pulse generators with repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The rise time of generators was 25 (generator #1), 15 (generator #2), 3 (generator #3), and 0.2 ns (generator #4) and a full width at half maximum was 40, 30-40, 5, and 1 ns, respectively. The experimental results show that there were typical discharge fashions, i.e., corona, diffuse, spark, or arc modes. The variables affecting the discharge characteristics, including the gap spacing and applied pulse parameters, were investigated. Especially, the diffuse discharges were investigated and discussed. With generator #1 at voltage 70-120 kV, characteristics of measured x-rays on the discharge modes were studied, and it indicates that counts of x-rays in a diffuse discharge are up to a peak value under the experimental conditions. With amplitude of voltage pulses in incident wave up to 18 (generator #3) and 12.5 kV (generator #4), runaway electron beam in low pressure helium, nitrogen, and air in a pulse-periodic mode of discharge with repetition rate up to 1 kHz was obtained. Electron beam was registered behind a thin foil in a pressure range from several to tens of Torr. X-ray radiation was obtained in a wide range of pressures, as well as at atmospheric pressure of helium, nitrogen, and air. Voltage pulses of positive and negative polarities were used. Generation of runaway electrons with pulses of positive polarity appeared because of reflected voltage pulses of reverse polarity.

  17. An Investigation of Physics and Control of Flow Passing a NACA 0015 in Fully-Reversed Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Christopher J.

    Flow control experiments were performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil in fully-reversed condition, which is anticipated to occur on the retreating blade side of advanced helicopters such as slowed-rotor compound rotorcraft. Control was achieved using nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuators. The Reynolds number based on a chord length of 203 mm was fixed at 5.0 · 105, corresponding to a freestream velocity of ˜38 m/s. Two angles of attack were considered: α = 0° and 15°, each of which is relevant to a particular implementation of slowed-rotor technology. At α = 0°, the flow resembles that of a flow behind a cylinder. A von Karman vortex street formed in the wake where alternating vortex shedding occurred at a Strouhal number of 0.12. Excitation was performed using an NS-DBD on one side of the airfoil, with plasma formation just upstream of the separation line. However, there was no discernible influence upon the baseline behavior. At α = 15°, fully separated flow on the suction side extended well beyond the airfoil with naturally shed vortices at a Strouhal number of 0.19. Plasma actuation was evaluated at both the aerodynamic leading-edge (ALE) and aerodynamic trailing-edge (ATE) of the airfoil. The flow responded to the plasma actuation at the ALE by generating organized coherent structures in the shear layer over the separated region. Moderate excitation around the natural shedding Strouhal number had the most significant effects: synchronizing the shedding from the ALE and ATE, creating moderately sized structures that convected far downstream, greatly reducing the separation area, increasing lift, and decreasing drag. Excitation at much higher Strouhal numbers resulted in the flow returning to its natural shedding state, but with less coherent structures that diffused in the wake. This reduced the separation area and significantly reduced drag. Plasma actuation at the ATE caused a reduction in the magnitude of the fundamental and

  18. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Increasing the object recognition distance of compact open air on board vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Sergey; Kostkin, Ivan; Strotov, Valery; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Berdnikov, Vadim; Akopov, Eduard; Elyutin, Aleksey

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was developing an algorithm eliminating the atmospheric distortion and improves image quality. The proposed algorithm is entirely software without using additional hardware photographic equipment. . This algorithm does not required preliminary calibration. It can work equally effectively with the images obtained at a distances from 1 to 500 meters. An algorithm for the open air images improve designed for Raspberry Pi model B on-board vision systems is proposed. The results of experimental examination are given.

  20. Effects of open-air temperature on air temperature inside biological safety cabinet.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Katsuro; Yamamura, Keiko; Osada, Takashi; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ando, Yuichi; Wakiya, Yoshifumi

    2011-02-14

    In Japan, biological safety cabinets (BSCs) are normally used by medical staff while handling antineoplastic agents. We have also set up a class II B2 BSC at the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients. The air temperature inside this BSC, however, decreases in winter. We assumed that this decrease is caused by the intake of open-air. Therefore, we investigated the effects of low open-air temperature on the BSC temperature and the time of admixtures of antineoplastic agents. The studies were conducted from January 1 to March 31, 2008. The outdoor air temperature was measured in the shade near the intake nozzle of the BSC and was compared with the BSC temperature. The correlation between the outdoor air temperature and the BSC temperature, the dissolution time of cyclophosphamide (CPA) and gemcitabine (GEM), and accurate weight measurement of epirubicin (EPI) solution were investigated for low and normal BSC temperatures. The BSC temperature was correlated with the open-air temperature for open-air temperatures of 5-20°C (p < 0.0001). The dissolution of CPA and GEM at these temperatures was significantly delayed as compared to that at 25°C (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The weight measurement of EPI solution using a syringe method lacks accuracy because of its high coefficient of viscosity at low temperatures (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the BSC temperature decreases below room temperature in winter when air is drawn from outdoors. We showed that the BSC temperature affects the dissolution rate of antineoplastic agents. Further, we suggested that the BSC temperature drop might delay the affair of the admixtures of antineoplastic agents and increase the waiting time of outpatients for chemotherapy.

  1. The Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypothesis-driven observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, G.; Blaschke, A. P.; Broer, M.; Bucher, C.; Carr, G.; Chen, X.; Eder, A.; Exner-Kittridge, M.; Farnleitner, A.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Haas, P.; Hogan, P.; Kazemi Amiri, A.; Oismüller, M.; Parajka, J.; Silasari, R.; Stadler, P.; Strauss, P.; Vreugdenhil, M.; Wagner, W.; Zessner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrological observatories bear a lot of resemblance to the more traditional research catchment concept, but tend to differ in providing more long-term facilities that transcend the lifetime of individual projects, are more strongly geared towards performing interdisciplinary research, and are often designed as networks to assist in performing collaborative science. This paper illustrates how the experimental and monitoring set-up of an observatory, the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, has been established in a way that allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The overarching science questions guided site selection, identification of dissertation topics and the base monitoring. The specific hypotheses guided the dedicated monitoring and sampling, individual experiments, and repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions. The purpose of the HOAL is to advance the understanding of water-related flow and transport processes involving sediments, nutrients and microbes in small catchments. The HOAL catchment is ideally suited for this purpose, because it features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), the nutrient inputs are known, and it is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high-speed glassfibre local area network (LAN). The multitude of runoff generation mechanisms in the catchment provides a genuine laboratory where hypotheses of flow and transport can be tested, either by controlled experiments or by contrasting sub-regions of different characteristics. This diversity also ensures that the HOAL is representative of a range of catchments around the world, and the specific process findings from the HOAL are applicable to a variety of agricultural catchment settings. The HOAL is operated jointly by the Vienna University of Technology and the Federal Agency for Water Management and takes

  2. The Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypotheses driven observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöschl, G.; Blaschke, A. P.; Broer, M.; Bucher, C.; Carr, G.; Chen, X.; Eder, A.; Exner-Kittridge, M.; Farnleitner, A.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Haas, P.; Hogan, P.; Kazemi Amiri, A.; Oismüller, M.; Parajka, J.; Silasari, R.; Stadler, P.; Strauß, P.; Vreugdenhil, M.; Wagner, W.; Zessner, M.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrological observatories bear a lot of resemblance to the more traditional research catchment concept but tend to differ in providing more long term facilities that transcend the lifetime of individual projects, are more strongly geared towards performing interdisciplinary research, and are often designed as networks to assist in performing collaborative science. This paper illustrates how the experimental and monitoring setup of an observatory, the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, has been established in a way that allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The overarching science questions guided site selection, identifying dissertation topics and the base monitoring. The specific hypotheses guided the dedicated monitoring and sampling, individual experiments, and repeated experiments with controlled boundary conditions. The purpose of the HOAL is to advance the understanding of water related flow and transport processes involving sediments, nutrients and microbes in small catchments. The HOAL catchment is ideally suited for this purpose, because it features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), the nutrient inputs are known, and it is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high speed glassfibre Local Area Network. The multitude of runoff generation mechanisms in the catchment provide a genuine laboratory where hypotheses of flow and transport can be tested, either by controlled experiments or by contrasting sub-regions of different characteristics. This diversity also ensures that the HOAL is representative of a range of catchments around the world and the specific process findings from the HOAL are applicable to a variety of agricultural catchment settings. The HOAL is operated jointly by the Vienna University of Technology and the Federal Agency for Water Management and takes advantage of the

  3. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  4. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  5. Versatile new ion source for the analysis of materials in open air under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Robert B; Laramée, James A; Durst, H Dupont

    2005-04-15

    A new ion source has been developed for rapid, noncontact analysis of materials at ambient pressure and at ground potential. The new source, termed DART (for "Direct Analysis in Real Time"), is based on the reactions of electronic or vibronic excited-state species with reagent molecules and polar or nonpolar analytes. DART has been installed on a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) that provides improved selectivity and accurate elemental composition assignment through exact mass measurements. Although DART has been applied to the analysis of gases, liquids, and solids, a unique application is the direct detection of chemicals on surfaces without requiring sample preparation, such as wiping or solvent extraction. DART has demonstrated success in sampling hundreds of chemicals, including chemical agents and their signatures, pharmaceutics, metabolites, peptides and oligosaccharides, synthetic organics, organometallics, drugs of abuse, explosives, and toxic industrial chemicals. These species were detected on various surfaces, such as concrete, asphalt, human skin, currency, airline boarding passes, business cards, fruits, vegetables, spices, beverages, body fluids, horticultural leaves, cocktail glasses, and clothing. DART employs no radioactive components and is more versatile than devices using radioisotope-based ionization. Because its response is instantaneous, DART provides real-time information, a critical requirement for screening or high throughput.

  6. Storage corrosion of materials and equipment: Temperature-humidity and aerochemical regimes indoors and in the open air

    SciTech Connect

    Strekalov, P.V.

    1994-07-01

    The following storage factors are considered: (1) the temperature-humidity complex (THC) in the open air at representative sites with cold, moderate, and subtropical humid climate; (2) the temperature and humidity differences between the open air and an atmospheric of semiclosed spaces; (3) the THC inside storage-spaces in a humid tropical climate; (4) the concentration of SO{sub 2} and Cl{sup -} in the open air and in different storage-spaces; (5) the categories of corrosivity of the atmosphere and methods for its evaluation indoors and outdoors.

  7. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  8. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  9. Respiratory symptoms of vendors in an open-air hawker center in brunei darussalam.

    PubMed

    Nazurah Bt Abdul Wahid, Nurul Nor; Balalla, N B P; Koh, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied respiratory problems among vendors exposed to cooking fumes in an open-air hawker center. Exposure to cooking fumes from either the use of fossil fuels or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been shown to be associated with adverse respiratory health effects. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 67 food vendors exposed to cooking fumes as well as 18 merchandise sellers at an open-air hawker center in Brunei Darussalam. Past medical and smoking history and exposure to cooking fumes were obtained. The validated American Thoracic Society Questionnaire with a translated Malay version was used to ask for respiratory symptoms. Compared to merchandise sellers (n = 18), cooking vendors (n = 67) had a higher self-reported respiratory symptoms (50.7% for those cooking and 33.3% for merchandise sellers). Cough (28.3%) was the main respiratory symptom experienced in cooking vendors and breathlessness (22.2%) among merchandise sellers. Half (50.0%) of cooking vendors who worked for more than 10 years had cough and 27.3% had phlegm. Those cooking with charcoal were two times more likely to have cough than those cooking with LPG. Cooking vendors with a job duration of more than 10 years were thrice more likely to have cough. Cooking vendors in the open-air hawker center exposed to cooking fumes had more respiratory symptoms compared to non-exposed merchandise sellers. The type of fuel used for cooking and duration of work was associated with increased prevalence of cough.

  10. Bacterial inactivation in open air by the afterglow plume emitted from a grounded hollow slot electrode.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Pruden, Amy; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George J

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to a downstream plasma afterglow plume emitted from a slotted plasma device operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. The reactor electrodes were RF powered at 13.56 MHz to excite a mixture of argon and oxygen gases by a capacitive discharge as it flowed past the electrodes into open air. Bacterial inactivation experiments on surfaces exposed to the plasma afterglow were conducted with varying plasma exposure times. Experimental results demonstrated a colony forming unit (CFU) reduction of almost 5 log10 of E. coli with only 1 s of exposure per unit area. One log CFU reduction was observed in B. atrophaeus with the same treatment time of 1 s per unit area. B. atrophaeus spores showed a reduction of 3 log10 with exposure time of 10 min. Comparison on various growth media suggests that cells are killed rather than sublethally injured, while the mechanistic action of the plasma appears to affect both nucleic acids as well as the cell wall structure. These results present a promising means of inactivation of harmful microbes in a practical environment with an electrically grounded device that is handheld, much like a wand applicator. Results are applicable to the development of plasma sterilization tools for various environmental purposes.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Pierangeli G.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Widmer, Kenneth W.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention. PMID:24963502

  12. Development of methods for predicting large crack growth in elastic-plastic work-hardening materials in fully plastic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Hugh; Turner, C. E.; Fenner, R. T.; Curr, R. M.; Ivankovic, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objects of the first, exploratory, stage of the project were listed as: (1) to make a detailed and critical review of the Boundary Element method as already published and with regard to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, to assess its potential for handling present concepts in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. To this was subsequently added the Finite Volume method and certain aspects of the Finite Element method for comparative purposes; (2) to assess the further steps needed to apply the methods so far developed to the general field, covering a practical range of geometries, work hardening materials, and composites: to consider their application under higher temperature conditions; (3) to re-assess the present stage of development of the energy dissipation rate, crack tip opening angle and J-integral models in relation to the possibilities of producing a unified technology with the previous two items; and (4) to report on the feasibility and promise of this combined approach and, if appropriate, make recommendations for the second stage aimed at developing a generalized crack growth technology for its application to real-life problems.

  13. [Condition setting for the measurement of blood coagulation factor XIII activity using a fully automated blood coagulation analyzer, COAGTRON-350].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nobuko; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanabe, Kumiko; Jyona, Masahiro; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The automated laboratory analyzer COAGTRON-350 (Trinity Biotech) is used for routine and specific coagulation testing for the detection of fibrin formation utilizing either mechanical principles (ball method) or photo-optical principles, chromogenic kinetic enzyme analysis, and immune-turbidimetric detection systems in one benchtop unit. In this study, we demonstrated and established a parameter for the measurement of factor XIII (FXIII) activity using Berichrom FXIII reagent and the COAGTRON-350 analyzer. The usual protocol used for this reagent, based on the handling method, was slightly modified for this device. The analysis showed that fundamental study for the measurement of FXIII activity under our condition setting was favorable in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and correlation with another assays. Since FXIII is the key enzyme that plays important roles in hemostasis by stabilizing fibrin formation, the measurement of FXIII is essential for the diagnosis of bleeding disorders. Therefore, FXIII activity assessment as well as a routine coagulation testing can be conducted simultaneously with one instrument, which is useful in coagulopathy assessment.

  14. [The cascade scheme as a methodical platform for analysis of health risks in space flight and partially and fully analog conditions].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Poliakov, A V; Usov, V M

    2011-01-01

    Space anthropoecology, a subsection of human ecology, studies various aspects of physiological, psychological, social and professional adaptation to the extreme environment of space flight and human life and work in partially- and fully analogous conditions on Earth. Both SF and simulated extreme conditions are known for high human safety standards and a substantial analytic base that secures on-line analysis of torrent of information. Management evaluation and response to germing undesired developments aimed to curb their impact on the functioning of the crew-vehicle-environment system and human health involve the complete wealth of knowledge about risks to human health and performance. Spacecrew safety issues are tackled by experts of many specialties which emphasizes the importance of integral methodical approaches to risk estimation and mitigation, setting up barriers to adverse trends in human physiology and psychology in challenging conditions, and minimization of delayed effects on professional longevity and disorders in behavioral reactions.

  15. Subterranean termite open-air foraging and tolerance to desiccation: Comparative water relation of two sympatric Macrotermes spp. (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Appel, Arthur G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The foraging patterns of termites are strongly related to physiological limits in overcoming desiccation stress. In this study, we examined moisture preferences and physiological characteristics of Macrotermes carbonarius (Hagen) and M. gilvus (Hagen) as both exhibit conspicuous patterns of foraging activity. Despite both species showing no significant differences in calculated cuticular permeability, and percentage of total body water, they differed greatly in rate of water loss and surface area to volume ratio. For example, M. carbonarius which had a lower surface area to volume ratio (29.26-53.66) showed lower rate of water loss and percentage of total body water loss. This also resulted in higher LT(50) when exposed to extreme conditions (≈2% RH). However, contrasting observations were made in M. gilvus that has smaller size with higher surface area to volume ratio of 40.28-69.75. It is likely that the standard equation for calculating insect surface areas is inadequate for these termite species. The trend was further supported by the result of a moisture preference bioassay that indicated M. carbonarius had a broader range of moisture preference (between 5% and 20%) than M. gilvus which had a relatively narrow moisture preference (only 20%). These results explain why M. carbonarius can tolerate desiccation stress for a longer period foraging above-ground in the open air; while M. gilvus only forages below ground or concealed within foraging mud tubes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly efficient photocatalytic TiO2 coatings deposited by open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet with aerosolized TTIP precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, H.; Ben Salem, D.; Carton, O.; Pulpytel, J.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.

    2014-07-01

    A simple method to deposit photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, at a high rate (20-40 µm s-1), and with a high porosity, is reported in this paper. This method, which allows the treatment of membranes (with an 800 nm pore size), is based on the introduction of a liquid precursor sprayed into an open-air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin films prepared by APPJ have been compared with our best N-doped TiO2 thin films, deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, previously reported in the literature. The morphology, chemical composition, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings have been studied in this paper. Significant control of the porosity and crystallinity was achieved by varying the deposition parameters and the annealing temperature. Under optimized conditions, the TiO2 coatings deposited by APPJ are characterized by a higher photocatalytic activity as compared to the optimized thin films deposited by RF sputtering. This difference can be explained by the higher specific surface of the APPJ coatings. Finally, the most interesting characteristic of this APPJ-liquid spray process is its capacity to treat membranes without blocking the pores, and to produce photocatalytic membranes which can efficiently combine filtration and photocatalysis for water treatment.

  17. Synthesis of Nano-Crystalline Materials in Open-Air Laboratory: A Case Study of Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Satpati, Biswarup; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Roy, Madhusudan

    2015-02-01

    The work deals with synthesis of nano-crystalline materials in open-air laboratory and in-depth investigation of the tobacco sample of one branded cigarette and its ash using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated techniques. It exhibits the presence of nanocrystals and nanorods of various oxides in cigarette ash. The structure, shape, size and composition of these nanocrystals and nanorods are explored. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra from different regions of the tobacco sample and its ash using high-angle annular dark field scanning/transmission electron microscopy mode are utilized to obtain elemental composition and their relative abundances. For a detailed distribution of different elements in the nanorods, elemental mapping using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy is also presented. The results highlight the conversion of amorphous constituents of tobacco to nanomaterials on combustion at low temperatures, thus mixing up in the atmosphere.

  18. Innovative open air brayton combined cycle systems for the next generation nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohuri, Bahman

    The purpose of this research was to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a molten salt, or liquid metal, to gas heat exchanger reaching a peak temperature of 660 0C. The effects of adding a recuperator or a bottoming steam cycle have been addressed. The calculated results are intended to identify paths for future work on the next generation nuclear power plant (GEN-IV). This document describes the proposed system in sufficient detail to communicate a good understanding of the overall system, its components, and intended uses. The architecture is described at the conceptual level, and does not replace a detailed design document. The main part of the study focused on a Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle system and a Recuperated Brayton Cycle since they offer the highest overall efficiencies. Open Air Brayton power cycles also require low cooling water flows relative to other power cycles. Although the Recuperated Brayton Cycle achieves an overall efficiency slightly less that the Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle, it is completely free of a circulating water system and can be used in a desert climate. Detailed results of modeling a combined cycle Brayton-Rankine power conversion system are presented. The Rankine bottoming cycle appears to offer a slight efficiency advantage over the recuperated Brayton cycle. Both offer very significant advantages over current generation Light Water Reactor steam cycles. The combined cycle was optimized as a unit and lower pressure Rankine systems seem to be more efficient. The combined cycle requires a lot less circulating water than current power plants. The open-air Brayton systems appear to be worth investigating, if the higher temperatures predicted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant do materialize.

  19. Effect of temporary open-air markets on the sound environment and acoustic perception based on the crowd density characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Sun, Yang; Kang, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The sound environment and acoustic perception of open-air markets, which are very common in high-density urban open spaces, play important roles in terms of the urban soundscape. Based on objective and subjective measurements of a typical temporary open-air market in Harbin city, China, the effects of the temporary open-air market on the sound environment and acoustic perception were studied, considering different crowd densities. It was observed that a temporary open-air market without zoning increases the sound pressure level and subjective loudness by 2.4dBA and 0.21dBA, respectively, compared to the absence of a temporary market. Different from the sound pressure level and subjective loudness, the relationship between crowd density and the perceived acoustic comfort is parabolic. Regarding the effect of a temporary open-air market with different zones on the sound environment and acoustic perception, when the crowd densities were the same, subjective loudness in the fruit and vegetable sales area was always higher than in the food sales area and the clothing sales area. In terms of acoustic comfort, with an increase in crowd density, acoustic comfort in the fruit and vegetable sales area decreased, and acoustic comfort in the food sales area and the clothing sales area exhibited a parabolic change trend of increase followed by decrease. Overall, acoustic comfort can be effectively improved by better planning temporary open-air markets in high-density urban open spaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Visualizing Discipline of the Body in a German Open-Air School (1923-1939): Retrospection and Introspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyssen, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This article considers how historians might use imagery in the context of an open-air school in Germany, Senne I-Bielefeld (1922-1939). In considering the "nature" of such images, issues and problems associated with their interpretation are illuminated and discussed. First, two images selected from the pre-Nazi period of the school are…

  1. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Treesearch

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Wendy S. Jones; Andrew J. Burton; John Nagy; Mark E. Kubiske

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O3) concentration (110-490 nmol mol-1) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O3 pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine...

  2. Margaret and Rachel McMillan: Their Influences on Open-Air Nursery Education and Early Years Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebovich, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Rachel and Margaret McMillan created an open-air nursery in Deptford, London that has influenced early years education for 100 years. Their vision for young children living in poverty and deprivation to have access to fresh air through outdoor learning, nutritious meals, and an enriching environment to explore and develop has been embraced and…

  3. Margaret and Rachel McMillan: Their Influences on Open-Air Nursery Education and Early Years Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebovich, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Rachel and Margaret McMillan created an open-air nursery in Deptford, London that has influenced early years education for 100 years. Their vision for young children living in poverty and deprivation to have access to fresh air through outdoor learning, nutritious meals, and an enriching environment to explore and develop has been embraced and…

  4. Visualizing Discipline of the Body in a German Open-Air School (1923-1939): Retrospection and Introspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyssen, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This article considers how historians might use imagery in the context of an open-air school in Germany, Senne I-Bielefeld (1922-1939). In considering the "nature" of such images, issues and problems associated with their interpretation are illuminated and discussed. First, two images selected from the pre-Nazi period of the school are…

  5. Trapping the Pasture Odorscape Using Open-Air Solid-Phase Micro Extraction, a Tool to Assess Grassland Value.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Agnès; Farruggia, Anne; Leppik, Ene; Pinier, Centina; Fournier, Florence; Genoud, David; Frérot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Besides supporting cattle feeding, grasslands are home to a diversity of plants and insects that interact with each other by emitting volatile compounds. The aim of this work was to develop a method to determine permanent grassland odorscape and relate it to flower-visiting insects. Two grasslands were chosen for their contrasting levels of botanical diversity, resulting from differing grazing managements. Measurements were made over two periods of three consecutive days at the beginning of grazing, and just after the cows had left the plots. Volatile compounds were trapped using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers exposed eight hours a day in three exclosures per plot, and then analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Insects were trapped using pan traps and a net, sorted and counted. The open air SPME method yielded volatile compound profiles that were richer than maize field profiles, comprising the common green leaf volatiles (GLV) and more specific ones. Differences between the odorscapes of the two grasslands were found, but they were not as marked as expected from their botanical composition. By contrast, there were sharp differences between the two periods, resulting from the combined effects of changes in weather conditions, plant phenological stage and grazing progress. Several correlations between insect counts and volatile compounds were found. Although their correlation coefficients were low, some of them were confirmed when tested by Spearman rank correlation, and could be logically explained. This method of grassland odorscape deserves to be developed because it can provide information on many aspects of grassland function and on the stresses that grassland plants undergo.

  6. Trapping the Pasture Odorscape Using Open-Air Solid-Phase Micro Extraction, a Tool to Assess Grassland Value

    PubMed Central

    Cornu, Agnès; Farruggia, Anne; Leppik, Ene; Pinier, Centina; Fournier, Florence; Genoud, David; Frérot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Besides supporting cattle feeding, grasslands are home to a diversity of plants and insects that interact with each other by emitting volatile compounds. The aim of this work was to develop a method to determine permanent grassland odorscape and relate it to flower-visiting insects. Two grasslands were chosen for their contrasting levels of botanical diversity, resulting from differing grazing managements. Measurements were made over two periods of three consecutive days at the beginning of grazing, and just after the cows had left the plots. Volatile compounds were trapped using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers exposed eight hours a day in three exclosures per plot, and then analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Insects were trapped using pan traps and a net, sorted and counted. The open air SPME method yielded volatile compound profiles that were richer than maize field profiles, comprising the common green leaf volatiles (GLV) and more specific ones. Differences between the odorscapes of the two grasslands were found, but they were not as marked as expected from their botanical composition. By contrast, there were sharp differences between the two periods, resulting from the combined effects of changes in weather conditions, plant phenological stage and grazing progress. Several correlations between insect counts and volatile compounds were found. Although their correlation coefficients were low, some of them were confirmed when tested by Spearman rank correlation, and could be logically explained. This method of grassland odorscape deserves to be developed because it can provide information on many aspects of grassland function and on the stresses that grassland plants undergo. PMID:26536369

  7. Dynamic simulation and safety evaluation of high-speed trains meeting in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Songyan; Zheng, Zhijun; Yu, Jilin; Qian, Chunqiang

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic responses of a carriage under excitation with the German high-speed low-interference track spectrum together with the air pressure pulse generated as high-speed trains passing each other are investigated with a multi-body dynamics method. The variations of degrees of freedom (DOFs: horizontal movement, roll angle, and yaw angle), the lateral wheel-rail force, the derailment coefficient, and the rate of wheel load reduction with time when two carriages meet in open air are obtained and compared with the results of a single train travelling at specified speeds. Results show that the rate of wheel load reduction increases with the increase of train speed and meets some safety standard at a certain speed, but exceeding the value of the rate of wheel load reduction does not necessarily mean derailment. The evaluation standard of the rate of wheel load reduction is somewhat conservative and may be loosened. The pressure pulse has significant effects on the train DOFs, and the evaluations of these safety indexes are strongly suggested in practice. The pressure pulse has a limited effect on the derailment coefficient and the lateral wheel-rail force, and, thus, their further evaluations may be not necessary.

  8. Dating the Lower Paleolithic Open-Air Site of Holon, Israel by Luminescence and ESR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porat, Naomi; Zhou, Li Ping; Chazan, Michael; Noy, Tamar; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    1999-05-01

    The open-air Acheulian site in Holon, Israel, was dated by the luminescence methods and by electron spin resonance (ESR). Situated in the coastal plain Quaternary Kurkar Group, the Holon site was first excavated in the late 1960s, when typical lower Paleolithic lithics and middle Pleistocene fauna were found. In order to date the site, new test pits were dug adjacent to the earlier excavations and the archaeological bed was exposed in a section comprising a series of paleosols and aeolianites. Alkali feldspars separated from the sediments were dated using the infrared stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence signals, and quartz was dated using the optically stimulated luminescence signal. The age of the archaeological bed is constrained by two samples to 198,000 ± 22,000-201,000 ± 17,000 yr. The age of the base of the section is 240,000 ± 29,000 yr, and the age of the top is 81,000 ± 8000 yr. Two teeth from the archaeological bed, recovered from the original excavation collection, yielded an average ESR age of 204,000 ± 16,000 yr, calculated using the linear uptake model, which is in a very good agreement with the luminescence ages. These dates place Holon within the range of other late Acheulian and Acheulo-Yabrudian sites in this region such as Tabun E (younger chronology), Yabrud I (archaeological level 18), and Berekhat Ram.

  9. Laser-assisted synthesis of diamond crystals in open air through vibrational excitation of precursor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z. Q.; Zhou, Y. S.; He, X. N.; Gao, Y.; Park, J. B.; Guillemet, T.; Lu, Y. F.

    2011-03-01

    Fast growth of diamond crystals in open air was achieved by laser-assisted combustion synthesis through vibrational excitation of precursor molecules. A wavelength-tunable CO2 laser (spectrum range from 9.2 to 10.9 μm) was used for the vibrational excitation in synthesis of diamond crystals. A pre-mixed C2H4/C2H2/O2 gas mixture was used as precursors. Through resonant excitation of the CH2-wagging mode of ethylene (C2H4) molecules using the CO2 laser tuned at 10.532 Μm, high-quality diamond crystals were grown on silicon substrates with a high growth rate of ~139 μm/hr. Diamond crystals with a length up to 5 mm and a diameter of 1 mm were grown in 36 hours. Sharp Raman peaks at 1332 cm-1 with full width at half maximum (FWHM) values around 4.5 cm-1 and distinct X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated the high quality of the diamond crystals. The effects of the resonant excitation of precursor molecules by the CO2 laser were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy.

  10. Open air biocathode enables effective electricity generation with microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Clauwaert, Peter; Van der Ha, David; Boon, Nico; Verbeken, Kim; Verhaege, Marc; Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-11-01

    The reduction of oxygen at the cathode is one of the major bottlenecks of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). While research so far has mainly focused on chemical catalysis of this oxygen reduction, here we present a continuously wetted cathode with microorganisms that act as biocatalysts for oxygen reduction. We combined the anode of an acetate oxidizing tubular microbial fuel cell with an open air biocathode for electricity production. The maximum power production was 83 +/- 11 W m(-3) MFC (0.183 L MFC) for batch-fed systems (20-40% Coulombic yield) and 65 +/- 5 W m(-3) MFC for a continuous system with an acetate loading rate of 1.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) (90 +/- 3% Coulombic yield). Electrochemical precipitation of manganese oxides on the cathodic graphite felt decreased the start-up period with approximately 30% versus a non-treated graphite felt. After the start-up period, the cell performance was similar for the pretreated and non-treated cathodic electrodes. Several reactor designs were tested, and it was found that enlargement of the 0.183 L MFC reactor by a factor 2.9-3.8 reduced the volumetric power output by 60-67%. Biocathodes alleviate the need to use noble or non-noble catalysts for the reduction of oxygen, which increases substantially the viability and sustainability of MFCs.

  11. Controlled cytotoxicity of plasma treated water formulated by open-air hybrid mode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Boehm, D.; Cullen, P.; Bourke, P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma treated liquids (PTLs) provide a means to convey a broad range of effects of relevance for food, environmental, or clinical decontamination, plant growth promotion, and therapeutic applications. Devising the reactive species ingredients and controlling the biological response of PTLs are of great interest. We demonstrate an approach by using an open-air hybrid mode discharge (HMD) to control the principal reactive species composition within plasma treated water (PTW), which is then demonstrated to regulate the cytotoxicity of PTW. The cytotoxicity of HMD produced PTW demonstrates a non-monotonic change over the discharge time. Although hydrogen peroxide and nitrite are not the sole effectors for cell death caused by PTW, using them as principal reactive species indicators, cytotoxicity can be removed and/or enhanced by formulating their concentrations and composition through adjusting the discharge mode and time on-line during PTW generation without the addition of additional working gas or chemical scavengers. This work demonstrates that a hybrid mode discharge can be employed to generate a PTW formulation to control a biological response such as cytotoxicity. This provides insights into how plasma treated liquids may be harnessed for biological applications in a specific and controllable manner.

  12. Exposure of workers to airborne microorganisms in open-air swine houses.

    PubMed

    Chang, C W; Chung, H; Huang, C F; Su, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study quantified the levels of airborne microorganisms in six swine farms with more than 10,000 pigs in subtropical Taiwan. We evaluated breeding, growing, and finishing stalls, which were primarily open-air buildings, as well as partially enclosed farrowing and nursery piggeries. Airborne culturable bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were placed on appropriate media by using an all-glass impinger or single-stage Andersen microbial sampler. Results showed that mean concentrations of culturable bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were 3.3 x 10(5) and 143.7 CFU/m(3), respectively. The concentration of airborne culturable fungi was about 10(3) CFU/m(3), with Cladosporium the predominant genus. The highest airborne levels of culturable bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were identified in the finishing units. The air of the nursery stalls was the least contaminated with culturable and gram-negative bacteria. Irregular and infrequent cleaning, high pig density, no separation of wastes from pen floors, and accumulation of water as a result of the processes for cleaning and reducing pig temperature possibly compromise the benefits of the open characteristic of the finishing units with respect to airborne bacterial concentration.

  13. Comparative sound velocity measurements between porous rock and fully-dense material under crustal condition: The cases of Darley Dale sandstone and copper block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, J.; Chien, Y. V.; Wu, W.; Dong, J.; Chang, Y.; Tsai, C.; Yang, M.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies showed that the voids and their geometry in the sedimentary rocks have great influence on the compressibility of rock, which reflects on its elastic velocities. Some models were developed to discuss the relations among velocity, porosity and void geometry. Therefore, the information of porosity, and void geometry and its distribution in rock is essential for understanding how the elastic properties of porous rocks affected by their poregeometry. In this study, we revisited a well-studied porous rock, Darley Dale sandstone, which has been studied by different groups with different purposes. Most of them are the deformation experiments. Different from previous studies, we measured the sound velocity of Darley dale sandstone under hydrostatic conditions. Also, we employed different techniques to investigate the pore geometry and porosity of Darley Dale sandstone to gain the insight of velocity changing behavior under the crustal conditions. Here, we measured a fully-dense copper block for a comparison. We performed X-ray CT scanning (XCT) to image the pore space of sandstone to construct the 3-D image of pore geometry, distribution and the pore size. The CT image data are allowed us to estimate the porosity of sandstone, too. One the other hand, the porosity of sample was measured using imbibitions method at ambient conditions and helium porosimeter at high pressure (up to 150 MPa). A set of specimens were cored from Darley Dale sandstone block. P and S wave velocities of specimens were measured at ambient conditions. We also performed high pressure velocity measurements on a selected rock specimen and a copper block up to 150 MPa under dry condition. Porosity of a set of rock specimens measured by imbibitions method was spanned from 6% to 15%, largely distributed within a range of 8%-11%. Compared the porosity obtained from three different techniques, imbibitions method, helium porosimeter and XCT, values from those measurements are in good agreement

  14. A fully coupled transient thermomechanical ice-flow/permafrost model of the Rhine Glacier, Switzerland: effects of permafrost on basal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Zwinger, T.; Haeberli, W.; Fischer, U. H.

    2016-12-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories requires their containment and isolation for up to one million years. Over that time period, the performance of the repositories in mid- and high-latitude regions can be impacted by future ice-age conditions which may cause deep glacial erosion, permafrost development, and changes in groundwater fluxes. In Switzerland, repositories are planned in the northern Swiss lowlands near the marginal zone of the former Rhine Glacier that repeatedly formed two extensive piedmont lobes (the Rhine and Linth lobes) over the Swiss Plateau. There, overdeepenings formed by glacial erosion indicate that the glacier was warm-based. Yet the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) occurred under cold conditions: central Europe experienced extremely cold and dry conditions caused by the penetration of winter sea ice to low latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean and the corresponding closure of the primary humidity source north of the Alps. At the LGM, flat and extended lobes of large piedmont glaciers spreading out over much of the Swiss Plateau were polythermal, characterized by low driving stresses (typically around 30 kPa) and surrounded by continuous periglacial permafrost up to 150 m thick. Subsurface temperatures and groundwater flow conditions were strongly influenced by the presence of extended surface and subsurface ice. Using numerical models we explore the effects of permafrost on basal conditions of the piedmont lobes during the build-up of the Rhine Glacier. We apply a two-dimensional transient fully coupled thermomechanical full stress ice-flow and permafrost model along a flowline characterizing the Rhine lobe. The energy equation is solved in both ice and rock and permafrost is modeled using an effective heat capacity formulation to account for phase transitions. Transient effects during ice advances and permafrost build-up up to the LGM are resolved by modeling the full glacial cycle using reconstructed temperature

  15. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  16. Sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes in the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széles, Borbála; Parajka, Juraj; Blöschl, Günter; Oismüller, Markus; Hajnal, Géza

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to simulate the rainfall response and analyse the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff processes of the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, a small experimental watershed (66 ha) located in the western part of Lower Austria and dominated by agricultural land use. Due to the extensive monitoring network in the HOAL, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of hydro-meteorological elements are exceptionally well represented on the catchment scale. The study aimed to exploit the facilities of the available database collected by innovative sensing techniques to advance the understanding of various rainfall-runoff processes. The TUWmodel, a lumped, conceptual hydrological model, following the structure of the HBV model was implemented on the catchment. In addition to the surface runoff at the catchment outlet, several different runoff generation mechanisms (tile drainage flow, saturation excess runoff from wetlands and groundwater discharge from springs) were also simulated, which gave an opportunity to describe the spatial distribution of model parameters in the study area. This helped to proceed from the original lumped model concept towards a spatially distributed one. The other focus of this work was to distinguish the dominant model parameters from the less sensitive ones for each tributary with different runoff type by applying two different sensitivity analysis methods, the simple local perturbation and the global Latin-Hypercube-One-Factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) tools. Moreover, the impacts of modifying the initial parameters of the LH-OAT method and the applied objective functions were also taken into consideration. The results and findings of the model and sensitivity analyses were summarized and future development perspectives were outlined. Key words: spatial heterogeneity of rainfall-runoff mechanisms, sensitivity analysis, lumped conceptual hydrological model

  17. An open air research study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury to goats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Jun; Xu, Chuan; Li, Yue; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Guan-Hua; Duan, Zhao-Xia; Li, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Wang, Zhe; Feng, Hua; Li, Bing-Cang

    2015-01-01

    We once reported blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) in confined space. Here, bTBI was studied again on goats in the open air using 3.0 kg trinitrotoluene. The goats were placed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 m far from explosion center. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) was used as the source of the blast wave and the pressure at each distance was recorded. The systemic physiology, electroencephalogram, serum level of S-100 beta, and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were determined pre and post the exposure. Neuroanatomy and neuropathology were observed 4 h after the exposure. Simple blast waveforms were recorded with parameters of 702.8 kPa-0.442 ms, 148.4 kPa-2.503 ms, 73.9 kPa-3.233 ms, and 41.9 kPa-5.898 ms at 2, 4, 6 and 8 m respectively. Encephalic blast overpressure was on the first time recorded in the literature by us at 104.2 kPa-0.60 ms at 2 m, where mortality and burn rate were 44% and 44%. Gross examination showed that bTBI was mainly manifested as congestive expansion of blood vessels and subarachnoid hemorrhage, which had a total incidence of 25% and 19% in 36 goats. Microscopical observation found that the main pathohistological changes were enlarged perivascular space (21/36, 58%), small hemorrhages (9/36, 25%), vascular dilatation and congestion (8/36, 22%), and less subarachnoid hemorrhage (2/36, 6%). After explosion, serum levels of S-100b and NSE were elevated, and EEG changed into slow frequency with declined amplitude. The results indicated that severity and incidence of bTBI is related to the intensity of blast overpressure. Blast wave can pass through the skull to directly injure brain tissue.

  18. Effect of ozone and open air factor against aerosolized Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Roger; Fielding, Louise; Young, Andy; Griffith, Chris

    2007-12-01

    Because of increased concerns over failures in cleaning, the role of bioaerosols, and the environmental and clinical persistence of pathogens, the evaluation of novel decontaminants is increasingly important. The bactericidal properties of open air factor (OAF; a collection of highly reactive chemical species) were identified in the 1970s; however, the potential practical applications of artificially generated OAF have been considered only recently. In this study, the effects of OAF against Micrococcus luteus were investigated. OAF was generated and distributed in a bioaerosol test chamber by delivery of monoterpenes into ozonated air (0.1 ppm) at concentrations of 2.0 (high), 0.75 (medium), or 0.3 (low) mgm(-3) h(-1). M. luteus was aerosolized, and the number of culturable survivors was determined after 2, 5, 10, 20, and 60 min. Culturable bacteria were enumerated by aerobic plate counts in all-glass impinger fluid. Data were analyzed for statistical significance using one- or two-way analyses of variance. When aerosolized bacteria were exposed to ozone alone (0.05, 0.1, and 2 ppm), a significant (up to 3-log) reduction was observed at all concentrations, and the effect was time dependent. When exposed to the cyclic monoterpene alone, there were no significant differences between test samples and controls. When exposed to OAF (high and medium concentrations in 0.1 ppm ozone) there were significant differences after 20 min. These reductions were significantly greater than those achieved with ozone alone at 0.1 ppm. OAF is potentially an effective antibacterial agent that can reduce the microbial load in air. Because the technology uses reaction compounds naturally found in the environment, risks to health may be lower than those associated with ozone or other gaseous treatments. However, this hypothesis needs further investigation.

  19. Birth outcomes among military personnel after exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; DeScisciolo, Connie; Sevick, Carter J; Bukowinski, Anna T; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To examine birth outcomes in military women and men with potential exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy. Electronic data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to examine the prevalence of birth defects and preterm birth among infants of active-duty women and men who were deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented open-air burn pit before or during pregnancy. In general, burn pit exposure at various times in relation to pregnancy and for differing durations was not consistently associated with an increase in birth defects or preterm birth in infants of active-duty military personnel. These analyses offer reassurance to service members that burn pit exposure is not consistently associated with these select adverse infant health outcomes.

  20. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulotyping of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from open-air fish markets.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Ismail, Salmah; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Radmehr, Behrad; Abedini, Atefeh

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw fish and open-air fish market environments. Eight hundred and sixty two samples including raw fish and fish market environments (samples from workers' hands, workers' knives, containers and work surface) were collected from the open-air fish markets in the Northern region of Iran. Listeria spp. was isolated from 104/488 (21.3%) raw fish and 29/374 (7.8%) of samples from open-air fish market environment. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (35.3%), L. monocytogenes (32.3%), L. seeligeri (18%), and L. ivanovii (14.3%). Of the 43 L. monocytogenes isolates, 31 (72.1%), 10 (23.3%) and 2 (4.7%) belonged to serovars 1/2a, 4b, and 1/2b, respectively. The inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, hlyA, iap, plcA, and prfA virulence-associated genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. The Listeria spp. isolates showed high resistance against tetracycline (23.3%), penicillin G, and cephalothin (each 16.5%). Besides, we observed significant resistance level to tetracycline (27.9%), ampicillin (20.9%), cephalothin, penicillin G, and streptomycin (each 16.3%) in the L. monocytogenes isolates. All of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamycin, and pefloxacin. We found that tetM (25.6%), tetA (23.3%), ampC (14%), and penA (11.6%) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes in the L. monocytogenes isolates. Recovery of potentially pathogenic L. monocytogenes from raw fish and environment of open-air fish market samples in this study is a convincing evidence for the zoonotic potential of listeriosis.

  1. Mask-Free Patterning of High-Conductivity Metal Nanowires in Open Air by Spatially Modulated Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andong; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xianzi; Qu, Liangti; Duan, Xuanming; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-10-28

    A novel high-resolution nanowire fabrication method is developed by thin-film patterning using a spatially modulated femtosecond laser pulse. Deep subwavelength (≈1/13 of the laser wavelength) and high conductivity (≈1/4 of the bulk gold) nanowires are fabricated in the open air without using masks, which offers a single-step arbitrary direct patterning approach for electronics, plasmonics, and optoelectronics nanodevices.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Pool Fire Suppression Performance of Sodium Leak Collection Tray in Open Air

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, F.C.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Kasinathan, N.; Kannan, S.E.

    2006-07-01

    In the event of sodium leakage from heat transfer circuits of fast breeder reactors (FBR), liquid sodium catches fire in ambient air leading to production of flame, smoke and heat. One of the passive fire protection methods involves immediate collection of the leaking sodium to a sodium hold-up vessel (SHV) covered with a sloping cover tray (SCT) having a few drain pipes and one vent pipe (as in Fig. 1). As soon as the liquid sodium falls on the sloping cover tray, gravity guides the sodium through drain pipes into the bottom tray in which self-extinction occurs due to oxygen starvation. This sodium fire protection equipment called leak collection tray (LCT) works without the intervention of an operator and external power source. A large number of LCTs are strategically arranged under the sodium circulating pipe lines in the FBR plants to serve as passive suppression devices. In order to test the efficacy of the LCT, four tests were conducted. Two tests were with LCT having three drain pipes and rest with one. In each experiment, nearly 40 kg of hot liquid sodium at 550 deg. C was discharged on the LCT in the open air. Continuous on-line monitoring of temperature at strategic locations ({approx} 28 points) were carried out. Colour video-graphy was employed for taking motion pictures of various time-dependent events like sodium dumping, appearance of flame and release of smoke through vent pipes. After self-extinction of sodium fire, the LCT was allowed to cool overnight in an argon atmosphere. Solid samples of sodium debris in the SCT and SHV were collected by manual core drilling machine. The samples were subjected to chemical analysis for determination of unburnt and burnt sodium. The results of the four tests revealed an interesting feature: LCT with three drain pipes showed far lower sodium collection efficiency and much higher sodium combustion than that with just one drain pipe. Thermal fluctuations in temperature sensor located near the tip of the drain pipe

  3. Towards Estimating the Nutrient Balance of the Hydrologic Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) Catchment, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner-Kittridge, Michael; Zessner, Matthias; Broer, Martine; Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

    2010-05-01

    The fate of nutrients introduced by human activities have significant impacts on both nature and our civilization. Excessive nutrients can contaminate our drinking water as well as promote algae blooms that deplete the surrounding waters of oxygen for aquatic life. It is estimated that agriculture in Austria contributes approximately 60% to the total discharge of nitrogen and 40% to the total discharge of phosphorus. Understanding the specific pathways and sources of nitrogen and phosphorus from agriculture land could greatly improve our ability to mitigate for excessive discharges if the problems can be targeted more precisely. The objective of our research is to determine the complete nitrogen and phosphorous balance within a 66.7 hectare catchment in Lower Austria. The Hydrologic Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) catchment is located in Lower Austria approximately 100 km west of Vienna. The HOAL catchment was established in 2009 through funding by the Austrian Science Foundation to be used for multidisciplinary hydrologic research for understanding water flow and transport processes in catchments. The catchment land cover is characterized as 90% agriculture, 5% impermeable surface, and 3% forest. The predominant soil type is a clayey silt loam and a section of the catchment contain a subsurface tile drainage network that extend approximately 5.5 km. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the two primary nutrients assessed in this study. To accomplish the nutrient balance, the research is divided into three different scales: Field Scale, Subcatchment Scale, and Catchment Scale. The Catchment scale encompasses the entirety of the catchment, the subcatchment scale encompasses a 6.4 hectare area within the catchment that is completely underlain by the tile drainage network, and the field scale studies are performed on several square meter plots within the subcatchment. Each scale attempts to determine different parts of the total nutrient budget. The initial phase of the research

  4. The impact of elevated CO2 and temperature on grain quality of rice grown under open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Jing, Liquan; Wang, Juan; Shen, Shibo; Wang, Yunxia; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Yulong; Yang, Lianxin

    2016-08-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is accompanied by global warming. However, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature have not been well studied on grain quality of rice. A japonica cultivar was grown in the field using a free-air CO2 enrichment facility in combination with a canopy air temperature increase system in 2014. The gas fumigation (200 µmol mol(-1) above ambient CO2 ) and temperature increase (1 °C above ambient air temperature) were performed from tillering until maturity. Compared with the control (ambient CO2 and air temperature), elevated CO2 increased grain length and width as well as grain chalkiness but decreased protein concentrations. In contrast, the increase in canopy air temperature had less effect on these parameters except for grain chalkiness. The starch pasting properties of rice flour and taste analysis of cooked rice indicated that the palatability of rice was improved by CO2 and/or temperature elevation, with the combination of the two treatments showing the most significant changes compared with ambient rice. It is concluded that projected CO2 in 2050 may have larger effects on rice grain quality than the projected temperature increase. Although deterioration in milling suitability, grain appearance and nutritional quality can be expected, the taste of cooked rice might be better in the future environment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J.

    2010-01-15

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  6. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    PubMed

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  7. The city model as a tool for participatory urban planning - a case study: The Bilotti open air museum of Cosenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artese, S.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the 3D city model of the pedestrian area of Cosenza, which in recent years has become the Bilotti Open Air Museum (MAB). For this purpose were used both the data available (regional technical map, city maps, orthophotos) and acquired through several surveys of buildings and "Corso Mazzini" street (photos, topographic measurements, laser scanner point clouds). In addition to the urban scale model, the survey of the statues of the MAB was carried out. By means of data processing, the models of the same statues have been created, that can be used as objects within the city model. The 3D model of the MAB open air museum has been used to implement a Web-GIS allowing the citizen's participation, understanding and suggestions. The 3D city model is intended as a new tool for urban planning, therefore it has been used both for representing the current situation of the MAB and for design purposes, by acknowledging suggestions regarding a possible different location of the statues and a new way to enjoy the museum.

  8. Fully solution-processed organic light-emitting electrochemical cells (OLEC) with inkjet-printed micro-lenses for disposable lab-on-chip applications at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhe; Pabst, Oliver; Beckert, Erik; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Microfluidic lab-on-chip devices can be used for chemical and biological analyses such as DNA tests or environmental monitoring. Such devices integrate most of the basic functionalities needed for scientific analysis on a microfluidic chip. When using such devices, cost and space-intensive lab equipment is no longer necessary. However, in order to make a monolithic and cost-efficient/disposable microfluidic sensing device, direct integration of the excitation light source for fluorescent sensing is often required. To achieve this, we introduce a fully solution processable deviation of OLEDs, organic light-emitting electrochemical cells (OLECs), as a low-cost excitation light source for a disposable microfluidic sensing platform. By mixing metal ions and a solid electrolyte with light-emitting polymers as active materials, an in-situ doping and in-situ PN-junction can be generated within a three layer sandwich device. Thanks to this doping effect, work function adaptation is not necessary and air-stable electrode can be used. An ambient manufacturing process for fully solution-processed OLECs is presented, which consist of a spin-coated blue light-emitting polymer plus dopants on an ITO cathode and an inkjet-printed PEDOT:PSS transparent top anode. A fully transparent blue OLEC is able to obtain light intensity > 2500 cd/m2 under pulsed driving mode and maintain stable after 1000 cycles, which fulfils requirements for simple fluorescent on-chip sensing applications. However, because of the large refractive index difference between substrates and air, about 80% of emitted light is trapped inside the device. Therefore, inkjet printed micro-lenses on the rear side are introduced here to further increase light-emitting brightness.

  9. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  10. Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Naidu, Shawna L; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-02-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO2] (550 micromol mol(-1)) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (-34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply.

  11. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Ievskaya, Yulia; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Brandt, Riley E.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Heffernan, Shane; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2015-02-01

    Electrochemically deposited Cu{sub 2}O solar cells are receiving growing attention owing to a recent doubling in efficiency. This was enabled by the controlled chemical environment used in depositing doped ZnO layers by atomic layer deposition, which is not well suited to large-scale industrial production. While open air fabrication with atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition overcomes this limitation, we find that this approach is limited by an inability to remove the detrimental CuO layer that forms on the Cu{sub 2}O surface. Herein, we propose strategies for achieving efficiencies in atmospherically processed cells that are equivalent to the high values achieved in vacuum processed cells.

  12. Open-air, broad-bandwidth trace gas sensing with a mid-infrared optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent-Glandorf, Lora; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2015-05-01

    A mid-infrared frequency comb is produced via an optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified 100 MHz Yb:fiber mode-locked laser. We use this source to make measurements of the concentration of the atmospherically relevant species of CH4 and H2O over a bandwidth of 100 nm centered at 3.25 μm. Multiple absorption lines for each species are detected with millisecond acquisition time using a virtual-image phased array spectrometer. The measured wavelength-dependent absorption profile is compared to and fitted by a model, yielding quantitative values of the atmospheric concentration of both CH4 and H2O in a controlled indoor environment, as well as over a 26-m open-air outdoor path.

  13. A new species of open-air processional column termite, Hospitalitermes nigriantennalis sp. n. (Termitidae), from Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Syaukani, Syaukani; Thompson, Graham J.; Zettel, Herbert; Pribadi, Teguh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of open-air processional column termite is here described based on the soldier and worker castes from eight colonies in north Barito, central Kalimantan. Hospitalitermes nigriantennalis sp. n. is readily distinguished in the field from related Hospitalitermes spp. by the light brown to orangish coloration of the soldier head capsule that, further, is with vertex yellowish and nasus brownish. The soldier antenna and the maxillary and labial palps are blackish. By contrast, soldiers from other species of Hospitalitermes from this region have a uniformly black head capsule and antennae. Finally, Hospitalitermes nigriantennalis sp. n. has a minute indentation in the middle of the posterior part of head capsule, which further helps to differentiate this new species from other Hospitalitermes from the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan regions. PMID:26877678

  14. Time and space in the middle paleolithic: Spatial structure and occupation dynamics of seven open-air sites.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amy E

    2016-05-06

    The spatial structure of archeological sites can help reconstruct the settlement dynamics of hunter-gatherers by providing information on the number and length of occupations. This study seeks to access this information through a comparison of seven sites. These sites are open-air and were all excavated over large spatial areas, up to 2,000 m(2) , and are therefore ideal for spatial analysis, which was done using two complementary methods, lithic refitting and density zones. Both methods were assessed statistically using confidence intervals. The statistically significant results from each site were then compiled to evaluate trends that occur across the seven sites. These results were used to assess the "spatial consistency" of each assemblage and, through that, the number and duration of occupations. This study demonstrates that spatial analysis can be a powerful tool in research on occupation dynamics and can help disentangle the many occupations that often make up an archeological assemblage.

  15. Archaeological horizons and fluvial processes at the Lower Paleolithic open-air site of Revadim (Israel).

    PubMed

    Marder, Ofer; Malinsky-Buller, Ariel; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Ackermann, Oren; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Goldsmith, Yonaton; Inbar, Moshe; Rabinovich, Rivka; Hovers, Erella

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present new data pertaining to the paleo-landscape characteristics at the Acheulian site of Revadim, on the southern coastal plain of Israel. Sedimentological, isotopic, granulometric and micromorphological studies showed that the archaeological remains accumulated in an active fluvial environment where channel action, overbank flooding and episodic inundation occurred. Measurements of total organic matter and its carbon isotopic composition indicate that the hominin activity at the site started at a period of relatively drier conditions, which coincided with erosion of the preceding soil sequence. This process led to the formation of a gently-undulating topography, as reconstructed by a GIS model. Later deposition documents relatively wetter conditions, as indicated by carbon isotopic composition. Formation processes identified at the site include fluvial processes, inundation episodes that resulted in anaerobic conditions and formation of oxide nodules, as well as small-scale bioturbation and later infiltration of carbonate-rich solutions that resulted in the formation of calcite nodules and crusts. The combination of micro-habitats created favorable conditions that repeatedly drew hominins to the area, as seen by a series of super-imposed archaeological horizons. This study shows that site-specific paleo-landscape reconstructions should play an important role in understanding regional variation among hominin occupations and in extrapolating long-term behavioral patterns during the Middle Pleistocene.

  16. Condition for the appearance of the metastable P beta' phase in fully hydrated phosphatidylcholines as studied by small-angle x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Matuoka, S; Yao, H; Kato, S; Hatta, I

    1993-05-01

    In the ripple phase of fully hydrated multilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), two kinds of small-angle x-ray diffraction profiles are observed on cooling through the main transition. One is a seemingly normal profile similar to that observed on heating and the other is the superposition of the diffraction profiles for the primary (normal) and the secondary ripple structures. We found that the profile obtained depended on the cooling rate. Increasing the cooling rate from 0.1 degrees C/min to 1 degrees C/min caused the peaks originating from the secondary ripple structure to diminish. After a cooling scan at 43 degrees C/min, the profile became similar to that of the normal ripple structure, although a trace of the secondary ripple structure remains. The results are interpreted in terms of the rise and fall of three-dimensional correlated domains composed of both primary and secondary ripple structures. At slow cooling rates, correlated domains of both kinds of ripple structures develop. As the cooling rate is increased, the domain of the primary ripple structure remains correlated, while that of the secondary ripple structure becomes less correlated. In addition, the multipeak profile appears even at rapid cooling rates, if the final low temperature lies just below the Tm for the main transition. This results suggests that formation of the correlated domains of the secondary ripple structure requires a certain time interval during which the DPPC vesicles experience the temperature just below the main transition. The secondary ripple structure takes place in phosphatidylcholines having more than 15 carbons in each hydrocarbon chain upon cooling through the main transition.

  17. Environmental assessment for the depleted uranium testing program at the Nevada Test Site by the United States Army Ballistics Research Laboratory. [Open-Air Tests and X-Tunnel Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-24

    This proposed action provides the Department of Energy (DOE) authorization to the US Army to conduct a testing program using Depleted Uranium (DU) in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) would be the managing agency for the program. The proposed action site would utilize existing facilities, and human activity would be confined to areas identified as having no tortoise activity. Two classifications of tests would be conducted under the testing program: (1) open-air tests, and (2) X-Tunnel tests. A series of investigative tests would be conducted to obtain information on DU use under the conditions of each classification. The open-air tests would include DU ammunition hazard classification and combat systems activity tests. Upon completion of each test or series of tests, the area would be decontaminated to meet requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. All contaminated materials would be decontaminated or disposed of as radioactive waste in an approved low-level Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) by personnel trained specifically for this purpose.

  18. Development of open air silicon deposition technology by silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under local ambient gas control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2016-07-01

    Open air silicon deposition was performed by combining silane-free atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical transport and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. The effect of air contamination on silicon deposition was investigated using a vacuum chamber, and the allowable air contamination level was confirmed to be 3 ppm. The capability of the local ambient gas control head was investigated numerically and experimentally. A safe and clean process environment with air contamination less than 1 ppm was achieved. Combining these technologies, a microcrystalline silicon film was deposited in open air, the properties of which were comparable to those of silicon films deposited in a vacuum chamber.

  19. Dispersal of Aspergillus fumigatus from Sewage Sludge Compost Piles Subjected to Mechanical Agitation in Open Air

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Patricia D.; Bassett, David A.; Marsh, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Aerosolization of the thermophilous fungal opportunist Aspergillus fumigatus from mechanically agitated compost piles was examined at a pilot-scale sewage sludge composting facility and two other selected test sites. Aerosols of A. fumigatus downwind from stationary compost piles were insignificant in comparison with those downwind from agitated piles. These aerosols were generated by a front-end loader moving and dropping compost. Aerial concentrations of the fungus at distances downwind from the point of emission were used to determine an emission rate for A. fumigatus associated with the moving operations. The maximum emission rate, 4.6 × 106A. fumigatus particles per s, was used to calculate predicted concentrations in an unobstructed plume with restrictive, neutral, and dispersive atmospheric mixing conditions up to 1 km downwind from the emission source. PMID:16345563

  20. Fully Regressive Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ehrsam, Eric; Kallini, Joseph R.; Lebas, Damien; Modiano, Philippe; Cotten, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Fully regressive melanoma is a phenomenon in which the primary cutaneous melanoma becomes completely replaced by fibrotic components as a result of host immune response. Although 10 to 35 percent of cases of cutaneous melanomas may partially regress, fully regressive melanoma is very rare; only 47 cases have been reported in the literature to date. AH of the cases of fully regressive melanoma reported in the literature were diagnosed in conjunction with metastasis on a patient. The authors describe a case of fully regressive melanoma without any metastases at the time of its diagnosis. Characteristic findings on dermoscopy, as well as the absence of melanoma on final biopsy, confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27672418

  1. Antenna Deployment for the Localization of Partial Discharges in Open-Air Substations.

    PubMed

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fernández, Matilde; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel

    2016-04-15

    Partial discharges are ionization processes inside or on the surface of dielectrics that can unveil insulation problems in electrical equipment. The charge accumulated is released under certain environmental and voltage conditions attacking the insulation both physically and chemically. The final consequence of a continuous occurrence of these events is the breakdown of the dielectric. The electron avalanche provokes a derivative of the electric field with respect to time, creating an electromagnetic impulse that can be detected with antennas. The localization of the source helps in the identification of the piece of equipment that has to be decommissioned. This can be done by deploying antennas and calculating the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the electromagnetic pulses. However, small errors in this parameter can lead to great displacements of the calculated position of the source. Usually, four antennas are used to find the source but the array geometry has to be correctly deployed to have minimal errors in the localization. This paper demonstrates, by an analysis based on simulation and also experimentally, that the most common layouts are not always the best options and proposes a simple antenna layout to reduce the systematic error in the TDOA calculation due to the positions of the antennas in the array.

  2. A sensor management architecture concept for monitoring emissions from open-air demil operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael M.; Robinson, Jerry D.; Stoddard, Mary Clare; Horn, Brent A.; Lipkin, Joel; Foltz, Greg W.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, CA proposed a sensor concept to detect emissions from open-burning/open-detonation (OB/OD) events. The system would serve two purposes: (1) Provide data to demilitarization operations about process efficiency, allowing process optimization for cleaner emissions and higher efficiency. (2) Provide data to regulators and neighboring communities about materials dispersing into the environment by OB/OD operations. The proposed sensor system uses instrument control hardware and data visualization software developed at Sandia National Laboratories to link together an array of sensors to monitor emissions from OB/OD events. The suite of sensors would consist of various physical and chemical detectors mounted on stationary or mobile platforms. The individual sensors would be wirelessly linked to one another and controlled through a central command center. Real-time data collection from the sensors, combined with integrated visualization of the data at the command center, would allow for feedback to the sensors to alter operational conditions to adjust for changing needs (i.e., moving plume position, increased spatial resolution, increased sensitivity). This report presents a systems study of the problem of implementing a sensor system for monitoring OB/OD emissions. The goal of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of the political, economic, and technical issues for developing and fielding this technology.

  3. Antenna Deployment for the Localization of Partial Discharges in Open-Air Substations

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fernández, Matilde; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Partial discharges are ionization processes inside or on the surface of dielectrics that can unveil insulation problems in electrical equipment. The charge accumulated is released under certain environmental and voltage conditions attacking the insulation both physically and chemically. The final consequence of a continuous occurrence of these events is the breakdown of the dielectric. The electron avalanche provokes a derivative of the electric field with respect to time, creating an electromagnetic impulse that can be detected with antennas. The localization of the source helps in the identification of the piece of equipment that has to be decommissioned. This can be done by deploying antennas and calculating the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of the electromagnetic pulses. However, small errors in this parameter can lead to great displacements of the calculated position of the source. Usually, four antennas are used to find the source but the array geometry has to be correctly deployed to have minimal errors in the localization. This paper demonstrates, by an analysis based on simulation and also experimentally, that the most common layouts are not always the best options and proposes a simple antenna layout to reduce the systematic error in the TDOA calculation due to the positions of the antennas in the array. PMID:27092501

  4. The physiological characteristics of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in fully fermentative conditions with cell recycling and in mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Avansini, Simoni Helena; Neto, Adauto Gomes Barbosa; Brasileiro, Bereneuza Tavares Ramos Valente; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis plays an important role in industrial fermentation processes, either as a contaminant or as a fermenting yeast. In this study, an analysis has been conducted of the fermentation characteristics of several industrial D. bruxellensis strains collected from distilleries from the Southeast and Northeast of Brazil, compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that all the strains of D. bruxellensis showed a lower fermentative capacity as a result of inefficient sugar assimilation, especially sucrose, under anaerobiosis, which is called the Custer effect. In addition, most of the sugar consumed by D. bruxellensis seemed to be used for biomass production, as was observed by the increase of its cell population during the fermentation recycles. In mixed populations, the surplus of D. bruxellensis over S. cerevisiae population could not be attributed to organic acid production by the first yeast, as previously suggested. Moreover, both yeast species showed similar sensitivity to lactic and acetic acids and were equally resistant to ethanol, when added exogenously to the fermentation medium. Thus, the effects that lead to the employment of D. bruxellensis in an industrial process and its effects on the production of ethanol are multivariate. The difficulty of using this yeast for ethanol production is that it requires the elimination of the Custer effect to allow an increase in the assimilation of sugar under anaerobic conditions.

  5. Airborne infection in a fully air-conditioned hospital. IV. Airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus and its nasal acquisition by patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lidwell, O. M.; Brock, B.; Shooter, R. A.; Cooke, E. M.; Thomas, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies in a newly built hospital furnished with complete air conditioning where most of the patients are nursed in 6-bed rooms showed that the transfer of air from one patient room to another was very small, especially when there was substantial flow of air in a consistent direction between the patient rooms and the corridor, and that the direct transfer of airborne particles was even less. There was, however, no evidence of any reduction in the rates of nasal acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus compared with those to be found in naturally ventilated hospitals. The numbers of Staph. aureus found in the air of a given room that appeared to have originated from patient carriers in other rooms were many times greater than could be accounted for by direct airborne transfer. Although there was evidence that many carriers were not detected, detailed study showed that this excess transfer to the air of other rooms was genuine. It seems probable on the basis of investigations in this hospital and elsewhere that this excess transfer occurs indirectly, through dispersal from the clothing of the nursing and medical staff into the air of another room of strains with which their outer clothes have become contaminated while dealing with patients. Reduction in direct airborne transfer of micro-organisms from one room to another, whether by ventilation or other means, can only be of clinical advantage if transfer by other routes is, or can be made, less than that by the direct airborne route. PMID:1059710

  6. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of...

  7. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of...

  8. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of...

  9. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of...

  10. 14 CFR 105.21 - Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parachute operations over or into a... PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 105.21 Parachute operations over or into a congested area or an open-air assembly of persons. (a) No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in command of...

  11. AUTOMATED DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA OBTAINED WITH AN OPEN-AIR IONIZATIONS SOURCE BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTIPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals dispersed by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events must be rapidly identified to assess health risks. Mass spectra from high levels of analytes obtained using rapid, open-air ionization by a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART®) ion source often contain

  12. Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Naidu, Shawna L.; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R.; Long, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 μmol mol−1) and elevated [CO2] (550 μmol mol−1) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (−34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  13. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidner, Yossi; Frumkin, Amos; Friesem, David; Tsatskin, Alexander; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Middle Paleolithic human occupation in the Levant (250-50 ka ago) has been recorded in roofed (cave and rockshelter) and open-air sites. Research at these different types of sites yielded different perspectives on the Middle Paleolithic human behavior and evolution. Until recently, open-air Middle Paleolithic sites in the Levant were found in three major sedimentary environments: fluvial, lake-margin and spring. Here we describe a unique depositional environment and formation processes at the recently discovered open-air site of Nesher Ramla (Israel) and discuss their contribution to understanding site formation processes in open-air sites in the Levant. The site is 8-m-thick Middle Paleolithic sequence (OSL dated to 170-80 ka) that is located in a karst sinkhole formed by gravitational deformation and sagging into underground voids. The sedimentary sequence was shaped by gravitational collapse, cyclic colluviation of soil and gravel into the depression, waterlogging, in situ pedogenesis and human occupation. Original bedding and combustion features are well-preserved in the Lower archaeological sequence, a rare occurrence in comparison to other open-air archaeological sites. This phenomenon coincides with episodes of fast sedimentation/burial, which also allowed better preservation of microscopic remains such as ash. The Upper archaeological sequence does not exhibit bedding or preservation of ash, despite presence of heat-affected lithic artifacts, which makes it similar to other open-air sites in the Levant. We suggest that rate of burial is the major factor that caused the difference between the Upper and Lower sequences. The differences in the burial rate may be connected to environmental and vegetation changes at the end of MIS 6. We also identified an interplay between sediment in-wash and density of human activity remains, i.e. during episodes of low natural sediment input the density of artifacts is higher relative to episodes with high rate of sediment in

  14. A microcarrier cell culture process for propagating rabies virus in Vero cells grown in a stirred bioreactor under fully animal component free conditions.

    PubMed

    Rourou, Samia; van der Ark, Arno; van der Velden, Tiny; Kallel, Héla

    2007-05-10

    (7) FFU/mL. Furthermore, Vero cell growth in a 2 L bioreactor using recirculation culture mode during cell proliferation step and perfusion for virus multiplication phase was investigated. In comparison to batch culture, a higher cell density level that was equal to 5x10(6) cells/mL was reached. Cell infection under conditions similar to batch culture, resulted in a maximal virus titer equal to 1.38x10(8) FFU/mL. The potency of the pooled inactivated virus harvests showed an activity of 2.58 IU/mL which was comparable to that obtained in serum supplemented medium.

  15. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  16. Engineering Schottky Contacts in Open-Air Fabricated Heterojunction Solar Cells to Enable High Performance and Ohmic Charge Transport

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The efficiencies of open-air processed Cu2O/Zn1–xMgxO heterojunction solar cells are doubled by reducing the effect of the Schottky barrier between Zn1–xMgxO and the indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact. By depositing Zn1–xMgxO with a long band-tail, charge flows through the Zn1–xMgxO/ITO Schottky barrier without rectification by hopping between the sub-bandgap states. High current densities are obtained by controlling the Zn1–xMgxO thickness to ensure that the Schottky barrier is spatially removed from the p–n junction, allowing the full built-in potential to form, in addition to taking advantage of the increased electrical conductivity of the Zn1–xMgxO films with increasing thickness. This work therefore shows that the Zn1–xMgxO window layer sub-bandgap state density and thickness are critical parameters that can be engineered to minimize the effect of Schottky barriers on device performance. More generally, these findings show how to improve the performance of other photovoltaic system reliant on transparent top contacts, e.g., CZTS and CIGS. PMID:25418326

  17. Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2017-03-16

    Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed.

  18. To have your citizen science cake and eat it? Delivering research and outreach through Open Air Laboratories (OPAL).

    PubMed

    Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Gosling, Laura; Moffat, Andy J; West, Sarah E; Fradera, Roger; Davies, Linda; Ayamba, Maxwell A; van der Wal, René

    2016-07-22

    The vast array of citizen science projects which have blossomed over the last decade span a spectrum of objectives from research to outreach. While some focus primarily on the collection of rigorous scientific data and others are positioned towards the public engagement end of the gradient, the majority of initiatives attempt to balance the two. Although meeting multiple aims can be seen as a 'win-win' situation, it can also yield significant challenges as allocating resources to one element means that they may be diverted away from the other. Here we analyse one such programme which set out to find an effective equilibrium between these arguably polarised goals. Through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme we explore the inherent trade-offs encountered under four indicators derived from an independent citizen science evaluation framework. Assimilating experience from the OPAL network we investigate practical approaches taken to tackle arising tensions. Working backwards from project delivery to design, we found the following elements to be important: ensuring outputs are fit for purpose, developing strong internal and external collaborations, building a sufficiently diverse partnership and considering target audiences. We combine these 'operational indicators' with four pre-existing 'outcome indicators' to create a model which can be used to shape the planning and delivery of a citizen science project. Our findings suggest that whether the proverb in the title rings true will largely depend on the identification of challenges along the way and the ability to address these conflicts throughout the citizen science project.

  19. Freiluftschulen: Eine Historisch-Padagogische Randerscheinung als Reflex Sozial-Historischer Modernisierungsprozesse? Das Beispiel Belgiens (Open-Air Schools: A Marginal Appearance in Pedagogical History as a Reflection of Socio-Historical Processes of Modernization? The Example of Belgium).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaepe, Marc; Simon, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the history of open-air schools using an evaluation of Belgian schools. Expounds on the complex relationship between educational space and the educational act, and between traditional and progressive education. Demonstrates that open-air schools provided the same education as traditional schools and were not a real alternative for…

  20. Does open-air exposure to volatile organic compounds near a plastic recycling factory cause health effects?

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Tsuda, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Kashima, Saori; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    After a plastic reprocessing factory began to operate in August 2004, the residents around the factory in Neyagawa, Osaka, Japan, began to complain of symptoms. Therefore, we conducted an exposure assessment and a population-based epidemiological study in 2006. To assess exposure, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOCs were measured at two locations in the vicinity of the factory. In the population-based study, a total of 3,950 residents were targeted. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about subjects' mucocutaneous or respiratory symptoms. Using logistic regression models, we compared the prevalence of symptoms in July 2006 by employing the farthest area from the factory as a reference, and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The concentration of total VOCs was higher in the vicinity of the factory. The prevalence of mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms was the highest among the residents in the closest area to the factory. Some symptoms were significantly increased among the residents within 500 m of the factory compared with residents of an area 2800 m from the factory: e.g., sore throat (POR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.3-8.0), eye itch (POR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-6.0), eye discharge (POR=6.0, 95% CI: 2.3-15.9), eczema (POR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-7.9) and sputum (POR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.1). Despite of the limitations of this study, these results imply a possible association of open-air VOCs with mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms. Because this kind of plasticre cycling factory only recently came into operation, more attention should be paid to the operation of plastic recycling factories in the environment.

  1. Spatial distributions of O, N, NO, OH and vacuum ultraviolet light along gas flow direction in an AC-excited atmospheric pressure Ar plasma jet generated in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    Ground-state O (3P j ) and N (4Sº) atoms, nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation emitted from an AC-excited Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operated in open air were measured using VUV absorption spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The O (3P j ) density decreased with increasing distance from the plasma head, and the decrease rate in the edge region of the plasma jet around 8 mm distance was especially high. On the other hand, the N (4Sº) atom density was almost constant up to approximately 10 mm and increased with the distance over 12 mm. The relative NO density increased with the distance up to 10 mm and then became saturated, although the OH density was significantly reduced from the plasma jet exit of the head, and could be observed in the plasma jet only up to the distance of 5 mm. Emissions due to N, H and O atoms were observed in the VUV region and the emission intensity for N atoms (wavelength: 174.3 nm) decreased exponentially with increasing the distance. The results obtained with the Ar APPJ operated in open air conditions indicate the generation of many different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by gas-phase reactions, and the composition of the reactive species is strongly dependent on the distance from the plasma head. These results are very useful for clarifying the kinetics of reactive species in APPJs and their application in various technological fields.

  2. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  3. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    PubMed

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclic organic peroxides identification and trace analysis by Raman microscopy and open-air chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Quevedo, Alvaro Javier

    The persistent use of cyclic organic peroxides in explosive devices has increased the interest in study these compounds. Development of methodologies for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) has become an urgent priority. However, differences in physical properties between cyclic organic peroxides make difficult the development of a general method for peroxide analysis and detection. Following this urgency, the first general technique for the analysis of any peroxide, regarding its structural differences is reported. Characterization and detection of TATP and HMTD was performed using an Open-Air Chemical Ionization High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. The first spectrometric analysis for tetramethylene diperoxide dicarbamide (TMDD) and other nitrogen based peroxides using Raman Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry is reported. Analysis of cyclic peroxides by GC-MS was also conducted to compare results with OACI-HRTOF data. In the OACI mass spectrum, HMTD showed a clear signal at m/z 209 MH + and a small adduct peak at m/z 226 [M+NH4]+ that allowed its detection in commercial standard solutions and lab made standards. TMDD presented a molecular peak of m/z 237 MH+ and an adduct peak of m/z 254 [M+NH4]+. TATP showed a single peak at m/z 240 [M+NH4]+, while the peak of m/z 223 or 222 was completely absent. This evidence suggests that triperoxides are stabilized by the ammonium ion. TATP samples with deuterium enrichment were analyzed to compare results that could differentiate from HMTD. Raman microscopy was used as a complementary characterization method and was an essential tool for cyclic peroxides identification, particularly for those which could not be extensively purified. All samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to confirm the Mass Spectrometry results. Peroxide O-O vibrations were observed around 750-970 cm-1. D18-TATP studies had identified ketone triperoxide nu(O-O) vibration around

  5. Views to the past: Faunal and geophysical analysis of the open-air Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jason Randall

    , real-time process of prey item evaluation. Not all animals are equal in nutritional terms hence not all carcasses are evaluated equally. A Ground-penetrating radar study is also included to answer two substantive questions: 1) How representative of the entire site assemblage is the currently excavated sample?; and 2) Are there data visible that are indicative of multiple, interacting "households" as at Pincevent, or does the material scale, configuration, and distribution appear limited to a single household? GPR has proven to be a highly informative and productive near-surface geophysical technique for investigating many archaeological sites, and this research details one of the earliest such applications in a Paleolithic open-air context. At VBC, GPR was highly effective in locating anthropogenic accumulations of unexcavated archaeological materials which were field-tested through excavations during the 2009 field season.

  6. [Fully implantable hearing systems].

    PubMed

    Maurer, J

    2009-03-01

    As yet comparatively little experience has been gained with fully implantable hearing systems, as the two systems available at present have only recently received CE permission for Europe and the FDA permissions are still pending in the USA. Additionally the technology is expensive and usually not covered by insurance companies. However, it could be shown that by careful patient selection and very careful surgical techniques, good results can be achieved with this highly sensitive technology, often with better patient satisfaction and hearing quality than with conventional hearing aids. To spread the technology further, the systems must also show reliable results on a broad application. Further surgery to change the batteries should not be necessary more frequently than with cardiac pacemakers. Not all technical problems are finally solved. However, it is to be foreseen that fully implantable hearing systems will be a good long-term alternative to conventional hearing aids for some patients.

  7. The role of the displacement-time waveform in the determination of Heckel behaviour under dynamic conditions in a compaction simulator and a fully-instrumented rotary tablet machine.

    PubMed

    Muller, F X; Augsburger, L L

    1994-06-01

    The Heckel equation has been used widely to characterize the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical powders, yet very little attention has been paid to the role of the displacement-time profile used to generate this relationship. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare selected standard waveforms with actual and theoretical tablet press waveforms in the Heckel analysis of representative formulations under dynamic conditions in a compaction simulator and to compare such data with that determined on the same formulation using an actual fully-instrumented rotary tablet press. Increased tableting rate and different programmed displacement-time waveforms with the same gross punch-speed changed the Heckel behaviour of all formulations. The results of this study suggest the pressure-volume relationship determined during powder-bed compression is affected by the instantaneous punch-speed profile of the displacement-time waveform for all materials studied, even though they deform by different mechanisms. It appears that the instantaneous punch-speed profile of the particular displacement-time waveform is a confounding factor of Heckel analysis. Compaction simulators programmed to deliver saw-toothed displacement-time traces have the advantage of constant punch-speed and may be a better choice for characterizing a formulation by Heckel indices and the strain-rate sensitivity index. On the other hand, they also carry the liability of not being a realistic representation of tableting on a rotary tablet press.

  8. A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Yarnie, Elizabeth A; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Attah, Simon K; Donkor, Eric S; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2014-11-25

    Consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. However, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. Such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in Ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques. We purchased two batches of samples of cabbage, sweet bell pepper, carrot, lettuce, tomato and onion within a two week interval. The vegetables were washed by three methods and the wash solution was concentrated and analyzed for parasites. The prevalent parasites detected were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (43%) and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (16%). Others present were Hookworm ova, Entamoeba histolytica cysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts, Entamoeba coli cysts, Trichuris trichiuria ova, Enterobius vermicularis ova, Isospora belli oocysts and Fasciolopsis buski ova. Contamination was highest in lettuce (61%) and cabbage and the least contaminated was tomato (18%). Contamination of vegetables sold at the open-aired markets was about ten-times that of the supermarkets. In Ghana, the large open-aired markets are the most patronized and serve as a supply point for most corner shops and stalls. The results thus highlight the potential of fresh vegetables serving as a major source of food-borne disease outbreaks and the contribution of open-aired markets to their transmission. Urgent public education on handling of fresh vegetables is recommended.

  9. Fully Awake Breast Reduction.

    PubMed

    Filson, Simon A; Yarhi, Danielle; Ramon, Yitzhak

    2016-11-01

    The authors present 25 cases and an in-depth 4-minute video of fully awake aesthetic breast reduction, which was made possible by thoracic epidural anesthesia. There are obvious and important advantages to this technique. Not only does this allow for intraoperative patient cooperation (i.e., patient self-positioning and opinion for comparison of breasts), meaning a shorter and more efficient intraoperative time, there also is a reduction in postoperative pain, complications, recovery, and discharge times. The authors have also enjoyed great success and no complications with this technique in over 150 awake abdominoplasty/total body lift patients. The authors feel that the elimination of the need for general anesthesia by thoracic epidural sensorial-only anesthesia is a highly effective and efficient technique, with very few disadvantages/complications, providing advantages to both patients and surgeons. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Fully automated protein purification

    PubMed Central

    Camper, DeMarco V.; Viola, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining highly purified proteins is essential to begin investigating their functional and structural properties. The steps that are typically involved in purifying proteins can include an initial capture, intermediate purification, and a final polishing step. Completing these steps can take several days and require frequent attention to ensure success. Our goal was to design automated protocols that will allow the purification of proteins with minimal operator intervention. Separate methods have been produced and tested that automate the sample loading, column washing, sample elution and peak collection steps for ion-exchange, metal affinity, hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography. These individual methods are designed to be coupled and run sequentially in any order to achieve a flexible and fully automated protein purification protocol. PMID:19595984

  11. Testing fully depleted CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.

  12. Differentiability at lateral boundary for fully nonlinear parabolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feiyao; Moreira, Diego R.; Wang, Lihe

    2017-09-01

    For fully nonlinear uniformly parabolic equations, the first derivatives regularity of viscosity solutions at lateral boundary is studied under new Dini type conditions for the boundary, which is called Reifenberg Dini conditions and is weaker than usual Dini conditions.

  13. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  14. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  15. Open Air Rock Art Between Alva and Ceira Rivers: a Voyage Through Mining, Trading, Transhumance Routes and the Orientation in the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, F.; Ribeiro, N.; Smith, A.; Joaquinito, A.; Pereira, S.; Tirapicos, L.

    2015-05-01

    Open air rock carvings, the object of the present study, were artistic expressions made by the itinerant shepherds, miners, traders and the resident populations along trading and transhumance routes and nearby areas. These rock art sites were used as markers to denote routes or territorial claims and in some cases may have been associated with ritual celebrations. In this paper we will present the results of the analysis of the orientations in the landscape of 688 engraved outcrops, distributed in 11 mountainous areas between the Alva and Ceira rivers. We will discuss possible solsticial markers and will address a possible relationship between the orientation of the podomorph carvings with the Summer Full Moon or Alpha Centauri.

  16. Chip-based ingroove microplasma with orthogonal signal collection: new approach for carbon-containing species detection through open air reaction for performance enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanying; Li, Xuemei; Duan, Yixiang

    2014-01-01

    A novel microplasma generator based on ceramic chips has been developed and coupled with optical emission spectrometry through orthogonal detection. Stable microplasma was generated between two electrodes in the ingroove discharge chamber and the optical fiber was set in perpendicular to the gas outlet to collect emitted light. The emission signal of CN is surprisingly enhanced by reacting carbon-containing species with back-diffusion nitrogen from open air, and the enhanced CN signal is successfully applied to sensitively detect organic compounds for the first time. This article focuses to study the structural characteristic and the signal enhancement mechanism through back-diffusion reaction. Several organic compounds were detected directly with the limits of detection down to ppb level. Besides, the advantages of low energy consumption and the chip-based discharge chamber show great potential to be applied in portable devices. This development may lead to a new way for the sensitive detection of organic compounds. PMID:24763181

  17. Photogrammetry Driven Tools to Support the Restoration of Open-Air Bronze Surfaces of Sculptures: AN Integrated Solution Starting from the Experience of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Basilissi, W.; Rivaroli, L.

    2017-02-01

    Checking the irreversible process of clean-up is a delicate task that requires a work of synthesis between theoretical knowledge and practical experience, to define an effective operating protocol on a limited patch area to be extended later to the entire artefact's surface. In this paper, we present a new, quick, semi-automated 3D photogrammetry-based solution to support restorers in the open-air bronze artwork cleaning from corrosion and weathering decay. The solution allows the conservators to assess in real time and with a high level of fidelity in colour and shape, the `surfaces' to be cleaned before, during and after the clear-out treatment. The solution besides allows an effective and valuable support tool for restorers to identify the original layer of the bronze surface, developed and validated during the ongoing restoration of the Neptune Fountain in Bologna.

  18. Composite vegetable waste as renewable resource for bioelectricity generation through non-catalyzed open-air cathode microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Sarma, P N

    2010-02-01

    Single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC; non-catalyzed electrodes) was operated to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity generation from the treatment of composite waste vegetables (EWV) extract under anaerobic microenvironment using mixed consortia as anodic biocatalyst. The system was operated with designed synthetic wastewater (DSW; 0.98 kg COD/m(3)-day) during adaptation phase and later shifted to EWV and operated at three substrate load conditions (2.08, 1.39 and 0.70 kg COD/m(3)-day). Experimental data illustrated the feasibility of bioelectricity generation through the utilization of EWV as substrate in MFC. Higher power output (57.38 mW/m(2)) was observed especially at lower substrate load. The performance of MFC was characterized based on the polarization behavior, cell potentials, cyclic voltammetric analysis and sustainable resistance. MFC operation also documented to stabilize the waste by effective removal of COD (62.86%), carbohydrates (79.84%) and turbidity (55.12%).

  19. Le site acheuléen de plein air d'Holon (Israël) : premiers résultatsThe Acheulian open-air site from Holon (Israel): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazan, Michael; Monchot, Hervé; Porat, Naomi; Lister, Adrian; Davies, Paul; Kolska Horwitz, Liora

    2001-02-01

    The open-air site of Holon (Israel), dated to an age of 200 000 years has yielded a large Acheulean bone and lithic assemblage. The association between the lithics and fauna clearly demonstrates that Hominids were the prime agents in creating the assemblage. The site of Holon plays a major role in understanding the Lower Palaeolithic of the Levantine coastal area.

  20. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2011-07-01

    Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

  1. Open-air-nesting honey bees Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa differ from the cavity-nesting Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in brood hygiene behaviour.

    PubMed

    Woyke, J; Wilde, J; Reddy, C C

    2004-01-01

    The cavity-nesting Apis mellifera and Apis cerana bees detect, uncap, and remove diseased brood. The hygiene behaviour of open-air-nesting bees Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa was investigated in India and Nepal. Sealed A. dorsata pupae were pin-killed or deep-frozen. The workers removed 73 or 37% of damaged pin-killed pupae depending on the diameter of the pins, and only 7% of the frozen undamaged pupae. Migrating A. dorsata and A. laboriosa left unopened the sealed brood in deserted combs. Thus, A. dorsata and A. laboriosa do not open undamaged cells with dead brood. This behaviour is a more efficient mechanism in preventing the spread of diseases and parasitic mites than uncapping and removing dead pupae by A. mellifera and A. cerana. It may be beneficial for migrating A. dorsata and A. laboriosa to temporarily disuse part of the comb cells in exchange for arresting the mites there and thus reducing the increase of their population.

  2. Surveying the citizen science landscape: an exploration of the design, delivery and impact of citizen science through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme.

    PubMed

    Davies, Linda; Fradera, Roger; Riesch, Hauke; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy

    2016-07-22

    This paper provides a short introduction to the topic of citizen science (CS) identifying the shift from the knowledge deficit model to more inclusive, participatory science. It acknowledges the benefits of new technology and the opportunities it brings for mass participation and data manipulation. It focuses on the increase in interest in CS in recent years and draws on experience gained from the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme launched in England in 2007. The drivers and objectives for OPAL are presented together with background information on the partnership, methods and scales. The approaches used by researchers ranged from direct public participation in mass data collection through field surveys to research with minimal public engagement. The supporting services focused on education, particularly to support participants new to science, a media strategy and data services. Examples from OPAL are used to illustrate the different approaches to the design and delivery of CS that have emerged over recent years and the breadth of opportunities for public participation the current landscape provides. Qualitative and quantitative data from OPAL are used as evidence of the impact of CS. While OPAL was conceived ahead of the more recent formalisation of approaches to the design, delivery and analysis of CS projects and their impact, it nevertheless provides a range of examples against which to assess the various benefits and challenges emerging in this fast developing field.

  3. Towards printable open air microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Collord, Andrew; Cook, Adam W.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Fenton, Kyle Ross; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Branson, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated a novel microfluidic technique for aqueous media, which uses super-hydrophobic materials to create microfluidic channels that are open to the atmosphere. We have demonstrated the ability to perform traditional electrokinetic operations such as ionic separations and electrophoresis using these devices. The rate of evaporation was studied and found to increase with decreasing channel size, which places a limitation on the minimum size of channel that could be used for such a device.

  4. Christmas in the open air.

    PubMed

    1991-12-18

    'What health problems? I'm bloody fit, me,' said Brian, a homeless man, who is not one to whinge and whine about his health. Brian and his mate 'Bob Dylan', each wearing a couple of T-shirts, a jumper and an overcoat, crack jokes and compete to tell their most gruesome injury tale. It is two weeks before Christmas and they sit, snuggled into a sleeping bag amid the blankets and newspaper sheets of other homeless people who occupy the disused bandstand in London's Lincoln's Inn Fields. They drink one of several cans of extra strong lager and share a cigarette. The weather is freezing and as the sun goes down the wind picks up. The rotting wooden bandstand is the focal point for homeless people in 'the Fields' and, although it's open to the elements, its roof means the ground stays dry. Nearby are three concrete tennis courts where Holborn office workers practise their forehands. The fencing that separates the courts from the green is a support for numerous bashes -cardboard and tarpaulin structures literally bashed together - where more homeless people live.

  5. Fully Integrating the Design Process

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Bjornard; R.S. Bean

    2008-03-01

    The basic approach to designing nuclear facilities in the United States does not currently reflect the routine consideration of proliferation resistance and international safeguards. The fully integrated design process is an approach for bringing consideration of international safeguards and proliferation resistance, together with state safeguards and security, fully into the design process from the very beginning, while integrating them sensibly and synergistically with the other project functions. In view of the recently established GNEP principles agreed to by the United States and at least eighteen other countries, this paper explores such an integrated approach, and its potential to help fulfill the new internationally driven design requirements with improved efficiencies and reduced costs.

  6. Ensuring Fully Soldered Through Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1987-01-01

    Simple differential-pressure soldering method provides visual evidence that hidden joints are fully soldered. Intended for soldering connector pins in plated through holes in circuit boards. Molten solder flows into plated through holes, drawn by vacuum in manifold over circuit board. Differential-pressure process ensures solder wets entire through hole around connector pin.

  7. Ensuring Fully Soldered Through Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1987-01-01

    Simple differential-pressure soldering method provides visual evidence that hidden joints are fully soldered. Intended for soldering connector pins in plated through holes in circuit boards. Molten solder flows into plated through holes, drawn by vacuum in manifold over circuit board. Differential-pressure process ensures solder wets entire through hole around connector pin.

  8. Design, development, and demonstration of a fully LabVIEW controlled in situ electrochemical Fourier transform infrared setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrochemical interface of nanoparticulate electrocatalysts under reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Nesselberger, Markus; Ashton, Sean J; Wiberg, Gustav K H; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction of an in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of nanoparticulate catalysts in situ under controlled mass transport conditions. The presented setup allows the electrochemical interface to be probed in combination with the simultaneous determination of reaction rates. At the same time, the high level of automation allows it to be used as a standard tool in electrocatalysis research. The performance of the setup was demonstrated by probing the oxygen reduction reaction on a platinum black catalyst in sulfuric electrolyte.

  9. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  10. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, Eric B.; Muller, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  11. Fully automated urban traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrotin, B. M.; Hansen, G. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The replacement of the driver with an automatic system which could perform the functions of guiding and routing a vehicle with a human's capability of responding to changing traffic demands was discussed. The problem was divided into four technological areas; guidance, routing, computing, and communications. It was determined that the latter three areas being developed independent of any need for fully automated urban traffic. A guidance system that would meet system requirements was not being developed but was technically feasible.

  12. Fully Grouted Rock Bolts: An Analytical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; An, X. M.; Zhao, Z. Y.

    2015-05-01

    This paper analytically investigates the performance of fully grouted rock bolts in typical scenarios, including pullout test, suspending loosened block, and increasing joint aperture, respectively. The interface shear stress distribution follows the model proposed by Li and Stillborg (Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 36:1013-1029, 1999), while the axial behavior of the bolt shank obeys the elasto-plastic (yielding-hardening) constitutive model of steel. Three different failure modes are taken into account: tensile failure of bolt shank, bolt shank being pulled out along the bolt/rock interface, and loss of face plate. The evolution of the interface shear stress and the axial tensile stress are examined for both long and short bolts under displacement and load boundary conditions. The derived charts are able to predict the load capacity of fully grouted bolts in pullout test, the minimum length requirement of the bolt to suspend a loosened block, and the maximum allowed opening displacement of a rock joint for a fully grouted bolt. In addition, different potential failure modes are specified. Full range load-displacement curves are produced and compared for various failure modes. The derived charts could be directly used in rock-bolting design.

  13. Interactive effects of elevated ozone and temperature on carbon allocation of silver birch (Betula pendula) genotypes in an open-air field exposure.

    PubMed

    Kasurinen, Anne; Biasi, Christina; Holopainen, Toini; Rousi, Matti; Mäenpää, Maarit; Oksanen, Elina

    2012-06-01

    In the present experiment, the single and combined effects of elevated temperature and ozone (O(3)) on four silver birch genotypes (gt12, gt14, gt15 and gt25) were studied in an open-air field exposure design. Above- and below-ground biomass accumulation, stem growth and soil respiration were measured in 2008. In addition, a (13)C-labelling experiment was conducted with gt15 trees. After the second exposure season, elevated temperature increased silver birch above- and below-ground growth and soil respiration rates. However, some of these variables showed that the temperature effect was modified by tree genotype and prevailing O(3) level. For instance, in gt14 soil respiration was increased in elevated temperature alone (T) and in elevated O(3) and elevated temperature in combination (O(3) + T) treatments, but in other genotypes O(3) either partly (gt12) or totally nullified (gt25) temperature effects on soil respiration, or acted synergistically with temperature (gt15). Before leaf abscission, all genotypes had the largest leaf biomass in T and O(3) + T treatments, whereas at the end of the season temperature effects on leaf biomass depended on the prevailing O(3) level. Temperature increase thus delayed and O(3) accelerated leaf senescence, and in combination treatment O(3) reduced the temperature effect. Photosynthetic : non-photosynthetic tissue ratios (P : nP ratios) showed that elevated temperature increased foliage biomass relative to woody mass, particularly in gt14 and gt12, whereas O(3) and O(3) + T decreased it most clearly in gt25. O(3)-caused stem growth reductions were clearest in the fastest-growing gt14 and gt25, whereas mycorrhizal root growth and sporocarp production increased under O(3) in all genotypes. A labelling experiment showed that temperature increased tree total biomass and hence (13)C fixation in the foliage and roots and also label return was highest under elevated temperature. Ozone seemed to change tree (13)C allocation, as it

  14. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  15. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  16. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  17. Multiday Fully Closed Loop Insulin Delivery in Monitored Outpatient Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-29

    To Demonstrate That the Closed Loop System Can be Used Safely Over a Few Consecutive Days.; To Assess Effectiveness in Maintaining Patients' Glucose Levels in the Target Range of 70 to 180 mg/dl, Measured by Blood Glucose Sensor.; To Evaluate the User Experience With a Closed Loop System

  18. Fully Employing Software Inspections Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Seaman, Carolyn; Regardie, Myrna; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Software inspections provide a proven approach to quality assurance for software products of all kinds, including requirements, design, code, test plans, among others. Common to all inspections is the aim of finding and fixing defects as early as possible, and thereby providing cost savings by minimizing the amount of rework necessary later in the lifecycle. Measurement data, such as the number and type of found defects and the effort spent by the inspection team, provide not only direct feedback about the software product to the project team but are also valuable for process improvement activities. In this paper, we discuss NASA's use of software inspections and the rich set of data that has resulted. In particular, we present results from analysis of inspection data that illustrate the benefits of fully utilizing that data for process improvement at several levels. Examining such data across multiple inspections or projects allows team members to monitor and trigger cross project improvements. Such improvements may focus on the software development processes of the whole organization as well as improvements to the applied inspection process itself.

  19. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging. PMID:27403922

  20. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  1. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; ...

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisitionmore » without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.« less

  2. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  3. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  4. Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jianke

    2010-11-15

    We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

  5. Experimental Study of Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner v, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study of an array of up to 100 model wind turbines with 0.25 m diameter, conducted in the turbulent boundary layer of the 6.0 m wide × 2.7 m tall × 72.0 m long test section of the UNH Flow Physics Facility, are reported. The study aims to address two questions. First, for a given configuration (turbine spacing, initial conditions, etc.), when will the model wind farm reach a ``fully developed'' condition, in which turbulence statistics remain the same from one row to the next within and above the wind turbine array. Second, how is kinetic energy transported in the wind turbine array boundary layer (WTABL). Measurements in the fully developed WTABL can provide valuable insight to the optimization of wind farm energy production. Previous experimental studies with smaller model wind farms were unable to reach the fully developed condition. Due to the size of the UNH facility and the current model array, the fully developed WTABL condition can be achieved. The wind turbine array was simulated by a combination of drag-matched porous disks, used in the upstream part of the array, and by a smaller array of realistic, scaled 3-bladed wind turbines immediately upstream of the measurement location.

  6. Printing Tablets with Fully Customizable Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yajuan; Soh, Siowling

    2015-12-16

    Personalizing the release profiles of drugs is important for different people with different medical and biological conditions. A technically simple and low-cost method to fabricate fully customizable tablets that can deliver drugs with any type of release profile is described. The customization is intuitively straightforward: the desired profile can simply be "drawn" and printed by a 3D printer.

  7. Newtonian limit of fully nonlinear cosmological perturbations in Einstein's gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim E-mail: hr@kasi.re.kr

    2013-04-01

    We prove that in the infinite speed-of-light limit (i.e., non-relativistic and subhorizon limits), the relativistic fully nonlinear cosmological perturbation equations in two gauge conditions, the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge, exactly reproduce the Newtonian hydrodynamic perturbation equations in the cosmological background; as a consequence, in the same two gauge conditions, the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations are exactly recovered in the Minkowsky background.

  8. Fully automated three-dimensional microscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschmann, Russell L.

    2000-04-01

    Tissue-scale structures such as vessel networks are imaged at micron resolution with the Virtual Tissue System (VT System). VT System imaging of cubic millimeters of tissue and other material extends the capabilities of conventional volumetric techniques such as confocal microscopy, and allows for the first time the integrated 2D and 3D analysis of important tissue structural relationships. The VT System eliminates the need for glass slide-mounted tissue sections and instead captures images directly from the surface of a block containing a sample. Tissues are en bloc stained with fluorochrome compounds, embedded in an optically conditioned polymer that suppresses image signals form dep within the block , and serially sectioned for imaging. Thousands of fully registered 2D images are automatically captured digitally to completely convert tissue samples into blocks of high-resolution information. The resulting multi gigabyte data sets constitute the raw material for precision visualization and analysis. Cellular function may be seen in a larger anatomical context. VT System technology makes tissue metrics, accurate cell enumeration and cell cycle analyses possible while preserving full histologic setting.

  9. Fully engineered approach to acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, F.W. )

    1994-01-01

    Regulations and methods for control of sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions have been developed and are fairly well understood. However, nitrous oxide (NO[sub x]) reduction requirements are only now being mandated. Owners of major emissions sources will be unable to continue to defer compliance with evolving legislation. Unfortunately, the objectives of state and federal environmental regulatory authorities differ and conflict with those of utilities, public utility commissions, and ratepayers. The uncertainties caused by the differences make it difficult to prepare any proposed plan or budget that will be acceptable to all. Reduction in NO[sub x] emissions does not necessarily mean overall environmental improvement. Often, objectionable pollutants result from the reaction of chemicals present in a given environment and emitted as harmful atmospheric pollution. Ozone is such a pollutant. With the chemical concentration anomalies involved, the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions may result in greater damage. The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) or Urban Airshed Model (UAM) being used to analyze area-wide conditions are still unable to make this distinction and, even at best, the variables involved render any solution to be uncertain. Engineering has responded to these myriad problems by developing a fully documented and engineered low-cost approach: a boiler-specific, defensible, technical, and economically analytical computer model that can be quickly updated as conditions, costs, and regulations change. The results can be programmed into an on-line system to include environmental optimization into economic dispatch. A step-by-step description of the approach aimed at economic NO[sub x] reduction is the subject of this article.

  10. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of...

  11. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-05-15

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs thatbuild upon earlier research and development efforts directed towardstechnology development of silicon-strip detectors used inhigh-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same typeof high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for stripdetectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thickdepletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding highdetection efficiency for near-infrared andsoft x-ray photons. We comparethe fully depleted CCD to thep-i-n diode upon which it is based, anddescribe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imagingapplications.

  12. High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

    2006-05-15

    We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

  13. Automated fully-stressed design with NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Haggenmacher, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    An automated strength sizing capability is described. The technique determines the distribution of material among the elements of a structural model. The sizing is based on either a fully stressed design or a scaled feasible fully stressed design. Results obtained from the application of the strength sizing to the structural sizing of a composite material wing box using material strength allowables are presented. These results demonstrate the rapid convergence of the structural sizes to a usable design.

  14. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  15. Decreases in Stomatal Conductance of Soybean under Open-Air Elevation of [CO2] Are Closely Coupled with Decreases in Ecosystem Evapotranspiration12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, Carl J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Quarles, Devin R.; Long, Stephen P.; Ort, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    Stomatal responses to atmospheric change have been well documented through a range of laboratory- and field-based experiments. Increases in atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) have been shown to decrease stomatal conductance (gs) for a wide range of species under numerous conditions. Less well understood, however, is the extent to which leaf-level responses translate to changes in ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET). Since many changes at the soil, plant, and canopy microclimate levels may feed back on ET, it is not certain that a decrease in gs will decrease ET in rain-fed crops. To examine the scaling of the effect of elevated [CO2] on gs at the leaf to ecosystem ET, soybean (Glycine max) was grown in field conditions under control (approximately 375 μmol CO2 mol−1 air) and elevated [CO2] (approximately 550 μmol mol−1) using free air CO2 enrichment. ET was determined from the time of canopy closure to crop senescence using a residual energy balance approach over four growing seasons. Elevated [CO2] caused ET to decrease between 9% and 16% depending on year and despite large increases in photosynthesis and seed yield. Ecosystem ET was linked with gs of the upper canopy leaves when averaged across the growing seasons, such that a 10% decrease in gs results in a 8.6% decrease in ET; this relationship was not altered by growth at elevated [CO2]. The findings are consistent with model and historical analyses that suggest that, despite system feedbacks, decreased gs of upper canopy leaves at elevated [CO2] results in decreased transfer of water vapor to the atmosphere. PMID:17114275

  16. Isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of point contacts. III - Fully flooded results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures outlined by the authors in an earlier publication (1976) on theoretical formulation for isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of point contacts are used to assess the influence of the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and material parameters on minimum film thickness. Conditions equivalent to using solid materials of bronze, steel, and silicon nitride, and lubricants of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils are considered in obtaining the exponent on the dimensionless material parameter. Thirty-four different cases are used to generate the fully flooded film thickness formula. A fully flooded condition is said to exist when the inlet distance of the conjunction ceases to influence in any significant way the minimum film thickness. Contour plots are also shown that indicate in detail the pressure spike and two side lobes in which the minimum film thickness occurs.

  17. Can fast-growing plantation trees escape biochemical down-regulation of photosynthesis when grown throughout their complete production cycle in the open air under elevated carbon dioxide?

    PubMed

    Davey, P A; Olcer, H; Zakhleniuk, O; Bernacchi, C J; Calfapietra, C; Long, S P; Raines, C A

    2006-07-01

    Poplar trees sustain close to the predicted increase in leaf photosynthesis when grown under long-term elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]). To investigate the mechanisms underlying this response, carbohydrate accumulation and protein expression were determined over four seasons of growth. No increase in the levels of soluble carbohydrates was observed in the young expanding or mature sun leaves of the three poplar genotypes during this period. However, substantial increases in starch levels were observed in the mature leaves of all three poplar genotypes grown in elevated [CO2]. Despite the very high starch levels, no changes in the expression of photosynthetic Calvin cycle proteins, or in the starch biosynthetic enzyme ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), were observed. This suggested that no long-term photosynthetic acclimation to CO2 occurred in these plants. Our data indicate that poplar trees are able to 'escape' from long-term, acclimatory down-regulation of photosynthesis through a high capacity for starch synthesis and carbon export. These findings show that these poplar genotypes are well suited to the elevated [CO2] conditions forecast for the middle of this century and may be particularly suited for planting for the long-term carbon sequestration into wood.

  18. Long term monitoring of open-air monuments under threat: the case study of the "Tombs of the Kings" in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, A.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.; Alexakis, D. D.; Themistocleous, K.; Michaelides, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since antiquity, Cyprus has been a crossroad were various cultures, arts and ideas were deposited. This is evidenced by its huge archaeological residues spread all over the island. Open to air monuments are being exposed to environmental conditions and without any appropriate measures various deterioration factors may become disastrous. Monitoring Cultural Heritage (CH) Sites and Monuments in Cyprus is commonly based on site observations. However, this procedure which includes data collection, periodical observations and multivariate risk assessment analysis, is difficult to be accomplished with the traditional practices and methods, since it is time consuming and expensive. In contrast, new technologies like satellite sensing sensors and in situ measurements can successfully confront this problem by providing to the scientists an integrated and multi-layer monitoring system for vast areas simultaneously. The present paper describes the registration of deterioration processes in one of the most important archaeological areas in Cyprus, listed in the World's Cultural Heritage Sites, the so called "Tomb of the Kings" at Nea Pafos. This work is a part of the research programme "Managing Cultural Heritage Sites through Space and ground Technologies using Geographical Information Systems: A Pilot application at the archaeological sites of Paphos", funded by the Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus. The project concerns the region of Paphos district in western Cyprus and it deals with cultural heritage sites managements using integrated space and ground technologies, aiming at risk assessment of the areas under examination. The paper presents the methodological framework of the project with some preliminary results for the long term monitoring of Cultural Heritage Sites based, not only in situ observations, but also on using new technologies such as satellite images for retrieving air pollution, laser scanner, thermo-cameras etc.

  19. Stable single-wavelength emission from fully chaotic microcavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunada, Satoshi; Fukushima, Takehiro; Shinohara, Susumu; Harayama, Takahisa; Adachi, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    We experimentally and numerically show that single-wavelength emission can be stably observed for a fully chaotic microcavity laser with a stadium shape under continuous wave condition. The emission pattern is asymmetric with respect to the symmetry axes of the laser cavity, and it cannot be explained by a single cavity mode. On the basis of numerical analysis, we interpret such a lasing as the result of frequency-locking interaction among several low-loss cavity modes. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the optical spectral properties of the laser under pulsed-pumping condition, and discuss the pulse-width dependence on the number of lasing modes.

  20. Work extraction and fully entangled fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chung-Yun; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2017-07-01

    For a bipartite state with equal local dimension d , we prove that one can obtain work gain under Landauer's erasure process on one party in the identically and independently distributed limit when the corresponding fully entangled fraction is larger than 1/d . By processing a given state to the maximally mixed state, we give an approximation for the largest extractable work with an error in the energy scale, which becomes negligible in the large system limit. As a step to link quantum thermodynamics and quantum nonlocality, we also provide a simple picture to approximate the optimal work extraction and suggest a potential thermodynamic interpretation of the fully entangled fraction for isotropic states.

  1. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhua, Wang; Qiujing, Zhang; Haiguang, Liu

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  2. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications. PMID:23112644

  3. Conduction in fully ionized liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    Electron transport is considered in high density fully ionized liquid metals. Ionic structure is described in terms of hard-sphere correlation functions and the scattering is determined from self-consistently screened point ions. Applications to the physical properties of the deep interior of Jupiter are briefly considered.

  4. Conduction in fully ionized liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Electron transport is considered in high-density fully ionized liquid metals. Ionic structure is described in terms of hard-sphere-correlation functions and the scattering is determined from self-consistently screened point ions. Applications to the physical properties of the deep interior of Jupiter are briefly considered.

  5. Fully Implict Magneto-hydrodynamics Simulations of Coaxial Plasma Accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-01-05

    The resistive Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) model describes the behavior of a strongly ionized plasma in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields. We developed a fully implicit MHD simulation tool to solve the resistive MHD governing equations in the context of a cell-centered finite-volume scheme. The primary objective of this study is to use the fully-implicit algorithm to obtain insights into the plasma acceleration and jet formation processes in Coaxial Plasma accelerators; electromagnetic acceleration devices that utilize self-induced magnetic fields to accelerate thermal plasmas to large velocities. We also carry out plasma-surface simulations in order to study the impact interactionsmore » when these high velocity plasma jets impinge on target material surfaces. Scaling studies are carried out to establish some basic functional relationships between the target-stagnation conditions and the current discharged between the coaxial electrodes.« less

  6. Land cover classification comparisons among dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric, and fully polarimetric SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bhogendra; Susaki, Junichi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, an approach is proposed that predicts fully polarimetric data from dual polarimetric data, and then applies selected supervised algorithm for dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric and fully polarimetric dataset for the land cover classification comparison. A regression model has been developed to predict the complex variables of VV polarimetric component and amplitude independently using corresponding complex variables and amplitude in HH and HV bands. Support vector machine (SVM)is implemented for the land cover classification. Coherency matrix and amplitude were used for all dataset for the land cover classification independently.They are used to compare the data from different perspective. Finally, a post processing technique is implemented to remove the isolated pixels appeared as a noise. AVNIR-2 optical data over the same area is used as ground truth data to access the classification accuracy.The result from SVM indicates that the fully polarimetric mode gives the maximum classification accuracy followed by pseudo-fully polarimetric and dual polarimetric datasets using coherency matrix input for fully polarimetric image and pseudo-fully polarimetric image and covariance matrix input for dual polarimetric image. Additionally, it is observed that pseudo-fully polarimetric image with amplitude input does not show the significant improvement over dual polarimetric image with same input.

  7. Turbulence Effects on Open Air Multipaths.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Director Ann Arbor, MI 48107 US Army Combat Survl & Target Acquisition Laboratory Mr. William A. Main ATTN: DELCS-D USDA Forest Service Fort Monmouth, NJ...th- :) - Y - -eter ! nfrared _, , r-ror," 7M.K - , " 7 4’ . Bonner, Pobert ., and ?. Nowton, "Appl ication of the A/GVS-5 Laser Raenqe~’nder v o -.< e...34User’s Guide for Passive Target Acquisition Prograf- Two (PTAP-2)," ASI,-TR-060, June 1980. 132. Holt, E. H., editor, "Atmosiheric Data Requiremren’s

  8. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  9. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  10. Fully resolved simulations of particle sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Adam; Wang, Yayun; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Progress in computational capabilities - and specifically in the realm of massively parallel architectures - render possible the simulation of fully resolved fluid-particle systems. This development will drastically improve physical understanding and modelling of these systems when the particle size is not negligible and their concentration appreciable. Using a newly developed GPU-centric implementation of the Physalis method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of finite-sized spheres, we carry out fully resolved simulations of more than one thousand sedimenting spheres. We discuss the results of these simulations focusing on statistical aspects such as particle velocity fluctuations, particle pair distribution function, microstructure, and others. Supported by NSF Grant CBET 1335965.

  11. Fully Passive Wireless Acquisition of Neuropotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdt, Helen N.

    The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite immense advancements in creating a variety of instruments to record signals from the brain, the translation of such neurorecording instrumentation to real clinical domains places heavy demands on their safety and reliability, both of which are not entirely portrayed by presently existing implantable recording solutions. In an attempt to lower these barriers, alternative wireless radar backscattering techniques are proposed to render the technical burdens of the implant chip to entirely passive neurorecording processes that transpire in the absence of formal integrated power sources or powering schemes along with any active circuitry. These radar-like wireless backscattering mechanisms are used to conceive of fully passive neurorecording operations of an implantable microsystem. The fully passive device potentially manifests inherent advantages over current wireless implantable and wired recording systems: negligible heat dissipation to reduce risks of brain tissue damage and minimal circuitry for long term reliability as a chronic implant. Fully passive neurorecording operations are realized via intrinsic nonlinear mixing properties of the varactor diode. These mixing and recording operations are directly activated by wirelessly interrogating the fully passive device with a microwave carrier signal. This fundamental carrier signal, acquired by the implant antenna, mixes through the varactor diode along with the internal targeted neuropotential brain signals to produce higher frequency harmonics containing the targeted neuropotential signals. These harmonics are backscattered wirelessly to the external interrogator that retrieves and recovers the original neuropotential brain signal. The passive approach removes the need for internal power

  12. Research Program in Fully Distributed Processing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    final report Status: published * U. Date: June, 1981 Athor( s ): A. Jensen, J. Bingham, J. Doyle, and J. Gehl Mle: Automating the Exchange of Military...Security K. Sys k~aAgAmnt L. anl uf ± Dmparl n L.1 Simulation of Distributed Algorithms (Griffeth, Lynch) M . Z=.I Tealbed M .1 Establishment of FDPS...Testbed Facility M .3 Fully Distributed Operating System Simulation Testbed A.2 Decomposition of Parallel Systems (Lynch, Fischer) This project was

  13. Research Program in Fully Distributed Processing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Research Program Quarterly Prog Report 7 K. System Maaemn L. Evaiuation A omparison L.1 Simulation of Distributed Algorithms (Griffeth, Lynch) M . FD...Testbed M .1 Establishment of FDPS Testbed Facility M .2 Remote Load Emulator M .3 Fully Distributed Operating System Simulation Testbed 4. SUMAR DE...framework and instructions for its use is in preparation. D.2 Support of MILPERCEN Data Storage Concept (Jensen, Doyle, Gehl , Bingham) The final report is

  14. Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Vincent Andrew

    1996-05-01

    This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method.

  15. Measurement of pixel response functions of a fully depleted CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Niwa, Yoshito; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Hara, Takuji; Yamada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-07-01

    We describe the measurement of detailed and precise Pixel Response Functions (PRFs) of a fully depleted CCD. Measurements were performed under different physical conditions, such as different wavelength light sources or CCD operating temperatures. We determined the relations between these physical conditions and the forms of the PRF. We employ two types of PRFs: one is the model PRF (mPRF) that can represent the shape of a PRF with one characteristic parameter and the other is the simulated PRF (sPRF) that is the resultant PRF from simulating physical phenomena. By using measured, model, and simulated PRFs, we determined the relations between operational parameters and the PRFs. Using the obtained relations, we can now estimate a PRF under conditions that will be encountered during the course of Nano-JASMINE observations. These estimated PRFs will be utilized in the analysis of the Nano-JASMINE data.

  16. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN STRATIFIED SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2013-07-10

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with zero magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite (constant) thermal diffusivity. We choose radiative boundary conditions at the vertical boundaries in which the heat flux is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. We compare the results with the corresponding cases in which fixed temperature boundary conditions are applied. The most notable result is that the formation of a fully convective state in which the density is nearly constant as a function of height and the heat is transported to the upper and lower boundaries by overturning motions is robust and persists even in cases with radiative boundary conditions. Interestingly, in the convective regime, although the diffusive transport is negligible, the mean stratification does not relax to an adiabatic state.

  17. Building Extraction from Remote Sensing Data Using Fully Convolutional Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, K.; Cui, S.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-05-01

    Building detection and footprint extraction are highly demanded for many remote sensing applications. Though most previous works have shown promising results, the automatic extraction of building footprints still remains a nontrivial topic, especially in complex urban areas. Recently developed extensions of the CNN framework made it possible to perform dense pixel-wise classification of input images. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology, which automatically generates a full resolution binary building mask out of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) using a Fully Convolution Network (FCN) architecture. The advantage of using the depth information is that it provides geometrical silhouettes and allows a better separation of buildings from background as well as through its invariance to illumination and color variations. The proposed framework has mainly two steps. Firstly, the FCN is trained on a large set of patches consisting of normalized DSM (nDSM) as inputs and available ground truth building mask as target outputs. Secondly, the generated predictions from FCN are viewed as unary terms for a Fully connected Conditional Random Fields (FCRF), which enables us to create a final binary building mask. A series of experiments demonstrate that our methodology is able to extract accurate building footprints which are close to the buildings original shapes to a high degree. The quantitative and qualitative analysis show the significant improvements of the results in contrast to the multy-layer fully connected network from our previous work.

  18. Description and calibration of a fully automated infrared scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainguy, Stephane; Olivier, Michel; Josse, Michel A.; Guidon, Michel

    1991-12-01

    A fully automated scatterometer, designed for BRDF measurements in the IR at about 10 micrometers , is described. Basically, it works around a reflecting parabola (464 mm diameter, F/0.25) and permits measurements in and out of the plane of incidence. Optical properties of the parabolic mirror are emphasized by a ray-tracing technique which permits determination of the correct illumination on the sample and detection conditions of scattered light. Advantages and drawbacks of such an instrument are discussed, as well as calibration procedures. As a conclusion, we present experimental results to illustrate the instrument capabilities.

  19. Continuity waves in fully resolved simulations of settling particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willen, Daniel; Sierakowski, Adam; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Fully resolved simulations of 500 to 2,000 particles settling in a fluid have been conducted with the Physalis method. A new approach to the reconstruction of pseudo-continuum fields is described and is used to examine the results with the purpose of identifying concentration waves. The velocity of concentration waves is successfully deduced from the simulations. A comparison of the results with continuity wave theory shows good agreement. Several new insights about the particle microstructure conditionally averaged on volume fraction and velocity are also described. This work is supported by NSF award CBET1335965.

  20. Mitsunobu Reactions Catalytic in Phosphine and a Fully Catalytic System

    PubMed Central

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-01-01

    The Mitsunobu reaction is renowned for its mild reaction conditions and broad substrate tolerance, but has limited utility in process chemistry and industrial applications due to poor atom economy and the generation of stoichiometric phosphine oxide and hydrazine by-products that complicate purification. A catalytic Mitsunobu reaction using innocuous reagents to recycle these by-products would overcome both of these shortcomings. Herein we report a protocol that is catalytic in phosphine (1-phenylphospholane) employing phenylsilane to recycle the catalyst. Integration of this phosphine catalytic cycle with Taniguchi’s azocarboxylate catalytic system provided the first fully catalytic Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:26347115

  1. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or...

  2. Fully scalable video coding with packed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Manuel F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian G.; Ortiz, Juan Pablo; Dana, Jose Miguel; Ruiz, Vicente G.; Garcia, Inmaculada

    2005-03-01

    Scalable video coding is a technique which allows a compressed video stream to be decoded in several different ways. This ability allows a user to adaptively recover a specific version of a video depending on its own requirements. Video sequences have temporal, spatial and quality scalabilities. In this work we introduce a novel fully scalable video codec. It is based on a motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF) of the video sequences and it uses some of the basic elements of JPEG 2000. This paper describes several specific proposals for video on demand and video-conferencing applications over non-reliable packet-switching data networks.

  3. Stereoselective Formation of Fully Substituted Ketone Enolates.

    PubMed

    Haimov, Elvira; Nairoukh, Zackaria; Shterenberg, Alexander; Berkovitz, Tiran; Jamison, Timothy F; Marek, Ilan

    2016-04-25

    The application of stereochemically defined acyclic fully substituted enolates of ketones to the enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocenters would be highly valuable. Herein, we describe an approach leading to the formation of several new stereogenic centers through a combined metalation-addition of a carbonyl-carbamoyl transfer to reveal in situ stereodefined α,α-disubstituted enolates of ketone as a single stereoisomer. This approach could produce a series of aldol and Mannich products from enol carbamate with excellent diastereomeric ratios.

  4. Bonabeau model on a fully connected graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarz, K.; Stauffer, D.; Kułakowski, K.

    2006-03-01

    Numerical simulations are reported on the Bonabeau model on a fully connected graph, where spatial degrees of freedom are absent. The control parameter is the memory factor f. The phase transition is observed at the dispersion of the agents power hi. The critical value fC shows a hysteretic behavior with respect to the initial distribution of hi. fC decreases with the system size; this decrease can be compensated by a greater number of fights between a global reduction of the distribution width of hi. The latter step is equivalent to a partial forgetting.

  5. Finite solutions of fully fuzzy linear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghassan; Ahmad, Nazihah; Ibrahim, Haslinda

    2014-12-01

    The solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS) is normally categorized as unique, finite and infinitely many solutions. However, in the case of more than one solution, the finite or alternative solution is not detected when linear programming is considered. Therefore this paper aims to provide a method of using min-max system and absolute system to append new concept for the consistency of FFLS, which is called finite solution of FFLS, where the FFLS have more than two solutions, and not only an infinite solution.

  6. Ability of TiO2(110) Surface to Be Fully Hydroxylated and Fully Reduced

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhitao; Garcia, Juan C.; Deskins, N. A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2015-08-06

    Many TiO2 applications (e.g., in heterogeneous catalysis) involve contact with ambient atmosphere and/or water. The resulting hydroxylation can significantly alter its surface properties. While behavior of single, isolated OH species on the model metal oxide surface of rutile TiO2(110) is relatively well understood, much less is known regarding highly-hydroxylated surfaces and/or whether TiO2(110) could be fully-hydroxylated under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Here we report in situ formation of a well-ordered, fully-hydroxylated TiO2(110)-(1 x 1) surface using an enhanced photochemical approach, key parts of which are pre-dosing of water and multi-step dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis of the carboxylic (trimethyl acetic) acid. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy, ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory results, we show that the attained “super OH” surface is also fully-reduced, as a result of the photochemical trapping of electrons at the OH groups.

  7. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Craig C.

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  8. Laissez-Faire : Fully Asymmetric Backscatter Communication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pan; Zhang, Pengyu; Ganesan, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Backscatter provides dual-benefits of energy harvesting and low-power communication, making it attractive to a broad class of wireless sensors. But the design of a protocol that enables extremely power-efficient radios for harvesting-based sensors as well as high-rate data transfer for data-rich sensors presents a conundrum. In this paper, we present a new fully asymmetric backscatter communication protocol where nodes blindly transmit data as and when they sense. This model enables fully flexible node designs, from extraordinarily power-efficient backscatter radios that consume barely a few micro-watts to high-throughput radios that can stream at hundreds of Kbps while consuming a paltry tens of micro-watts. The challenge, however, lies in decoding concurrent streams at the reader, which we achieve using a novel combination of time-domain separation of interleaved signal edges, and phase-domain separation of colliding transmissions. We provide an implementation of our protocol, LF-Backscatter, and show that it can achieve an order of magnitude or more improvement in throughput, latency and power over state-of-art alternatives. PMID:28286885

  9. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A.; Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  10. Dermoscopy of fully regressive cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bories, N; Dalle, S; Debarbieux, S; Balme, B; Ronger-Savlé, S; Thomas, L

    2008-06-01

    Metastatic melanoma of unknown origin is a difficult challenge diagnostically and therapeutically. Diagnosis of the putative primary lesion is difficult. This difficulty increases when the primary lesion has undergone complete regression. To define the dermoscopic features of fully regressed melanoma. A single-institution, register-based study of an unselected consecutive series of seven cases of metastatic melanoma in the lymph nodes with no known or visible primary lesion was carried out. Skin examination included dermoscopy; when a suspicious area was found, observed dermoscopic features were recorded and a biopsy was performed. Diagnosis of completely regressive cutaneous melanoma was based on clinical-pathological correlation according to widely accepted criteria. Seven dermoscopic features were associated with completely regressive melanoma: scar-like depigmentation (100%); pink coloration of the background (100%); linear-irregular vessels (86%); globular pattern of the vessels (43%); remnants of pigmentation (86%), either macular (43%) or with a peppering aspect (43%); and white lighter transverse bands (43%). The last feature was only observed with polarized light dermoscopy devices. Dermoscopy more accurately distinguishes the vascular, pigmentary and scarring changes of fully regressive melanoma. We believe that dermoscopy should be included in the search for a regressive primary lesion in case of metastatic melanoma of unknown origin.

  11. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping.

    PubMed

    Martens, Craig C

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) "probability" of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  12. Fully industrialised single photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, S.; Rae, B.

    2017-05-01

    Single Photon Avalanche diodes (SPADs) were first realized more than five decades ago[1][1], and have now been industrialized for mass production in the 130 nm CMOS technology node by STMicroelectronics (STM). In this paper we present the latest STM SPAD with an excellent NIR photon detection probability (>5% at 850nm), a dark count rate median of 100 cps at room temperature and a low breakdown voltage of 14.2V. The dead time of the SPAD is approximately 25 ns, leading to a maximum count rate of 40 Mcps. Thanks to the 130 nm gate length of the CMOS technology used and the associated high digital gate density, complex digital signal processing can be implemented allowing fully integrated systems to be realized. The low bias required by the SPAD makes it possible for voltage generation to be achieved on-chip (e.g. charge pumped). We introduce our first generation time-of-flight system (VL6180) based on the STM SPAD technology, which is capable of ranging up to 60 cm in 60 ms. Ranging capabilities and accuracy are measured using a set of moving targets with reflectance of 5%, 17% and 88% in a fully automated test bed. To the best of our knowledge this was the first high volume SPAD-based device. To our knowledge this is the first time details of SPAD performance over production volumes and lifetime have been presented.

  13. Application of a Fully Numerical Guidance to Mars Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, Daniel A.; Lu, Ping; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Sostaric, Ronald R.

    2017-01-01

    An advanced guidance algorithm, Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Aerocapture Guidance (FNPAG), has been developed to perform aerocapture maneuvers in an optimal manner. It is a model-based, numerical guidance that benefits from requiring few adjustments across a variety of different hypersonic vehicle lift-to-drag ratios, ballistic co-efficients, and atmospheric entry conditions. In this paper, FNPAG is first applied to the Mars Rigid Vehicle (MRV) mid lift-to-drag ratio concept. Then the study is generalized to a design map of potential Mars aerocapture missions and vehicles, ranging from the scale and requirements of recent robotic to potential human and precursor missions. The design map results show the versatility of FNPAG and provide insight for the design of Mars aerocapture vehicles and atmospheric entry conditions to achieve desired performance.

  14. The fully differential top decay distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Boudreau, J.; Escobar, C.; ...

    2017-03-29

    We write down the four-dimensional fully differential decay distribution for the top quark decay t → Wb → ℓνb. We discuss how its eight physical parameters can be measured, either with a global fit or with the use of selected one-dimensional distributions and asymmetries. We give expressions for the top decay amplitudes for a general tbW interaction, and show how the untangled measurement of the two components of the fraction of longitudinal W bosons – those with b quark helicities of 1/2 and –1/2, respectively – could improve the precision of a global fit to the tbW vertex.

  15. Osmotic flow through fully permeable nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Cottin-Bizonne, C; Biance, A-L; Joseph, P; Bocquet, L; Ybert, C

    2014-06-20

    Osmosis across membranes is intrinsically associated with the concept of semipermeability. Here, however, we demonstrate that osmotic flow can be generated by solute gradients across nonselective, fully permeable nanochannels. Using a fluorescence imaging technique, we are able to measure the water flow rate inside single nanochannels to an unprecedented sensitivity of femtoliters per minute flow rates. Our results indicate the onset of a convective liquid motion under salinity gradients, from the higher to lower electrolyte concentration, which is attributed to diffusio-osmotic transport. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence and quantitative investigation of this subtle interfacially driven transport, which need to be accounted for in nanoscale dynamics. Finally, diffusio-osmotic transport under a neutral polymer gradient is also demonstrated. The experiments highlight the entropic depletion of polymers that occurs at the nanochannel surface, resulting in convective flow in the opposite direction to that seen for electrolytes.

  16. Osmotic Flow through Fully Permeable Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Cottin-Bizonne, C.; Biance, A.-L.; Joseph, P.; Bocquet, L.; Ybert, C.

    2014-06-01

    Osmosis across membranes is intrinsically associated with the concept of semipermeability. Here, however, we demonstrate that osmotic flow can be generated by solute gradients across nonselective, fully permeable nanochannels. Using a fluorescence imaging technique, we are able to measure the water flow rate inside single nanochannels to an unprecedented sensitivity of femtoliters per minute flow rates. Our results indicate the onset of a convective liquid motion under salinity gradients, from the higher to lower electrolyte concentration, which is attributed to diffusio-osmotic transport. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence and quantitative investigation of this subtle interfacially driven transport, which need to be accounted for in nanoscale dynamics. Finally, diffusio-osmotic transport under a neutral polymer gradient is also demonstrated. The experiments highlight the entropic depletion of polymers that occurs at the nanochannel surface, resulting in convective flow in the opposite direction to that seen for electrolytes.

  17. A fully automated remote refraction system.

    PubMed

    Dyer, A M; Kirk, A H

    2000-01-01

    Traditional methods of performing refractions depend on a trained refractionist being present with the subject and conducting an interactive form of subjective testing. A fully automated refraction system was installed in 13 optical dispensaries and after 15 months the patient and statistical information was gathered. The data from all operators were consistent and suggested a lack of operator effect on the refraction results. The mean of the SD of subjective sphere measurements was 0.2, or slightly less than a quarter dioptre, which would be an acceptable level of accuracy for ordering corrective lenses. The present study suggests an absence of operator influence on the results of the refractions and a degree of consistency and accuracy compatible with the prescription of lenses.

  18. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors goes to TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's three ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 19, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors is for TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 18, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. The image has been brightened to show the fine mesh.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Mechanical properties of fully hydrogenated graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Mirnezhad, M.; Rouhi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Graphane is a two-dimensional structure consisting of a flat monolayer graphene sheet fully covered with hydrogen atoms attached to its carbon atoms in an alternating pattern. The unique properties of graphane make it suitable for different applications. In this paper, the mechanical properties of the most stable conformer of graphane, the so-called chair-like, are extensively investigated using density functional theory (DFT) scheme within the framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the well-known Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation. It is shown that the hydrogenation has significant influences on the mechanical properties of graphene sheet. In particular, it is found that the elastic, bulk and shear moduli and Poisson's ratio of the chair-graphane are significantly smaller than those of graphene.

  1. A model for fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Chasnov, J.

    1987-11-01

    A model for stationary, fully developed turbulence is presented in which the turbulent spectral energy function is completely determined once the time scale for the energy fed into the eddy interaction is known. The form of the eddy correlation time scale determining the turbulent viscosity is suggested by the basic equation of the model itself, up to a dimensionless constant that is fixed by demanding that the coefficient of the spectrum in the Heisenberg-Kolmogoroff inertial range of wavenunmbers be the experimental value. The model makes quantitative predictions that are compared with data on turbulent convection; the k-epsilon and Smagorinsky relations; the spectral function, transfer term, and dissipation term; the skewness factor; the Kolmogoroff and Batchelor constants; and the inertial-conductive and inertial-convective ranges.

  2. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  3. Transition from a fully ionized plasma to an absorbing surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, N. A.; Benilov, M. S.; Franklin, R. N.; Naidis, G. V.

    2004-11-01

    The ionization layer (presheath) separating a fully ionized low-temperature thermal plasma from the space-charge sheath adjacent to a solid surface is described by means of a (multi)fluid model. The character of the solution is governed by α, the ratio of the ionization length to the mean free path for ion-atom collisions. If α >= 1, the solution is determined by physically transparent boundary conditions, namely, by the Bohm criterion at the sheath edge and the condition of full ionization on the plasma side of the ionization layer. If α < 1, the latter condition becomes ineffective. An alternative boundary condition is found for a certain range of α below unity, αcr <= α < 1. An approximate approach which spans the whole range of α is suggested. While being incomplete theoretically, this approach is sufficient for practical purposes and gives results that are in agreement with experiment. On the other hand, the question of what is the lacking boundary condition in the range 0 < α < αcr remains open and challenging.

  4. Reactive Transport Modeling of Induced Calcite Precipitation Reaction Fronts in Porous Media Using A Parallel, Fully Coupled, Fully Implicit Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Huang, H.; Gaston, D.; Redden, G. D.; Fox, D. T.; Fujita, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Inducing mineral precipitation in the subsurface is one potential strategy for immobilizing trace metal and radionuclide contaminants. Generating mineral precipitates in situ can be achieved by manipulating chemical conditions, typically through injection or in situ generation of reactants. How these reactants transport, mix and react within the medium controls the spatial distribution and composition of the resulting mineral phases. Multiple processes, including fluid flow, dispersive/diffusive transport of reactants, biogeochemical reactions and changes in porosity-permeability, are tightly coupled over a number of scales. Numerical modeling can be used to investigate the nonlinear coupling effects of these processes which are quite challenging to explore experimentally. Many subsurface reactive transport simulators employ a de-coupled or operator-splitting approach where transport equations and batch chemistry reactions are solved sequentially. However, such an approach has limited applicability for biogeochemical systems with fast kinetics and strong coupling between chemical reactions and medium properties. A massively parallel, fully coupled, fully implicit Reactive Transport simulator (referred to as “RAT”) based on a parallel multi-physics object-oriented simulation framework (MOOSE) has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Within this simulator, systems of transport and reaction equations can be solved simultaneously in a fully coupled, fully implicit manner using the Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method with additional advanced computing capabilities such as (1) physics-based preconditioning for solution convergence acceleration, (2) massively parallel computing and scalability, and (3) adaptive mesh refinements for 2D and 3D structured and unstructured mesh. The simulator was first tested against analytical solutions, then applied to simulating induced calcium carbonate mineral precipitation in 1D columns and 2D flow cells as analogs

  5. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  6. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  7. Convergence analysis of fully complex backpropagation algorithm based on Wirtinger calculus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huisheng; Liu, Xiaodong; Xu, Dongpo; Zhang, Ying

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the fully complex backpropagation algorithm (FCBPA) for training the fully complex-valued neural networks. We prove both the weak convergence and strong convergence of FCBPA under mild conditions. The decreasing monotonicity of the error functions during the training process is also obtained. The derivation and analysis of the algorithm are under the framework of Wirtinger calculus, which greatly reduces the description complexity. The theoretical results are substantiated by a simulation example.

  8. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving

  9. Monitoring coverage of fully immunized children.

    PubMed

    Tsega, Asnakew; Daniel, Fussum; Steinglass, Robert

    2014-12-12

    Immunization programs monitor 3rd dose of DPT-containing vaccine coverage as a principal indicator; however, this does not inform about coverage with other vaccines. A mini-survey was conducted to assess the status of monitoring coverage of fully immunized children (FIC) in Eastern and Southern African countries. We designed and distributed a structured self-administered questionnaire to all 19 national program managers attending a meeting in March 2014 in Harare, Zimbabwe. We learned that most countries already monitor FIC coverage and managers appreciate the importance of monitoring this as a national indicator, as it aligns with the full benefits of immunization. This mini-survey concluded that at national level, FIC coverage could be used as a principal indicator; however, at global level DPT3 has some additional advantages across all countries in standardizing the capacity of the immunization program to deliver multiple doses of the same vaccine to all children by 12 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FULLY COMPRESSIVE TIDES IN GALAXY MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, F.; Boily, C. M.; Naab, T.; Theis, Ch.

    2009-11-20

    The disruptive effect of galactic tides is a textbook example of gravitational dynamics. However, depending on the shape of the potential, tides can also become fully compressive. When that is the case, they might trigger or strengthen the formation of galactic substructures (star clusters and tidal dwarf galaxies), instead of destroying them. We perform N-body simulations of interacting galaxies to quantify this effect. We demonstrate that tidal compression occurs repeatedly during a galaxy merger, independently of the specific choice of parameterization. With a model tailored to the Antennae galaxies, we show that the distribution of compressive tides matches the locations and timescales of observed substructures. After extending our study to a broad range of parameters, we conclude that neither the importance of the compressive tides (approx15% of the stellar mass) nor their duration (approx10{sup 7} yr) is strongly affected by changes in the progenitors' configurations and orbits. Moreover, we show that individual clumps of matter can enter compressive regions several times in the course of a simulation. We speculate that this may spawn multiple star formation episodes in some star clusters, through, e.g., enhanced gas retention.

  11. Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturelli, Davide; Mandrà, Salvatore; Knysh, Sergey; O'Gorman, Bryan; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2015-07-01

    Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer's hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave TwoTM annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors) optimized simulated annealing algorithms.

  12. Fully reusable launch vehicle with airbreathing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The performance of a two-stage, fully reusable scramjet-Shuttle launch vehicle is examined analytically. The first stage of the hybrid vehicle would be a hydrocarbon/hydrogen fueled air breathing hypersonic aircraft. The winged booster, in one configuration, would be equipped with both turbojets and scramjets, and the Orbiter would be a scaled-up version of the present STS Orbiter. The nominal mission would involve placing a 65,000 lb payload into a 92.5 x 185 km orbit. The size of the manned first stage is dictated by the ventricle gross weight, density, and contents, with the fuel carried in integrated tanks. A delta planform is presented, with an elliptical cone forebody, an elliptical cross-section afterbody, and a smooth transition surface from the end of the forebody to the straightline leading edge. Formulations are defined for the wing loading, gross density, fatness ratio, and breadpoint ratio, as well as for the propulsion, aerodynamics, and trajectories.

  13. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  14. Axisymmetric fully spectral code for hyperbolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panosso Macedo, Rodrigo; Ansorg, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    We present a fully pseudo-spectral scheme to solve axisymmetric hyperbolic equations of second order. With the Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions, the numerical grid is based on the Lobbato (for two spatial directions) and Radau (for the time direction) collocation points. The method solves two issues of previous algorithms which were restricted to one spatial dimension, namely, (i) the inversion of a dense matrix and (ii) the acquisition of a sufficiently good initial-guess for non-linear systems of equations. For the first issue, we use the iterative bi-conjugate gradient stabilized method, which we equip with a pre-conditioner based on a singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (“SDIRK”-) method. In this paper, the SDIRK-method is also used to solve issue (ii). The numerical solutions are correct up to machine precision and we do not observe any restriction concerning the time step in comparison with the spatial resolution. As an application, we solve general-relativistic wave equations on a black-hole space-time in so-called hyperboloidal slices and reproduce some recent results available in the literature.

  15. Fully synchronous ice-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, James; Holland, Paul; Jenkins, Adrian; Goldberg, Dan; Snow, Kate; Arthern, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Very little of the Antarctic ice sheet experiences surface melting; much of its ablation takes place under the floating extensions of the sheet (ice shelves), which are exposed to ocean warming. Ice-shelf thinning due to submarine melting has the potential to cause significant ice loss from portions of the ice sheet, and hence sea-level rise. Oceanographic and remote-sensing observations of this region in recent years have shown a pattern of high ice-shelf melt rates coincident with widespread thinning of grounded ice and therefore sea-level rise. However, the processes by which ocean warming leads to ice-sheet loss are poorly understood. The gap in knowledge is in part due to a lack of coupled numerical ice-ocean models capable of representing the key feedbacks between the ocean and ice shelves. To change this, a fully synchronous, coupled ice-ocean model of the ice-shelf/ocean system has been developed using MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model) to investigate these processes. Unlike previous asynchronous coupled models, the position of the ice-ocean interface evolves every time step with no need for dump and restart methods. We present here work showing the coupled evolution of the ice ocean-system and the effect of melting upon buttressing strength.

  16. High anisotropy of fully hydrogenated borophene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Lü, Tie-Yu; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Feng, Yuan Ping; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2016-11-23

    We have studied the mechanical properties and phonon dispersions of fully hydrogenated borophene (borophane) under strains by first principles calculations. Uniaxial tensile strains along the a- and b-direction, respectively, and biaxial tensile strain have been considered. Our results show that the mechanical properties and phonon stability of borophane are both highly anisotropic. The ultimate tensile strain along the a-direction is only 0.12, but it can be as large as 0.30 along the b-direction. Compared to borophene and other 2D materials (graphene, graphane, silicene, silicane, h-BN, phosphorene and MoS2), borophane presents the most remarkable anisotropy in in-plane ultimate strain, which is very important for strain engineering. Furthermore, the phonon dispersions under the three applied strains indicate that borophane can withstand up to 5% and 15% uniaxial tensile strain along the a- and b-direction, respectively, and 9% biaxial tensile strain, indicating that mechanical failure in borophane is likely to originate from phonon instability.

  17. Fully printed flexible carbon nanotube photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Wang, Tongyu; Miao, Jinshui; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Wang, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report fully printed flexible photodetectors based on single-wall carbon nanotubes and the study of their electrical characteristics under laser illumination. Due to the photothermal effect and the use of high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes, the devices exhibit gate-voltage-dependent photoresponse with the positive photocurrent or semiconductor-like behavior (conductivity increases at elevated temperatures) under positive gate biases and the negative photocurrent or metal-like behavior (conductivity decreases at elevated temperatures) under negative gate biases. Mechanism for such photoresponse is attributed to the different temperature dependencies of carrier concentration and carrier mobility, which are two competing factors that ultimately determine the photothermal effect-based photoresponse. The photodetectors built on the polyimide substrate also exhibit superior mechanical compliance and stable photoresponse after thousands of bending cycles down to a curvature radius as small as 3 mm. Furthermore, due to the low thermal conductivity of the plastic substrate, the devices show up to 6.5 fold improvement in responsivity compared to the devices built on the silicon substrate. The results presented here provide a viable path to low cost and high performance flexible photodetectors fabricated entirely by the printing process.

  18. Spatial beam splitting for fully integrated MEMSinterferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khirallah, Kareem; Ramsis, Inas; Serry, Mohamed; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Sedky, Sherif

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel design of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System "MEMS" based Fourier transform spectrometer. This design is based on spatial truncation of the input Gaussian beam into two symmetric semi-Gaussian beams using V shape mirror. The design is fully integrated and can operate in the Infrared and visible region. The analysis shows that, a minimum resolution of 9 nm at wavelength 1.45 μm and mechanical displacement of 160 μm is achievable. Unlike the traditional Michelson interferometer which returns half of the optical power to the source, this design uses the full optical power to get one original and two complementary interferograms. Here, analytical model that describes the beams propagation and interference is derived using Fourier optics techniques and verified using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Then, a mechanical model that describes the mirror displacement to produce optical path difference is derived and verified using finite element method (FEM). Finally, the effect of different design parameters on the interference pattern, interferograme and resolution are alsoshown.

  19. Fabrication of bone cement that fully transforms to carbonate apatite.

    PubMed

    Cahyanto, Arief; Maruta, Michito; Tsuru, Kanji; Matsuya, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate a type of bone cement that could fully transform to carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) in physiological conditions. A combination of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous was chosen as the powder phase and mixed with one of three kinds of sodium phosphate solutions: NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, or Na3PO4. The cement that fully transformed to CO3Ap was fabricated using vaterite, instead of calcite, as a CaCO3 source. Their stability in aqueous solutions was different, regardless of the type of sodium phosphate solution. Rate of transformation to CO3Ap in descending order was Na3PO4>Na2HPO4>NaH2PO4. Transformation rate could be affected by the pH of solution. Results of this study showed that it was advantageous to use vaterite to fabricate CO3Ap-forming cement.

  20. Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies.

    PubMed

    Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H; Doak, R B

    2012-03-01

    We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 μm, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

  1. Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies

    SciTech Connect

    Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B.

    2012-03-15

    We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {mu}m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

  2. Multigrid Methods for Fully Implicit Oil Reservoir Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molenaar, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations: the material balance or continuity equations and the equation of motion (Darcy's law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method and the sequential solution method. In the sequential solution method the system of partial differential equations is manipulated to give an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic (or parabolic) saturation equation. In the IMPES approach the pressure equation is first solved, using values for the saturation from the previous time level. Next the saturations are updated by some explicit time stepping method; this implies that the method is only conditionally stable. For the numerical solution of the linear, elliptic pressure equation multigrid methods have become an accepted technique. On the other hand, the fully implicit method is unconditionally stable, but it has the disadvantage that in every time step a large system of nonlinear algebraic equations has to be solved. The most time-consuming part of any fully implicit reservoir simulator is the solution of this large system of equations. Usually this is done by Newton's method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then either solved by a direct method or by some conjugate gradient type method. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations. There are two ways of using multigrid for this job: either we use a nonlinear multigrid method or we use a linear multigrid method to deal with the linear systems that arise in Newton's method. So far only a few authors have reported on the use of multigrid methods for fully implicit simulations. Two-level FAS algorithm is presented for the black-oil equations, and linear multigrid for

  3. Fully integrated care for frail elderly: two American models

    PubMed Central

    Kodner, Dennis L.; Kyriacou, Corinne Kay

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Integrated care for the frail elderly and other populations with complex, chronic, disabling conditions has taken centre stage among policymakers, planners and providers in the United States and other countries. There is a growing belief that integrated care strategies offer the potential to improve service co-ordination, quality outcomes, and efficiency. Therefore, it is critical to have a conceptual understanding of the meaning of integrated care and its various organisational models, as well as practical examples of how such models work. This article examines so-called “fully integrated” models of care in detail, concentrating on two major, well-established American programs, the social health maintenance organisation and the program of all-inclusive care for the elderly. Theory A major challenge to understanding the performance and outcomes of fully integrated care and other organisational models is the lack of a meaningful, analytical paradigm. This article builds upon the work of Walter Leutz, to develop a framework by which new and existing programs can be analysed. This framework is then applied to the two American models that are the focus of this article. Methods Existing data about integrated care in general, and the two model programs in particular, were collected and analysed from reports published by governmental and non-governmental organisations, and journal articles retrieved from Medline, HealthStar and other sources. Results and conclusions This analysis strongly suggests that fully integrated models of care, such as the social health maintenance organisation and program of all-inclusive care for the elderly, are not only feasible, but offer significant potential to improve the delivery of health and social care for frail elderly patients. In addition, the authors identify the factors that are the most critical to the success of fully integrated care, and offer lessons for their development and implementation. Finally, issues

  4. Multigrid Methods for Fully Implicit Oil Reservoir Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molenaar, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations: the material balance or continuity equations and the equation of motion (Darcy's law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method and the sequential solution method. In the sequential solution method the system of partial differential equations is manipulated to give an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic (or parabolic) saturation equation. In the IMPES approach the pressure equation is first solved, using values for the saturation from the previous time level. Next the saturations are updated by some explicit time stepping method; this implies that the method is only conditionally stable. For the numerical solution of the linear, elliptic pressure equation multigrid methods have become an accepted technique. On the other hand, the fully implicit method is unconditionally stable, but it has the disadvantage that in every time step a large system of nonlinear algebraic equations has to be solved. The most time-consuming part of any fully implicit reservoir simulator is the solution of this large system of equations. Usually this is done by Newton's method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then either solved by a direct method or by some conjugate gradient type method. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations. There are two ways of using multigrid for this job: either we use a nonlinear multigrid method or we use a linear multigrid method to deal with the linear systems that arise in Newton's method. So far only a few authors have reported on the use of multigrid methods for fully implicit simulations. Two-level FAS algorithm is presented for the black-oil equations, and linear multigrid for

  5. First tests with fully depleted PN-CCD's

    SciTech Connect

    Strueder, L.; Lutz, G.; Sterzik, M.; Holl, P.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.; Rehak, P.

    1987-01-01

    We have fabricated 280 ..mu..m thick fully depletable pn CCD's on high resistivity silicon ()rho) approx. 2.5 k..cap omega..cm). Its operation is based on the semiconductor drift chamber principle proposed by Gatti and Rheak. They are designed as energy and position sensitive radiation detector for (minimum) ionizing particles and X-ray imaging. Two dimensional semiconductor device modeling demonstrates the basic charge transer mechanisms. Prototypes of the detectors have been tested in static and dynamic conditions. A preliminary charge transfer inefficiency was determined to 6 x 10)sup)minus)3). The charge loss during the transfer is discussed and as a consequence we have developed an improved design for a second fabrication iteration which is now being produced. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  6. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Kang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Durán Retamal, José Ramón; Kang, Chen-Fang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Teng-Han; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Wu, Chih-I; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85 °C is over 3 × 104 sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity = 90% at 85 °C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments. PMID:26455819

  7. Mitsunobu Reactions Catalytic in Phosphine and a Fully Catalytic System.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-10-26

    The Mitsunobu reaction is renowned for its mild reaction conditions and broad substrate tolerance, but has limited utility in process chemistry and industrial applications due to poor atom economy and the generation of stoichiometric phosphine oxide and hydrazine by-products that complicate purification. A catalytic Mitsunobu reaction using innocuous reagents to recycle these by-products would overcome both of these shortcomings. Herein we report a protocol that is catalytic in phosphine (1-phenylphospholane) employing phenylsilane to recycle the catalyst. Integration of this phosphine catalytic cycle with Taniguchi's azocarboxylate catalytic system provided the first fully catalytic Mitsunobu reaction. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

  8. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  9. The fully nonlinear stratified geostrophic adjustment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutino, Aaron; Stastna, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The study of the adjustment to equilibrium by a stratified fluid in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. We consider the fully nonlinear, stratified adjustment problem from a numerical point of view. We present results of smoothed dam break simulations based on experiments in the published literature, with a focus on both the wave trains that propagate away from the nascent geostrophic state and the geostrophic state itself. We demonstrate that for Rossby numbers in excess of roughly 2 the wave train cannot be interpreted in terms of linear theory. This wave train consists of a leading solitary-like packet and a trailing tail of dispersive waves. However, it is found that the leading wave packet never completely separates from the trailing tail. Somewhat surprisingly, the inertial oscillations associated with the geostrophic state exhibit evidence of nonlinearity even when the Rossby number falls below 1. We vary the width of the initial disturbance and the rotation rate so as to keep the Rossby number fixed, and find that while the qualitative response remains consistent, the Froude number varies, and these variations are manifested in the form of the emanating wave train. For wider initial disturbances we find clear evidence of a wave train that initially propagates toward the near wall, reflects, and propagates away from the geostrophic state behind the leading wave train. We compare kinetic energy inside and outside of the geostrophic state, finding that for long times a Rossby number of around one-quarter yields an equal split between the two, with lower (higher) Rossby numbers yielding more energy in the geostrophic state (wave train). Finally we compare the energetics of the geostrophic state as the Rossby number varies, finding long-lived inertial oscillations in the majority of the cases and a general agreement with the past literature that employed either hydrostatic, shallow-water equation-based theory or

  10. Hierarchical structures in fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    Analysis of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the velocity increment dvl and of their deformation is used to reveal the statistical structure of the intermittent energy cascade dynamics of turbulence. By analyzing a series of turbulent data sets including that of an experiment of fully developed low temperature helium turbulent gas flow (Belin, Tabeling, & Willaime, Physica D 93, 52, 1996), of a three-dimensional isotropic Navier-Stokes simulation with a resolution of 2563 (Cao, Chen, & She, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3711, 1996) and of a GOY shell model simulation (Leveque & She, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1997) of a very big sample size (up to 5 billions), the validity of the Hierarchical Structure model (She & Leveque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 366, 1994) for the inertial-range is firmly demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that parameters in the Hierarchical Structure model can be reliably measured and used to characterize the cascade process. The physical interpretations of the parameters then allow to describe differential changes in different turbulent systems so as to address non-universal features of turbulent systems. It is proposed that the above study provides a framework for the study of non-homogeneous turbulence. A convergence study of moments and scaling exponents is also carried out with detailed analysis of effects of finite statistical sample size. A quantity Pmin is introduced to characterize the resolution of a PDF, and hence the sample size. The fact that any reported scaling exponent depends on the PDF resolution suggests that the validation (or rejection) of a model of turbulence needs to carry out a resolution dependence analysis on its scaling prediction.

  11. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  12. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S

    2009-06-03

    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  13. Nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of beam structures using fully intrinsic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoudeh, Zahra

    2011-07-01

    Beams are structural members with one dimension much larger than the other two. Examples of beams include propeller blades, helicopter rotor blades, and high aspect-ratio aircraft wings in aerospace engineering; shafts and wind turbine blades in mechanical engineering; towers, highways and bridges in civil engineering; and DNA modeling in biomedical engineering. Beam analysis includes two sets of equations: a generally linear two-dimensional problem over the cross-sectional plane and a nonlinear, global one-dimensional analysis. This research work deals with a relatively new set of equations for one-dimensional beam analysis, namely the so-called fully intrinsic equations. Fully intrinsic equations comprise a set of geometrically exact, nonlinear, first-order partial differential equations that is suitable for analyzing initially curved and twisted anisotropic beams. A fully intrinsic formulation is devoid of displacement and rotation variables, making it especially attractive because of the absence of singularities, infinite-degree nonlinearities, and other undesirable features associated with finite rotation variables. In spite of the advantages of these equations, using them with certain boundary conditions presents significant challenges. This research work will take a broad look at these challenges of modeling various boundary conditions when using the fully intrinsic equations. Hopefully it will clear the path for wider and easier use of the fully intrinsic equations in future research. This work also includes application of fully intrinsic equations in structural analysis of joined-wing aircraft, different rotor blade configuration and LCO analysis of HALE aircraft.

  14. Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weihua

    This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation

  15. Fully inkjet printed flexible resistive memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, B.; Popp, P. B.; Kaiser, M.; Ruediger, A.; Schindler, C.

    2017-04-01

    Resistively switching memory cells (ReRAM) are strong contenders for next-generation non-volatile random access memories. In this paper, we present ReRAM cells on flexible substrates consisting of Ag/spin-on-glass/PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate). The complete cell is fabricated using a standard inkjet printer without additional process steps. Investigations on the spin-on-glass insulating layer showed that low sintering temperatures are sufficient for good switching behavior, providing compatibility with various foils. The cells feature low switching voltages, low write currents, and a high ratio between high and low resistance state of 104. Combined with excellent switching characteristics under bending conditions, these results pave the way for low-power and low-cost memory devices for future applications in flexible electronics.

  16. Fully "Eqwipped" to See the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory over the past decade with an excess of $15 million of government research and development investment, quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are infrared imaging sensors that can operate in the long wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, where objects at an ambient temperature emit the most energy. QWIPTECH was formed in July 1998 to offer JPL's QWIPs in a commercial format. The company currently holds an exclusive worldwide license to manufacture and sell the infrared photodetector sensors as part of a focal plane array called a QWIP Chip(TM). The QWIP Chip provides high thermal sensitivity (0.001 C) and possesses a broad dynamic range, permitting precise observations over a wide range of temperatures. Since the technology uses heat rather than light, it can "see" in complete darkness and through conditions such as dust, smoke, and light fog.

  17. Strong dipole magnetic fields in fast rotating fully convective stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyak, D.; Reiners, A.; Engeln, A.; Malo, L.; Yadav, R.; Morin, J.; Kochukhov, O.

    2017-08-01

    M dwarfs are the most numerous stars in our Galaxy, with masses between approximately 0.5 and 0.1 solar masses. Many of them show surface activity qualitatively similar to our Sun and generate flares, high X-ray fluxes and large-scale magnetic fields1,2,3,4. Such activity is driven by a dynamo powered by the convective motions in their interiors2,5,6,7,8. Understanding properties of stellar magnetic fields in these stars finds a broad application in astrophysics, including theory of stellar dynamos and environment conditions around planets that may be orbiting these stars. Most stars with convective envelopes follow a rotation-activity relationship where various activity indicators saturate in stars with rotation periods shorter than a few days2,6,8. The activity gradually declines with rotation rate in stars rotating more slowly. It is thought that, due to a tight empirical correlation between X-ray radiance and magnetic flux9, the stellar magnetic fields will also saturate, to values around 4 kG (ref. 10). Here we report the detection of magnetic fields above the presumed saturation limit in four fully convective M dwarfs. By combining results from spectroscopic and polarimetric studies, we explain our findings in terms of bistable dynamo models11,12: stars with the strongest magnetic fields are those in a dipole dynamo state, whereas stars in a multipole state cannot generate fields stronger than about 4 kG. Our study provides observational evidence that the dynamo in fully convective M dwarfs generates magnetic fields that can differ not only in the geometry of their large-scale component, but also in the total magnetic energy.

  18. Fish out of water: terrestrial jumping by fully aquatic fishes.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Alice C; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Pace, Cinnamon M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Many teleosts that live at the water's edge will voluntarily strand themselves to evade predators or escape poor conditions-this behavior has been repeatedly observed in the field for killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Although most killifishes are considered fully aquatic and possess no obvious morphological specializations to facilitate terrestrial locomotion, individuals from several different species have been observed moving across land via a "tail flip" behavior that generates a terrestrial jump. Like aquatic fast starts, terrestrial jumps are produced by high-curvature lateral flexion of the body (stage one), followed by contralateral flexion of the posterior body (stage two). Here, terrestrial jumps and aquatic fast starts are quantified for two littoral teleosts: Gambusia affinis (a killifish, Cyprinodontiformes) and Danio rerio (a small carp, Cypriniformes) to determine if the tail flip is produced by other (non-killifish) teleosts and to test the null hypothesis that the tail flip is a fast start behavior, performed on land. Both Danio and Gambusia produce tail flip-driven terrestrial jumps, which are kinematically distinct from aquatic escapes and characterized by (1) a prolonged stage one, during which the fish bends, lifting and rolling the center of mass over the caudal peduncle, and (2) a relatively brief stage two, wherein the caudal peduncle pushes against the substrate to launch the fish into the aerial phase. The ability of these fully aquatic fishes to employ the same structure to produce distinct kinematic patterns in disparate environments suggests that a new behavior has evolved to facilitate movement on land and that anatomical novelty is not a prerequisite for effective terrestrial locomotion.

  19. Coherent structures in fully developed turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Ioannis Constantinos

    The structure of large scale organized motions in the turbulent flow of air through a 12.5 cm diameter pipe at 50,000 Reynolds number was studied using time delayed measurements of the three-dimensional velocity vector. A triple hot-film probe was used to measure: (1) the complete time-delayed Reynolds stress tensor R sub ij(tau) = (u sub i(x,t)u sub j(x,t + tau)), (2) the conditionally averaged velocity (u sub i (x,t + tau) / E(x,t)), where E consisted of various velocity events at (x,t), and (3) the linear stochastic estimates of the conditional averages. A new methodology was developed for the interpretation of non-orthogonal triple-sensor probe signals. This interpretation takes into consideration the uniqueness of the solution from a multiple set of possible velocity vectors corresponding to a measured set of anemometry voltages. Optimum probe geometries are shown to be a compromise between the size of the domain in which the true velocity vector can be singled out unambiguously and the overall sensitivity of the probe. A physically consistant method for the calibration of multiple sensor probes has also been developed. Triple sensor probes, together with smoke-wire flow visualization techniques, were used to study the turbulent structure in fully developed pipe flow.

  20. Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Fully Developed Duct Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokni, Masoud; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in both straight and wavy ducts, with rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions. A comparison of secondary flow patterns. including velocity vectors and velocity and temperature contours, are shown in order to study the effect of waviness on flow dynamics, and comparisons between the hydraulic parameters. Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number, are also presented. In all cases. isothermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls, and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled using gradient-diffusion type models. The formulation is valid for Reynolds numbers up to 10(exp 5) and this minimizes the need for wall functions that have been used with mixed success in previous studies of complex duct flows. In addition, the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Criteria in terms of heat transfer and friction factor needed to choose the optimal wavy duct cross-section for industrial applications among the ones considered are discussed.

  1. Production of LEU Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans Jr, James O; McMurray, Jake W; Jolly, Brian C; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Trammell, Michael P; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded inside a SiC matrix. This fuel inherently possesses multiple barriers to fission product release, namely the various coating layers in the TRISO fuel particle as well as the dense SiC matrix that hosts these particles. This coupled with the excellent oxidation resistance of the SiC matrix and the SiC coating layer in the TRISO particle designate this concept as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF). The FCM fuel takes advantage of uranium nitride kernels instead of oxide or oxide-carbide kernels used in high temperature gas reactors to enhance heavy metal loading in the highly moderated LWRs. Production of these kernels with appropriate density, coating layer development to produce UN TRISO particles, and consolidation of these particles inside a SiC matrix have been codified thanks to significant R&D supported by US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program. Also, surrogate FCM pellets (pellets with zirconia instead of uranium-bearing kernels) have been neutron irradiated and the stability of the matrix and coating layer under LWR irradiation conditions have been established. Currently the focus is on production of LEU (7.3% U-235 enrichment) FCM pellets to be utilized for irradiation testing. The irradiation is planned at INL s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is a critical step in development of this fuel concept to establish the ability of this fuel to retain fission products under prototypical irradiation conditions.

  2. A Concept Analysis of Fully Informed: Breastfeeding Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-21

    Running head: A CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF FULLY INFORMED A Concept Analysis of Fully Informed: Breastfeeding Promotion Kirsten M. Verkamp The University of...DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 21.Dec.05 MAJOR REPORT 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS A CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF FULLY INFORMED: BREASTFEEDING ...updated breastfeeding policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics 3 (AAP, 2005) identified the compelling advantages of breastfeeding and urged

  3. Fully Proceduralized Job Performance Aids: Guidance for Performing Behavioral Analyses of Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    FORM 2. OOVT ACCESSION NO 1. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG DUMBER « TITLE (■•nd Subid/.j FULLY PROCEDURAL1ZED JOB PERFORMANCE AIDS: GUIDANCE FOR...conditions, as well as for changing them when they are found to be Incorrect. The manager will change any column entry in the TDIMM when he det ~rmines that

  4. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the “inter-aggregate” and “intra-aggregate” pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates

  5. Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge

    PubMed Central

    Onederra, Italo A.; Furtney, Jason K.; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field—the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code’s ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of −22.4% and −42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements. PMID:26412978

  6. Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge.

    PubMed

    Onederra, Italo A; Furtney, Jason K; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field-the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code's ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of -22.4% and -42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements.

  7. Fully-polarimetric passive MMW imaging systems for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Jirousek, Matthias; Anthony, John-Walter; Süß, Helmut

    2010-10-01

    Increasing terroristic attacks raise the danger to the public and create a new and more complex dimension of threat. This evolution must and can only be combat by the application of new counter-measures like advanced imaging technologies for wide-area surveillance and the detection of concealed dangerous objects. Passive microwave remote sensing allows a daytime independent non-destructive observation and examination of the objects of interest under nearly all weather conditions. The acquisition of polarimetric object characteristics can increase the detection capability by gathering complementary object information. Over years the DLR Microwaves and Radar Institute developed several problem-orientated radiometer imaging systems covering nearly the whole frequency spectrum between 1 GHz and 100 GHz for a multitude of applications. Actually a fully-polarimetric radiometer receiver at W band is developed in order to explore the polarimetric information content of interesting objects simultaneously. Some important theoretical characteristics of polarimetric radiometry at millimeterwaves are introduced and discussed. The actual design and construction of the receiver system is outlined and first experimental imaging results are presented.

  8. Extremely halotolerant bacteria characteristic of fully cured and dried cod.

    PubMed

    Vilhelmsson, O; Hafsteinsson, H; Kristjánsson, J K

    1997-05-20

    Gram-positive cocci were isolated in high numbers from salted codfish during processing. They were found to be the main bacterial type in fully cured and dried salted cod. Phenotypic characterization of 37 strains showed them to belong to the novobiocin resistant staphylococci, most likely Staphylococcus arlettae or xylosus. Based on sequencing of 16S rDNA and comparison of 700 bases it was concluded that they should be assigned to the species Staphylococcus arlettae. They were found to be extremely halotolerant, growing well at salt concentrations from 0.06 M NaCl, and even displaying clear growth at 4.5 M NaCl. Likewise, the strains grew over a wide temperature range, from 8 to 45 degrees C. Optimal growth conditions were found to be at 0.4-0.6 M NaCl and 30-32 degrees C. This is all in accordance with findings for related staphylococci that have been isolated from other heavily salted meat or fish products.

  9. Fully developed nanofluid mixed convection flow in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amri, Fahad G.

    2017-04-01

    A closed form analytical solution of laminar mixed convection heat transfer of a nanofluid between two vertical parallel plates, accounting for the effects Brownian motion and thermophoresis, is presented for the fully developed region under thermal boundary conditions of the first and fourth kinds. Four kinds of nano-sized solid particles with varied thermophysical properties suspended in water are considered. Closed form analytical expressions of velocity and temperature fields, pressure gradients, nanoparticle concentration profiles, and Nusslet numbers are illustrated. Effects of the controlling parameters, namely the buoyancy parameter, thermal conductivity, solid/fluid ratio, and volume fraction, on the hydrodynamic and heat transfer parameters such as pressure gradient and Nusslet number are discussed in detail. It is found that the Nusslet number increases with increases in the buoyancy parameter and volume fraction. However, the pressure drop is found to increase with volume fraction and decrease with the buoyancy parameter. In addition, for upward mixed convection flow, the pressure drop attributed to the addition of nano-sized solid particles into the base fluid can be overcome by the buoyancy forces. The critical values of the buoyancy parameter- where the buoyancy forces balance the viscous forces-are obtained and presented.

  10. A fully automated TerraSAR-X based flood service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, André

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a fully automated processing chain for near real-time flood detection using high resolution TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is presented. The processing chain including SAR data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, unsupervised initialization of the classification as well as post-classification refinement by using a fuzzy logic-based approach is automatically triggered after satellite data delivery. The dissemination of flood maps resulting from this service is performed through an online service which can be activated on-demand for emergency response purposes (i.e., when a flood situation evolves). The classification methodology is based on previous work of the authors but was substantially refined and extended for robustness and transferability to guarantee high classification accuracy under different environmental conditions and sensor configurations. With respect to accuracy and computational effort, experiments performed on a data set of 175 different TerraSAR-X scenes acquired during flooding all over the world with different sensor configurations confirm the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed flood mapping service. These promising results have been further confirmed by means of an in-depth validation performed for three study sites in Germany, Thailand, and Albania/Montenegro.

  11. Turbulent particle clustering in a fully developed square channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2015-11-01

    Particle-turbulence interactions are investigated in a fully developed turbulent channel air flow to determine the gas phase effect on the particle concentration and velocity fields. The experimental apparatus is a vertical channel with square cross section. The Reynolds number based on channel width is about 104. The 12 um nominal diameter nickel particles are smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale and the corresponding Stokes number is of the order of one. Low volume and mass loading ratios are considered. Under these conditions preferential concentration is expected to be strong while the effect of particles on the gas flow negligible. The square channel flow contains mean secondary flows not present in high aspect ratio channels studied previously. These will increase transport of particles away from the walls and raise turbulence levels in the central region. Current experiments are focused on the statistics of the particle phase including particle concentration inhomogeneities and particle velocities. The particle concentration field is analyzed from high resolution laser illuminated planar images. Particle velocity distributions are measured by PIV techniques and compared to the carrier-phase mean velocities from aerodynamic pressure measurements in the unladen case. The effect of increasing mass loading ratio on the particle velocities is analyzed. This Material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002373-1.

  12. Fully adaptive propagation of the quantum-classical Liouville equation.

    PubMed

    Horenko, Illia; Weiser, Martin; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schütte, Christof

    2004-05-15

    In mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics few but important degrees of freedom of a dynamical system are modeled quantum-mechanically while the remaining ones are treated within the classical approximation. Rothe methods established in the theory of partial differential equations are used to control both temporal and spatial discretization errors on grounds of a global tolerance criterion. The TRAIL (trapezoidal rule for adaptive integration of Liouville dynamics) scheme [I. Horenko and M. Weiser, J. Comput. Chem. 24, 1921 (2003)] has been extended to account for nonadiabatic effects in molecular dynamics described by the quantum-classical Liouville equation. In the context of particle methods, the quality of the spatial approximation of the phase-space distributions is maximized while the numerical condition of the least-squares problem for the parameters of particles is minimized. The resulting dynamical scheme is based on a simultaneous propagation of moving particles (Gaussian and Dirac deltalike trajectories) in phase space employing a fully adaptive strategy to upgrade Dirac to Gaussian particles and, vice versa, downgrading Gaussians to Dirac-type trajectories. This allows for the combination of Monte-Carlo-based strategies for the sampling of densities and coherences in multidimensional problems with deterministic treatment of nonadiabatic effects. Numerical examples demonstrate the application of the method to spin-boson systems in different dimensionality. Nonadiabatic effects occurring at conical intersections are treated in the diabatic representation. By decreasing the global tolerance, the numerical solution obtained from the TRAIL scheme are shown to converge towards exact results.

  13. Behavior of fully ionized seed plasma excited by microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Suekane, Tetsuya; Okuno, Yoshihiro; Kabashima, Shigeharu

    1997-02-01

    Nonequilibrium plasmas with cesium metal vapor ionization in helium and argon gases at moderate pressures are excited with microwave power. The structures and behavior of the seeded plasmas are experimentally examined, particularly under the condition of full seed (cesium atoms) ionization. By cesium seeding, the minimum power sustaining the plasma is reduced markedly, and both a broad plasma observed in pure helium and unsteady filament-like plasmas in pure argon change to the steady and broad plasma can be in the regime of full seed ionization for suitable microwave powers, where the electron density is kept almost constant. The thickness of the fully ionized seed (FIS) plasma decreases with increasing the mole fraction of cesium vapor, and is almost independent of noble gas pressure. The thickness almost coincides with the skin depth determined from the electrical conductivity almost uniform in the FIS plasma. These facts suggest that the FIS plasma will be easily produced and maintained as long as the microwave power is consumed to the electron heating. Microwave discharges at moderate or high gas pressures currently draw great attention as plasma sources for various applications in plasma chemistry and material processing, laser discharges, electrothermal thruster, and so on.

  14. FULLY COUPLED "ONLINE" CHEMISTRY WITHIN THE WRF MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fully coupled "online" Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model has been developed. The air quality component of the model is fully consistent with the meteorological component; both components use the same transport scheme (mass and scalar preserving), the s...

  15. FULLY COUPLED "ONLINE" CHEMISTRY WITHIN THE WRF MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fully coupled "online" Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model has been developed. The air quality component of the model is fully consistent with the meteorological component; both components use the same transport scheme (mass and scalar preserving), the s...

  16. Fully On-the-Job Training: Experiences and Steps Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Fully on-the-job training, the majority of which is conducted in the workplace as part of the normal experience of the employee, is perceived to offer benefits to apprentices/ trainees, employers and registered training organisations. This report finds fully on-the-job training is viewed by learners and registered training organisations as a good…

  17. Corn response to nitrogen management under fully-irrigated vs. water-stressed conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterizing corn grain yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate is critical for maximizing profits, optimizing N use efficiency and minimizing environmental impacts. Although a large data base of yield response to N has been compiled for highly productive soils in the upper Midwest U.S., f...

  18. Parameter estimation in a structural acoustic system with fully nonlinear coupling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, Ralph C.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for estimating physical parameters in a class of structural acoustic systems is presented. The general model under consideration consists of an interior cavity which is separated from an exterior noise source by an enclosing elastic structure. Piezoceramic patches are bonded to or embedded in the structure; these can be used both as actuators and sensors in applications ranging from the control of interior noise levels to the determination of structural flaws through nondestructive evaluation techniques. The presence and excitation of patches, however, changes the geometry and material properties of the structure as well as involves unknown patch parameters, thus necessitating the development of parameter estimation techniques which are applicable in this coupled setting. In developing a framework for approximation, parameter estimation and implementation, strong consideration is given to the fact that the input operator is unbonded due to the discrete nature of the patches. Moreover, the model is weakly nonlinear. As a result of the coupling mechanism between the structural vibrations and the interior acoustic dynamics. Within this context, an illustrating model is given, well-posedness and approximations results are discussed and an applicable parameter estimation methodology is presented. The scheme is then illustrated through several numerical examples with simulations modeling a variety of commonly used structural acoustic techniques for systems excitations and data collection.

  19. Aiming for a fully integrated computerized procedure system

    SciTech Connect

    Marron, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    A fully integrated Computerized Procedure System must provide, at a minimum, a) Specification: access to design basis procedures, b) Monitoring: incorporation of real-time plant status, c) Advise: highlighting likely decision paths, and d) Reporting: logging conditions and actions taken. The CPS plays a critical role in overcoming the human factors that lead to accidents. At the same time it can be an essential tool in providing the information and automation to augment what humans do best, identify patterns and make associative leaps in the presence of ambiguous data. Timeliner and TaskGuide are examples of CPS that have evolved from projects in the aerospace industry. They illustrate certain common characteristics of a CPS, namely the knowledge base, user interface, and traceability features. The complexity and number of procedures for a current nuclear project has led to the development of two tools, the Power Generation Control System (PGCS) and the Online Procedure System (OLPS). Together, these systems address the knowledge-base and user interface aspects of a CPS and go a long way in addressing other areas. PGCS and OLPS contain full configuration management capabilities for procedures and the operating recipe. They include administrative functions for online and offline management of documents and data. Some lessons learned from this pair of programs developed by Invensys is the need for more integrated recording mechanisms. The future of CPS is likely to see higher integration of the document access, system status, decision support and logging capabilities. The CPS may evolve into the standard operational interface. Internet technologies that are common-place today have made the possibility of the Active Document a reality. The OPC Foundation is pursuing standards that may accelerate such developments. (authors)

  20. Fully Automated Headspace Bubble-in-Drop Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Binte Nawi, Nurliyana; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-06

    A fully automated headspace bubble-in-drop microextraction (automated HS-BID) method, coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis, was developed for the analysis of nitro musks in environmental water samples. The entire procedure, including the extraction of the analytes by HS-BID and GC/MS analysis of the analyte-enriched solvent, was completely automated. In BID, a certain volume of air is introduced into the extraction solvent droplet, enlarging the surface area of the extraction solvent droplet in relation to the water sample without increasing its volume, significantly enhancing extraction efficiency. Compared to conventional single drop microextraction, the developed method has higher extraction efficiency due to the enlarged surface area of the extraction solvent droplet. Under the optimized conditions (1.0 mL of sample solution, using 1.0 μL of 1-octanol containing of 0.5 μL of air bubble, at 40 °C for extraction for 20 min), the automated HS-BID gave low limits of detections (between 0.012 and 0.042 μg/L), good linearity (from 0.1 to 20 μg/L and from 0.2 to 50 μg/L, with r(2) between 0.9909 and 0.9958, depending on analytes), and good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviations, below 4.7%, n = 5). The developed procedure was applied to determine nitro musks in environmental water samples and was demonstrated to be efficient, labor-free, economical, and environmentally benign.

  1. A Fast Method of Fully Characterizing Sputtering Angular Dependence (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-17

    A new method has been demonstrated in which a single experiment is used to fully define the sputtering angular dependence of a given material. The...profilometry; the full sputtering angular dependence curve is then extracted using a numerical approach.

  2. Purification and characterization of two fully deuterated enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Katz, J. J.; Parmerter, S.; Rokop, S.

    1969-01-01

    Comparative data reveal little difference between kinetic and thermal stabilities of pure preparations of two ordinary enzymes and their fully deuterated counterparts. The effects of temperature on the enzymes proved to be consistent with earlier results.

  3. 10. SAME DETAIL AS ABOVE, WITH SHUTTER FULLY CLOSED 11. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SAME DETAIL AS ABOVE, WITH SHUTTER FULLY CLOSED 11. 'SHIP ROOM,' SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING NORTHWEST 12. 'SHIP ROOM,' SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING NORTH - Friends Meeting House, 30 Farewell Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  4. 9. Aerial view of bridge with south leaf fully down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Aerial view of bridge with south leaf fully down from above Cerritos Channel facing northeast. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. ATLAS from Data Research Associates: A Fully Integrated Automation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    This detailed description of a fully integrated, turnkey library system includes a complete profile of the system (functions, operational characteristics, hardware, operating system, minimum memory and pricing); history of the technologies involved; and descriptions of customer services and availability. (CLB)

  6. Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Niraula, Manoj; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors with larger angular tolerance than their classical counterparts. We quantify the angular-spectral performance of representative resonant wideband reflectors in conic and classic mounts by numerical calculations with improved spectra found for fully conic incidence. Moreover, these predictions are verified experimentally for wideband reflectors fashioned in crystalline and amorphous silicon in distinct spectral regions spanning the 1200-1600-nm and 1600-2400-nm spectral bands. These results will be useful in various applications demanding wideband reflectors that are efficient and materially sparse.

  7. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Crespi, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. ATLAS from Data Research Associates: A Fully Integrated Automation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    This detailed description of a fully integrated, turnkey library system includes a complete profile of the system (functions, operational characteristics, hardware, operating system, minimum memory and pricing); history of the technologies involved; and descriptions of customer services and availability. (CLB)

  10. Fully Cationized Gold Clusters: Synthesis of Au25(SR(+))18.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yohei; Narita, Kunihiro; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Whetten, Robert L

    2016-10-06

    Although many thiolate-protected Au clusters with different numbers of Au atoms and a variety of thiolate ligands have been synthesized, to date there has been no report of a fully cationized Au cluster protected with cationic thiolates. Herein, we report the synthesis of the first member of a new series of thiolate-protected Au cluster molecules: a fully cationized Au25(SR(+))18 cluster.

  11. Fully-printed, all-polymer integrated twilight switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Perinot, Andrea; Grimoldi, Andrea; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-10-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate an integrated photoactive switch employing a fully-printed planar photodetector and complementary Schmitt trigger. A photoactive switch is fundamental to several light driven systems, such as twilight sensors or industrial machinery control devices. This paper explores a fabrication methodology that enables reliable complementary logic building blocks and photodetectors with a fully-printed, all-polymer approach, resulting in a semi-transparent integrated system on a single plastic foil.

  12. Representing Icebergs In A Fully Coupled Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bügelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans

    2014-05-01

    iceberg melt fluxes are small. Under equilibrated pre-industrial conditions, the generation of only small or big icebergs, instead of icebergs of all size classes, has a negligible effect on the Greenland ice sheet. Yet, under a warming climate (4xCO2) the implementation of only small or big bergs, compared to all size classes, causes a thicker ice sheet at the margins after 1000 model years. Also during a colder climate (1/4 x CO2) the generation of only small or big bergs allows for a wider spread extension of the Greenland ice sheet. References: Bügelmayer, M., Roche, D.M., Renssen, H. (2014): How do icebergs affect the Greenland ice sheet under pre-industrial conditions? - A model study with a fully coupled ice sheet-climate model. The Cryosphere Discussions 8, 187-228. Jongma, J.I., Driesschaert, E., Fichefet, T., Goosse, H., Renssen, H., (2009): The effect of dynamic-thermodynamic icebergs on the Southern Ocean climate in a three-dimensional model. Ocean Modelling 26, 104-113. Ritz, C., Rommelaere, V. and Dumas, C.: Modeling the evolution of Antarctic ice sheet over the last 420,000 years: Implications for altitude changes in the Vostok region, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 31943-31964, doi:10.1029/2001JD900232, 2001. Roche, D.M., Dumas, C., Bügelmayer, M., Charbit, S., Ritz, C. (2013): Adding a dynamical cryosphere into iLOVECLIM (version 1.0) - Part 1: Coupling with the GRISLI ice-sheet model, Geoscientific Model Development Discussion, 6, 5215-5249.

  13. Anelastic versus Fully Compressible Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Jan; Wiesehöfer, Thomas; Stellmach, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Numerical simulations of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an ideal gas, using either the anelastic approximation or the fully compressible equations, are compared. Theoretically, the anelastic approximation is expected to hold in weakly superadiabatic systems with ɛ ={Δ }T/{{T}r}\\ll 1, where {Δ }T denotes the superadiabatic temperature drop over the convective layer and Tr the bottom temperature. Using direct numerical simulations, a systematic comparison of anelastic and fully compressible convection is carried out. With decreasing superadiabaticity ɛ, the fully compressible results are found to converge linearly to the anelastic solution with larger density contrasts generally improving the match. We conclude that in many solar and planetary applications, where the superadiabaticity is expected to be vanishingly small, results obtained with the anelastic approximation are in fact more accurate than fully compressible computations, which typically fail to reach small ɛ for numerical reasons. On the other hand, if the astrophysical system studied contains ɛ ˜ O(1) regions, such as the solar photosphere, fully compressible simulations have the advantage of capturing the full physics. Interestingly, even in weakly superadiabatic regions, like the bulk of the solar convection zone, the errors introduced by using artificially large values for ɛ for efficiency reasons remain moderate. If quantitative errors of the order of 10% are acceptable in such low ɛ regions, our work suggests that fully compressible simulations can indeed be computationally more efficient than their anelastic counterparts.

  14. Fully coupled analysis of reservoir compaction and subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, M.; Hansteen, H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the differences between fully-coupled and uncoupled formulations of models of production and subsidence. For highly compacting hydrocarbon reservoirs, production can cause compaction of the reservoir and subsidence of the overburden, and in turn, compaction and subsidence can affect the productivity of the reservoir by increasing the reservoir pressure. Intuitively, analyses of production and subsidence should be done in a fully-coupled fashion. However, most, if not all, of the analyses done so far on compacting reservoirs are uncoupled where production and subsidence are calculated in a staggered manner. The results of the numerical analyses using an uncoupled reservoir simulation, and a fully-coupled finite element simulation based on Biot`s formulation of a typical compacting reservoir are presented and compared. Different pore pressure response were obtained depending on whether an uncoupled or a fully-coupled analysis was performed, and also depending on whether there is arching of the overburden or not. The results of fully-coupled analyses of compaction and subsidence showed that the generation of additional pore pressure due to compaction cannot be correctly analyzed by simply adjusting the rock compressibilities in reservoir simulation. The most pronounced effect of coupling, obtained from the numerical simulations, is on the possibility of pore pressure increase close to the reservoir flanks even during production. The implications of the differences in the results of fully-coupled and uncoupled simulations are discussed.

  15. Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-09-01

    We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.

  16. Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Daewoong; Park, Jaehyun; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Sunam; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Naitow, Hisashi; Kunishima, Naoki; Yoshida, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong

    2013-03-01

    Nanoscale imaging of biological specimens in their native condition is of long-standing interest, in particular with direct, high resolution views of internal structures of intact specimens, though as yet progress has been limited. Here we introduce wet coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy capable of imaging fully hydrated and unstained biological specimens. Whole cell morphologies and internal structures better than 25 nm can be clearly visualized without contrast degradation.

  17. Numerical simulation of water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, B. Y.; Wu, G. X.

    2017-08-01

    The free water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow, which is driven by the difference between the vertical fluid force and gravity, is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid, and the flow to be irrotational. The velocity potential theory is adopted together with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface. The surface tension is neglected and the pressure is taken as constant on the free surface. The acceleration of the body at each time step is obtained as part of the solution. Its nonlinear mutual dependence on the fluid force is decoupled through the auxiliary function method. The free-surface breakup by body penetration and water detachment from the body are treated through numerical conditions. The slender body theory based on the zero potential assumption on the undisturbed flat free surface is adopted, through which a condition for full water exit of a spheroid is obtained. Comparison is made between the results from the slender body theory and from the fully nonlinear theory through the boundary-element method, and good agreement is found when the spheroid is slender. Extensive case studies are undertaken to investigate the effects of body density, dimensions and the initial submergence.

  18. Transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to shift from respiratory and respirofermentative to fully fermentative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Eija; Jouhten, Paula; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Maaheimo, Hannu; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In industrial fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transient changes in oxygen concentration commonly occur and it is important to understand the behavior of cells during these changes. Glucose-limited chemostat cultivations were used to study the time-dependent effect of sudden oxygen depletion on the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae cells initially in fully aerobic or oxygen-limited conditions. The overall responses to anaerobic conditions of cells initially in different conditions were very similar. Independent of initial culture conditions, transient downregulation of genes related to growth and cell proliferation, mitochondrial translation and protein import, and sulphate assimilation was seen. In addition, transient or permanent upregulation of genes related to protein degradation, and phosphate and amino acid uptake was observed in all cultures. However, only in the initially oxygen-limited cultures was a transient upregulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, TCA cycle, response to oxidative stress, and pentose phosphate pathway observed. Furthermore, from the initially oxygen-limited conditions, a rapid response around the metabolites of upper glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway was seen, while from the initially fully aerobic conditions, a slower response around the pathways for utilization of respiratory carbon sources was observed.

  19. Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Shift from Respiratory and Respirofermentative to Fully Fermentative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Maaheimo, Hannu; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In industrial fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transient changes in oxygen concentration commonly occur and it is important to understand the behavior of cells during these changes. Glucose-limited chemostat cultivations were used to study the time-dependent effect of sudden oxygen depletion on the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae cells initially in fully aerobic or oxygen-limited conditions. The overall responses to anaerobic conditions of cells initially in different conditions were very similar. Independent of initial culture conditions, transient downregulation of genes related to growth and cell proliferation, mitochondrial translation and protein import, and sulphate assimilation was seen. In addition, transient or permanent upregulation of genes related to protein degradation, and phosphate and amino acid uptake was observed in all cultures. However, only in the initially oxygen-limited cultures was a transient upregulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, TCA cycle, response to oxidative stress, and pentose phosphate pathway observed. Furthermore, from the initially oxygen-limited conditions, a rapid response around the metabolites of upper glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway was seen, while from the initially fully aerobic conditions, a slower response around the pathways for utilization of respiratory carbon sources was observed. PMID:21348598

  20. A Fully Implantable 96-channel Neural Data Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Michael; Bossetti, Chad A; Jochum, Thomas A; Callender, Stephen H; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Turner, Dennis A; Wolf, Patrick D

    2009-01-01

    A fully implantable neural data acquisition system is a key component of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. This type of system must communicate with the outside world and obtain power without the use of wires that cross through the skin. We present a 96-channel fully implantable neural data acquisition system. This system performs spike detection and extraction within the body and wirelessly transmits data to an external unit. Power is supplied wirelessly through the use of inductively-coupled coils. The system was implanted acutely in sheep and successfully recorded, processed, and transmitted neural data. Bidirectional communication between the implanted system and an external unit was successful over a range of 2 m. The system is also shown to integrate well into a brain-machine interface. This demonstration of a high channel-count fully implanted neural data acquisition system is a critical step in the development of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. PMID:19255459

  1. A fully implantable 96-channel neural data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, Michael; Bossetti, Chad A.; Jochum, Thomas A.; Callender, Stephen H.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Turner, Dennis A.; Wolf, Patrick D.

    2009-04-01

    A fully implantable neural data acquisition system is a key component of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. This type of system must communicate with the outside world and obtain power without the use of wires that cross through the skin. We present a 96-channel fully implantable neural data acquisition system. This system performs spike detection and extraction within the body and wirelessly transmits data to an external unit. Power is supplied wirelessly through the use of inductively coupled coils. The system was implanted acutely in sheep and successfully recorded, processed and transmitted neural data. Bidirectional communication between the implanted system and an external unit was successful over a range of 2 m. The system is also shown to integrate well into a brain-machine interface. This demonstration of a high channel-count fully implanted neural data acquisition system is a critical step in the development of a clinically viable brain-machine interface.

  2. Fully developed turbulence via Feigenbaum's period-doubling bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Duong-van, M.

    1987-08-01

    Since its publication in 1978, Feigenbaum's predictions of the onset of turbulence via period-doubling bifurcations have been thoroughly borne out experimentally. In this paper, Feigenbaum's theory is extended into the regime in which we expect to see fully developed turbulence. We develop a method of averaging that imposes correlations in the fluctuating system generated by this map. With this averaging method, the field variable is obtained by coarse-graining, while microscopic fluctuations are preserved in all averaging scales. Fully developed turbulence will be shown to be a result of microscopic fluctuations with proper averaging. Furthermore, this model preserves Feigenbaum's results on the physics of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence while yielding additional physics both at the onset of turbulence and in the fully developed turbulence regime.

  3. A fully implantable 96-channel neural data acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Michael; Bossetti, Chad A; Jochum, Thomas A; Callender, Stephen H; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Turner, Dennis A; Wolf, Patrick D

    2009-04-01

    A fully implantable neural data acquisition system is a key component of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. This type of system must communicate with the outside world and obtain power without the use of wires that cross through the skin. We present a 96-channel fully implantable neural data acquisition system. This system performs spike detection and extraction within the body and wirelessly transmits data to an external unit. Power is supplied wirelessly through the use of inductively coupled coils. The system was implanted acutely in sheep and successfully recorded, processed and transmitted neural data. Bidirectional communication between the implanted system and an external unit was successful over a range of 2 m. The system is also shown to integrate well into a brain-machine interface. This demonstration of a high channel-count fully implanted neural data acquisition system is a critical step in the development of a clinically viable brain-machine interface.

  4. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  5. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  6. An Investigation of Fully Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Usowicz, J. E.; Sangras, R.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.; Nagashima, T.; Obata, S.

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed combustion appears to have the potential to provide for rapid fuel/air mixing, compact and economical combustors, and reduced exhaust emissions. The objective of this Flight-Definition experiment (PuFF, for Pulsed-Fully Flames) is to increase the fundamental understanding of the fuel/air mixing and combustion behavior of pulsed, turbulent diffusion flames by conducting experiments in microgravity. In this research the fuel jet is fully modulated (i.e., completely shut off between pulses) by an externally controlled valve system. This gives rise to drastic modification of the combustion and flow characteristics of flames, leading to enhanced fuel/air mixing mechanisms not operative for the case of acoustically excited or partially-modulated jets. The fully-modulated injection approach also simplifies the combustion process by avoiding the acoustic forcing generally present in pulsed combustors. Relatively little is known about the behavior of turbulent flames in reduced-gravity conditions, even in the absence of pulsing. Fundamental issues addressed in this experiment include the impact of buoyancy on the fuel/air mixing and combustion characteristics of fully-modulated flames. It is also important for the planned space experiments to establish the effects of confinement and oxidizer co-flow on these flames.

  7. Modified Fully Utilized Design (MFUD) Method for Stress and Displacement Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya; Gendy, Atef; Berke, Laszlo; Hopkins, Dale

    1997-01-01

    The traditional fully stressed method performs satisfactorily for stress-limited structural design. When this method is extended to include displacement limitations in addition to stress constraints, it is known as the fully utilized design (FUD). Typically, the FUD produces an overdesign, which is the primary limitation of this otherwise elegant method. We have modified FUD in an attempt to alleviate the limitation. This new method, called the modified fully utilized design (MFUD) method, has been tested successfully on a number of designs that were subjected to multiple loads and had both stress and displacement constraints. The solutions obtained with MFUD compare favorably with the optimum results that can be generated by using nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The MFUD method appears to have alleviated the overdesign condition and offers the simplicity of a direct, fully stressed type of design method that is distinctly different from optimization and optimality criteria formulations. The MFUD method is being developed for practicing engineers who favor traditional design methods rather than methods based on advanced calculus and nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The Integrated Force Method (IFM) was found to be the appropriate analysis tool in the development of the MFUD method. In this paper, the MFUD method and its optimality are presented along with a number of illustrative examples.

  8. Is a fully wrapped SSB–DNA complex essential for Escherichia coli survival?

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Vincent M.; Weiland, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Alexander G.; Lohman, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) is an essential homotetramer that binds ssDNA and recruits multiple proteins to their sites of action during genomic maintenance. Each SSB subunit contains an N-terminal globular oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) and an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain. SSB binds ssDNA in multiple modes in vitro, including the fully wrapped (SSB)65 and (SSB)56 modes, in which ssDNA contacts all four OB-folds, and the highly cooperative (SSB)35 mode, in which ssDNA contacts an average of only two OB-folds. These modes can both be populated under physiological conditions. While these different modes might be used for different functions, this has been difficult to assess. Here we used a dimeric SSB construct with two covalently linked OB-folds to disable ssDNA binding in two of the four OB-folds thus preventing formation of fully wrapped DNA complexes in vitro, although they retain a wild-type-like, salt-dependent shift in cooperative binding to ssDNA. These variants complement wild-type SSB in vivo indicating that a fully wrapped mode is not essential for function. These results do not preclude a normal function for a fully wrapped mode, but do indicate that E. coli tolerates some flexibility with regards to its SSB binding modes. PMID:27084941

  9. Is a fully wrapped SSB-DNA complex essential for Escherichia coli survival?

    PubMed

    Waldman, Vincent M; Weiland, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Alexander G; Lohman, Timothy M

    2016-05-19

    Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) is an essential homotetramer that binds ssDNA and recruits multiple proteins to their sites of action during genomic maintenance. Each SSB subunit contains an N-terminal globular oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) and an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain. SSB binds ssDNA in multiple modes in vitro, including the fully wrapped (SSB)65 and (SSB)56 modes, in which ssDNA contacts all four OB-folds, and the highly cooperative (SSB)35 mode, in which ssDNA contacts an average of only two OB-folds. These modes can both be populated under physiological conditions. While these different modes might be used for different functions, this has been difficult to assess. Here we used a dimeric SSB construct with two covalently linked OB-folds to disable ssDNA binding in two of the four OB-folds thus preventing formation of fully wrapped DNA complexes in vitro, although they retain a wild-type-like, salt-dependent shift in cooperative binding to ssDNA. These variants complement wild-type SSB in vivo indicating that a fully wrapped mode is not essential for function. These results do not preclude a normal function for a fully wrapped mode, but do indicate that E. coli tolerates some flexibility with regards to its SSB binding modes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Fabrication of Fully Solution Processed Inorganic Nanocrystal Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Troy K; Durastanti, Dario; Heuer, William B; Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Tischler, Joseph G

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate a method for the preparation of fully solution processed inorganic solar cells from a spin and spray coating deposition of nanocrystal inks. For the photoactive absorber layer, colloidal CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals (3-5 nm) are synthesized using an inert hot injection technique and cleaned with precipitations to remove excess starting reagents. Similarly, gold nanocrystals (3-5 nm) are synthesized under ambient conditions and dissolved in organic solvents. In addition, precursor solutions for transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are prepared from solutions of indium and tin salts paired with a reactive oxidizer. Layer-by-layer, these solutions are deposited onto a glass substrate following annealing (200-400 °C) to build the nanocrystal solar cell (glass/ITO/CdSe/CdTe/Au). Pre-annealing ligand exchange is required for CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals where films are dipped in NH4Cl:methanol to replace long-chain native ligands with small inorganic Cl(-) anions. NH4Cl(s) was found to act as a catalyst for the sintering reaction (as a non-toxic alternative to the conventional CdCl2(s) treatment) leading to grain growth (136±39 nm) during heating. The thickness and roughness of the prepared films are characterized with SEM and optical profilometry. FTIR is used to determine the degree of ligand exchange prior to sintering, and XRD is used to verify the crystallinity and phase of each material. UV/Vis spectra show high visible light transmission through the ITO layer and a red shift in the absorbance of the cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals after thermal annealing. Current-voltage curves of completed devices are measured under simulated one sun illumination. Small differences in deposition techniques and reagents employed during ligand exchange have been shown to have a profound influence on the device properties. Here, we examine the effects of chemical (sintering and ligand exchange agents) and physical treatments (solution concentration

  11. Fully magnetized plasma flow in a magnetic nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Mario; Ahedo, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    A model of the expansion of a plasma in a magnetic nozzle in the full magnetization limit is presented. The fully magnetized and the unmagnetized-ions limits are compared, recovering the whole range of variability in plasma properties, thrust, and plume efficiency, and revealing the differences in the physics of the two cases. The fully magnetized model is the natural limit of the general, 2D, two-fluid model of Ahedo and Merino [Phys. Plasmas 17, 073501 (2010)], and it is proposed as an analytical, conservative estimator of the propulsive figures of merit of partially magnetized plasma expansions in the near region of the magnetic nozzle.

  12. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  13. A Fully Implantable, NFC Enabled, Continuous Interstitial Glucose Monitor.

    PubMed

    Anabtawi, Nijad; Freeman, Sabrina; Ferzli, Rony

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an integrated system-on-chip (SoC) that forms the core of a long-term, fully implantable, battery assisted, passive continuous glucose monitor. It integrates an amperometric glucose sensor interface, a near field communication (NFC) wireless front-end and a fully digital switched mode power management unit for supply regulation and on board battery charging. It uses 13.56 MHz (ISM) band to harvest energy and backscatter data to an NFC reader. System was implemented in 14nm CMOS technology and validated with post layout simulations.

  14. Relationship between semi- and fully-device-independent protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Yu-Chun; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Hu, Hong-Gang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2013-02-01

    We study the relation between semi- and fully-device-independent protocols. As a tool, we use the correspondence between Bell inequalities and dimension witnesses. We present a method for converting the former into the latter, and vice versa. This relation provides us with interesting results for both scenarios. First, we find random-number-generation protocols with higher bit rates for both the semi- and fully-device-independent cases. As a byproduct, we obtain classes of Bell inequalities and dimension witnesses. Then, we show how optimization methods used in studies on Bell inequalities can be adopted for dimension witnesses.

  15. Quantum fully homomorphic encryption scheme based on universal quantum circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Min

    2015-08-01

    Fully homomorphic encryption enables arbitrary computation on encrypted data without decrypting the data. Here it is studied in the context of quantum information processing. Based on universal quantum circuit, we present a quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE) scheme, which permits arbitrary quantum transformation on any encrypted data. The QFHE scheme is proved to be perfectly secure. In the scheme, the decryption key is different from the encryption key; however, the encryption key cannot be revealed. Moreover, the evaluation algorithm of the scheme is independent of the encryption key, so it is suitable for delegated quantum computing between two parties.

  16. Fully Implicit Numerical Methods for the Baroclinic Primitive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, S. E.; Isaacson, E.

    1984-01-01

    A fully implicit code was developed to solve the three-dimensional primitive equations of atmospheric flow. The scheme is second order accurate in time and fourth order accurate in the horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, as a result of being fully implicit, the time step is not restricted by the mesh spacing near the poles, nor by the speed of inertia-gravity waves. Rather, the time step, deltat is determined simply by the requirement that it be small enough to adequately resolve the atmospheric flow of interest. The accuracy and efficiency of current models for fine grids should be significantly improved.

  17. A fully implicit, fully adaptive time and space discretisation method for phase-field simulation of binary alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosam, J.; Jimack, P. K.; Mullis, A.

    2007-08-01

    A fully implicit numerical method based upon adaptively refined meshes for the simulation of binary alloy solidification in 2D is presented. In addition we combine a second-order fully implicit time discretisation scheme with variable step size control to obtain an adaptive time and space discretisation method. The superiority of this method, compared to widely used fully explicit methods, with respect to CPU time and accuracy, is shown. Due to the high nonlinearity of the governing equations a robust and fast solver for systems of nonlinear algebraic equations is needed to solve the intermediate approximations per time step. We use a nonlinear multigrid solver which shows almost h-independent convergence behaviour.

  18. Buoyancy Effects in Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Ghaem-Maghami, E.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.; Page, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed combustion appears to have the potential to provide for rapid fuel/air mixing, compact and economical combustors, and reduced exhaust emissions. The objective of this experiment (PuFF, for Pulsed-Fully Flames) is to increase the fundamental understanding of the fuel/air mixing and combustion behavior of pulsed, turbulent diffusion flames by conducting experiments in microgravity. In this research the fuel jet is fully-modulated (i.e., completely shut off between pulses) by an externally controlled valve system. This gives rise to drastic modification of the combustion and flow characteristics of flames, leading to enhanced fuel/air mixing compared to acoustically excited or partially-modulated jets. Normal-gravity experiments suggest that the fully-modulated technique also has the potential for producing turbulent jet flames significantly more compact than steady flames with no increase in exhaust emissions. The technique also simplifies the combustion process by avoiding the acoustic forcing generally present in pulsed combustors. Fundamental issues addressed in this experiment include the impact of buoyancy on the structure and flame length, temperatures, radiation, and emissions of fully-modulated flames.

  19. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340 Section 412.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for...

  20. 26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly arrived submarine is being placed in position. Berthed submarine on right is same as that seen in photo WA-116-25. Camera is pointed S from bulkhead. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. Fully Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Precision Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. Frank; Young, Leyland G.

    2003-01-01

    High precision membranes are used in many current space applications. This paper presents a fully nonlinear membrane theory with forward and inverse analyses of high precision membrane structures. The fully nonlinear membrane theory is derived from Jaumann strains and stresses, exact coordinate transformations, the concept of local relative displacements, and orthogonal virtual rotations. In this theory, energy and Newtonian formulations are fully correlated, and every structural term can be interpreted in terms of vectors. Fully nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODES) governing the large static deformations of known axisymmetric membranes under known axisymmetric loading (i.e., forward problems) are presented as first-order ODES, and a method for obtaining numerically exact solutions using the multiple shooting procedure is shown. A method for obtaining the undeformed geometry of any axisymmetric membrane with a known inflated geometry and a known internal pressure (i.e., inverse problems) is also derived. Numerical results from forward analysis are verified using results in the literature, and results from inverse analysis are verified using known exact solutions and solutions from the forward analysis. Results show that the membrane theory and the proposed numerical methods for solving nonlinear forward and inverse membrane problems are accurate.

  2. 6. VIEW WEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  3. 7. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, FIRST AND SECOND LAYER OF PLANKS (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. 8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  5. Fully depleted back-illuminated p-channel CCD development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, Chris J.; Bercovitz, John H.; Groom, Donald E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe, William F.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Prasad, Val; Turko, Bojan T.; Wang, Guobin

    2003-07-08

    An overview of CCD development efforts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented. Operation of fully-depleted, back-illuminated CCD's fabricated on high resistivity silicon is described, along with results on the use of such CCD's at ground-based observatories. Radiation damage and point-spread function measurements are described, as well as discussion of CCD fabrication technologies.

  6. Peirce and Rationalism: Is Peirce a Fully Semiotic Philosopher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…

  7. Formation of Partially and Fully Elaborated Generalized Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Moss, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Most complex categories observed in real-world settings consist of perceptually disparate stimuli, such as a picture of a person's face, the person's name as written, and the same name as heard, as well as dimensional variants of some or all of these stimuli. The stimuli function as members of a single partially or fully elaborated generalized…

  8. Formation of Partially and Fully Elaborated Generalized Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Moss, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Most complex categories observed in real-world settings consist of perceptually disparate stimuli, such as a picture of a person's face, the person's name as written, and the same name as heard, as well as dimensional variants of some or all of these stimuli. The stimuli function as members of a single partially or fully elaborated generalized…

  9. VCM Process Design: An ABET 2000 Fully Compliant Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyahia, Farid

    2005-01-01

    A long experience in undergraduate vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) process design projects is shared in this paper. The VCM process design is shown to be fully compliant with ABET 2000 criteria by virtue of its abundance in chemical engineering principles, integration of interpersonal and interdisciplinary skills in design, safety, economics, and…

  10. Peirce and Rationalism: Is Peirce a Fully Semiotic Philosopher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…

  11. General view of a fully assembled Solid Rocket Booster sitting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a fully assembled Solid Rocket Booster sitting atop the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340 Section 412.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for Capital...

  13. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340 Section 412.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for Capital...

  14. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340 Section 412.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for Capital...

  15. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340 Section 412.340 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for Capital...

  16. Assessment of dune failure along the Dutch coast using a fully probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Heijer, C.(Kees); Baart, Fedor; van Koningsveld, Mark

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the added value of a fully probabilistic approach to dune resilience assessment over the currently applied deterministic and semi-probabilistic approaches. The method is applied to the Dutch coast but is generically applicable, provided of course the sufficient availability of data. The DUROS+ model in its most basic form was used to quantitatively assess dune resilience. The Monte Carlo method was used for the probabilistic investigation. Important research questions were (1) where can the DUROS+ model in combination with the fully probabilistic approach be applied along the Dutch coast? and (2) what is the alongshore variability of failure probability using this probabilistic approach? The main conclusion of the work presented in this paper is that the fully probabilistic approach provides valuable added insight with respect to the actual failure probability of transects. At the same time it is noted that the current dune erosion model in its most basic form is not able to cover all of the Dutch coast. Reasons lie in the availability of sufficient quality boundary conditions, applicability limits associated with model assumptions and insufficient quality coastal profile information. To extend the coverage of the analysis of failure probabilities along the Dutch coast it is recommended (1) to involve more process-based model concepts that can cope with the situations DUROS+ cannot, and (2) to expand currently available data on boundary conditions.

  17. Learning fully-connected CRFs for blood vessel segmentation in retinal images.

    PubMed

    Orlando, José Ignacio; Blaschko, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method for blood vessel segmentation in fundus images based on a discriminatively trained, fully connected conditional random field model. Retinal image analysis is greatly aided by blood vessel segmentation as the vessel structure may be considered both a key source of signal, e.g. in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, or a nuisance, e.g. in the analysis of pigment epithelium or choroid related abnormalities. Blood vessel segmentation in fundus images has been considered extensively in the literature, but remains a challenge largely due to the desired structures being thin and elongated, a setting that performs particularly poorly using standard segmentation priors such as a Potts model or total variation. In this work, we overcome this difficulty using a discriminatively trained conditional random field model with more expressive potentials. In particular, we employ recent results enabling extremely fast inference in a fully connected model. We find that this rich but computationally efficient model family, combined with principled discriminative training based on a structured output support vector machine yields a fully automated system that achieves results statistically indistinguishable from an expert human annotator. Implementation details are available at http://pages.saclay.inria.fr/ matthew.blaschko/projects/retina/.

  18. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel... it is fully deployed within the agency, but only when travel meets one of the following conditions... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency?...

  19. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel... it is fully deployed within the agency, but only when travel meets one of the following conditions... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency?...

  20. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel... it is fully deployed within the agency, but only when travel meets one of the following conditions... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency?...

  1. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel... it is fully deployed within the agency, but only when travel meets one of the following conditions... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency?...

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS eTravel Service and Travel... it is fully deployed within the agency, but only when travel meets one of the following conditions... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency?...

  3. Osborne Reynolds' pipe flow: Direct computation from laminar through bypass transition to fully-developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald; Baltzer, Jon; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The most fundamental internal flow, smooth pipe from a slightly perturbed laminar inlet state continuously through bypass transition to fully-developed turbulence, has been computed using DNS over an axial domain length of 250 pipe radii. In the fully-developed turbulent region, mean and second-order turbulent statistics including the rate of viscous dissipation show excellent agreement with those obtained from an additional simulation using the conventional streamwise periodic boundary condition over an axial domain length of 30 pipe radii. Friction factor follows analytical solution prior to breakdown, and agrees with Moody's correlation after the completion of transition. During transition it exhibits an overshoot. Breakdown of the laminar pipe flow is characterized by the formation of large Lambda-shaped vortices pointing upstream, followed by their subsequent generation of small hairpin packets inclined towards the downstream direction.

  4. Super-rogue waves in simulations based on weakly nonlinear and fully nonlinear hydrodynamic equations.

    PubMed

    Slunyaev, A; Pelinovsky, E; Sergeeva, A; Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N

    2013-07-01

    The rogue wave solutions (rational multibreathers) of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) are tested in numerical simulations of weakly nonlinear and fully nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. Only the lowest order solutions from 1 to 5 are considered. A higher accuracy of wave propagation in space is reached using the modified NLS equation, also known as the Dysthe equation. This numerical modeling allowed us to directly compare simulations with recent results of laboratory measurements in Chabchoub et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 056601 (2012)]. In order to achieve even higher physical accuracy, we employed fully nonlinear simulations of potential Euler equations. These simulations provided us with basic characteristics of long time evolution of rational solutions of the NLS equation in the case of near-breaking conditions. The analytic NLS solutions are found to describe the actual wave dynamics of steep waves reasonably well.

  5. Steady-State Fully Noninductive Current Driven by Electron Cyclotron Waves in a Magnetically Confined Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, O.; Henderson, M. A.; Hofmann, F.; Goodman, T.; Alberti, S.; Angioni, C.; Appert, K.; Behn, R.; Blanchard, P.; Bosshard, P.; Chavan, R.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Fasel, D.; Favre, A.; Furno, I.; Gorgerat, P.; Hogge, J.-P.; Isoz, P.-F.; Joye, B.; Lavanchy, P.; Lister, J. B.; Llobet, X.; Magnin, J.-C.; Mandrin, P.; Manini, A.; Marlétaz, B.; Marmillod, P.; Martin, Y.; Mayor, J.-M.; Martynov, A. A.; Mlynar, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Nieswand, C.; Nikkola, P.; Paris, P.; Perez, A.; Pietrzyk, Z. A.; Pitts, R. A.; Pochelon, A.; Pochon, G.; Refke, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rommers, J.; Scavino, E.; Tonetti, G.; Tran, M. Q.; Troyon, F.; Weisen, H.

    2000-04-01

    A steady-state, fully noninductive plasma current has been sustained for the first time in a tokamak using electron cyclotron current drive only. In this discharge, 123 kA of current have been sustained for the entire gyrotron pulse duration of 2 s. Careful distribution across the plasma minor radius of the power deposited from three 0.5-MW gyrotrons was essential for reaching steady-state conditions. With central current drive, up to 153 kA of current have been fully replaced transiently for 100 ms. The noninductive scenario is confirmed by the ability to recharge the Ohmic transformer. The dependence of the current drive efficiency on the minor radius is also demonstrated.

  6. Is It Fully "On" or Partly "Off"? The Case of Fully-Online Provision of Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliszewska, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of the transnational education market, more and more universities join the ranks of transnational education providers or expand their transnational education offerings. Many of those providers regard fully-online provision of their programs as an economic alternative to face-to-face teaching. Do transnational students…

  7. Generalized sine condition.

    PubMed

    Elazhary, Tamer T; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Chunyu; Burge, James H

    2015-06-01

    The classic Abbe sine condition relates pupil distortion to aberrations with linear field dependence such as coma. This paper provides a fully generalized form of the sine condition that does not use any symmetry. It accurately predicts the change in aberration in the presence of field independent and pupil aberrations. The definitions of the image, object, and coordinate system are completely arbitrary. The relationship is verified using ray trace simulations of a number of systems that have varying degrees of complexity. The potential applications are discussed.

  8. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field,more » which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.« less

  9. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  10. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2013-12-14

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called “textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics in stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes: A fully covariant approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gourgoulhon, Eric; Markakis, Charalampos; Uryu, Koji; Eriguchi, Yoshiharu

    2011-05-15

    A fully geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is developed under the hypotheses of perfect conductivity, stationarity, and axisymmetry. The spacetime is not assumed to be circular, which allows for greater generality than the Kerr-type spacetimes usually considered in general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. Expressing the electromagnetic field tensor solely in terms of three scalar fields related to the spacetime symmetries, we generalize previously obtained results in various directions. In particular, we present the first relativistic version of the Soloviev transfield equation, subcases of which lead to fully covariant versions of the Grad-Shafranov equation and of the Stokes equation in the hydrodynamical limit. We have also derived, as another subcase of the relativistic Soloviev equation, the equation governing magnetohydrodynamical equilibria with purely toroidal magnetic fields in stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes.

  12. Sintered silica colloidal crystals with fully hydroxylated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Van Le, Thai; Ross, Eric E; Velarde, Tomika R C; Legg, Michael A; Wirth, Mary J

    2007-07-31

    Silica colloidal crystals require multiple processing steps before they are useful materials in analytical applications, such as chemical separations, microarrays, sensors, and total internal reflection microscopy. These chemical processing steps include calcination, sintering, surface rehydroxylation, and chemical modification, but these steps have not been fully characterized for colloidal crystals. Silica particles of nominally 200 nm in diameter were prepared, and FTIR, SEM, UV-visible spectroscopy, and refractive index measurements were used to study the changes in chemical composition, particle size, and particle density throughout the process. The final material is shown to be a durable, crack-free crystal of solid particles bearing a fully hydroxylated surface of silanols, which can then be chemically modified.

  13. Rossby numbers of fully convective and partially convective stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, Natália R.; Mendes, Luiz T. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the stellar magnetic activity in the theoretical point of view, through the use of stellar structure and evolution models. We present theoretical values of convective turnover times and Rossby numbers for low-mass stars, calculated with the ATON stellar structure and evolution code. We concentrate our analysis on fully convective and partially convective stars motivated by recent observations of X-ray emission of slowly rotating fully convective stars, which suggest that the presence of a tachocline is not a central key for magnetic fields generation. We investigate the behavior of the convective turnover time evolution, as well as its radial profile inside the star. A discussion about the location where the convective turnover time is calculated in the stellar interior is also addressed. Our theoretical results are compared to observational data from low-mass stars.

  14. Fully coupled hybrid cavity optomechanics: Quantum interferences and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan; Favero, Ivan; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2017-02-01

    We present a quantum theory for a fully coupled hybrid optomechanical system where all mutual couplings between a two-level atom, a confined photon mode, and a mechanical oscillator mode are considered. In such a configuration, new quantum interference effects and correlations arise due to the interplay and competition between the different physical interactions. We present an analytical diagonalization of the related fully coupled Hamiltonian, showing the nature and energy spectra of the tripartite dressed excitations. We determine the driven-dissipative dynamics of such hybrid systems and study phonon blockade effects under resonant excitation. We also study the statistical properties of the photon emission obtained under incoherent pumping of the two-level atom, which is particularly relevant for experiments with solid-state two-level emitters.

  15. Fully functional bioengineered tooth replacement as an organ replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Morita, Ritsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Ishida, Kentaro; Nakamura, Takashi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Ogawa, Miho; Mizuno, Mitsumasa; Kasugai, Shohei; Tsuji, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to the development of regenerative therapies have been influenced by our understanding of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technology. The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy is to develop fully functioning bioengineered organs which work in cooperation with surrounding tissues to replace organs that were lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. Here, we report a successful fully functioning tooth replacement in an adult mouse achieved through the transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone in the lost tooth region. We propose this technology as a model for future organ replacement therapies. The bioengineered tooth, which was erupted and occluded, had the correct tooth structure, hardness of mineralized tissues for mastication, and response to noxious stimulations such as mechanical stress and pain in cooperation with other oral and maxillofacial tissues. This study represents a substantial advance and emphasizes the potential for bioengineered organ replacement in future regenerative therapies. PMID:19666587

  16. Fully functional bioengineered tooth replacement as an organ replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Morita, Ritsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Ishida, Kentaro; Nakamura, Takashi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Ogawa, Miho; Mizuno, Mitsumasa; Kasugai, Shohei; Tsuji, Takashi

    2009-08-11

    Current approaches to the development of regenerative therapies have been influenced by our understanding of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technology. The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy is to develop fully functioning bioengineered organs which work in cooperation with surrounding tissues to replace organs that were lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. Here, we report a successful fully functioning tooth replacement in an adult mouse achieved through the transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone in the lost tooth region. We propose this technology as a model for future organ replacement therapies. The bioengineered tooth, which was erupted and occluded, had the correct tooth structure, hardness of mineralized tissues for mastication, and response to noxious stimulations such as mechanical stress and pain in cooperation with other oral and maxillofacial tissues. This study represents a substantial advance and emphasizes the potential for bioengineered organ replacement in future regenerative therapies.

  17. Fully convolutional neural networks for polyp segmentation in colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Patrick; Mazomenos, Evangelos; Ciuti, Gastone; Caliò, Renato; Bianchi, Federico; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Arezzo, Alberto; Stoyanov, Danail

    2017-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer, accounting for nearly 10% of all forms of cancer in the world. Even though colonoscopy is considered the most effective method for screening and diagnosis, the success of the procedure is highly dependent on the operator skills and level of hand-eye coordination. In this work, we propose to adapt fully convolution neural networks (FCN), to identify and segment polyps in colonoscopy images. We converted three established networks into a fully convolution architecture and fine-tuned their learned representations to the polyp segmentation task. We validate our framework on the 2015 MICCAI polyp detection challenge dataset, surpassing the state-of-the-art in automated polyp detection. Our method obtained high segmentation accuracy and a detection precision and recall of 73.61% and 86.31%, respectively.

  18. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations - so-called 'textbook' multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  19. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel Development for LWR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Besmann, Theodore M; Terrani, Kurt A; Voit, Stewart L

    2012-01-01

    The concept, fabrication, and key feasibility issues of a new fuel form based on the microencapsulated (TRISO-type) fuel which has been specifically engineered for LWR application and compacted within a SiC matrix will be presented. This fuel, the so-called fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel is currently undergoing development as an accident tolerant fuel for potential UO2 replacement in commercial LWRs. While the ability of this fuel to facilitate normal LWR cycle performance is an ongoing effort within the program, this will not be a focus of this paper. Rather, key feasibility and performance aspects of the fuel will be presented including the ability to fabricate a LWR-specific TRISO, the need for and route to a high thermal conductivity and fully dense matrix that contains neutron poisons, and the performance of that matrix under irradiation and the interaction of the fuel with commercial zircaloy clad.

  20. Fully phase encrypted memory using cascaded extended fractional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishchal, Naveen K.; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we implement a fully phase encrypted memory system using cascaded extended fractional Fourier transform (FRT). We encrypt and decrypt a two-dimensional image obtained from an amplitude image. The fully phase image to be encrypted is fractional Fourier transformed three times and random phase masks are placed in the two intermediate planes. Performing the FRT three times increases the key size, at an added complexity of one more lens. The encrypted image is holographically recorded in a photorefractive crystal and is then decrypted by generating through phase conjugation, conjugate of encrypted image. The decrypted phase image is converted into an amplitude image by using phase contrast technique. A lithium niobate crystal has been used as a phase contrast filter to reconstruct the phase image, alleviating the need of alignment in the Fourier plane, thereby making the system rugged.

  1. Polymeric Packaging for Fully Implantable Wireless Neural Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Aceros, Juan; Yin, Ming; Borton, David A.; Patterson, William R.; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2014-01-01

    We present polymeric packaging methods used for subcutaneous, fully implantable, broadband, and wireless neurosensors. A new tool for accelerated testing and characterization of biocompatible polymeric packaging materials and processes is described along with specialized test units to simulate our fully implantable neurosensor components, materials and fabrication processes. A brief description of the implantable systems is presented along with their current encapsulation methods based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Results from in-vivo testing of multiple implanted neurosensors in swine and non-human primates are presented. Finally, a novel augmenting polymer thin film material to complement the currently employed PDMS is introduced. This thin layer coating material is based on the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) process of Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and Oxygen (O2). PMID:23365999

  2. Polymeric packaging for fully implantable wireless neural microsensors.

    PubMed

    Aceros, Juan; Yin, Ming; Borton, David A; Patterson, William R; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2012-01-01

    We present polymeric packaging methods used for subcutaneous, fully implantable, broadband, and wireless neurosensors. A new tool for accelerated testing and characterization of biocompatible polymeric packaging materials and processes is described along with specialized test units to simulate our fully implantable neurosensor components, materials and fabrication processes. A brief description of the implantable systems is presented along with their current encapsulation methods based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Results from in-vivo testing of multiple implanted neurosensors in swine and non-human primates are presented. Finally, a novel augmenting polymer thin film material to complement the currently employed PDMS is introduced. This thin layer coating material is based on the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) process of Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and Oxygen (O(2)).

  3. Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering From Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage; Paulo Bedaque; Silas Beane

    2006-07-01

    We present results of the first fully-dynamical lattice QCD determination of nucleon-nucleon scattering lengths in the 1 S0 channel and 3 S1 - 3 D1 coupled channels. The calculations are performed with domain-wall valence quarks on the MILC staggered configurations with lattice spacing of b = 0.125 fm in the isospin-symmetric limit, and in the absence of electromagnetic interactions

  4. Distributed Intelligence, Sensing, and Control for Fully Autonomous Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Autonomous Agents DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Advances in...Vehicle Systems Concepts and Integration. [les Avancees en concepts systemes pour vehicules et en integration] To order the complete compilation report...Fully Autonomous Agents (January 1999) Dr. Allen Moshfegh and Mr. David S. Siegel Office of Naval Research 800 North Quincy Street Arlington, Virginia

  5. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  6. A fully automated digitally controlled 30-inch telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.; Carlson, R.

    1975-01-01

    A fully automated 30-inch (75-cm) telescope has been successfully designed and constructed from a military surplus Nike-Ajax radar mount. Novel features include: closed-loop operation between mountain telescope and campus computer 30 km apart via microwave link, a TV-type sensor which is photon shot-noise limited, a special lightweight primary mirror, and a stepping motor drive capable of slewing and settling one degree in one second or a radian in fifteen seconds.

  7. Consistency of pseudolikelihood estimation of fully visible Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2006-10-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a classic model of neural computation, and a number of methods have been proposed for its estimation. Most methods are plagued by either very slow convergence or asymptotic bias in the resulting estimates. Here we consider estimation in the basic case of fully visible Boltzmann machines. We show that the old principle of pseudolikelihood estimation provides an estimator that is computationally very simple yet statistically consistent.

  8. A fully automated robotic system for high throughput fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Hartmut F; Rieth, Jochen

    2007-03-01

    High throughput robotic systems have been used since the 1990s to carry out biochemical assays in microtiter plates. However, before the application of such systems in industrial fermentation process development, some important specific demands should be taken into account. These are sufficient oxygen supply, optimal growth temperature, minimized sample evaporation, avoidance of contaminations, and simple but reliable process monitoring. A fully automated solution where all these aspects have been taken into account is presented.

  9. An Unconditionally Stable Fully Conservative Semi-Lagrangian Method (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-07

    An Unconditionally Stable Fully Conservative Semi- Lagrangian Method Michael Lentine∗, Jón Tómas Grétarsson∗, Ronald Fedkiw∗ Stanford University...353 Serra Mall Room 207, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Semi- Lagrangian methods have been around for some time, dating back at least to [3]. Researchers...the typical semi- Lagrangian interpolation step in order to guarantee that the amount of the con- servative quantity does not increase during this

  10. U.S. Deep-Sea Tsunameter Network Fully Operational

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    southeast. On April 16, 2007, DART II station 55401 was established in the Tasman Sea . In March 2008, the DART team assisted in the second Australian...U.S. Deep- Sea Tsunameter Network Fully Operational Douglas Maxwell, Shannon McArthur, William Hansen, Richard Bouchard, Ian Sears, Jack Higgs and...of deep- sea tsunameters. This effort was an integral part of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The Tsunami Program is part of a

  11. A Fully Coupled Model for Electromechanics of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Henian; Wong, Kwai; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    We present a fully coupled electromechanical model of the heart. The model integrates cardiac electrophysiology and cardiac mechanics through excitation-induced contraction and deformation-induced current. Numerical schemes based on finite element were implemented in a supercomputer. Numerical examples were presented using a thin cardiac tissue and a dog ventricle with realistic geometry. Performance of the parallel simulation scheme was studied. The model provides a useful tool to understand cardiovascular dynamics. PMID:23118801

  12. A self-consistent dynamo model for fully convective stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Christensen, Ulrich; Morin, Julien; Gastine, Thomas; Reiners, Ansgar; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Wolk, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    The tachocline region inside the Sun, where the rigidly rotating radiative core meets the differentially rotating convection zone, is thought to be crucial for generating the Sun's magnetic field. Low-mass fully convective stars do not possess a tachocline and were originally expected to generate only weak small-scale magnetic fields. Observations, however, have painted a different picture of magnetism in rapidly-rotating fully convective stars: (1) Zeeman broadening measurements revealed average surface field of several kiloGauss (kG), which is similar to the typical field strength found in sunspots. (2) Zeeman-Doppler-Imaging (ZDI) technique discovered large-scale magnetic fields with a morphology often similar to the Earth's dipole-dominated field. (3) Comparison of Zeeman broadening and ZDI results showed that more than 80% of the magnetic flux resides at small scales. So far, theoretical and computer simulation efforts have not been able to reproduce these features simultaneously. Here we present a self-consistent global model of magnetic field generation in low-mass fully convective stars. A distributed dynamo working in the model spontaneously produces a dipole-dominated surface magnetic field of the observed strength. The interaction of this field with the turbulent convection in outer layers shreds it, producing small-scale fields that carry most of the magnetic flux. The ZDI technique applied to synthetic spectropolarimetric data based on our model recovers most of the large-scale field. Our model simultaneously reproduces the morphology and magnitude of the large-scale field as well as the magnitude of the small-scale field observed on low-mass fully convective stars.

  13. Efficient variational diagonalization of fully many-body localized Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, Frank; Khemani, Vedika; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Sondhi, S. L.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a variational unitary matrix product operator based variational method that approximately finds all the eigenstates of fully many-body localized one-dimensional Hamiltonians. The computational cost of the variational optimization scales linearly with system size for a fixed depth of the UTN ansatz. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by considering the Heisenberg chain in a strongly disordered magnetic field for which we compare the approximation to exact diagonalization results.

  14. Modeling of Calcite Precipitation Driven by Bacteria-facilitated Urea Hydrolysis in A Flow Column Using A Fully Coupled, Fully Implicit Parallel Reactive Transport Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Huang, H.; Gaston, D.; Redden, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    One approach for immobilizing subsurface metal contaminants involves stimulating the in situ production of mineral phases that sequester or isolate contaminants. One example is using calcium carbonate to immobilize strontium. The success of such approaches depends on understanding how various processes of flow, transport, reaction and resulting porosity-permeability change couple in subsurface systems. Reactive transport models are often used for such purpose. Current subsurface reactive transport simulators typically involve a de-coupled solution approach, such as operator-splitting, that solves the transport equations for components and batch chemistry sequentially, which has limited applicability for many biogeochemical processes with fast kinetics and strong medium property-reaction interactions. A massively parallel, fully coupled, fully implicit reactive transport simulator has been developed based on a parallel multi-physics object oriented software environment computing framework (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Within this simulator, the system of transport and reaction equations is solved simultaneously in a fully coupled manner using the Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method with preconditioning. The simulator was applied to model reactive transport in a one-dimensional column where conditions that favor calcium carbonate precipitation are generated by urea hydrolysis that is catalyzed by urease enzyme. Simulation results are compared to both laboratory column experiments and those obtained using the reactive transport simulator STOMP in terms of: the spatial and temporal distributions of precipitates and reaction rates and other major species in the reaction system; the changes in porosity and permeability; and the computing efficiency based on wall clock simulation time.

  15. Dynamo Action in Fully Convective Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Matthew K.; Basri, Gibor

    2007-11-01

    Recent observations indicate that fully convective stars can effectively build magnetic fields without the aid of a tachocline of shear, that those fields can possess large-scale components, and that they may sense the effects of rotation. Motivated by these puzzles, we present global three-dimensional simulations of convection and dynamo action in the interiors of fully convective M-dwarfs of 0.3 solar masses. We use the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code, adopting a spherical computational domain that extends from 0.08-0.96 times the overall stellar radius. We find that such fully convective stars can generate magnetic fields of several kG strength, roughly in equipartition with the convective flows. Differential rotation is established in hydrodynamic progenitor calculations, but essentially eliminated in MHD simulations because of strong Maxwell stresses exerted by the magnetic fields. Despite the absence of interior angular velocity contrasts, the magnetic fields possess strong mean (axisymmetric) components, which we attribute partly to the very strong influence of rotation upon the slowly overturning flows.

  16. A novel fully differential biopotential amplifier with dc suppression.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario; Martínez, Nolberto; Mayosky, Miguel Angel; Pallàs-Areny, Ramon

    2004-08-01

    Fully differential amplifiers yield large differential gains and also high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), provided they do not include any unmatched grounded component. In biopotential measurements, however, the admissible gain of amplification stages located before dc suppression is usually limited by electrode offset voltage, which can saturate amplifier outputs. The standard solution is to first convert the differential input voltage to a single-ended voltage and then implement any other required functions, such as dc suppression and dc level restoring. This approach, however, yields a limited CMRR and may result in a relatively large equivalent input noise. This paper describes a novel fully differential biopotential amplifier based on a fully differential dc-suppression circuit that does not rely on any matched passive components, yet provides large CMRR and fast recovery from dc level transients. The proposed solution is particularly convenient for low supply voltage systems. An example implementation, based on standard low-power op amps and a single 5-V power supply, accepts input offset voltages up to +/-500 mV, yields a CMRR of 102 dB at 50 Hz, and provides, in accordance with the AAMI EC38 standard, a reset behavior for recovering from overloads or artifacts.

  17. Cardiac imaging: working towards fully-automated machine analysis & interpretation.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Dey, Damini; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Motwani, Manish; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive imaging plays a critical role in managing patients with cardiovascular disease. Although subjective visual interpretation remains the clinical mainstay, quantitative analysis facilitates objective, evidence-based management, and advances in clinical research. This has driven developments in computing and software tools aimed at achieving fully automated image processing and quantitative analysis. In parallel, machine learning techniques have been used to rapidly integrate large amounts of clinical and quantitative imaging data to provide highly personalized individual patient-based conclusions. Areas covered: This review summarizes recent advances in automated quantitative imaging in cardiology and describes the latest techniques which incorporate machine learning principles. The review focuses on the cardiac imaging techniques which are in wide clinical use. It also discusses key issues and obstacles for these tools to become utilized in mainstream clinical practice. Expert commentary: Fully-automated processing and high-level computer interpretation of cardiac imaging are becoming a reality. Application of machine learning to the vast amounts of quantitative data generated per scan and integration with clinical data also facilitates a move to more patient-specific interpretation. These developments are unlikely to replace interpreting physicians but will provide them with highly accurate tools to detect disease, risk-stratify, and optimize patient-specific treatment. However, with each technological advance, we move further from human dependence and closer to fully-automated machine interpretation.

  18. Fully human antibodies from transgenic mouse and phage display platforms.

    PubMed

    Lonberg, Nils

    2008-08-01

    Over the past two decades, technologies have emerged for generating monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from human immunoglobulin gene sequences. These fully human MAbs provide an alternative to re-engineered, or de-immunized, rodent MAbs as a source of low immunogenicity therapeutic antibodies. There are now two marketed fully human therapeutic MAbs, adalimumab and panitumumab, and several dozen more in various stages of human clinical testing. Most of the drugs, including adalimumab and panitumumab, were generated using either phage display or transgenic mouse platforms. The reported clinical experience with fully human MAbs demonstrates that these two platforms are, and should continue to be, a significant source of active and well tolerated experimental therapeutics. While this body of reported clinical data does not yet provide a clear distinction between the platforms, the available descriptions of the drug discovery processes used to identify the clinical candidates highlight one difference. It appears that lead optimization is more commonly applied to phage display derived leads than transgenic mouse derived leads.

  19. Fully Endoscopic Retrosigmoid Vestibular Nerve Section for Refractory Meniere Disease

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Pradeep; Babu, Seilesh; LaRouere, Michael J.; Pieper, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective  This study aims to report our results and technical details of fully endoscopic retrosigmoid vestibular nerve section. Design  A prospective observational study was conducted. Setting  A single academic, tertiary institution involving neurosurgery and neurotology. Participants  Previously diagnosed patients with Meniere disease, refractory to medical therapy, who underwent fully endoscopic vestibular nerve section. Main Outcome Measures  Postoperative improvement in vertiginous symptoms as well as hearing preservation, based on the American Association of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons score and the Gardener and Robertson-Modified Hearing Classification. Facial nerve preservation based on the House–Brackman (HB) score. Results  Symptoms improved or resolved in 38 of 41 (92.2%) patients with only 1 of 41 (2.4%) reporting worsening symptoms. All 41 patients (100%) had a postoperative HB score of 1/6, demonstrating full facial nerve preservation. Hearing was stable or improved in 34 of 41 (82.9%) patients. Three complications took place for a rate of 7.3%, one cerebrospinal fluid leak, and two wound infections. Conclusion  The fully endoscopic approach to vestibular nerve sections is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of medically refractory Meniere disease. This technique also utilizes smaller incisions, minimal cranial openings, and no cerebellar retraction with improved visualization of the cerebellopontine angle neurovascular structures. PMID:27441160

  20. Fully Endoscopic Retrosigmoid Vestibular Nerve Section for Refractory Meniere Disease.

    PubMed

    Setty, Pradeep; Babu, Seilesh; LaRouere, Michael J; Pieper, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to report our results and technical details of fully endoscopic retrosigmoid vestibular nerve section. A prospective observational study was conducted. A single academic, tertiary institution involving neurosurgery and neurotology. Previously diagnosed patients with Meniere disease, refractory to medical therapy, who underwent fully endoscopic vestibular nerve section. Postoperative improvement in vertiginous symptoms as well as hearing preservation, based on the American Association of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons score and the Gardener and Robertson-Modified Hearing Classification. Facial nerve preservation based on the House-Brackman (HB) score. Symptoms improved or resolved in 38 of 41 (92.2%) patients with only 1 of 41 (2.4%) reporting worsening symptoms. All 41 patients (100%) had a postoperative HB score of 1/6, demonstrating full facial nerve preservation. Hearing was stable or improved in 34 of 41 (82.9%) patients. Three complications took place for a rate of 7.3%, one cerebrospinal fluid leak, and two wound infections. The fully endoscopic approach to vestibular nerve sections is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of medically refractory Meniere disease. This technique also utilizes smaller incisions, minimal cranial openings, and no cerebellar retraction with improved visualization of the cerebellopontine angle neurovascular structures.

  1. Cardiac imaging: working towards fully-automated machine analysis & interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Slomka, Piotr J; Dey, Damini; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Motwani, Manish; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive imaging plays a critical role in managing patients with cardiovascular disease. Although subjective visual interpretation remains the clinical mainstay, quantitative analysis facilitates objective, evidence-based management, and advances in clinical research. This has driven developments in computing and software tools aimed at achieving fully automated image processing and quantitative analysis. In parallel, machine learning techniques have been used to rapidly integrate large amounts of clinical and quantitative imaging data to provide highly personalized individual patient-based conclusions. Areas covered This review summarizes recent advances in automated quantitative imaging in cardiology and describes the latest techniques which incorporate machine learning principles. The review focuses on the cardiac imaging techniques which are in wide clinical use. It also discusses key issues and obstacles for these tools to become utilized in mainstream clinical practice. Expert commentary Fully-automated processing and high-level computer interpretation of cardiac imaging are becoming a reality. Application of machine learning to the vast amounts of quantitative data generated per scan and integration with clinical data also facilitates a move to more patient-specific interpretation. These developments are unlikely to replace interpreting physicians but will provide them with highly accurate tools to detect disease, risk-stratify, and optimize patient-specific treatment. However, with each technological advance, we move further from human dependence and closer to fully-automated machine interpretation. PMID:28277804

  2. Fully decoupled monolithic projection method for natural convection problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaomin; Kim, Kyoungyoun; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il

    2017-04-01

    To solve time-dependent natural convection problems, we propose a fully decoupled monolithic projection method. The proposed method applies the Crank-Nicolson scheme in time and the second-order central finite difference in space. To obtain a non-iterative monolithic method from the fully discretized nonlinear system, we first adopt linearizations of the nonlinear convection terms and the general buoyancy term with incurring second-order errors in time. Approximate block lower-upper decompositions, along with an approximate factorization technique, are additionally employed to a global linearly coupled system, which leads to several decoupled subsystems, i.e., a fully decoupled monolithic procedure. We establish global error estimates to verify the second-order temporal accuracy of the proposed method for velocity, pressure, and temperature in terms of a discrete l2-norm. Moreover, according to the energy evolution, the proposed method is proved to be stable if the time step is less than or equal to a constant. In addition, we provide numerical simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection and periodic forced flow. The results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly mitigates the time step limitation, reduces the computational cost because only one Poisson equation is required to be solved, and preserves the second-order temporal accuracy for velocity, pressure, and temperature. Finally, the proposed method reasonably predicts a three-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection for different Rayleigh numbers.

  3. Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab

    PubMed Central

    Stathonikos, Nikolas; Veta, Mitko; Huisman, André; van Diest, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years, whole slide imaging has become more affordable and widely accepted in pathology labs. Digital slides are increasingly being used for digital archiving of routinely produced clinical slides, remote consultation and tumor boards, and quantitative image analysis for research purposes and in education. However, the implementation of a fully digital Pathology Department requires an in depth look into the suitability of digital slides for routine clinical use (the image quality of the produced digital slides and the factors that affect it) and the required infrastructure to support such use (the storage requirements and integration with lab management and hospital information systems). Optimization of digital pathology workflow requires communication between several systems, which can be facilitated by the use of open standards for digital slide storage and scanner management. Consideration of these aspects along with appropriate validation of the use of digital slides for routine pathology can pave the way for pathology departments to go “fully digital.” In this paper, we summarize our experiences so far in the process of implementing a fully digital workflow at our Pathology Department and the steps that are needed to complete this process. PMID:23858390

  4. Integrating hydrology within a fully coupled environmental prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Martin; Lewis, Huw; Ashton, Heather; Blyth, Eleanor; Martinez, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Historically the hydrological community and the community developing the land surface component of atmospheric models have both been tasked with representing the terrestrial hydrological cycle, but have focused on different ends, namely streamflow and evaporation respectively. To date the lack of computational resources and representative observations have limited the integration of the skills within these two communities. However, this is no longer the case. In addition, the drive toward fully integrated high resolution environmental prediction systems, coupling atmosphere, land and ocean on regional domains, requires an accurate representation for all aspects of terrestrial hydrology. Hence a new focus is emerging to integrate improved hydrological processes within the land surface components of atmospheric models. The UK Environmental Prediction (UKEP) project is a research experiment aimed at understanding the potential benefits for detailed environmental forecasting from a fully coupled atmosphere/land/ocean system at km-scale resolution for the UK. The prototype model utilises the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) as its land surface component, coupled to the RFM river flow model. Although JULES has been previously used for climate studies that close the global water cycle, the JULES/RFM system has not been comprehensively evaluated for its ability to simulate river discharge. In this study we attempt some initial evaluation of the JULES/RFM system for all aspects of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, including evaporation, soil moisture and streamflow. In addition, comparisons are made between the results from the fully coupled environmental prediction system and stand alone JULES/RFM simulations forced by atmospheric driving data from the UK weather forecasting model. This provides an opportunity to assess the impact of fully coupled versus a one way coupled response for terrestrial hydrology. Finally we consider the potential for coupling JULES

  5. Report Viewgraphs for IC Project: Fully-coupled climate simulations with an eddy-permitting ocean component

    SciTech Connect

    Veneziani, Carmela

    2016-07-25

    Two sets of simulations were performed within this allocation: 1) a 12-year fully-coupled experiment in pre-industrial conditions, using the CICE4 version of the sea-ice model; 2) a set of multi-decadal ocean-ice-only experiments, forced with CORE-I atmospheric fields and using the CICE5 version of the sea-ice model.

  6. A fully discrete, stable and conservative summation-by-parts formulation for deforming interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkar, Samira; Nordström, Jan

    2017-06-01

    We introduce an interface/coupling procedure for hyperbolic problems posed on time-dependent curved multi-domains. First, we transform the problem from Cartesian to boundary-conforming curvilinear coordinates and apply the energy method to derive well-posed and conservative interface conditions. Next, we discretize the problem in space and time by employing finite difference operators that satisfy a summation-by-parts rule. The interface condition is imposed weakly using a penalty formulation. We show how to formulate the penalty operators such that the coupling procedure is automatically adjusted to the movements and deformations of the interface, while both stability and conservation conditions are respected. The developed techniques are illustrated by performing numerical experiments on the linearized Euler equations and the Maxwell equations. The results corroborate the stability and accuracy of the fully discrete approximations.

  7. Gain compensation technique by bias correction in arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers using fully differential fast shaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2016-07-01

    Proposed algorithm compensates the gain by changing the bias voltage of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from SiPM is amplified in fully differential preamplifier then is formed in time by the fully differential fast shaper. The compensation method was tested with four channels common cathode multi-pixel photon counter from Hamamatsu. The measurement system requires only one high voltage power supply. The polarization voltage is adjusted individually in each channel indirectly by tuning the output common mode voltage (VOCM) of fully differential amplifier. The changes of VOCM affect the input voltage through the feedback network. Actual gain of the SiPM is calculated by measuring the mean amplitude of the signal resulting from detection of single photoelectron. The VOCM is adjusted by DAC so as to reach the desired value of gain by each channel individually. The advantage of the algorithm is the possibility to set the bias of each SiPM in the array independently so they all could operate in very similar conditions (have similar gain and dark count rate). The algorithm can compensate the variations of gain of SiPM by using thermally generated pulses. There is no need to use additional current to voltage conversion which could introduce extra noises.

  8. Fully discrete energy stable high order finite difference methods for hyperbolic problems in deforming domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkar, Samira; Nordström, Jan

    2015-06-01

    A time-dependent coordinate transformation of a constant coefficient hyperbolic system of equations which results in a variable coefficient system of equations is considered. By applying the energy method, well-posed boundary conditions for the continuous problem are derived. Summation-by-Parts (SBP) operators for the space and time discretization, together with a weak imposition of boundary and initial conditions using Simultaneously Approximation Terms (SATs) lead to a provable fully-discrete energy-stable conservative finite difference scheme. We show how to construct a time-dependent SAT formulation that automatically imposes boundary conditions, when and where they are required. We also prove that a uniform flow field is preserved, i.e. the Numerical Geometric Conservation Law (NGCL) holds automatically by using SBP-SAT in time and space. The developed technique is illustrated by considering an application using the linearized Euler equations: the sound generated by moving boundaries. Numerical calculations corroborate the stability and accuracy of the new fully discrete approximations.

  9. Are Permanent Residents of High Altitude Fully Adapted to Their Hypoxic Environment?

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2017-06-01

    West, John B. Are permanent residents of high altitude fully adapted to their hypoxic environment? High Alt Med Biol. 18:135-139, 2017.-Millions of people live permanently at high altitude and many have been there for generations. It is sometimes claimed that these people have completely adapted to their environment, and certainly some remarkable genetic adaptations have recently been described. However there is now strong evidence that permanent residents are not completely adapted to the high altitude in the sense that they have fully compensated for the environmental hypoxia. By sea level standards, highlanders have severe chronic arterial hypoxemia. Furthermore, their maximum oxygen uptake increases if they descend, and recent measurements suggest that cognitive function is reduced in this population compared with a matched group at a lower altitude. Reproductive success is reduced at high altitude because neonatal mortality increases with altitude. The topic has recently gained importance because new technology enables the physiological altitude of permanent residents to be reduced by adding oxygen to the air of buildings on a large scale, a procedure known as oxygen conditioning. Its feasibility has been questioned, but in essence it is no different from air conditioning that is universally used to improve the well-being and productivity of millions of people in hot climates. Oxygen conditioning has the potential to do the same for permanent residents of high altitude.

  10. Corrections to "basins of attraction in fully asynchronous discrete-time discrete-state dynamic networks".

    PubMed

    Bahi, Jacques M; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain

    2009-08-01

    This paper brings a correction to the formulation of the basins of fixed-point states of fully asynchronous discrete-time discrete-state dynamic networks presented in our paper that appeared in the IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 397-408, March 2006. In our subsequent works on totally asynchronous systems, we have discovered that the formulation given in that previous paper lacks an additional condition. We present in this paper why the previous formulation is incomplete and give the correct formulation.

  11. Living Fully in the Shadow of Mortal Time: Psychosocial Assets in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Meg; Marchand, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the strategies and psychosocial conditions that influence how resilient people live in the face of advanced cancer. Methods Grounded theory interviews and surveys of ten resilient people with advanced cancer were collected and analyzed. Findings Personal assets including positive relationships, purpose in life, faith, and a sense of mastery contributed to living fully in “mortal time.” Strategies included embracing paradox, reframing time, deepening connections, and aligning actions with priorities. Open-ended interviews yielded rich illness and life stories; many participants requested a copy of the transcript. Conclusions Resilient people use a range of strategies to thrive in the face of advanced cancer. PMID:23923470

  12. Convergence analysis of an augmented algorithm for fully complex-valued neural networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongpo; Zhang, Huisheng; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an augmented algorithm for fully complex-valued neural network based on Wirtinger calculus, which simplifies the derivation of the algorithm and eliminates the Schwarz symmetry restriction on the activation functions. A unified mean value theorem is first established for general functions of complex variables, covering the analytic functions, non-analytic functions and real-valued functions. Based on so introduced theorem, convergence results of the augmented algorithm are obtained under mild conditions. Simulations are provided to support the analysis.

  13. Simulant Selection and Environmental Assessment for Open-Air Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Qrr- 9 11". 0-’ 20S03 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2 REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 March Final, 92 Jun - 92 Jun 4. TITLE AND...users should direct such requests to the National Technical Information Service. .. . ... Fr.... b IA. 1-0 aLV t• 3 Blank CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION...7 2. SIMULANT SELECTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 8 ..- 3 . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER

  14. Learnscapes, transforming the world into an Open Air Museum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucía, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Scientists are working everywhere, but scientific knowledge is still not widespread among people, and only limited to museums and a few other places. Learnscapes is a new tool for scientists to disseminate their work, making it accessible for people in the right place and at the right moment. It will be possible through a platform (both web and app) that allows tourists to access accurate scientific knowledge related to the place they are visiting and the studied objects they are interested in (river, mountains, monuments…): in this way, the visited place will acquire a higher value. Learnscapes will benefit people, science and territory. The objective is to cover the current gap of communication between science and people. Since the information will be geolocalized, the users will receive an alert when passing near a location with scientific information, this way they will better understand it, becoming more aware of the importance of the research. The audience or users of Learnscapes are curious people, who go to scientific museums, who are familiar with the technology and web apps and have a high level of education. Since curious people and geolocalized science are common worldwide, it is a clearly up-scalable project. Scientists will be able to feature a summary of their work in Learnscapes with little time investment. All the content will be open and freely available for the users and will have a DOI. At the same time, scientists that feature their work in Learnscapes, as well as research and funding institutions involved in the featured studies, will have their own profile that, even if virtual, will enable an interaction between scientist and society. In order to guarantee the scientific accuracy, two kinds of contents are accepted: (1) related to already published scientific results (in peer-reviewed publications) or (2) related to ongoing projects that still do not have published results but there is any kind of equipment installed outside the laboratories or research institutions and can be seen by the people passing by, this way it could substitute or complement the usual panels that scientist install at the monitoring stations. Learnscapes is not limited to any given discipline; nevertheless, since the scientific information included in the platform has to relate to a certain place, it is likely that Geosciences will take the most advantage of it. With Learnscapes scientists and research institutions will have the chance to spread their works with an innovative tool and to obtain visibility and social recognition. www.learnscapes.co

  15. Consideration of Fugitives in Open-Air Cattle Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Consideration of Fugitives in Open-Air Cattle Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Modified sequential fully implicit scheme for compositional flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncorgé, A.; Tchelepi, H. A.; Jenny, P.

    2017-05-01

    The fully implicit (FI) method is widely used for numerical modeling of multiphase flow and transport in porous media. The FI method is unconditionally stable, but that comes at the cost of a low-order approximation and high computational cost. The FI method entails iterative linearization and solution of fully-coupled linear systems with mixed elliptic/hyperbolic character. However, in methods that treat the near-elliptic (flow) and hyperbolic (transport) separately, such as multiscale formulations, sequential solution strategies are used to couple the flow (pressures and velocities) and the transport (saturations/compositions). The most common sequential schemes are: the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES), and the sequential fully implicit (SFI) schemes. Problems of practical interest often involve tightly coupled nonlinear interactions between the multiphase flow and the multi-component transport. For such problems, the IMPES approach usually suffers from prohibitively small timesteps in order to obtain stable numerical solutions. The SFI method, on the other hand, does not suffer from a temporal stability limit, but the convergence rate can be extremely slow. This slow convergence rate of SFI can offset the gains obtained from separate and specialized treatments of the flow and transport problems. In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear coupling between flow and transport for compressible, compositional systems with complex interphase mass transfer. We isolate the nonlinear effects related to transmissibility and compressibility from those due to interphase mass transfer, and we propose a modified SFI (m-SFI) method. The new scheme involves enriching the 'standard' pressure equation with coupling between the pressure and the saturations/compositions. The modification resolves the convergence problems associated with SFI and provides a strong basis for using sequential formulations for general-purpose simulation. For a wide parameter range, we show

  18. A fully adaptive hybrid optimization of aircraft engine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, L.; Druez, B.; Lecerf, N.

    2009-10-01

    A new fully adaptive hybrid optimization method (AHM) has been developed and applied to an industrial problem in the field of the aircraft engine industry. The adaptivity of the coupling between a global search by a population-based method (Genetic Algorithms or Evolution Strategies) and the local search by a descent method has been particularly emphasized. On various analytical test cases, the AHM method overperforms the original global search method in terms of computational time and accuracy. The results obtained on the industrial case have also confirmed the interest of AHM for the design of new and original solutions in an affordable time.

  19. Experiments with a fully instrumented split Stirling cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faure, A.; Reale, S.; Bernhein, P.

    1985-01-01

    A practical model that can be used to accurately size and optimally split stirling cryocoolers is discussed. A practical model that could be used to extrapolate existing designs to meet different specifications was developed. However, to do this detailed knowledge of the dynamic operating parameters of this type of cryocooler is required. The first stage is to fully instrument a refrigerator so that various dynamic parameters can be measured. The second stage involves the application of these measurements to the design and optimization of a range of coolers.

  20. Runaway electrons in a fully and partially ionized nonideal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports on a study of electron runaway for a nonideal plasma in an external electric field. Based on pseudopotential models of nonideal fully and partially ionized plasmas, the friction force was derived as a function of electron velocities. Dependences of the electron free path on plasma density and nonideality parameters were obtained. The impact of the relative number of runaway electrons on their velocity and temperature was considered for classical and semiclassical models of a nonideal plasma. It has been shown that for the defined intervals of the coupled plasma parameter, the difference between the relative numbers of runaway electron values is essential for various plasma models.

  1. Fully-Focused SAR Altimetry for Oceanographic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egido, A.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present an innovative approach for the processing of SAR altimetry data. By accounting for the phase evolution of the targets in the scene, it is possible to focus the complex echoes along the aperture, and perform a coherent integration potentially as long as the target illumination time. This process, similar to SAR imaging systems, reduces the along-track resolution down to the theoretical limit equal to L/2, where L is the antenna length. We call this the fully focused SAR Altimetry processing. For the development of the technique we have used the CryoSat-2 SAR Mode data, but our methods could also be used with similar data from Sentinel-3 or Sentinel-6/Jason-CS. The footprint of a fully focused SAR altimeter measurement is an elongated strip on the surface, which is pulse-limited across-track and SAR focused along-track. The technique has been demonstrated using transponder data, showing an achievable along-track resolution of 0.5 meters. Despite the asymmetry of the altimeter footprint, the fully focused technique may be useful for applications in which one needs to separate specific targets within highly heterogeneous scenes, such as in the case of sea-ice leads detection, hydrology, and coastal altimetry applications. On a random rough surface like the open ocean, the fully focused altimeter waveform is a random realization of speckle noise. The single looks of the surface are uncorrelated between each other, so they can be incoherently averaged to obtain a multi-looked waveform that has significant improvements with respect to conventional and D/D (unfocused SAR) altimeters. This paper reviews the results that we have obtained so far from CryoSat-2 SAR mode observations from the open ocean, where a consistent performance improvement of square root of 2 with respect to the ESA L2 product is obtained for both sea surface height range and significant wave height. The performance improvement is lower than expected for an ideal FF-SAR, as the

  2. Chemistry of atmospheric ions reacting with fully fluorinated compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Paulson, J.F.; Viggiano, A.A.; Arnold, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Fully fluorinated (perfluorinated) compounds are a class of chemicals with large global warming potentials (GWPs) resulting from a combination of strong infrared absorption and very long atmospheric lifetimes, i.e. millennia. In this paper, the authors describe the detailed findings of the laboratory measurements of the atmospheric ion chemistry involved. Some of the studied reactions are also of importance in plasma processing of microcircuits and thus in the chemical modeling thereof. The authors have previously reported kinetics results for a large number of reactions between ions and halocarbons; this article extends the work and includes atmospheric ions.

  3. Hyperon-Nulceon Scattering from Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Thomas Luu; Konstantinos Orginos; Elizabetta Pallante; Assumpta Parreno; Martin Savage

    2007-10-01

    We present results of the first fully-dynamical lattice QCD determination of hyperon-nucleon scattering. One s-wave phase shift was determined for n{Lambda} scattering in both spin-channels at pion masses of 350, 490, and 590 MeV, and for n{Sigma}^- scattering in both spin channels at pion masses of 490, and 590 MeV. The calculations were performed with domain-wall valence quarks on dynamical, staggered gauge configurations with a lattice spacing of b ~0.125 fm.

  4. A revolutionary graphitisation system: Fully automated, compact and simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacker, L.; Němec, M.; Bourquin, J.

    2010-04-01

    A new graphitisation system, directly coupled to an elemental analyser, has been developed for convenient, fast and efficient sample preparations for radiocarbon measurement by means of accelerator mass spectrometry. We demonstrate an alternative to the cryogenic transport of CO 2 into the graphitisation reactors with liquid nitrogen, which is used by others. Instead, the CO 2 coming from an EA is absorbed on a single column filled with zeolite. The CO 2 can then be easily released by heating the zeolite trap and transferred to the reactor by gas expansion. The system is simple and fully automated for sample combustion and graphitisation.

  5. Fully enzymatic inulin determination in small volume samples without deproteinization.

    PubMed

    Kuehnle, H F; von Dahl, K; Schmidt, F H

    1992-01-01

    A fully enzymatic method for the determination of inulin in serum or plasma without deproteinization is described. The assay is carried out by means of a fructose determination after hydrolysis of inulin via inulinase and simultaneous oxidation of the native glucose using glucose oxidase and H2O2. This time-saving procedure of high specificity, sensitivity and accuracy requires only small sample volumes. The usefulness of the method is shown by analysis of blood levels in humans and rabbits after an intravenous administration of Inutest.

  6. Fully automated production of iodine-124 using a vertical beam.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Kotaro; Fukada, Masami; Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    A fully automated system for the production of iodine-124, based on techniques of vertical-beam irradiation and dry distillation, was developed. The system, coupled with a capsulated target, was able to irradiate the (124)TeO(2) target up to 29 μA for 1-4h, which yielded iodine-124 with an almost constant yield of 6.9 MBq/μAh at the end of bombardment. All procedures were performed automatically and repeatedly. The newly developed system would be suitable for routine, large-scale productions of iodine-124.

  7. Fully compressible solutions for early stage Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

    DOE PAGES

    Margolin, Len G.; Reisner, Jon Michael

    2016-10-27

    Here, we will consider the effects of compressibility and viscosity on the early dynamics of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). In particular, we will combine theory, scaling, and high resolution simulation of RMI to probe the details of the initial compression and the subsequent viscous damping as a shock interacts with a density discontinuity. We will propose a refinement of the classic 1D model for the linear regime of RMI that, for small initial perturbation wavelengths, more accurately reproduces the 2D dynamics of a fully resolved numerical simulation.

  8. STS-100 MS Phillips is fully suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Mission Specialist John L. Phillips is fully suited for launch. The 11-day mission to the International Space Station will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator system and the UHF Antenna, and the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS. The mission is also the inaugural flight of Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms. Liftoff on mission STS-100 is scheduled at 2:41 p.m. EDT April 19.

  9. Image-restoration algorithms for a fully connected architecture.

    PubMed

    Abbiss, J B; Brames, B J; Byrne, C L; Fiddy, M A

    1990-06-15

    We describe the implementation of a technique for achieving image superresolution using a fully connected network of simple processors operating in an iterative mode. We show that an updating scheme can be specified that ensures convergence for the serial (asynchronous) updating case. With the appropriate hardware, parallel (synchronous) updating becomes of particular interest because of the potential for accelerated convergence; it is this approach that we envisage implementing in optical hardware. For this case also, we present a convergent scheme that can be related to a regularized form of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm.

  10. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fully vectorial accelerating diffraction-free Helmholtz beams.

    PubMed

    Aleahmad, Parinaz; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Mills, Matthew S; Kaminer, Ido; Segev, Mordechai; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2012-11-16

    We show that new families of diffraction-free nonparaxial accelerating optical beams can be generated by considering the symmetries of the underlying vectorial Helmholtz equation. Both two-dimensional transverse electric and magnetic accelerating wave fronts are possible, capable of moving along elliptic trajectories. Experimental results corroborate these predictions when these waves are launched from either the major or minor axis of the ellipse. In addition, three-dimensional spherical nondiffracting field configurations are presented along with their evolution dynamics. Finally, fully vectorial self-similar accelerating optical wave solutions are obtained via oblate-prolate spheroidal wave functions. In all occasions, these effects are illustrated via pertinent examples.

  12. Fully differential NLO predictions for the rare muon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruna, G. M.; Signer, A.; Ulrich, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Using the automation program GoSam, fully differential NLO corrections were obtained for the rare decay of the muon μ → eν ν bar ee. This process is an important Standard Model background to searches of the Mu3e Collaboration for lepton-flavor violation, as it becomes indistinguishable from the signal μ → 3 e if the neutrinos carry little energy. With our NLO program we are able to compute the branching ratio as well as custom-tailored observables for the experiment. With minor modifications, related decays of the tau can also be computed.

  13. Transoral Fully Robotic Dissection of a Parapharyngeal Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Granell, Jose; Alonso, Ana; Garrido, Laura; Gutierrez-Fonseca, Raimundo

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue robotics found its trigger for success in minimally invasive surgery. The minimization of the surgical damage is more obvious as the surgical alternative is more aggressive. In head and neck surgery, potential sequelae are both functional and cosmetic. Robotic instrumentation might allow for further development of the transoral approach to the deep regions of the face.The authors present an uneventful, fully robotic, transoral surgical excision of a parapharyngeal hemangioma. The authors discuss management alternatives, surgical risks, and safety measures. The medial approach is the natural choice, provided it is safe and technically feasible. Transoral robotic surgery could be a reasonable minimally invasive approach for selected parapharyngeal tumors.

  14. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling by vector extrapolation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoubar, Daniel; Kuhn, Michael; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The optimization of multi-parameter resonators requires flexible simulation techniques beyond the scalar approximation. Therefore we generalize the scalar Fox and Li algorithm for the transversal eigenmode calculation to a fully vectorial model. This modified eigenvalue problem is solved by two polynomial-type vector extrapolation methods, namely the minimal polynomial extrapolation and the reduced rank extrapolation. Compared to other eigenvalue solvers these techniques can also be applied to resonators including nonlinear components. As an example we show the calculation of an azimuthally polarized eigenmode emitted by a resonator containing a discontinuous phase element and a nonlinear active medium. The simulation is verified by experiments.

  15. Fully compressible solutions for early stage Richtmyer–Meshkov instability

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, Len G.; Reisner, Jon Michael

    2016-10-27

    Here, we will consider the effects of compressibility and viscosity on the early dynamics of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). In particular, we will combine theory, scaling, and high resolution simulation of RMI to probe the details of the initial compression and the subsequent viscous damping as a shock interacts with a density discontinuity. We will propose a refinement of the classic 1D model for the linear regime of RMI that, for small initial perturbation wavelengths, more accurately reproduces the 2D dynamics of a fully resolved numerical simulation.

  16. Three-dimensional imaging spectrometry by fully passive interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasamoto, Masumi; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a method to obtain a set of spectral components of three-dimensional (3D) images for a spatially incoherent, polychromatic light source distribution by a fully passive interferometric technique. The principle of the method is based on the measurement of a five-dimensional (5D) spatial coherence function and signal processing including the synthetic aperture technique and spectral decomposition. This paper gives a mathematical formulation illustrating the principle of the method, and we report an experimental demonstration in which the measured object is composed of two statistically uncorrelated point sources. The experimental results verify the applicability of our method to conventional spatially incoherent, polychromatic objects.

  17. Engineering a fully GPU-accelerated H.264 encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowei; Deng, Yangdong S.

    2013-07-01

    H.264/AVC is the most popular video coding standard and playing an essential role in today's Internet based content-delivery businesses. H.264's encoding process is highly computationally expensive due to the integration of complex video coding techniques. As a result, transcoding has become a bottleneck of content-hosting services. Recently, general purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPUs) is rapidly rising as a popular computing model to expedite time-consuming applications. In this paper, we propose a fully GPU-accelerated H.264 encoder. Experimental results show that a 100% speed-up ratio can be achieved.

  18. Determination of Biomembrane Bending Moduli in Fully Atomistic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bilayer bending modulus (Kc) is one of the most important physical constants characterizing lipid membranes, but precisely measuring it is a challenge, both experimentally and computationally. Experimental measurements on chemically identical bilayers often differ depending upon the techniques employed, and robust simulation results have previously been limited to coarse-grained models (at varying levels of resolution). This Communication demonstrates the extraction of Kc from fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations for three different single-component lipid bilayers (DPPC, DOPC, and DOPE). The results agree quantitatively with experiments that measure thermal shape fluctuations in giant unilamellar vesicles. Lipid tilt, twist, and compression moduli are also reported. PMID:25202918

  19. Double transitions in the fully frustrated XY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Gun Sang; Park, Sung Yong; Choi, M. Y.

    1997-06-01

    The fully frustrated XY model is studied via the position-space renormalization group approach. The model is mapped into two coupled XY models, for which the scaling equations are derived. By integrating directly the scaling equations, we observe that there exists a narrow temperature range in which both the vortex and coupling charge fugacities grow large, suggesting double transitions in the system. While the transition at lower temperature is identified to be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type, the higher-temperature one appears not to be of the Ising universality class.

  20. Singular Solutions of Fully Nonlinear Elliptic Equations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Sirakov, Boyan; Smart, Charles K.

    2012-08-01

    We study the properties of solutions of fully nonlinear, positively homogeneous elliptic equations near boundary points of Lipschitz domains at which the solution may be singular. We show that these equations have two positive solutions in each cone of {R^n} , and the solutions are unique in an appropriate sense. We introduce a new method for analyzing the behavior of solutions near certain Lipschitz boundary points, which permits us to classify isolated boundary singularities of solutions which are bounded from either above or below. We also obtain a sharp Phragmén-Lindelöf result as well as a principle of positive singularities in certain Lipschitz domains.

  1. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  2. High-resolution fully vectorial scanning Kerr magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Flajšman, Lukáš; Urbánek, Michal; Křižáková, Viola; Vaňatka, Marek; Turčan, Igor; Šikola, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a high-resolution scanning magnetometer, which fully exploits the vectorial nature of the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The three-dimensional nature of magnetization is at the basis of many micromagnetic phenomena and from these data, we can fully characterize magnetization processes of nanostructures in static and dynamic regimes. Our scanning Kerr magnetometer uses a high numerical aperture microscope objective where the incident light beam can be deterministically deviated from the objective symmetry axis, therefore, both in-plane (via the longitudinal Kerr effect) and out-of-plane (via the polar Kerr effect) components of the magnetization vector may be detected. These components are then separated by exploiting the symmetries of the polar and longitudinal Kerr effects. From four consecutive measurements, we are able to directly obtain the three orthogonal components of the magnetization vector with a resolution of 600 nm. Performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by a measurement of 3D magnetization vector maps showing out-of-plane domains and in-plane domain walls in an yttrium-iron-garnet film and on a study of magnetization reversal in a 4-μm-wide magnetic disk.

  3. High-resolution fully vectorial scanning Kerr magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Flajšman, Lukáš E-mail: urbanek@fme.vutbr.cz; Vaňatka, Marek; Urbánek, Michal E-mail: urbanek@fme.vutbr.cz; Šikola, Tomáš; Křižáková, Viola; Turčan, Igor

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a high-resolution scanning magnetometer, which fully exploits the vectorial nature of the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The three-dimensional nature of magnetization is at the basis of many micromagnetic phenomena and from these data, we can fully characterize magnetization processes of nanostructures in static and dynamic regimes. Our scanning Kerr magnetometer uses a high numerical aperture microscope objective where the incident light beam can be deterministically deviated from the objective symmetry axis, therefore, both in-plane (via the longitudinal Kerr effect) and out-of-plane (via the polar Kerr effect) components of the magnetization vector may be detected. These components are then separated by exploiting the symmetries of the polar and longitudinal Kerr effects. From four consecutive measurements, we are able to directly obtain the three orthogonal components of the magnetization vector with a resolution of 600 nm. Performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by a measurement of 3D magnetization vector maps showing out-of-plane domains and in-plane domain walls in an yttrium-iron-garnet film and on a study of magnetization reversal in a 4-μm-wide magnetic disk.

  4. Scaling behavior of fully spin-coated TFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara; Venkataraman, V.

    2017-05-01

    We studied channel scaling behavior of fully spin coated, low temperature solution processed thin film transistor (TFT) fabricated on p++ - Si (˜1021 cm-3) as bottom gate. The solution processed, spin coated 40 nm thick amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) and 50 nm thick amorphous zirconium di-oxide (a-ZrO2) has been used as channel and low leakage dielectric at 350°C respectively. The channel scaling effect of the TFT with different width/length ratio (W/L= 2.5, 5 and 15) for same channel length (L = 10 μm) has been demonstrated. The lowest threshold voltage (Vth) is 6.25 V for the W/L=50/10. The maximum field effect mobility (μFE) has been found to be 0.123 cm2/Vs from W/L of 50/10 with the drain to source voltage (VD) of 10V and 20V gate to source voltage (VG). We also demonstrated that there is no contact resistance effect on the mobility of the fully sol-gel spin coated TFT.

  5. Fully automated quantitative cephalometry using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Arık, Sercan Ö; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative cephalometry plays an essential role in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and surgery. Development of fully automated techniques for these procedures is important to enable consistently accurate computerized analyses. We study the application of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for fully automated quantitative cephalometry for the first time. The proposed framework utilizes CNNs for detection of landmarks that describe the anatomy of the depicted patient and yield quantitative estimation of pathologies in the jaws and skull base regions. We use a publicly available cephalometric x-ray image dataset to train CNNs for recognition of landmark appearance patterns. CNNs are trained to output probabilistic estimations of different landmark locations, which are combined using a shape-based model. We evaluate the overall framework on the test set and compare with other proposed techniques. We use the estimated landmark locations to assess anatomically relevant measurements and classify them into different anatomical types. Overall, our results demonstrate high anatomical landmark detection accuracy ([Formula: see text] to 2% higher success detection rate for a 2-mm range compared with the top benchmarks in the literature) and high anatomical type classification accuracy ([Formula: see text] average classification accuracy for test set). We demonstrate that CNNs, which merely input raw image patches, are promising for accurate quantitative cephalometry.

  6. Fully Automated Lipid Pool Detection Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background. Detecting and identifying vulnerable plaque, which is prone to rupture, is still a challenge for cardiologist. Such lipid core-containing plaque is still not identifiable by everyday angiography, thus triggering the need to develop a new tool where NIRS-IVUS can visualize plaque characterization in terms of its chemical and morphologic characteristic. The new tool can lead to the development of new methods of interpreting the newly obtained data. In this study, the algorithm to fully automated lipid pool detection on NIRS images is proposed. Method. Designed algorithm is divided into four stages: preprocessing (image enhancement), segmentation of artifacts, detection of lipid areas, and calculation of Lipid Core Burden Index. Results. A total of 31 NIRS chemograms were analyzed by two methods. The metrics, total LCBI, maximal LCBI in 4 mm blocks, and maximal LCBI in 2 mm blocks, were calculated to compare presented algorithm with commercial available system. Both intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement and correlation between used methods. Conclusions. Proposed algorithm is fully automated lipid pool detection on near infrared spectroscopy images. It is a tool developed for offline data analysis, which could be easily augmented for newer functions and projects. PMID:27610191

  7. FASTER: an unsupervised fully automated sleep staging method for mice.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Genshiro A; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2013-06-01

    Identifying the stages of sleep, or sleep staging, is an unavoidable step in sleep research and typically requires visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) data. Currently, scoring is slow, biased and prone to error by humans and thus is the most important bottleneck for large-scale sleep research in animals. We have developed an unsupervised, fully automated sleep staging method for mice that allows less subjective and high-throughput evaluation of sleep. Fully Automated Sleep sTaging method via EEG/EMG Recordings (FASTER) is based on nonparametric density estimation clustering of comprehensive EEG/EMG power spectra. FASTER can accurately identify sleep patterns in mice that have been perturbed by drugs or by genetic modification of a clock gene. The overall accuracy is over 90% in every group. 24-h data are staged by a laptop computer in 10 min, which is faster than an experienced human rater. Dramatically improving the sleep staging process in both quality and throughput FASTER will open the door to quantitative and comprehensive animal sleep research. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Modelling the dynamo in fully convective M-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Christensen, Ulrich; Morin, Julien; Wolk, Scott; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Reiners, Ansgar; gastine, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    M-stars are among the most active and numerous stars in our galaxy. Their activity plays a fundamentally important role in shaping the exoplanetary biosphere since the habitable zones are very close to these stars. Therefore, modeling M-star activity has become a focal point in habitability studies. The fully convective members of the M-star population demand more immediate attention due to the discovery of Earth-like exoplanets around our stellar neighbors Proxima Centauri and TRAPPIST-1 which are both fully convective. The activity of these stars is driven by their convective dynamo, which may be fundamentally different from the solar dynamo due the absence of radiative cores. We model this dynamo mechanism using high-resolution 3D anelastic MHD simulations. To understand the evolution of the dynamo mechanism we simulate two cases, one with a fast enough rotation period to model a star in the `saturated' regime of the rotation-activity realtionship and the other with a slower period to represent cases in the `unsaturated' regime. We find the rotation period fundamentally controls the behavior of the dynamo solution: faster rotation promotes strong magnetic fields (of order kG) on both small and large length scales and the dipolar component of the magnetic field is dominant and stable, however, slower rotation leads to weaker magnetic fields which exhibit cyclic behavior. In this talk, I will present the simulation results and discuss how we can use them to interpret several observed features of the M-star activity.

  9. Fully printed flexible and disposable wireless cyclic voltammetry tag.

    PubMed

    Jung, Younsu; Park, Hyejin; Park, Jin-Ah; Noh, Jinsoo; Choi, Yunchang; Jung, Minhoon; Jung, Kyunghwan; Pyo, Myungho; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-01-29

    A disposable cyclic voltammetry (CV) tag is printed on a plastic film by integrating wireless power transmitter, polarized triangle wave generator, electrochemical cell and signage through a scalable gravure printing method. By proximity of 13.56 MHz RF reader, the printed CV tag generates 320 mHz of triangular sweep wave from +500 mV to -500 mV which enable to scan a printed electrochemical cell in the CV tag. By simply dropping any specimen solution on the electrochemical cell in the CV tag, the presence of solutes in the solution can be detected and shown on the signage of the CV tag in five sec. 10 mM of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used as a standard solute to prove the working concept of fully printed disposable wireless CV tag. Within five seconds, we can wirelessly diagnose the presence of TMPD in the solution using the CV tag in the proximity of the 13.56 MHz RF reader. This fully printed and wirelessly operated flexible CV tag is the first of its kind and marks the path for the utilization of inexpensive and disposable wireless electrochemical sensor systems for initial diagnose hazardous chemicals and biological molecules to improve public hygiene and health.

  10. Fully printed flexible and disposable wireless cyclic voltammetry tag

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younsu; Park, Hyejin; Park, Jin-Ah; Noh, Jinsoo; Choi, Yunchang; Jung, Minhoon; Jung, Kyunghwan; Pyo, Myungho; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-01-01

    A disposable cyclic voltammetry (CV) tag is printed on a plastic film by integrating wireless power transmitter, polarized triangle wave generator, electrochemical cell and signage through a scalable gravure printing method. By proximity of 13.56 MHz RF reader, the printed CV tag generates 320 mHz of triangular sweep wave from +500 mV to −500 mV which enable to scan a printed electrochemical cell in the CV tag. By simply dropping any specimen solution on the electrochemical cell in the CV tag, the presence of solutes in the solution can be detected and shown on the signage of the CV tag in five sec. 10 mM of N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used as a standard solute to prove the working concept of fully printed disposable wireless CV tag. Within five seconds, we can wirelessly diagnose the presence of TMPD in the solution using the CV tag in the proximity of the 13.56 MHz RF reader. This fully printed and wirelessly operated flexible CV tag is the first of its kind and marks the path for the utilization of inexpensive and disposable wireless electrochemical sensor systems for initial diagnose hazardous chemicals and biological molecules to improve public hygiene and health. PMID:25630250

  11. Fully automated localization of multiple pelvic bone structures on MRI.

    PubMed

    Onal, Sinan; Lai-Yuen, Susana; Bao, Paul; Weitzenfeld, Alfredo; Hart, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automated localization method for multiple pelvic bone structures on magnetic resonance images (MRI). Pelvic bone structures are currently identified manually on MRI to identify reference points for measurement and evaluation of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Given that this is a time-consuming and subjective procedure, there is a need to localize pelvic bone structures without any user interaction. However, bone structures are not easily differentiable from soft tissue on MRI as their pixel intensities tend to be very similar. In this research, we present a model that automatically identifies the bounding boxes of the bone structures on MRI using support vector machines (SVM) based classification and non-linear regression model that captures global and local information. Based on the relative locations of pelvic bones and organs, and local information such as texture features, the model identifies the location of the pelvic bone structures by establishing the association between their locations. Results show that the proposed method is able to locate the bone structures of interest accurately. The pubic bone, sacral promontory, and coccyx were correctly detected (DSI > 0.75) in 92%, 90%, and 88% of the testing images. This research aims to enable accurate, consistent and fully automated identification of pelvic bone structures on MRI to facilitate and improve the diagnosis of female pelvic organ prolapse.

  12. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2008-07-01

    Two prototypes of fully retractable enclosures with diameters of 7 and 9 m have been built for the high-resolution solar telescopes DOT (Dutch Open Telescope) and GREGOR, both located at the Canary Islands. These enclosures protect the instruments for bad weather and are fully open when the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes are based on tensioned membrane between movable but stiff bows, which fold together to a ring when opened. The height of the ring is small. The prototypes already survived several storms, with often snow and ice, without any damage, including hurricane Delta with wind speeds up to 68 m/s. The enclosures can still be closed and opened with wind speeds of 20 m/s without any problems or restrictions. The DOT successfully demonstrated the open, wind-flushing concept for astronomical telescopes. It is now widely recognized that also large future telescopes benefit from wind-flushing and retractable enclosures. These telescopes require enclosures with diameters of 30 m until roughly 100 m, the largest sizes for the ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes), which will be built in the near future. We discuss developments and required technology for the realization of these large sizes.

  13. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  14. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  15. Limiting amplitudes of fully nonlinear interfacial tides and solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Gerkema, Theo

    2016-08-01

    A new two-fluid layer model consisting of forced rotation-modified Boussinesq equations is derived for studying tidally generated fully nonlinear, weakly nonhydrostatic dispersive interfacial waves. This set is a generalization of the Choi-Camassa equations, extended here with forcing terms and Coriolis effects. The forcing is represented by a horizontally oscillating sill, mimicking a barotropic tidal flow over topography. Solitons are generated by a disintegration of the interfacial tide. Because of strong nonlinearity, solitons may attain a limiting table-shaped form, in accordance with soliton theory. In addition, we use a quasi-linear version of the model (i.e. including barotropic advection but linear in the baroclinic fields) to investigate the role of the initial stages of the internal tide prior to its nonlinear disintegration. Numerical solutions reveal that the internal tide then reaches a limiting amplitude under increasing barotropic forcing. In the fully nonlinear regime, numerical experiments suggest that this limiting amplitude in the underlying internal tide extends to the nonlinear case in that internal solitons formed by a disintegration of the internal tide may not reach their table-shaped form with increased forcing, but appear limited well below that state.

  16. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  17. Fully Automated Deep Learning System for Bone Age Assessment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkwang; Tajmir, Shahein; Lee, Jenny; Zissen, Maurice; Yeshiwas, Bethel Ayele; Alkasab, Tarik K; Choy, Garry; Do, Synho

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal maturity progresses through discrete phases, a fact that is used routinely in pediatrics where bone age assessments (BAAs) are compared to chronological age in the evaluation of endocrine and metabolic disorders. While central to many disease evaluations, little has changed to improve the tedious process since its introduction in 1950. In this study, we propose a fully automated deep learning pipeline to segment a region of interest, standardize and preprocess input radiographs, and perform BAA. Our models use an ImageNet pretrained, fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN) to achieve 57.32 and 61.40% accuracies for the female and male cohorts on our held-out test images. Female test radiographs were assigned a BAA within 1 year 90.39% and within 2 years 98.11% of the time. Male test radiographs were assigned 94.18% within 1 year and 99.00% within 2 years. Using the input occlusion method, attention maps were created which reveal what features the trained model uses to perform BAA. These correspond to what human experts look at when manually performing BAA. Finally, the fully automated BAA system was deployed in the clinical environment as a decision supporting system for more accurate and efficient BAAs at much faster interpretation time (<2 s) than the conventional method.

  18. Effective thermal conductivity of fully and partially saturated metal wicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kar, K.; Dybbs, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to perform accurate experiments covering a wide range of porosities to determine the effective thermal conductivity of sintered fiber porous metals fully saturated with air, water, and water vapor; (2) to propose correlations for these cases, and to compare these correlations with existing analytical predictions, experimental correlations and data; and (3) to determine the effective thermal conductivity of porous metals partially saturated with water and water vapor, respectively. The experimental apparatus, based on the steady-state method of comparison, is designed and used for determining the effective thermal conductivity. The wicks are made of nickel 200, stainless steel 430, and copper, covering a porosity range 0.30-0.67. Based on the experimental results, a single correlation is derived for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of all wicks fully saturated with air, water, and water vapor. For two partially saturated wick specimens with both high porosity and large matrix thermal conductivity, a liquid-vapor transition zone is observed between the phases, which increases the total combined effective thermal conductivity of the specimen.

  19. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative

    DOE PAGES

    David, Tanya M. S.; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2014-01-01

    Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene) or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer wasmore » synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications.« less

  20. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Training System for Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Rajesh; Kawai, Risa; Ölveczky, Bence P.

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the neural mechanisms underlying complex learned behaviors requires training animals in well-controlled tasks, an often time-consuming and labor-intensive process that can severely limit the feasibility of such studies. To overcome this constraint, we developed a fully computer-controlled general purpose system for high-throughput training of rodents. By standardizing and automating the implementation of predefined training protocols within the animal’s home-cage our system dramatically reduces the efforts involved in animal training while also removing human errors and biases from the process. We deployed this system to train rats in a variety of sensorimotor tasks, achieving learning rates comparable to existing, but more laborious, methods. By incrementally and systematically increasing the difficulty of the task over weeks of training, rats were able to master motor tasks that, in complexity and structure, resemble ones used in primate studies of motor sequence learning. By enabling fully automated training of rodents in a home-cage setting this low-cost and modular system increases the utility of rodents for studying the neural underpinnings of a variety of complex behaviors. PMID:24349451

  1. Fully integrated circuit chip of microelectronic neural bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyan, Shen; Zhigong, Wang

    2014-09-01

    Nerve tracts interruption is one of the major reasons for dysfunction after spiral cord injury. The microelectronic neural bridge is a method to restore function of interrupted neural pathways, by making use of microelectronic chips to bypass the injured nerve tracts. A low-power fully integrated microelectronic neural bridge chip is designed, using CSMC 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The structure and the key points in the circuit design will be introduced in detail. In order to meet the requirement for implantation, the circuit was modified to avoid the use of off-chip components, and fully monolithic integration is achieved. The operating voltage of the circuit is ±2.5 V, and the chip area is 1.21 × 1.18 mm2. According to the characteristic of neural signal, the time-domain method is used in testing. The pass bandwidth of the microelectronic neural bridge system covers the whole frequency range of the neural signal, power consumption is 4.33 mW, and the gain is adjustable. The design goals are achieved.

  2. Fully Digital: Policy and Process Implications for the AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    Over the past two decades, every scholarly publisher has migrated at least the mechanical aspects of their journal publishing so that they utilize digital means. The academy was comfortable with that for a while, but publishers are under increasing pressure to adapt further. At the American Astronomical Society (AAS), we think that means bringing our publishing program to the point of being fully digital, by establishing procedures and policies that regard the digital objects of publication primarily. We have always thought about our electronic journals as databases of digital articles, from which we can publish and syndicate articles one at a time, and we must now put flesh on those bones by developing practices that are consistent with the realities of article at a time publication online. As a learned society that holds the long-term rights to the literature, we have actively taken responsibility for the preservation of the digital assets that constitute our journals, and in so doing we have not forsaken the legacy pre-digital assets. All of us who serve as the long-term stewards of scholarship must begin to evolve into fully digital publishers.

  3. FULLY KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF SLOW-MODE SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    W. DAUGHTON; D. WINSKE; L. YIN

    2001-05-01

    Much of the theoretical understanding concerning the structure and essential properties of the slow-mode shock has been obtained from extensive hybrid calculations in which a full kinetic description is retained for the ions while the electrons are approximated as a massless adiabatic fluid. Due to the relatively broad spatial and relatively slow temporal scales of the slow shock, one would expect this approximation to be well justified. However, implicit simulations with kinetic electrons have produced significant differences in comparison to standard hybrid results. In this work, we re-examine the importance of electron dynamics to the slow shock using one-dimensional fully kinetic simulations. We employ a simple explicit simulation technique and fully resolve all relevant spatial and temporal electron scales. The resulting shock structure and ion heating are in excellent agreement with hybrid simulations, indicating the total dissipation arising from kinetic electrons is relatively minor. However, the electron heating is somewhat larger than the corresponding hybrid simulation and clear non-Maxwellian features are observed. In the upstream region, back streaming electrons give rise to double peaked distributions while in the downstream region bi-Maxwellian distributions are observed with T{sub e{parallel}} > T{sub e{perpendicular}}.

  4. Fully printed flexible and disposable wireless cyclic voltammetry tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Younsu; Park, Hyejin; Park, Jin-Ah; Noh, Jinsoo; Choi, Yunchang; Jung, Minhoon; Jung, Kyunghwan; Pyo, Myungho; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-01-01

    A disposable cyclic voltammetry (CV) tag is printed on a plastic film by integrating wireless power transmitter, polarized triangle wave generator, electrochemical cell and signage through a scalable gravure printing method. By proximity of 13.56 MHz RF reader, the printed CV tag generates 320 mHz of triangular sweep wave from +500 mV to -500 mV which enable to scan a printed electrochemical cell in the CV tag. By simply dropping any specimen solution on the electrochemical cell in the CV tag, the presence of solutes in the solution can be detected and shown on the signage of the CV tag in five sec. 10 mM of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used as a standard solute to prove the working concept of fully printed disposable wireless CV tag. Within five seconds, we can wirelessly diagnose the presence of TMPD in the solution using the CV tag in the proximity of the 13.56 MHz RF reader. This fully printed and wirelessly operated flexible CV tag is the first of its kind and marks the path for the utilization of inexpensive and disposable wireless electrochemical sensor systems for initial diagnose hazardous chemicals and biological molecules to improve public hygiene and health.

  5. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  6. Development of fully Bayesian multiple-time-window source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Aoi, Shin

    2016-03-01

    In the estimation of spatiotemporal slip models, kinematic source inversions using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) and the multiple-time-window method have often been used. However, there are cases in which conventional ABIC-based source inversions do not work well in the determination of hyperparameters when a non-negative slip constraint is used. In order to overcome this problem, a new source inversion method was developed in this study. The new method introduces a fully Bayesian method into the kinematic multiple-time-window source inversion. The multiple-time-window method is one common way of parametrizing a source time function and is highly flexible in terms of the shape of the source time function. The probability distributions of model parameters and hyperparameters can be directly obtained by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. These probability distributions are useful for simply evaluating the uniqueness and reliability of the derived model, which is another advantage of a fully Bayesian method. This newly developed source inversion method was applied to the 2011 Ibaraki-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 7.9) to demonstrate its usefulness. It was demonstrated that the problem with using the conventional ABIC-based source inversion method for hyperparameter determination appeared in the spatiotemporal source inversion of this event and that the newly developed source inversion could overcome this problem.

  7. FASTER: an unsupervised fully automated sleep staging method for mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Genshiro A; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the stages of sleep, or sleep staging, is an unavoidable step in sleep research and typically requires visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) data. Currently, scoring is slow, biased and prone to error by humans and thus is the most important bottleneck for large-scale sleep research in animals. We have developed an unsupervised, fully automated sleep staging method for mice that allows less subjective and high-throughput evaluation of sleep. Fully Automated Sleep sTaging method via EEG/EMG Recordings (FASTER) is based on nonparametric density estimation clustering of comprehensive EEG/EMG power spectra. FASTER can accurately identify sleep patterns in mice that have been perturbed by drugs or by genetic modification of a clock gene. The overall accuracy is over 90% in every group. 24-h data are staged by a laptop computer in 10 min, which is faster than an experienced human rater. Dramatically improving the sleep staging process in both quality and throughput FASTER will open the door to quantitative and comprehensive animal sleep research. PMID:23621645

  8. Fully biodegradable septal defect occluder-a double umbrella design.

    PubMed

    Duong-Hong, Duc; Tang, Yong-Dan; Wu, Wei; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Boey, Freddy; Lim, James; Yip, James

    2010-11-01

    Current percutaneous devices for septal defect treatment are made of nondegradable metallic and synthetic fabric materials. These devices are not ideal due to risks of future complications from device erosions and potential obstructed access for future transseptal procedures. The biodegradable double umbrella device was made of fully biodegradable polymers, featured with two discs connected with a stretchable stem. The devices were inserted across the PFO model created on Yorkshire swines through a short sheath by open thoracotomy. Fluoroscopic imaging and echocardiography obtained during the 1-month follow-up study period showed that the devices were in stable position with no shunt. The in-vitro degradation study and post-mortem explantation confirmed that the devices have good integrity and mechanical strength during the 1-month trial. Furthermore, the devices appeared to be well endothelialized after 1 month. These results showed clearly that it is feasible to replace the current nondegradable devices with the new generation biodegradable PFO occluders. This work studied and proved the feasibility of interventional closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with a fully biodegradable device, that we call the "double umbrella" (DU) for its symbolic design. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2011-02-01

    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shock Particle Interaction - Fully Resolved Simulations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Yash; Neal, Chris; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    Currently there is a substantial lack of fully resolved data for shock interacting with multiple particles. In this talk we will fill this gap by presenting results of shock interaction with 1-D array and 3-D structured arrays of particles. Objectives of performing fully resolved simulations of shock propagation through packs of multiple particles are twofold, 1) To understand the complicated physical phenomena occurring during shock particle interaction, and 2) To translate the knowledge from microscale simulations in building next generation point-particle models for macroscale simulations that can better predict the motion (forces) and heat transfer for particles. We compare results from multiple particle simulations against the single particle simulations and make relevant observations. The drag history and flow field for multiple particle simulations are markedly different from those of single particle simluations, highlighting the effect of neighboring particles. We propose new models which capture this effect of neighboring particles. These models are called Pair-wise Interaction Extended Point Particle models (PIEP). Effect of multiple neighboring particles is broken down into pair-wise interactions, and these pair-wise interactions are superimposed to get the final model U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  11. Fully localised nonlinear energy growth optimals in pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, Chris C. T.; Willis, Ashley P.; Kerswell, Rich R.

    2015-06-15

    A new, fully localised, energy growth optimal is found over large times and in long pipe domains at a given mass flow rate. This optimal emerges at a threshold disturbance energy below which a nonlinear version of the known (streamwise-independent) linear optimal [P. J. Schmid and D. S. Henningson, “Optimal energy density growth in Hagen-Poiseuille flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 277, 192–225 (1994)] is selected and appears to remain the optimal up until the critical energy at which transition is triggered. The form of this optimal is similar to that found in short pipes [Pringle et al., “Minimal seeds for shear flow turbulence: Using nonlinear transient growth to touch the edge of chaos,” J. Fluid Mech. 702, 415–443 (2012)], but now with full localisation in the streamwise direction. This fully localised optimal perturbation represents the best approximation yet of the minimal seed (the smallest perturbation which is arbitrarily close to states capable of triggering a turbulent episode) for “real” (laboratory) pipe flows. Dependence of the optimal with respect to several parameters has been computed and establishes that the structure is robust.

  12. Shock wave structure for a fully ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Masser, Thomas O; Wohibier, John G; Lowrie, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of planar shock waves in a two-temperature model of a fully ionized plasma that includes electron heat conduction and energy exchange between electrons and ions. For steady flow in a reference frame moving with the shock, the model reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations which can be numerically integrated. A phase space analysis of the ODEs provides additional insight into the structure of the solutions. For example, below a threshold mach number the model produces fully dispersed shocks; while above another threshold mach number, the solutions contain embedded hydrodynamic shocks. Between these two threshold values, the appearance of embedded shocks depends on the electron diffusivity and the electron-ion coupling term. We also find that the ion temperature may continue to increase after the shock and reaches a maximum near the isothermal sonic point. We summarize the methodology for solving for two-temperature shocks, and show results for several values of shock strength and material parameters to quantify the shock structure and explore the range of possible solutions. Such solutions may be used to verify hydrodynamic codes that use similar plasma physics models.

  13. A fully automated synthesis for the preparation of 68Ga-labelled peptides.

    PubMed

    Decristoforo, Clemens; Knopp, Roger; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Rupprich, Marco; Dreger, Thorsten; Hess, Andre; Virgolini, Irene; Haubner, Roland

    2007-11-01

    Generator-produced Ga has attracted increasing interest for radiolabelling peptides used in PET applications. So far, the synthesis of Ga-peptide radiopharmaceuticals is mainly based on semi-automated systems. Here we describe a fully automated approach for the synthesis of Ga-labelled peptides. A commercially available Ga generator was eluted with 0.1 mol . l HCl. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, pH range, reaction temperature and time, volume of reaction solution and generator fraction were optimized for labelling DOTA-Tyr-octreotide (DOTATOC). Reaction yields, pH, radiochemical purity, sterility, endotoxins, breakthrough of Ge and final Ge content were determined. A fully automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis device based on a modular concept for remote-controlled processing was developed and evaluated for a number of DOTA-derivatized peptides. DOTATOC could be labelled in almost quantitative yields by heating 10-50 nmol peptide at pH 3.5-4.0 for 5 min at 95 degrees C in 1.5 ml. Purification using a reversed-phase cartridge was required to avoid any potential Ge breakthrough: final activities of Ge were below 100 Bq . ml. Automated synthesis resulted in overall decay-corrected reaction yields of about 60% within 10 min. Even after 1 year using a 1110 MBq generator more than 130 MBq Ga-DOTATOC could be obtained. Moreover, it was demonstrated that a variety of DOTA-derivatized peptides can be labelled using identical reaction conditions with high yields. The system described allows the fully automated, efficient and rapid preparation of Ga-DOTA-derivatized peptides. It has been used successfully and reliably for routine preparations in clinical studies.

  14. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  15. Fully casted soft power generating triboelectric shoe insole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Rubaiyet I.; Farine, Pierre-André; Briand, Danick

    2016-11-01

    Power generating soft triboelectric based shoe insole fully elastomeric and compatible with large-scale fabrication technique has been developed. During the process, film casting and stencil printing techniques were implemented to deposit/pattern elastomeric and soft/flexible materials, such as, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyurethane (PU). Carbon- based elastomeric materials were used as electrodes, which were also film casted. The developed triboelectric generator (TENG) was capable of harnessing electrical power effectively from mechanical deformation of the system during walking or running activities. The performance of the device was tested for walking with frequency of 0.9±0.2 Hz. The power (rms value) of 0.25 mW was achieved for load resistance of 100 MΩ,, which corresponded to the power density (rms value) of 1.9 μW/cm2.

  16. Simple Fully Nonlocal Density Functionals for Electronic Repulsion Energy.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2017-07-06

    From a simplified version of the mathematical structure of the strong coupling limit of the exact exchange-correlation functional, we construct an approximation for the electronic repulsion energy at physical coupling strength, which is fully nonlocal. This functional is self-interaction free and yields energy densities within the definition of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole that are locally accurate and have the correct asymptotic behavior. The model is able to capture strong correlation effects that arise from chemical bond dissociation, without relying on error cancellation. These features, which are usually missed by standard density functional theory (DFT) functionals, are captured by the highly nonlocal structure, which goes beyond the "Jacob's ladder" framework for functional construction, by using integrals of the density as the key ingredient. Possible routes for obtaining the full exchange-correlation functional by recovering the missing kinetic component of the correlation energy are also implemented and discussed.

  17. Temporal pairwise spike correlations fully capture single-neuron information

    PubMed Central

    Dettner, Amadeus; Münzberg, Sabrina; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    To crack the neural code and read out the information neural spikes convey, it is essential to understand how the information is coded and how much of it is available for decoding. To this end, it is indispensable to derive from first principles a minimal set of spike features containing the complete information content of a neuron. Here we present such a complete set of coding features. We show that temporal pairwise spike correlations fully determine the information conveyed by a single spiking neuron with finite temporal memory and stationary spike statistics. We reveal that interspike interval temporal correlations, which are often neglected, can significantly change the total information. Our findings provide a conceptual link between numerous disparate observations and recommend shifting the focus of future studies from addressing firing rates to addressing pairwise spike correlation functions as the primary determinants of neural information. PMID:27976717

  18. Fully achromatic nulling interferometer (FANI) for high SNR exoplanet characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François

    2015-09-01

    Space-borne nulling interferometers have long been considered as the best option for searching and characterizing extrasolar planets located in the habitable zone of their parent stars. Solutions for achieving deep starlight extinction are now numerous and well demonstrated. However they essentially aim at realizing an achromatic central null in order to extinguish the star. In this communication is described a major improvement of the technique, where the achromatization process is extended to the entire fringe pattern. Therefore higher Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and appreciable simplification of the detection system should result. The basic principle of this Fully achromatic nulling interferometer (FANI) consists in inserting dispersive elements along the arms of the interferometer. Herein this principle is explained and illustrated by a preliminary optical system design. The typical achievable performance and limitations are discussed and some initial tolerance requirements are also provided.

  19. Fully Hydrated Yeast Cells Imaged with Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Mazur, Peter; Gould, Kathleen L.; de Jonge, Niels

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate electron microscopy of fully hydrated eukaryotic cells with nanometer resolution. Living Schizosaccaromyces pombe cells were loaded in a microfluidic chamber and imaged in liquid with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The native intracellular (ultra)structures of wild-type cells and three different mutants were studied without prior labeling, fixation, or staining. The STEM images revealed various intracellular components that were identified on the basis of their shape, size, location, and mass density. The maximal achieved spatial resolution in this initial study was 32 ± 8 nm, an order of magnitude better than achievable with light microscopy on pristine cells. Light-microscopy images of the same samples were correlated with the corresponding electron-microscopy images. Achieving synergy between the capabilities of light and electron microscopy, we anticipate that liquid STEM will be broadly applied to explore the ultrastructure of live cells. PMID:21575587

  20. First Characterization of a Fully Superconducting RF Photoinjector Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, A; Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Kamps, T; Knobloch, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A N; Quast, T; Rudolph, J; Schubert, S G; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Sekutowicz, J K; Smedley, J; Volkov, V; Weinberg, G; Will, I

    2011-09-01

    As a first step towards a high brightness, high average current electron source for the BERLinPro ERL a fully superconducting photo-injector was developed by HZB in collaboration with JLab, DESY and the A. Soltan Institute. This cavity-injector ensemble is made up of a 1.6-cell superconducting cavity with a superconducting lead cathode deposited on the half-cell backwall. A superconducting solenoid is used for emittance compensation. This system, including a diagnostics beamline, has been installed in the HoBiCaT facility to serve as a testbed for beam dynamics studies and to test the combination SRF cavity and superconducting solenoid. This paper summarizes the characterization of the cavity in this configuration including Q measurements, dark current tests and field-stability analyses.