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Sample records for fully unknown parameters

  1. Quantum estimation of unknown parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Vargas, Esteban; Pineda, Carlos; Leyvraz, François; Barberis-Blostein, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the problem of finding the best measurement strategy for estimating the value of a quantum system parameter. In general the optimum quantum measurement, in the sense that it maximizes the quantum Fisher information and hence allows one to minimize the estimation error, can only be determined if the value of the parameter is already known. A modification of the quantum Van Trees inequality, which gives a lower bound on the error in the estimation of a random parameter, is proposed. The suggested inequality allows us to assert if a particular quantum measurement, together with an appropriate estimator, is optimal. An adaptive strategy to estimate the value of a parameter, based on our modified inequality, is proposed.

  2. Bayesian methods for characterizing unknown parameters of material models

    DOE PAGES

    Emery, J. M.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Field Jr., R. V.

    2016-02-04

    A Bayesian framework is developed for characterizing the unknown parameters of probabilistic models for material properties. In this framework, the unknown parameters are viewed as random and described by their posterior distributions obtained from prior information and measurements of quantities of interest that are observable and depend on the unknown parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to characterize an unknown spatial correlation of the conductivity field in the definition of a stochastic transport equation and to solve this equation by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic reduced order models (SROMs). As a result, the Bayesian method is also employed tomore » characterize unknown parameters of material properties for laser welds from measurements of peak forces sustained by these welds.« less

  3. Bayesian methods for characterizing unknown parameters of material models

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, J. M.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Field Jr., R. V.

    2016-02-04

    A Bayesian framework is developed for characterizing the unknown parameters of probabilistic models for material properties. In this framework, the unknown parameters are viewed as random and described by their posterior distributions obtained from prior information and measurements of quantities of interest that are observable and depend on the unknown parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to characterize an unknown spatial correlation of the conductivity field in the definition of a stochastic transport equation and to solve this equation by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic reduced order models (SROMs). As a result, the Bayesian method is also employed to characterize unknown parameters of material properties for laser welds from measurements of peak forces sustained by these welds.

  4. Detection of Answer Copying with Unknown Item and Trait Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated empirical Type I error rates and the power of omega (index of answer copying developed by J. Wollack, 1997) when item and trait (theta) parameters were unknown and estimated from datasets of 100 and 500 examinees. Type I error was unaffected by estimating item parameters, with power slightly lower for the smaller sample. (SLD)

  5. Adaptive synchronization of two chaotic systems with stochastic unknown parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2009-02-01

    Using the Lyapunov stability theory an adaptive control is proposed for chaos synchronization between two different systems which have stochastically time varying unknown coefficients. The stochastic variations of the coefficients about their unknown mean values are modeled through white Gaussian noise produced by the Weiner process. It is shown that using the proposed adaptive control the mean square of synchronization error converges to an arbitrarily small bound around zero. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, it is applied to the Lorenz-Chen and the Chen-Rossler dynamical systems, as some case studies. Simulation results indicate that the proposed adaptive controller has a high performance in synchronization of chaotic systems in noisy environment.

  6. Estimating unknown parameters in haemophilia using expert judgement elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Lewandowski, D; Janssen, M P

    2013-09-01

    The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ≤ 18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design.

  7. Central suboptimal H ∞ controller design for linear time-varying systems with unknown parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basin, Michael V.; Soto, Pedro; Calderon-Alvarez, Dario

    2011-05-01

    This article presents the central finite-dimensional H ∞ controller for linear time-varying systems with unknown parameters, that is suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the previously obtained results, this article reduces the original H ∞ controller problem to the corresponding H 2 controller problem, using the technique proposed in Doyle et al. [Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A. (1989), 'State-space Solutions to Standard H 2 and H Infinity Control Problems', IEEE Transactions Automatic Control, 34, 831-847]. This article yields the central suboptimal H ∞ controller for linear systems with unknown parameters in a closed finite-dimensional form, based on the corresponding H 2 controller obtained in Basin and Calderon-Alvarez [Basin, M.V., and Calderon-Alvarez, D. (2008), 'Optimal LQG Controller for Linear Systems with Unknown Parameters', Journal of The Franklin Institute, 345, 293-302]. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify performance of the designed central suboptimal controller for uncertain linear systems with unknown parameters against the conventional central suboptimal H ∞ controller for linear systems with exactly known parameter values.

  8. Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads—Part II: Unknown Parameters and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-03-01

    This two-part paper considers the coordination of a population of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) with unknown parameters to achieve group objectives. The problem involves designing the bidding and market clearing strategy to motivate self-interested users to realize efficient energy allocation subject to a peak power constraint. The companion paper (Part I) formulates the problem and proposes a load coordination framework using the mechanism design approach. To address the unknown parameters, Part II of this paper presents a joint state and parameter estimation framework based on the expectation maximization algorithm. The overall framework is then validated using real-world weather data and price data, and is compared with other approaches in terms of aggregated power response. Simulation results indicate that our coordination framework can effectively improve the efficiency of the power grid operations and reduce power congestion at key times.

  9. Estimating unknown input parameters when implementing the NGA ground-motion prediction equations in engineering practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaklamanos, James; Baise, Laurie G.; Boore, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA-West) project in 2008 are becoming widely used in seismic hazard analyses. However, these new models are considerably more complicated than previous GMPEs, and they require several more input parameters. When employing the NGA models, users routinely face situations in which some of the required input parameters are unknown. In this paper, we present a framework for estimating the unknown source, path, and site parameters when implementing the NGA models in engineering practice, and we derive geometrically-based equations relating the three distance measures found in the NGA models. Our intent is for the content of this paper not only to make the NGA models more accessible, but also to help with the implementation of other present or future GMPEs.

  10. Adaptive nonlinear observer for state and unknown parameter estimation in noisy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishna; Valibeygi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive observer for Lipschitz nonlinear systems and dissipative nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances and sensor noise. The observer is based on an H∞ observer that can estimate both the system states and unknown parameters by minimising a cost function consisting of the sum of the square integrals of the estimation errors in the states and unknown parameters. The paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the observer, and the equations for determining observer gains are formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can be solved offline using commercially available LMI solvers. The observer design has also been extended to the case of time-varying unknown parameters. The use of the observer is demonstrated through illustrative examples and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filtering. Compared to previous results on nonlinear observers, the proposed observer is more computationally efficient, and guarantees state and parameter estimation for two very broad classes of nonlinear systems (Lipschitz and dissipative nonlinear systems) in the presence of input disturbances and sensor noise. In addition, the proposed observer does not require online computation of the observer gain.

  11. Radar detection of signals with unknown parameters in K-distributed clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, E.; Longo, M.; Lops, M.; Ullo, S. L.

    1991-04-01

    The detection of signals with unknown parameters in correlated K-distributed noise, using the generalized Neyman-Pearson strategy, is considered. The a priori uncertainty on the signal is removed by performing a maximum likelihood estimate of the unknown parameters. The resulting receivers can be regarded as a generalization of the conventional detector, but for a zero-memory nonlinearity depending on the amplitude probability density function of the noise as well as on the number of integrated pulses. It is shown that the performance for uncorrelated observations is unaffected by the specific signal pattern, but depends only on the signal-to-noise ratio; moreover, the effect of the clutter correlation on the performance can be accounted for simply by a detection gain. A performance assessment, carried out by computer simulation, shows that the proposed receivers significantly out-perform conventional ones as the noise amplitude probability density function markedly deviates from the Rayleigh law.

  12. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  13. Parameter identification of unknown object handled by free-flying space robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotsu, Yoshisada; Senda, Kei; Ozaki, Mitsuhiro

    1994-05-01

    This paper is concerned with parameter identification methods for inertial parameters for the unknown object handled by manipulators on a free-flying space robot. The parameter identification is necessary for the precise control because of changes in the kinematics of the system together with the dynamics. Two methods are proposed under the condition that the robot is free to translate and rotate. One method is based on the conservation principle of linear and angular momentum and the other on Newton-Euler equations of motion. Only the linear/angular velocities and accelerations of the satellite base are used in the identification methods with no information about the force and torque utilized. The feasibility of the methods is demonstrated by a hardware experiment on the ground as well as numerical simulation.

  14. Robust unknown input observer design for state estimation and fault detection using linear parameter varying model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shanzhi; Wang, Haoping; Aitouche, Abdel; Tian, Yang; Christov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust unknown input observer for state estimation and fault detection using linear parameter varying model. Since the disturbance and actuator fault is mixed together in the physical system, it is difficult to isolate the fault from the disturbance. Using the state transforation, the estimation of the original state becomes to associate with the transform state. By solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs)and linear matrix equalities (LMEs), the parameters of the UIO can be obtained. The convergence of the UIO is also analysed by the Layapunov theory. Finally, a wind turbine system with disturbance and actuator fault is tested for the proposed method. From the simulations, it demonstrates the effectiveness and performances of the proposed method.

  15. Inertial parameter identification using contact force information for an unknown object captured by a space manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhongyi; Ma, Ye; Hou, Yueyang; Wang, Fengwen

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a novel identification method for the intact inertial parameters of an unknown object in space captured by a manipulator in a space robotic system. With strong dynamic and kinematic coupling existing in the robotic system, the inertial parameter identification of the unknown object is essential for the ideal control strategy based on changes in the attitude and trajectory of the space robot via capturing operations. Conventional studies merely refer to the principle and theory of identification, and an error analysis process of identification is deficient for a practical scenario. To solve this issue, an analysis of the effect of errors on identification is illustrated first, and the accumulation of measurement or estimation errors causing poor identification precision is demonstrated. Meanwhile, a modified identification equation incorporating the contact force, as well as the force/torque of the end-effector, is proposed to weaken the accumulation of errors and improve the identification accuracy. Furthermore, considering a severe disturbance condition caused by various measured noises, the hybrid immune algorithm, Recursive Least Squares and Affine Projection Sign Algorithm (RLS-APSA), is employed to decode the modified identification equation to ensure a stable identification property. Finally, to verify the validity of the proposed identification method, the co-simulation of ADAMS-MATLAB is implemented by multi-degree of freedom models of a space robotic system, and the numerical results show a precise and stable identification performance, which is able to guarantee the execution of aerospace operations and prevent failed control strategies.

  16. Neutrino masses and mixings: Status of known and unknownparameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, F.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Montanino, D.; Palazzo, A.

    2016-07-01

    Within the standard 3ν mass-mixing framework, we present an up-to-date global analysis of neutrino oscillation data (as of January 2016), including the latest available results from experiments with atmospheric neutrinos (Super-Kamiokande and IceCube DeepCore), at accelerators (first T2K ν ‾ and NO νAν runs in both appearance and disappearance modes), and at short-baseline reactors (Daya Bay and RENO far/near spectral ratios), as well as a reanalysis of older KamLAND data in the light of the ;bump; feature recently observed in reactor spectra. We discuss improved constraints on the five known oscillation parameters (δm2, | Δm2 |, sin2 ⁡θ12, sin2 ⁡θ13, sin2 ⁡θ23), and the status of the three remaining unknown parameters: the mass hierarchy [sign (± Δm2)], the θ23 octant [sign (sin2 ⁡θ23 - 1 / 2)], and the possible CP-violating phase δ. With respect to previous global fits, we find that the reanalysis of KamLAND data induces a slight decrease of both δm2 and sin2 ⁡θ12, while the latest accelerator and atmospheric data induce a slight increase of | Δm2 |. Concerning the unknown parameters, we confirm the previous intriguing preference for negative values of sin ⁡ δ (with best-fit values around sin ⁡ δ ≃ - 0.9), but we find no statistically significant indication about the θ23 octant or the mass hierarchy (normal or inverted). Assuming an alternative (so-called LEM) analysis of NO νA data, some δ ranges can be excluded at > 3 σ, and the normal mass hierarchy appears to be slightly favored at ∼ 90% C.L. We also describe in detail the covariances of selected pairs of oscillation parameters. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications of the above results on the three non-oscillation observables sensitive to the (unknown) absolute ν mass scale: the sum of ν masses Σ (in cosmology), the effective νe mass mβ (in beta decay), and the effective Majorana mass mββ (in neutrinoless double beta decay).

  17. Estimation of parameters for the elimination of an orally administered test substance with unknown absorption.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Denzer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of the elimination of an oral test dose based on plasma concentration values requires correction for the effect of gastric release and absorption. Irregular uptake processes should be described 'model independently', which requires estimation of a large number of absorption parameters. To limit the associated computational effort a new approach is developed with a reduced number of unknown parameters. A marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) is defined, which uses for the uptake just one parameter to control rigidity of the uptake curve. For validation, elimination and absorption were reproduced using published IVIVC data and a synthetic data set for comparison with approaches using a 'model-free'--staircase function or mechanistic models to describe absorption. MRA performed almost as accurate as well specified mechanistic models, which gave the best reproduction. MRA demonstrated a 50fold increase in computational efficiency compared to other approaches. The absorption estimated for the IVIVC study demonstrated an in vivo-in vitro correlation comparable to published values. The newly developed MRA approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate elimination and absorption with a restricted number of adaptive parameters and with automatic adjustment of the complexity of the uptake.

  18. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties.

  19. Parameter estimation in a structural acoustic system with fully nonlinear coupling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, Ralph C.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for estimating physical parameters in a class of structural acoustic systems is presented. The general model under consideration consists of an interior cavity which is separated from an exterior noise source by an enclosing elastic structure. Piezoceramic patches are bonded to or embedded in the structure; these can be used both as actuators and sensors in applications ranging from the control of interior noise levels to the determination of structural flaws through nondestructive evaluation techniques. The presence and excitation of patches, however, changes the geometry and material properties of the structure as well as involves unknown patch parameters, thus necessitating the development of parameter estimation techniques which are applicable in this coupled setting. In developing a framework for approximation, parameter estimation and implementation, strong consideration is given to the fact that the input operator is unbonded due to the discrete nature of the patches. Moreover, the model is weakly nonlinear. As a result of the coupling mechanism between the structural vibrations and the interior acoustic dynamics. Within this context, an illustrating model is given, well-posedness and approximations results are discussed and an applicable parameter estimation methodology is presented. The scheme is then illustrated through several numerical examples with simulations modeling a variety of commonly used structural acoustic techniques for systems excitations and data collection.

  20. Impurity bound states in fully gapped d-wave superconductors with subdominant order parameters.

    PubMed

    Mashkoori, Mahdi; Björnson, Kristofer; Black-Schaffer, Annica M

    2017-03-10

    Impurities in superconductors and their induced bound states are important both for engineering novel states such as Majorana zero-energy modes and for probing bulk properties of the superconducting state. The high-temperature cuprates offer a clear advantage in a much larger superconducting order parameter, but the nodal energy spectrum of a pure d-wave superconductor only allows virtual bound states. Fully gapped d-wave superconducting states have, however, been proposed in several cuprate systems thanks to subdominant order parameters producing d + is- or d + id'-wave superconducting states. Here we study both magnetic and potential impurities in these fully gapped d-wave superconductors. Using analytical T-matrix and complementary numerical tight-binding lattice calculations, we show that magnetic and potential impurities behave fundamentally different in d + is- and d + id'-wave superconductors. In a d + is-wave superconductor, there are no bound states for potential impurities, while a magnetic impurity produces one pair of bound states, with a zero-energy level crossing at a finite scattering strength. On the other hand, a d + id'-wave symmetry always gives rise to two pairs of bound states and only produce a reachable zero-energy level crossing if the normal state has a strong particle-hole asymmetry.

  1. Impurity bound states in fully gapped d-wave superconductors with subdominant order parameters

    PubMed Central

    Mashkoori, Mahdi; Björnson, Kristofer; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.

    2017-01-01

    Impurities in superconductors and their induced bound states are important both for engineering novel states such as Majorana zero-energy modes and for probing bulk properties of the superconducting state. The high-temperature cuprates offer a clear advantage in a much larger superconducting order parameter, but the nodal energy spectrum of a pure d-wave superconductor only allows virtual bound states. Fully gapped d-wave superconducting states have, however, been proposed in several cuprate systems thanks to subdominant order parameters producing d + is- or d + id′-wave superconducting states. Here we study both magnetic and potential impurities in these fully gapped d-wave superconductors. Using analytical T-matrix and complementary numerical tight-binding lattice calculations, we show that magnetic and potential impurities behave fundamentally different in d + is- and d + id′-wave superconductors. In a d + is-wave superconductor, there are no bound states for potential impurities, while a magnetic impurity produces one pair of bound states, with a zero-energy level crossing at a finite scattering strength. On the other hand, a d + id′-wave symmetry always gives rise to two pairs of bound states and only produce a reachable zero-energy level crossing if the normal state has a strong particle-hole asymmetry. PMID:28281570

  2. Impurity bound states in fully gapped d-wave superconductors with subdominant order parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashkoori, Mahdi; Björnson, Kristofer; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.

    2017-03-01

    Impurities in superconductors and their induced bound states are important both for engineering novel states such as Majorana zero-energy modes and for probing bulk properties of the superconducting state. The high-temperature cuprates offer a clear advantage in a much larger superconducting order parameter, but the nodal energy spectrum of a pure d-wave superconductor only allows virtual bound states. Fully gapped d-wave superconducting states have, however, been proposed in several cuprate systems thanks to subdominant order parameters producing d + is- or d + id‧-wave superconducting states. Here we study both magnetic and potential impurities in these fully gapped d-wave superconductors. Using analytical T-matrix and complementary numerical tight-binding lattice calculations, we show that magnetic and potential impurities behave fundamentally different in d + is- and d + id‧-wave superconductors. In a d + is-wave superconductor, there are no bound states for potential impurities, while a magnetic impurity produces one pair of bound states, with a zero-energy level crossing at a finite scattering strength. On the other hand, a d + id‧-wave symmetry always gives rise to two pairs of bound states and only produce a reachable zero-energy level crossing if the normal state has a strong particle-hole asymmetry.

  3. A fully multiple-criteria implementation of the Sobol‧ method for parameter sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, Rafael; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Zeng, Xubin; de Gonçalves, Luis Gustavo Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    We present a novel rank-based fully multiple-criteria implementation of the Sobol' variance-based sensitivity analysis approach that implements an objective strategy to evaluate parameter sensitivity when model evaluation involves several metrics of performance. The method is superior to single-criterion approaches while avoiding the subjectivity observed in "pseudo" multiple-criteria methods. Further, it contributes to our understanding of structural characteristics of a model and simplifies parameter estimation by identifying insensitive parameters that can be fixed to default values during model calibration studies. We illustrate the approach by applying it to the problem of identifying the most influential parameters in the Simple Biosphere 3 (SiB3) model using a network of flux towers in Brazil. We find 27-31 (out of 42) parameters to be influential, most (˜78%) of which are primarily associated with physiology, soil, and carbon properties, and that uncertainties in the physiological properties of the model contribute most to total model uncertainty in regard to energy and carbon fluxes. We also find that the second most important model component contributing to the total output uncertainty varies according to the flux analyzed; whereas morphological properties play an important role in sensible heat flux, soil properties are important for latent heat flux, and carbon properties (mainly associated with the soil respiration submodel) are important for carbon flux (as expected). These distinct sensitivities emphasize the need to account for the multioutput nature of land surface models during sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Applied to other similar models, our approach can help to establish which soil-plant-atmosphere processes matter most in land surface models of Amazonia and thereby aid in the design of field campaigns to characterize and measure the associated parameters. The approach can also be used with other sensitivity analysis

  4. Bootstrap Standard Errors for Maximum Likelihood Ability Estimates When Item Parameters Are Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    When item parameter estimates are used to estimate the ability parameter in item response models, the standard error (SE) of the ability estimate must be corrected to reflect the error carried over from item calibration. For maximum likelihood (ML) ability estimates, a corrected asymptotic SE is available, but it requires a long test and the…

  5. Fourier-based reconstruction for fully 3-D PET: optimization of interpolation parameters.

    PubMed

    Matej, Samuel; Kazantsev, Ivan G

    2006-07-01

    Fourier-based approaches for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction are based on the relationship between the 3-D Fourier transform (FT) of the volume and the two-dimensional (2-D) FT of a parallel-ray projection of the volume. The critical step in the Fourier-based methods is the estimation of the samples of the 3-D transform of the image from the samples of the 2-D transforms of the projections on the planes through the origin of Fourier space, and vice versa for forward-projection (reprojection). The Fourier-based approaches have the potential for very fast reconstruction, but their straightforward implementation might lead to unsatisfactory results if careful attention is not paid to interpolation and weighting functions. In our previous work, we have investigated optimal interpolation parameters for the Fourier-based forward and back-projectors for iterative image reconstruction. The optimized interpolation kernels were shown to provide excellent quality comparable to the ideal sinc interpolator. This work presents an optimization of interpolation parameters of the 3-D direct Fourier method with Fourier reprojection (3D-FRP) for fully 3-D positron emission tomography (PET) data with incomplete oblique projections. The reprojection step is needed for the estimation (from an initial image) of the missing portions of the oblique data. In the 3D-FRP implementation, we use the gridding interpolation strategy, combined with proper weighting approaches in the transform and image domains. We have found that while the 3-D reprojection step requires similar optimal interpolation parameters as found in our previous studies on Fourier-based iterative approaches, the optimal interpolation parameters for the main 3D-FRP reconstruction stage are quite different. Our experimental results confirm that for the optimal interpolation parameters a very good image accuracy can be achieved even without any extra spectral oversampling, which is a common practice to decrease errors

  6. Adaptive exponential synchronization of complex-valued Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with known and unknown parameters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; Zeng, Chunna

    2017-02-01

    The complex-valued Cohen-Grossberg neural network is a special kind of complex-valued neural network. In this paper, the synchronization problem of a class of complex-valued Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with known and unknown parameters is investigated. By using Lyapunov functionals and the adaptive control method based on parameter identification, some adaptive feedback schemes are proposed to achieve synchronization exponentially between the drive and response systems. The results obtained in this paper have extended and improved some previous works on adaptive synchronization of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks. Finally, two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  7. Fully 3D modeling of tokamak vertical displacement events with realistic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferle, David; Ferraro, Nathaniel; Jardin, Stephen; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we model the complex multi-domain and highly non-linear physics of Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs), one of the most damaging off-normal events in tokamaks, with the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1. The code has recently acquired the capability to include finite thickness conducting structures within the computational domain. By exploiting the possibility of running a linear 3D calculation on top of a non-linear 2D simulation, we monitor the non-axisymmetric stability and assess the eigen-structure of kink modes as the simulation proceeds. Once a stability boundary is crossed, a fully 3D non-linear calculation is launched for the remainder of the simulation, starting from an earlier time of the 2D run. This procedure, along with adaptive zoning, greatly increases the efficiency of the calculation, and allows to perform VDE simulations with realistic parameters and high resolution. Simulations are being validated with NSTX data where both axisymmetric (toroidally averaged) and non-axisymmetric induced and conductive (halo) currents have been measured. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Fitting state-space integral projection models to size-structured time series data to estimate unknown parameters.

    PubMed

    White, J Wilson; Nickols, Kerry J; Malone, Daniel; Carr, Mark H; Starr, Richard M; Cordoleani, Flora; Baskett, Marissa L; Hastings, Alan; Botsford, Louis W

    2016-12-01

    Integral projection models (IPMs) have a number of advantages over matrix-model approaches for analyzing size-structured population dynamics, because the latter require parameter estimates for each age or stage transition. However, IPMs still require appropriate data. Typically they are parameterized using individual-scale relationships between body size and demographic rates, but these are not always available. We present an alternative approach for estimating demographic parameters from time series of size-structured survey data using a Bayesian state-space IPM (SSIPM). By fitting an IPM in a state-space framework, we estimate unknown parameters and explicitly account for process and measurement error in a dataset to estimate the underlying process model dynamics. We tested our method by fitting SSIPMs to simulated data; the model fit the simulated size distributions well and estimated unknown demographic parameters accurately. We then illustrated our method using nine years of annual surveys of the density and size distribution of two fish species (blue rockfish, Sebastes mystinus, and gopher rockfish, S. carnatus) at seven kelp forest sites in California. The SSIPM produced reasonable fits to the data, and estimated fishing rates for both species that were higher than our Bayesian prior estimates based on coast-wide stock assessment estimates of harvest. That improvement reinforces the value of being able to estimate demographic parameters from local-scale monitoring data. We highlight a number of key decision points in SSIPM development (e.g., open vs. closed demography, number of particles in the state-space filter) so that users can apply the method to their own datasets.

  9. A direct method of parameter estimation for steady state flow in heterogeneous aquifers with unknown boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsa, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a novel direct method for estimating steady state hydrogeological model parameters and model state variables in an aquifer where boundary conditions are unknown. The method is adapted from a recently developed potential theory technique for solving general inverse/reconstruction problems. Unlike many inverse techniques used for groundwater model calibration, the new method is not based on fitting and optimizing an objective function, which usually requires forward simulation and iterative parameter updates. Instead, it directly incorporates noisy observed data (hydraulic heads and flow rates) at the measurement points in a single step, without solving a boundary value problem. The new method is computationally efficient and is robust to the presence of observation errors. It has been tested on two-dimensional groundwater flow problems with regular and irregular geometries, different heterogeneity patterns, variances of heterogeneity, and error magnitudes. In all cases, parameters (hydraulic conductivities) converge to the correct or expected values and are thus unique, based on which heads and flow fields are constructed directly via a set of analytical expressions. Accurate boundary conditions are then inferred from these fields. The accuracy of the direct method also improves with increasing amount of observed data, lower measurement errors, and grid refinement. Under natural flow (i.e., no pumping), the direct method yields an equivalent conductivity of the aquifer, suggesting that the method can be used as an inexpensive characterization tool with which both aquifer parameters and aquifer boundary conditions can be inferred.

  10. A new neuro-FDS definition for indirect adaptive control of unknown nonlinear systems using a method of parameter hopping.

    PubMed

    Boutalis, Yiannis; Theodoridis, Dimitris C; Christodoulou, Manolis A

    2009-04-01

    The indirect adaptive regulation of unknown nonlinear dynamical systems is considered in this paper. The method is based on a new neuro-fuzzy dynamical system (neuro-FDS) definition, which uses the concept of adaptive fuzzy systems (AFSs) operating in conjunction with high-order neural network functions (FHONNFs). Since the plant is considered unknown, we first propose its approximation by a special form of an FDS and then the fuzzy rules are approximated by appropriate HONNFs. Thus, the identification scheme leads up to a recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN), which however takes into account the fuzzy output partitions of the initial FDS. The proposed scheme does not require a priori experts' information on the number and type of input variable membership functions making it less vulnerable to initial design assumptions. Once the system is identified around an operation point, it is regulated to zero adaptively. Weight updating laws for the involved HONNFs are provided, which guarantee that both the identification error and the system states reach zero exponentially fast, while keeping all signals in the closed loop bounded. The existence of the control signal is always assured by introducing a novel method of parameter hopping, which is incorporated in the weight updating law. Simulations illustrate the potency of the method and comparisons with conventional approaches on benchmarking systems are given. Also, the applicability of the method is tested on a direct current (dc) motor system where it is shown that by following the proposed procedure one can obtain asymptotic regulation.

  11. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  12. Modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Cramer-Von Mises Tests for the Pareto Distribution with Unknown Location and Scale Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    tion in statistical analysis. It is named after Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), a Swiss professor of economics who con- ducted the first extensive...THE PARETO DISTRIBUTION WITH UNKNOWN LOCATION AND SCALE PARAMETERS THESIS James E. Porter III Captain, USAF AFIT/GSO/MA/85D-6 Approved for public... PARETO DISTRIBUTION WITH UNKNOWN LOCATION AND SCALE PARAMETERS -.- THES IS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering *- of the Air Force

  13. Crystal lattice properties fully determine short-range interaction parameters for alkali and halide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Albert H.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2012-08-01

    Accurate models of alkali and halide ions in aqueous solution are necessary for computer simulations of a broad variety of systems. Previous efforts to develop ion force fields have generally focused on reproducing experimental measurements of aqueous solution properties such as hydration free energies and ion-water distribution functions. This dependency limits transferability of the resulting parameters because of the variety and known limitations of water models. We present a solvent-independent approach to calibrating ion parameters based exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Our procedure relies on minimization of lattice sums to calculate lattice energies and interionic distances instead of equilibrium ensemble simulations of dense fluids. The gain in computational efficiency enables simultaneous optimization of all parameters for Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, F-, Cl-, Br-, and I- subject to constraints that enforce consistency with periodic table trends. We demonstrate the method by presenting lattice-derived parameters for the primitive model and the Lennard-Jones model with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules. The resulting parameters successfully reproduce the lattice properties used to derive them and are free from the influence of any water model. To assess the transferability of the Lennard-Jones parameters to aqueous systems, we used them to estimate hydration free energies and found that the results were in quantitative agreement with experimentally measured values. These lattice-derived parameters are applicable in simulations where coupling of ion parameters to a particular solvent model is undesirable. The simplicity and low computational demands of the calibration procedure make it suitable for parametrization of crystallizable ions in a variety of force fields.

  14. A healthy fear of the unknown: perspectives on the interpretation of parameter fits from computational models in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Gold, Joshua I

    2013-04-01

    Fitting models to behavior is commonly used to infer the latent computational factors responsible for generating behavior. However, the complexity of many behaviors can handicap the interpretation of such models. Here we provide perspectives on problems that can arise when interpreting parameter fits from models that provide incomplete descriptions of behavior. We illustrate these problems by fitting commonly used and neurophysiologically motivated reinforcement-learning models to simulated behavioral data sets from learning tasks. These model fits can pass a host of standard goodness-of-fit tests and other model-selection diagnostics even when the models do not provide a complete description of the behavioral data. We show that such incomplete models can be misleading by yielding biased estimates of the parameters explicitly included in the models. This problem is particularly pernicious when the neglected factors are unknown and therefore not easily identified by model comparisons and similar methods. An obvious conclusion is that a parsimonious description of behavioral data does not necessarily imply an accurate description of the underlying computations. Moreover, general goodness-of-fit measures are not a strong basis to support claims that a particular model can provide a generalized understanding of the computations that govern behavior. To help overcome these challenges, we advocate the design of tasks that provide direct reports of the computational variables of interest. Such direct reports complement model-fitting approaches by providing a more complete, albeit possibly more task-specific, representation of the factors that drive behavior. Computational models then provide a means to connect such task-specific results to a more general algorithmic understanding of the brain.

  15. The Direct Registration of LIDAR Point Clouds and High Resolution Image Based on Linear Feature by Introducing AN Unknown Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunjing, Y.; Guang, G.

    2012-07-01

    The registration between optical images and point clouds is the first task when the combination of these two datasets is concerned. Due to the discrete nature of the point clouds, and the 2D-3D transformation in particular, a tie points based registration strategy which is commonly adopted in image-to-image registration is hard to be used directly in this scenario. A derived collinear equation describing the map relationship between an image point and a ground point is used as the mathematical model for registration, with the point in the LiDAR space expressed by its parametric form. such a map relation can be viewed as the mathematical model which registers the image pixels to point clouds. This model is not only suitable for a single image registration but also applicable to multiple consecutive images. We also studied scale problem in image and point clouds registration, with scale problem is defined by the optimal corresponding between the image resolution and the density of point clouds. Test dataset includes the DMC images and point clouds acquired by the Leica ALS50 II over an area in Henan Prov., China. Main contributions of the paper includes: [1] an derived collinear equation is introduced by which a ground point is expressed by its parametric form, which makes it possible to replace point feature by linear feature, hence avoiding the problem that it is almost impossible to find a point in the point clouds which is accurately corresponds to a point in the image space; [2] least square method is used to calculate the registration transformation parameters and the unknown parameter λ in the same time;[3] scale problem is analyzed semi-quantitatively and to the authors' best knowledge, it is the first time in literature that clearly defines the scale problem and carries out semi-quantitative analysis in the context of LiDAR data processing.

  16. A fully Galerkin method for the recovery of stiffness and damping parameters in Euler-Bernoulli beam models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Bowers, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    A fully Sinc-Galerkin method for recovering the spatially varying stiffness and damping parameters in Euler-Bernoulli beam models is presented. The forward problems are discretized with a sinc basis in both the spatial and temporal domains thus yielding an approximate solution which converges exponentially and is valid on the infinite time interval. Hence the method avoids the time-stepping which is characteristic of many of the forward schemes which are used in parameter recovery algorithms. Tikhonov regularization is used to stabilize the resulting inverse problem, and the L-curve method for determining an appropriate value of the regularization parameter is briefly discussed. Numerical examples are given which demonstrate the applicability of the method for both individual and simultaneous recovery of the material parameters.

  17. Fully self-consistent study of charge-exchange resonances and the impact on the symmetry energy parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Cao, Li-Gang; Colò, G.; Sagawa, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have examined within a fully self-consistent theoretical framework the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR) and the isobaric analog state (IAS), EAGDR-EIAS , as an indicator of the neutron skin and of the density behavior of the symmetry energy. We have improved two specific points in our HF+RPA calculations: (1) the exchange term of the two-body Coulomb interaction is treated exactly without Slater approximation; and (2) the two-parameters spin-orbit interaction is treated in a consistent way within the energy density functional theory. The estimated values for the neutron skin in 208Pb and the slope parameter of symmetry energy are compared with previous analysis available in the literature.

  18. A fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in corneal images.

    PubMed

    Al-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami; Al-Waisy, Alaa S; Ipson, Stanley; Malik, Rayaz A; Brahma, Arun; Chen, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common types of diabetes that can affect the cornea. An accurate analysis of the nerve structures can assist the early diagnosis of this disease. This paper proposes a robust, fast and fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for corneal confocal microscope images. The segmentation part consists of three main steps. First, a preprocessing step is applied to enhance the visibility of the nerves and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion filtering, specifically a Coherence filter followed by Gaussian filtering. Second, morphological operations are applied to remove unwanted objects in the input image such as epithelial cells and small nerve segments. Finally, an edge detection step is applied to detect all the nerves in the input image. In this step, an efficient algorithm for connecting discontinuous nerves is proposed. In the morphometric parameters quantification part, a number of features are extracted, including thickness, tortuosity and length of nerve, which may be used for the early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy and when planning Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) or Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The performance of the proposed segmentation system is evaluated against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 498 corneal sub-basal nerve images (238 are normal and 260 are abnormal). In addition, the robustness and efficiency of the proposed system in extracting morphometric features with clinical utility was evaluated in 919 images taken from healthy subjects and diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. We demonstrate rapid (13 seconds/image), robust and effective automated corneal nerve quantification. The proposed system will be deployed as a useful clinical tool to support the expertise of ophthalmologists and save the clinician time in a busy clinical setting.

  19. Validation of TrichoScan technology as a fully-automated tool for evaluation of hair growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Gassmueller, Johannes; Rowold, Elisabeth; Frase, Thomas; Hughes-Formella, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for a simple and reliable tool to evaluate hair loss and treatment effects in patients suffering from alopecia. In 2001 TrichoScan was introduced as a fully-automated method for the measurement of biological parameters of hair growth such as density, diameter and growth rate. However, the conventional phototrichogram method with manual marking of hairs on images is still performed and, although no real independent side-by-side comparison is available, the manual method is sometimes defined as the most precise method of measurement. The aim of this study was validation of the Trichoscan method by comparative assessment of TrichoScan analysis and manual marking of hairs. Digital images were taken from 10 patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and validity and reliability of both methods were assessed. This study showed an excellent correlation of TrichoScan and manual marking of hairs. Considerable variability was noted in the results from manually evaluated images (range 2.71%-12.95%), compared to none in TrichoScan analyzed images. Results with TrichoScan were obtained more quickly and were more reproducible with a smaller margin of operator error. The consistency in the Trichoscan data allows statistically significant results to be obtained with a smaller sample size.

  20. Measurement of CP-Violating Parameters in Fully Reconstructed B to D(*)+-pi-+ and B to D+-rho-+ Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-27

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the CP-violating parameters in fully reconstructed B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} decays in approximately 232 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC.

  1. Optimization of In-Situ Shot-Peening-Assisted Cold Spraying Parameters for Full Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy by Fully Dense Al-Based Alloy Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ying-Kang; Luo, Xiao-Tao; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium-based alloys have excellent physical and mechanical properties for a lot of applications. However, due to high chemical reactivity, magnesium and its alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion. In this study, Al6061 coating was deposited on AZ31B magnesium by cold spray with a commercial Al6061 powder blended with large-sized stainless steel particles (in-situ shot-peening particles) using nitrogen gas. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of the sprayed coating was investigated as a function of shot-peening particle content in the feedstock. It is found that by introducing the in-situ tamping effect using shot-peening (SP) particles, the plastic deformation of deposited particles is significantly enhanced, thereby resulting in a fully dense Al6061 coating. SEM observations reveal that no SP particle is deposited into Al6061 coating at the optimization spraying parameters. Porosity of the coating significantly decreases from 10.7 to 0.4% as the SP particle content increases from 20 to 60 vol.%. The electrochemical corrosion experiments reveal that this novel in-situ SP-assisted cold spraying is effective to deposit fully dense Al6061 coating through which aqueous solution is not permeable and thus can provide exceptional protection of the magnesium-based materials from corrosion.

  2. Fully automatic 3D digitization of unknown objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenwald, Gabriel F.; Seulin, Ralph; Fougerolle, Yohan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete system for 3D digitization of objects assuming no prior knowledge on its shape. The proposed methodology is applied to a digitization cell composed of a fringe projection scanner head, a robotic arm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF), and a turntable. A two-step approach is used to automatically guide the scanning process. The first step uses the concept of Mass Vector Chains (MVC) to perform an initial scanning. The second step directs the scanner to remaining holes of the model. Post-processing of the data is also addressed. Tests with real objects were performed and results of digitization length in time and number of views are provided along with estimated surface coverage.

  3. Exploring the Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

  4. Metrology with Unknown Detectors.

    PubMed

    Altorio, Matteo; Genoni, Marco G; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco

    2016-03-11

    The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterization that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here, we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cramér-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and we present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provides a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e., a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  5. Calculating the System Efficiency of the NETL Gas-Turbine/Fuel-Cell Hybrid System Using a Fully Coupled Lumped Parameter System Model

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Tucker, D.A.

    2006-11-01

    Thermodynamic efficiency must be considered in the effective analysis of gas turbine fuel cell power generation system performance. In most numerical simulations of hybrid systems, the use of compressor maps and turbine maps are neglected. It is assumed that the design criterion generated by the system model can be met by the manufacturer of these items. These system models may use partial information from a compressor map, or a turbine map, but they fail to match all the operating conditions of both maps in a hybrid configuration. Also, to simplify the calculations that are performed by the complex hybrid system models, the effects of heat transfer and fluid dynamic drag are often decoupled. When system calculations are done in this way, the resulting calculations for system efficiency may suffer error. Hybrid system designers need a simple method to calculate the system performance directly from the maps of real compressors and real turbines that currently exist, and that would be part of a hybrid system. In this work, a simple procedure is illustrated where a coupled analysis of the various system components is performed and included as part of the system model. This analysis is done using the compressor and turbine maps of the hybrid performance project hardware at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Model parameters are tuned using experimental conditions and results are obtained. The results show the importance of aerodynamic coupling in system models, and how this coupling affects the system efficiency calculations. This coupling becomes important especially for the variable density flows that are typically found in combustors, heat exchangers and fuel cells.

  6. 66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  7. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  8. 22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  9. 7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  10. 6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE DURING MOVE SHOWING HOUSE RAISED - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  11. 4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE BEFORE HOUSE MOVED SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES IN FOREGROUND - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  12. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

  13. 7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW (SOUTHEAST) FROM ORIGINAL SITE SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES (FOREGROUND) AND NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF HOUSE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE (ENTRANCE STAIRS FROM ORIGINAL SOUTH FRONT MOVED TO PRESENT WEST FRONT) - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  14. Fully Regressive Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ehrsam, Eric; Kallini, Joseph R.; Lebas, Damien; Modiano, Philippe; Cotten, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Fully regressive melanoma is a phenomenon in which the primary cutaneous melanoma becomes completely replaced by fibrotic components as a result of host immune response. Although 10 to 35 percent of cases of cutaneous melanomas may partially regress, fully regressive melanoma is very rare; only 47 cases have been reported in the literature to date. AH of the cases of fully regressive melanoma reported in the literature were diagnosed in conjunction with metastasis on a patient. The authors describe a case of fully regressive melanoma without any metastases at the time of its diagnosis. Characteristic findings on dermoscopy, as well as the absence of melanoma on final biopsy, confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27672418

  15. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but our opening question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge if not urgency in the contemporary age. Indeed, it could be said that our opening question has never been generally acknowledged to be a significant motivating curricular and…

  16. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  17. Learning from the Unknown Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Gerstenschlager, Natasha E.; Harmon, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, three instructional situations demonstrate the value of using an "unknown" student's work to allow the advancement of students' mathematical thinking as well as their engagement in the mathematical practice of critiquing the reasoning of others: (1) introducing alternative solution strategies; (2) critiquing inaccuracies…

  18. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  20. Online fully automated three-dimensional surface reconstruction of unknown objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfaoui, Souhaiel; Aigueperse, Antoine; Fougerolle, Yohan; Seulin, Ralph; Fofi, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for automatic and intelligent 3D digitization using robotic cells. The advantage of our procedure is that it is generic since it is not performed for a specific scanning technology. Moreover, it is not dependent on the methods used to perform the tasks associated with each elementary process. The comparison of results between manual and automatic scanning of complex objects shows that our digitization strategy is very efficient and faster than trained experts. The 3D models of the different objects are obtained with a strongly reduced number of acquisitions while moving efficiently the ranging device.

  1. Fully automated protein purification

    PubMed Central

    Camper, DeMarco V.; Viola, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining highly purified proteins is essential to begin investigating their functional and structural properties. The steps that are typically involved in purifying proteins can include an initial capture, intermediate purification, and a final polishing step. Completing these steps can take several days and require frequent attention to ensure success. Our goal was to design automated protocols that will allow the purification of proteins with minimal operator intervention. Separate methods have been produced and tested that automate the sample loading, column washing, sample elution and peak collection steps for ion-exchange, metal affinity, hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography. These individual methods are designed to be coupled and run sequentially in any order to achieve a flexible and fully automated protein purification protocol. PMID:19595984

  2. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  3. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.

  4. Optimal linear estimation under unknown nonlinear transform

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xinyang; Wang, Zhaoran; Caramanis, Constantine; Liu, Han

    2016-01-01

    Linear regression studies the problem of estimating a model parameter β* ∈ℝp, from n observations {(yi,xi)}i=1n from linear model yi = 〈xi, β*〉 + εi. We consider a significant generalization in which the relationship between 〈xi, β*〉 and yi is noisy, quantized to a single bit, potentially nonlinear, noninvertible, as well as unknown. This model is known as the single-index model in statistics, and, among other things, it represents a significant generalization of one-bit compressed sensing. We propose a novel spectral-based estimation procedure and show that we can recover β* in settings (i.e., classes of link function f) where previous algorithms fail. In general, our algorithm requires only very mild restrictions on the (unknown) functional relationship between yi and 〈xi, β*〉. We also consider the high dimensional setting where β* is sparse, and introduce a two-stage nonconvex framework that addresses estimation challenges in high dimensional regimes where p ≫ n. For a broad class of link functions between 〈xi, β*〉 and yi, we establish minimax lower bounds that demonstrate the optimality of our estimators in both the classical and high dimensional regimes.

  5. Testing fully depleted CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.

  6. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  7. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  8. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  9. Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Lortholary, Olivier; Cunha, Cheston B

    2015-10-01

    Fevers of unknown origin remain one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges in medicine. Because fever of unknown origin may be caused by over 200 malignant/neoplastic, infectious, rheumatic/inflammatory, and miscellaneous disorders, clinicians often order non-clue-based imaging and specific testing early in the fever of unknown origin work-up, which may be inefficient/misleading. Unlike most other fever-of-unknown-origin reviews, this article presents a clinical approach. Characteristic history and physical examination findings together with key nonspecific test abnormalities are the basis for a focused clue-directed fever of unknown origin work-up.

  10. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S

    2009-06-03

    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  11. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  12. Fully Integrating the Design Process

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Bjornard; R.S. Bean

    2008-03-01

    The basic approach to designing nuclear facilities in the United States does not currently reflect the routine consideration of proliferation resistance and international safeguards. The fully integrated design process is an approach for bringing consideration of international safeguards and proliferation resistance, together with state safeguards and security, fully into the design process from the very beginning, while integrating them sensibly and synergistically with the other project functions. In view of the recently established GNEP principles agreed to by the United States and at least eighteen other countries, this paper explores such an integrated approach, and its potential to help fulfill the new internationally driven design requirements with improved efficiencies and reduced costs.

  13. Exploration of unknown mechanical assemblies through manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vijay R.; Yun, Xiaoping; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    1990-01-01

    If robots must function in unstructured environments, they must also possess the ability to acquire information and construct appropriate models of the unknown environment. This paper addresses the automatic generation of kinematic models of unknown objects with movable parts in the environment. If the relative motion between moving parts must be observed and characterized, vision alone cannot suffice. An approach in which manipulation is used with vision for sensing is better suited to the task of determining kinematic properties. In this paper, algorithms for constructing models of unknown mechanical assemblies and characterizing the relative motion are developed. Results of a simulation are described to demonstrate the role of manipulation in such an endeavor.

  14. 53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  15. Bonabeau model on a fully connected graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarz, K.; Stauffer, D.; Kułakowski, K.

    2006-03-01

    Numerical simulations are reported on the Bonabeau model on a fully connected graph, where spatial degrees of freedom are absent. The control parameter is the memory factor f. The phase transition is observed at the dispersion of the agents power hi. The critical value fC shows a hysteretic behavior with respect to the initial distribution of hi. fC decreases with the system size; this decrease can be compensated by a greater number of fights between a global reduction of the distribution width of hi. The latter step is equivalent to a partial forgetting.

  16. Ensuring Fully Soldered Through Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1987-01-01

    Simple differential-pressure soldering method provides visual evidence that hidden joints are fully soldered. Intended for soldering connector pins in plated through holes in circuit boards. Molten solder flows into plated through holes, drawn by vacuum in manifold over circuit board. Differential-pressure process ensures solder wets entire through hole around connector pin.

  17. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-09-01

    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems.

  18. Controlled unknown quantum operations on hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Luo, Ming-Xing

    2016-12-01

    Any unknown unitary operations conditioned on a control system can be deterministically performed if ancillary subspaces are available for the target systems [Zhou X Q, et al. 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 413]. In this paper, we show that previous optical schemes may be extended to general hybrid systems if unknown operations are provided by optical instruments. Moreover, a probabilistic scheme is proposed when the unknown operation may be performed on the subspaces of ancillary high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, the unknown operations conditioned on the multi-control system may be reduced to the case with a control system using additional linear circuit complexity. The new schemes may be more flexible for different systems or hybrid systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61303039 and 61201253), Chunying Fellowship, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2682014CX095).

  19. Unknown, placeholder, or variable: what is x?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

    2012-03-01

    One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the idea of the placeholder, the birth of symbolic algebra, and the development of the variable. Focusing on these changes in practice, we interpret some classroom examples of 8th-grade students who interpret letters in terms of their experience with unknowns, rather than in terms of variables, to the confusion and dismay of the teachers. We also discuss how particular curricular and pedagogical treatments can support student learning by deliberately focusing on these changes in practice in the transition from unknowns to variables in the middle grades.

  20. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  1. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, Eric B.; Muller, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  2. Fully automated urban traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrotin, B. M.; Hansen, G. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The replacement of the driver with an automatic system which could perform the functions of guiding and routing a vehicle with a human's capability of responding to changing traffic demands was discussed. The problem was divided into four technological areas; guidance, routing, computing, and communications. It was determined that the latter three areas being developed independent of any need for fully automated urban traffic. A guidance system that would meet system requirements was not being developed but was technically feasible.

  3. Adaptive approximation method for joint parameter estimation and identical synchronization of chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Inés P; Míguez, Joaquín

    2005-11-01

    We introduce a numerical approximation method for estimating an unknown parameter of a (primary) chaotic system which is partially observed through a scalar time series. Specifically, we show that the recursive minimization of a suitably designed cost function that involves the dynamic state of a fully observed (secondary) system and the observed time series can lead to the identical synchronization of the two systems and the accurate estimation of the unknown parameter. The salient feature of the proposed technique is that the only external input to the secondary system is the unknown parameter which needs to be adjusted. We present numerical examples for the Lorenz system which show how our algorithm can be considerably faster than some previously proposed methods.

  4. Bayesian modeling of unknown diseases for biosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanna; Cooper, Gregory F

    2009-11-14

    This paper investigates Bayesian modeling of unknown causes of events in the context of disease-outbreak detection. We introduce a Bayesian approach that models and detects both (1) known diseases (e.g., influenza and anthrax) by using informative prior probabilities and (2) unknown diseases (e.g., a new, highly contagious respiratory virus that has never been seen before) by using relatively non-informative prior probabilities. We report the results of simulation experiments which support that this modeling method can improve the detection of new disease outbreaks in a population. A key contribution of this paper is that it introduces a Bayesian approach for jointly modeling both known and unknown causes of events. Such modeling has broad applicability in medical informatics, where the space of known causes of outcomes of interest is seldom complete.

  5. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    PubMed

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  6. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  7. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Hammar, S P

    1998-12-01

    Adenocarcinomas account for up to 60% of all metastatic neoplasms of unknown primary origin. In general, adenocarcinomas are the most difficult metastatic tumor to accurately identify the primary site. Some metastatic adenocarcinomas have distinctive histological features that allow for their site determination (eg, colonic adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma), although the majority of metastatic adenocarcinomas have histological features that are not distinctive enough to allow for a specific diagnosis of their origin. For this reason, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry have been used to help identify the exact type (origin) of metastatic adenocarcinomas. Relatively specific ultrastructural features used to diagnose metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown primary origin include tubular myelin, intranuclear surfactant apoprotein tubular inclusions, Clara cell granules, uniform short microvilli with filamentous cores and core rootlets, Langerhans cells associated with neoplastic cells, cytoplasmic hyaline globules, lipid droplets, glycogen, and cytoplasmic crystals. Only a few of these ultrastructural features are absolutely specific. Relatively specific immunohistochemical tests used to diagnose metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown primary origin include prostate-specific antigen, thyroglobulin, estrogen and progesterone receptor proteins, thyroid transcription factor-I, and surfactant apoproteins. Of these, prostate-specific antigen and thyroglobulin are the most specific. The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in the site-specific diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown primary origin.

  8. Fever of unknown origin, with a twist

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Ronstan; Meany, Brendan; O'Hanlon, Rory; Kiernan, Thomas John

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of an 81-year-old man with fever of unknown origin. The case report is illustrated with the images which clarified the diagnosis in this challenging case. The cardiac MR images were of critical importance in arriving at a diagnosis of aortic root mycotic pseudoaneurysm with rupture into the right ventricle. PMID:23345531

  9. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  10. Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

  11. M-MRAC Backstepping for Systems with Unknown Virtual Control Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an over-parametrization free certainty equivalence state feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties and unknown virtual control coefficients. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated in numerical simulations.

  12. Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturelli, Davide; Mandrà, Salvatore; Knysh, Sergey; O'Gorman, Bryan; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2015-07-01

    Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer's hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave TwoTM annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors) optimized simulated annealing algorithms.

  13. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  14. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  15. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  16. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  17. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  18. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections.

  19. Neurofunctional Signature of Hyperfamiliarity for Unknown Faces

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Elisa; D’Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Coriasco, Mario; Ferrio, Federica; Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Rubino, Elisa; de Gelder, Beatrice; Rainero, Innocenzo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Tamietto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces is a rare selective disorder that consists of the disturbing and abnormal feeling of familiarity for unknown faces, while recognition of known faces is normal. In one such patient we investigated with a multimodal neuroimaging design the hitherto undescribed neural signature associated with hyperfamiliarity feelings. Behaviorally, signal detection methods revealed that the patient’s discrimination sensitivity between familiar and unfamiliar faces was significantly lower than that of matched controls, and her response criterion for familiarity decisions was significantly more liberal. At the neural level, while morphometric analysis and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) showed the atrophy and hypofunctioning of the left temporal regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that hyperfamiliarity feelings were selectively associated to enhanced activity in the right medial and inferior temporal cortices. We therefore characterize the neurofunctional signature of hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces as related to the loss of coordinated activity between the complementary face processing functions of the left and right temporal lobes. PMID:26154253

  20. Fully Employing Software Inspections Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Seaman, Carolyn; Regardie, Myrna; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Software inspections provide a proven approach to quality assurance for software products of all kinds, including requirements, design, code, test plans, among others. Common to all inspections is the aim of finding and fixing defects as early as possible, and thereby providing cost savings by minimizing the amount of rework necessary later in the lifecycle. Measurement data, such as the number and type of found defects and the effort spent by the inspection team, provide not only direct feedback about the software product to the project team but are also valuable for process improvement activities. In this paper, we discuss NASA's use of software inspections and the rich set of data that has resulted. In particular, we present results from analysis of inspection data that illustrate the benefits of fully utilizing that data for process improvement at several levels. Examining such data across multiple inspections or projects allows team members to monitor and trigger cross project improvements. Such improvements may focus on the software development processes of the whole organization as well as improvements to the applied inspection process itself.

  1. Iterative methods for distributed parameter estimation in parabolic PDE

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.R.; Wade, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the work presented is the development of effective iterative techniques for large-scale inverse or parameter estimation problems. In this extended abstract, a detailed description of the mathematical framework in which the authors view these problem is presented, followed by an outline of the ideas and algorithms developed. Distributed parameter estimation problems often arise in mathematical modeling with partial differential equations. They can be viewed as inverse problems; the `forward problem` is that of using the fully specified model to predict the behavior of the system. The inverse or parameter estimation problem is: given the form of the model and some observed data from the system being modeled, determine the unknown parameters of the model. These problems are of great practical and mathematical interest, and the development of efficient computational algorithms is an active area of study.

  2. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  3. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  4. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Thea R.; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import of essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that non-polar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporters for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or ascorbic acid. PMID:25191333

  5. [Recognition and identification of unknown infectious agents].

    PubMed

    Berche, P

    1994-04-01

    The recognition and the identification of previously unrecognized infectious agents require a multidisciplinary approach to specify the nosologic entity of the disease and the epidemiological data, especially the modes of transmission and the risk factors, as well as to discover the microorganism in the laboratory. In the past 20 years, significant breakthroughs have been achieved in cellular cultures (growth factors), in immunology (monoclonal antibodies), and moreover in molecular biology, which have been widely used in the field of infectious diseases. Whereas the classical methods used to grow microorganisms remain of major interest in many cases, innovating strategies have been recently designed to identify previously unknown pathogens. The genomic amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of highly conserved bacterial genes (as those coding for ribosomal RNA), from tissue biopsies for example, allow to recognize unknown bacteria. The evolutionary distance between a newly recognized pathogen and known microorganisms can be calculated through sequencing of these genes, as described for Rochalimaea henselae or Tropheryma whipplelii. The constitution of cDNA banks from infected tissues is also a novel approach allowing to clone and sequence viral genes, such as those from hepatitis C or from hepatitis E. In the near future, noteworthy improvements will be achieved to rapidly detect microorganisms with highly sensitive and specific tests using monoclonal antibodies, molecular probes (including branched DNA) and with PCR (including Q beta replicase and ligase chain reaction), and to determine the genetic diversity of microbial pathogens by new methods as pulse field gel electrophoresis or arbitrarily primed PCR. This will result in a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of infectious diseases, in a better recognition of a typical, previously unrecognized clinical expression of pathogenicity, and also in a more precise assessment of the actual impact of a

  6. Prediction of States of Discrete Systems with Unknown Input of the Model Using Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of state prediction for linear dynamic systems with discrete time is considered in the presence of unknown input and inaccurately specified parameters in the model. An algorithm with compensation for the constant component and estimation of the unknown variable input component by the least squares method is suggested. Results of statistical simulation are presented. The algorithm can be used for solving problems of processing information obtained as a result of observations over physical processes.

  7. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, B.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, . P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Delker, T.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Ding, H.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissell, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logan, J.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; Nutzman, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strand, N. E.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takahashi, H.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D.. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zaleski, K. D.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160 728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4×10-10Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464 484 Hz and 604 624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6×10-23 to 1×10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7×10-22 to 1.3×10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

  8. Hierarchical structures in fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    Analysis of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the velocity increment dvl and of their deformation is used to reveal the statistical structure of the intermittent energy cascade dynamics of turbulence. By analyzing a series of turbulent data sets including that of an experiment of fully developed low temperature helium turbulent gas flow (Belin, Tabeling, & Willaime, Physica D 93, 52, 1996), of a three-dimensional isotropic Navier-Stokes simulation with a resolution of 2563 (Cao, Chen, & She, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3711, 1996) and of a GOY shell model simulation (Leveque & She, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1997) of a very big sample size (up to 5 billions), the validity of the Hierarchical Structure model (She & Leveque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 366, 1994) for the inertial-range is firmly demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that parameters in the Hierarchical Structure model can be reliably measured and used to characterize the cascade process. The physical interpretations of the parameters then allow to describe differential changes in different turbulent systems so as to address non-universal features of turbulent systems. It is proposed that the above study provides a framework for the study of non-homogeneous turbulence. A convergence study of moments and scaling exponents is also carried out with detailed analysis of effects of finite statistical sample size. A quantity Pmin is introduced to characterize the resolution of a PDF, and hence the sample size. The fact that any reported scaling exponent depends on the PDF resolution suggests that the validation (or rejection) of a model of turbulence needs to carry out a resolution dependence analysis on its scaling prediction.

  9. Parallel path planning in unknown terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prassler, Erwin A.; Milios, Evangelos E.

    1991-03-01

    We present a parallel processing approach to path planning in unknown terrains which combines map-based and sensor-based techniques into a real-time capable navigation system. The method is based on massively parallel computations in a grid of simple processing elements denoted as cells. In the course of a relaxation process a potential distribution is created in the grid which exhibits a monotonous slope from a start cell to the cell corresponding to the robot''s goal position. A shortest path is determined by means of a gradient descent criterion which settles on the steepest descent in the potential distribution. Like high-level path planning algorithms our approach is capable of planning shortest paths through an arbitrarily cluttered large-scale terrain on the basis of its current internal map. Sequentially implemented its complexity is in the order of efficient classical path planning algorithms. Unlike these algorithms however the method is also highly responsive to new obstacles encountered in the terrain. By continuing the planning process during the robot''s locomotion information about previously unknown obstacles immediately affects further path planning without a need to interrupt the ongoing planning process. New obstacles cause distortions of the potential distribution which let the robot find proper detours. By ensuring a monotonous slope in the overall distribution we avoid local minimum effects which may trap a robot in the proximity of an obstacle configuration before it has reached its goal. 1 Until the recent past research on path planning in the presence of obstacles can be assigned to two major categories: map-based high-level planning approaches and sensor-based low-level conLrol approaches. In work such as 12 path planning is treated as a high-level planning task. Assuming that an (accnrae) precompiled map of the terrain is available high-level path planners provide paths which guarantee a collision-free locomotion through an arbitrary

  10. FULLY COMPRESSIVE TIDES IN GALAXY MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, F.; Boily, C. M.; Naab, T.; Theis, Ch.

    2009-11-20

    The disruptive effect of galactic tides is a textbook example of gravitational dynamics. However, depending on the shape of the potential, tides can also become fully compressive. When that is the case, they might trigger or strengthen the formation of galactic substructures (star clusters and tidal dwarf galaxies), instead of destroying them. We perform N-body simulations of interacting galaxies to quantify this effect. We demonstrate that tidal compression occurs repeatedly during a galaxy merger, independently of the specific choice of parameterization. With a model tailored to the Antennae galaxies, we show that the distribution of compressive tides matches the locations and timescales of observed substructures. After extending our study to a broad range of parameters, we conclude that neither the importance of the compressive tides (approx15% of the stellar mass) nor their duration (approx10{sup 7} yr) is strongly affected by changes in the progenitors' configurations and orbits. Moreover, we show that individual clumps of matter can enter compressive regions several times in the course of a simulation. We speculate that this may spawn multiple star formation episodes in some star clusters, through, e.g., enhanced gas retention.

  11. Recursive confidence band construction for an unknown distribution function.

    PubMed

    Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Given a sample X1,...,Xn of independent observations from an unknown continuous distribution function F, the problem of constructing a confidence band for F is considered, which is a fundamental problem in statistical inference. This confidence band provides simultaneous inferences on all quantiles and also on all of the cumulative probabilities of the distribution, and so they are among the most important inference procedures that address the issue of multiplicity. A fully nonparametric approach is taken where no assumptions are made about the distribution function F. Historical approaches to this problem, such as Kolmogorov's famous () procedure, represent some of the earliest inference methodologies that address the issue of multiplicity. This is because a confidence band at a given confidence level 1-α allows inferences on all of the quantiles of the distribution, and also on all of the cumulative probabilities, at that specified confidence level. In this paper it is shown how recursive methodologies can be employed to construct both one-sided and two-sided confidence bands of various types. The first approach operates by putting bounds on the cumulative probabilities at the data points, and a recursive integration approach is described. The second approach operates by providing bounds on certain specified quantiles of the distribution, and its implementation using recursive summations of multinomial probabilities is described. These recursive methodologies are illustrated with examples, and R code is available for their implementation.

  12. How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium.

    PubMed

    Brock, Patrick M; Döring, Heidi; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2009-01-01

    The development of a universal approach to the identification of fungi from the environment is impeded by the limited number and narrow phylogenetic range of the named internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences available on GenBank. The goal here was to assess the potential impact of systematic DNA sequencing from a fungal herbarium collection. DNA sequences were generated from a diverse set of 279 specimens deposited at the fungal herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (UK) and bioinformatic analyses were used to study their overlap with the public database. It is estimated that c. 70% of the herbarium taxonomic diversity is not yet represented in GenBank and that a further c. 10% of our sequences match solely to 'environmental samples' or fungi otherwise unidentified. Here it is shown that the unsampled diversity residing in fungal herbaria can substantially enlarge the coverage of GenBank's fully identified sequence pool to ameliorate the problem of environmental unknowns and to aid in the detection of truly novel fungi by molecular data.

  13. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    PubMed Central

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  14. Distributed Synchronization Control of Multiagent Systems With Unknown Nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Su, Shize; Lin, Zongli; Garcia, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the distributed adaptive control problem for synchronization of multiagent systems where the dynamics of the agents are nonlinear, nonidentical, unknown, and subject to external disturbances. Two communication topologies, represented, respectively, by a fixed strongly-connected directed graph and by a switching connected undirected graph, are considered. Under both of these communication topologies, we use distributed neural networks to approximate the uncertain dynamics. Decentralized adaptive control protocols are then constructed to solve the cooperative tracker problem, the problem of synchronization of all follower agents to a leader agent. In particular, we show that, under the proposed decentralized control protocols, the synchronization errors are ultimately bounded, and their ultimate bounds can be reduced arbitrarily by choosing the control parameter appropriately. Simulation study verifies the effectiveness of our proposed protocols.

  15. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain.

  16. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  17. 68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Water Delivery Pipes for Menzie Cone, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs Mecia, Tombstone, Arizona. Date Unknown GENERAL VIEW MAIN CHURCH (SOUTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  19. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  10. Experiments with a fully instrumented split Stirling cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faure, A.; Reale, S.; Bernhein, P.

    1985-01-01

    A practical model that can be used to accurately size and optimally split stirling cryocoolers is discussed. A practical model that could be used to extrapolate existing designs to meet different specifications was developed. However, to do this detailed knowledge of the dynamic operating parameters of this type of cryocooler is required. The first stage is to fully instrument a refrigerator so that various dynamic parameters can be measured. The second stage involves the application of these measurements to the design and optimization of a range of coolers.

  11. Runaway electrons in a fully and partially ionized nonideal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Turekhanova, K.M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports on a study of electron runaway for a nonideal plasma in an external electric field. Based on pseudopotential models of nonideal fully and partially ionized plasmas, the friction force was derived as a function of electron velocities. Dependences of the electron free path on plasma density and nonideality parameters were obtained. The impact of the relative number of runaway electrons on their velocity and temperature was considered for classical and semiclassical models of a nonideal plasma. It has been shown that for the defined intervals of the coupled plasma parameter, the difference between the relative numbers of runaway electron values is essential for various plasma models.

  12. Global adaptive stabilisation for nonlinear systems with unknown control directions and input disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yongchao; Liu, Yungang

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the global adaptive stabilisation via switching and learning strategies for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the systems in question simultaneously have unknown control directions, unknown input disturbance and unknown growth rate, which makes the problem in question challenging to solve and essentially different from those in the existing literature. To solve the problem, an adaptive scheme via switching and learning is proposed by skilfully integrating the techniques of backstepping design, adaptive learning and adaptive switching. One key point in the design scheme is the introduction of the learning mechanism, in order to compensate the unknown input disturbance, and the other one is the design of the switching mechanism, through tuning the design parameters online to deal with the unknown control directions, unknown bound and period of input disturbance and unknown growth rate. The designed controller guarantees that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop systems are bounded, and furthermore, the closed-loop system states globally converge to zero.

  13. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department...

  14. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-05-15

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs thatbuild upon earlier research and development efforts directed towardstechnology development of silicon-strip detectors used inhigh-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same typeof high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for stripdetectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thickdepletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding highdetection efficiency for near-infrared andsoft x-ray photons. We comparethe fully depleted CCD to thep-i-n diode upon which it is based, anddescribe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imagingapplications.

  15. High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

    2006-05-15

    We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

  16. Automated fully-stressed design with NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Haggenmacher, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    An automated strength sizing capability is described. The technique determines the distribution of material among the elements of a structural model. The sizing is based on either a fully stressed design or a scaled feasible fully stressed design. Results obtained from the application of the strength sizing to the structural sizing of a composite material wing box using material strength allowables are presented. These results demonstrate the rapid convergence of the structural sizes to a usable design.

  17. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  18. Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W.; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-08-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/s2/√Hz )2 around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welch's periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  19. Data Series Subtraction with Unknown and Unmodeled Background Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W.; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/sq s/Hz)(sup 2) around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welchs periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  20. Adaptive robust synchronization of Rossler systems in the presence of unknown matched time-varying parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefi, M. M.; Jahed-Motlagh, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of adaptive robust synchronization of chaotic systems based on the Lyapunov theory. A controller is designed for a feedback linearizable error system with matched uncertainties. The proposed method shows that the drive and response systems are synchronized and states of the response system track the states of the drive system as time tends to infinity. Since this approach does not require any information about the bound of uncertainties, this information is not needed in advance. In order to prevent the frequent switching phenomenon in the control signal, the method is modified such that the norm of tracking error is bounded. Numerical simulations on two uncertain Rossler systems with matched uncertainties show fast responses of tracking error, while the errors are Uniformly Ultimately Bounded, and the control signal is reasonably smooth.

  1. 16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Photocopy of photograph (source and date unknown) FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (source and date unknown) FRONT ELEVATION - Merion Friends Meeting House, 615 Montgomery Avenue (changed from Montgomery Avenue & Meetinghouse Lane), Narberth, Montgomery County, PA

  3. 34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. 56. photographer unknown 14 October 1935 CONCRETE BLOCKS OF SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. photographer unknown 14 October 1935 CONCRETE BLOCKS OF SOUTH HALF OF SPILLWAY SHOWING STEEL REINFORCING OF BAFFLES. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. A priori fully populated covariance matrices in least-squares adjustment—case study: GPS relative positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermarrec, Gaël; Schön, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    In this contribution, using the example of the Mátern covariance matrices, we study systematically the effect of apriori fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM) in the Gauss-Markov model, by varying both the smoothness and the correlation length of the covariance function. Based on simulations where we consider a GPS relative positioning scenario with double differences, the true VCM is exactly known. Thus, an accurate study of parameters deviations with respect to the correlation structure is possible. By means of the mean-square error difference of the estimates obtained with the correct and the assumed VCM, the loss of efficiency when the correlation structure is missspecified is considered. The bias of the variance of unit weight is moreover analysed. By acting independently on the correlation length, the smoothness, the batch length, the noise level, or the design matrix, simulations allow to draw conclusions on the influence of these different factors on the least-squares results. Thanks to an adapted version of the Kermarrec-Schön model, fully populated VCM for GPS phase observations are computed where different correlation factors are resumed in a global covariance model with an elevation dependent weighting. Based on the data of the EPN network, two studies for different baseline lengths validate the conclusions of the simulations on the influence of the Mátern covariance parameters. A precise insight into the impact of apriori correlation structures when the VCM is entirely unknown highlights that both the correlation length and the smoothness defined in the Mátern model are important to get a lower loss of efficiency as well as a better estimation of the variance of unit weight. Consecutively, correlations, if present, should not be neglected for accurate test statistics. Therefore, a proposal is made to determine a mean value of the correlation structure based on a rough estimation of the Mátern parameters via maximum likelihood

  6. A study of parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herget, C. J.; Patterson, R. E., III

    1978-01-01

    A set of definitions for deterministic parameter identification ability were proposed. Deterministic parameter identificability properties are presented based on four system characteristics: direct parameter recoverability, properties of the system transfer function, properties of output distinguishability, and uniqueness properties of a quadratic cost functional. Stochastic parameter identifiability was defined in terms of the existence of an estimation sequence for the unknown parameters which is consistent in probability. Stochastic parameter identifiability properties are presented based on the following characteristics: convergence properties of the maximum likelihood estimate, properties of the joint probability density functions of the observations, and properties of the information matrix.

  7. On selecting a prior for the precision parameter of Dirichlet process mixture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In hierarchical mixture models the Dirichlet process is used to specify latent patterns of heterogeneity, particularly when the distribution of latent parameters is thought to be clustered (multimodal). The parameters of a Dirichlet process include a precision parameter ?? and a base probability measure G0. In problems where ?? is unknown and must be estimated, inferences about the level of clustering can be sensitive to the choice of prior assumed for ??. In this paper an approach is developed for computing a prior for the precision parameter ?? that can be used in the presence or absence of prior information about the level of clustering. This approach is illustrated in an analysis of counts of stream fishes. The results of this fully Bayesian analysis are compared with an empirical Bayes analysis of the same data and with a Bayesian analysis based on an alternative commonly used prior.

  8. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension,...

  9. Considering Unknown Unknowns: Reconstruction of Nonconfoundable Causal Relations in Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  10. Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice.

  11. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling by vector extrapolation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoubar, Daniel; Kuhn, Michael; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The optimization of multi-parameter resonators requires flexible simulation techniques beyond the scalar approximation. Therefore we generalize the scalar Fox and Li algorithm for the transversal eigenmode calculation to a fully vectorial model. This modified eigenvalue problem is solved by two polynomial-type vector extrapolation methods, namely the minimal polynomial extrapolation and the reduced rank extrapolation. Compared to other eigenvalue solvers these techniques can also be applied to resonators including nonlinear components. As an example we show the calculation of an azimuthally polarized eigenmode emitted by a resonator containing a discontinuous phase element and a nonlinear active medium. The simulation is verified by experiments.

  12. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications. PMID:23112644

  13. Conduction in fully ionized liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    Electron transport is considered in high density fully ionized liquid metals. Ionic structure is described in terms of hard-sphere correlation functions and the scattering is determined from self-consistently screened point ions. Applications to the physical properties of the deep interior of Jupiter are briefly considered.

  14. Conduction in fully ionized liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Electron transport is considered in high-density fully ionized liquid metals. Ionic structure is described in terms of hard-sphere-correlation functions and the scattering is determined from self-consistently screened point ions. Applications to the physical properties of the deep interior of Jupiter are briefly considered.

  15. 15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  16. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  17. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  18. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  19. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  20. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  1. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  2. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  3. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  4. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  5. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  6. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  7. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  8. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  9. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  10. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  11. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  12. 48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  13. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  14. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd...

  15. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products containing unknown fibers. 303.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.14 Products containing unknown fibers. (a) Where a textile fiber product is made from miscellaneous scraps, rags, odd...

  16. 15. Photocopy of photograph (Courtesy of Lawrence D. Thornton) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph (Courtesy of Lawrence D. Thornton) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERPSECTIVE VIEW (WEST) OF ENTRANCE HALL SHOWING FRONT DOOR WITH FANLIGHT AND ORIGINAL SIDELIGHTS - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  17. Land cover classification comparisons among dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric, and fully polarimetric SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bhogendra; Susaki, Junichi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, an approach is proposed that predicts fully polarimetric data from dual polarimetric data, and then applies selected supervised algorithm for dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric and fully polarimetric dataset for the land cover classification comparison. A regression model has been developed to predict the complex variables of VV polarimetric component and amplitude independently using corresponding complex variables and amplitude in HH and HV bands. Support vector machine (SVM)is implemented for the land cover classification. Coherency matrix and amplitude were used for all dataset for the land cover classification independently.They are used to compare the data from different perspective. Finally, a post processing technique is implemented to remove the isolated pixels appeared as a noise. AVNIR-2 optical data over the same area is used as ground truth data to access the classification accuracy.The result from SVM indicates that the fully polarimetric mode gives the maximum classification accuracy followed by pseudo-fully polarimetric and dual polarimetric datasets using coherency matrix input for fully polarimetric image and pseudo-fully polarimetric image and covariance matrix input for dual polarimetric image. Additionally, it is observed that pseudo-fully polarimetric image with amplitude input does not show the significant improvement over dual polarimetric image with same input.

  18. Adaptive output feedback stabilisation for planar nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Fang; Liu, Yungang

    2015-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the global adaptive stabilisation via output feedback for a class of uncertain planar nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the unknowns in the systems are rather serious: the control coefficients are unknown constants which do not belong to any known interval, and the growth of the systems heavily depends on the unmeasured states and has the rate of unknown polynomial of output. First, a delicate state transformation is introduced to collect the unknown control coefficients, and subsequently, a suitable state observer is successfully designed with two different dynamic gains. Then, an adaptive output feedback controller is proposed by flexibly combining the universal control idea and the backstepping technique. Meanwhile, an appropriate estimation law is constructed to overcome the negative effect caused by the unknown control coefficients. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the design parameters, all the states of the resulting closed-loop system are globally bounded, and furthermore, the states of the original system converge to zero.

  19. Age correlation of petroleum of unknown source using biological markers

    SciTech Connect

    Moldowan, J.M.; Jacobson, S.R.; Lee, C.Y. ); Huizinga, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Determination of age constraints on petroleums from unknown sources provides a means of choosing among possible source rock candidates, predicting migration scenarios for oil, and determining the timing of its emplacement in the reservoir. A number of parameters used to assign such age constraints to petroleum have been suggested by geochemists. However, any constraining marker, regardless of age, may not be found in a particular facies because the parent organisms are absent in those sediments. Thus, the presence of a specific age correlation marker may be significant whereas its absence may not. The authors have investigated two markers for their age-correlation significance. Oleanane, a marker related to pentacyclic triterpanes in flowering plants (angiosperms) occurs in many Late Cretaceous or younger rocks and oils, even though angiosperm fossils are known in older rocks. A survey of a sequence of middle to upper Cretaceous rocks from Wyoming provides an example of a Late Cretaceous age for the onset of oleanane. However, a level of uncertainty exists for older Cretaceous rocks where a trace component with many similarities to oleanane (which could in fact be oleanane) can occur. C{sub 30}-steranes (24-n-propylcholestanes) have been used as a widely occurring marker for marine organic input to petroleum. A recent report postulates the origin of C{sub 30}-steranes from marine Sarcinochrysidales order of Chrysophycase (golden brown algae). Although the fossil record of these algae has not been recorded, their sample base indicates that C{sub 30} steranes, and therefore their parent organisms, originate in the Middle Ordovician.

  20. Measurement of pixel response functions of a fully depleted CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Niwa, Yoshito; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Hara, Takuji; Yamada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-07-01

    We describe the measurement of detailed and precise Pixel Response Functions (PRFs) of a fully depleted CCD. Measurements were performed under different physical conditions, such as different wavelength light sources or CCD operating temperatures. We determined the relations between these physical conditions and the forms of the PRF. We employ two types of PRFs: one is the model PRF (mPRF) that can represent the shape of a PRF with one characteristic parameter and the other is the simulated PRF (sPRF) that is the resultant PRF from simulating physical phenomena. By using measured, model, and simulated PRFs, we determined the relations between operational parameters and the PRFs. Using the obtained relations, we can now estimate a PRF under conditions that will be encountered during the course of Nano-JASMINE observations. These estimated PRFs will be utilized in the analysis of the Nano-JASMINE data.

  1. Fully resolved simulations of particle sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Adam; Wang, Yayun; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Progress in computational capabilities - and specifically in the realm of massively parallel architectures - render possible the simulation of fully resolved fluid-particle systems. This development will drastically improve physical understanding and modelling of these systems when the particle size is not negligible and their concentration appreciable. Using a newly developed GPU-centric implementation of the Physalis method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of finite-sized spheres, we carry out fully resolved simulations of more than one thousand sedimenting spheres. We discuss the results of these simulations focusing on statistical aspects such as particle velocity fluctuations, particle pair distribution function, microstructure, and others. Supported by NSF Grant CBET 1335965.

  2. Adaptive interferometric null testing for unknown freeform optics metrology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Choi, Heejoo; Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan R; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-12-01

    We report an adaptive interferometric null testing method for overcoming the dynamic range limitations of conventional null testing approaches during unknown freeform optics metrology or optics manufacturing processes that require not-yet-completed surface measurements to guide the next fabrication process. In the presented adaptive method, a deformable mirror functions as an adaptable null component for an unknown optical surface. The optimal deformable mirror's shape is determined by the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and controlled by a deflectometry system. An adaptive interferometric null testing setup was constructed, and its metrology data successfully demonstrated superb adaptive capability in measuring an unknown surface.

  3. All optical measurement of an unknown wideband microwave frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Priye, V.; Raj Singh, R.

    2016-12-01

    A novel all optical measurement scheme is proposed to measure wideband microwave frequencies up to 30 GHz. The proposed method is based on a four-wave mixing (FWM) approach in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) of both even order side-bands generated by an unknown microwave frequency modulating an optical carrier. The optical power of a generated FWM signal depends on frequency spacing between extracted side-bands. A mathematical relation is established between FWM power and frequency of an unknown signal. A calibration curve is drawn based on the mathematical relation which predicts the unknown frequency from power withdrawn after FWM.

  4. Fully Grouted Rock Bolts: An Analytical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; An, X. M.; Zhao, Z. Y.

    2015-05-01

    This paper analytically investigates the performance of fully grouted rock bolts in typical scenarios, including pullout test, suspending loosened block, and increasing joint aperture, respectively. The interface shear stress distribution follows the model proposed by Li and Stillborg (Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 36:1013-1029, 1999), while the axial behavior of the bolt shank obeys the elasto-plastic (yielding-hardening) constitutive model of steel. Three different failure modes are taken into account: tensile failure of bolt shank, bolt shank being pulled out along the bolt/rock interface, and loss of face plate. The evolution of the interface shear stress and the axial tensile stress are examined for both long and short bolts under displacement and load boundary conditions. The derived charts are able to predict the load capacity of fully grouted bolts in pullout test, the minimum length requirement of the bolt to suspend a loosened block, and the maximum allowed opening displacement of a rock joint for a fully grouted bolt. In addition, different potential failure modes are specified. Full range load-displacement curves are produced and compared for various failure modes. The derived charts could be directly used in rock-bolting design.

  5. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  6. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  7. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING SHEEP IN SHED NEAR WEST END OF THE BRIDGE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. L. 'LES' SMITH, SON OF GEORGE W. SMITH, REPAIRING HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, SHOWING WALKWAY WITH CHARLES WILLIS (WITH HAT) AND FAMILY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WEST TOWER. SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE. NOTE SWAY CABLES. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING HORSESHOE DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. ONLY THE BRIDGE TOWERS REMAIN. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER BEFORE DAM WAS BUILT. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. EAST TOWER ON SKYLINE HAS NOT BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS (OR MULES) CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  19. 22. Photocopy of drawing Delineator unknown, ca. 1931 Wright Studio, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of drawing Delineator unknown, ca. 1931 Wright Studio, photographer View from Kellogg Blvd. - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  20. 356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 15. photographer unknown undated JACKHAMMERS DRILLING AT WEST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. photographer unknown undated JACKHAMMERS DRILLING AT WEST END OF BOAT ROCK, SITE LATER ABANDONED. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ca. 1937 NORTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF SACRISTY LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURRING AND METAL LATH PUT IN DURING 1974 RESTORATION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  4. 10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown May 1, 1894, revised to Mar. 27, 1918 'MAP OF BENICIA ARSENAL RESERVATION' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  6. 47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "HANDLING ROCK - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  8. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  9. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DAM" WITH FOOT BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  10. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "SWITCHBOARD IN POWER PLANT AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "POWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "ROLLING DAM AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  13. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1913 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "ROLLING DAM IN SPILLWAY AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "INTERIOR OF POWER HOUSE BEFORE COMPLETION" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "DIVERSION WORKS AND POWER HOUSE CONSTRUCTION" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 23 May 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "GENERATORS IN POWER PLANT; DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  17. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  18. Optimal programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown latitudinal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunian, XiaoBing; Li, YuWei; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Two unknown states can be unambiguously distinguished by a universal programmable discriminator, which has been widely discussed in previous works and the optimal solution has also been obtained. In this paper, we investigate the programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown "latitudinal" states, which lie in a subspace of the total state space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known average mixed states, the optimal solution for this problem is systematically derived, and the analytical success probabilities for the optimal unambiguous discrimination are obtained. It is beyond one's expectation that the optimal setting for the programmable unambiguous discrimination between two unknown "latitudinal" states is the same as that for the universal ones. The results in this work can be used for the realization of the programmable discriminator in laboratory.

  19. 39. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  20. 6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES, INCLUDING 'J.P. McPHERSON POST NO. 27 CAFE GENEVA'. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  1. 35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 NEWLY COMPLETED OFFICE, SUBSTATION, CAR BARN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

  2. 37. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND EAST SIDE OF NEWLY COMPLETED BUILDING. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

  3. 36. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, 1904 FRONT FACADE AND WEST SIDE OF NEWLY COMPLETED BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST-NORTHEAST. - Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, 8336 West Lapham Street, West Allis, Milwaukee County, WI

  4. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO DETERMINE RIVER-BOTTOM CONTOURS. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  7. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  8. A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

    2009-12-01

    This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it is not are all that is necessary for this method. The method is based on reinforcing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra when the signal of interest occurs and subtracting spectra when it does not. Several examples are presented. This method could be used to discover spectral components of unknown chemical species within spectral analysis instruments such as Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography. In addition, this method can be used to isolate device loading signatures on power transmission lines.

  9. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) Old Photo showing Kilns about 1900 (from original print found at site) - Charcoal Kilns, Valley Road, Pelham, Hampshire County, MA

  14. 53. photographer unknown October 1935 WORK ON SOUTH HALF SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. photographer unknown October 1935 WORK ON SOUTH HALF SPILLWAY SHOWING REINFORCING STEEL AND PLACING CONCRETE. COFFERDAM IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 62. photographer unknown undated ERECTING FORMS, PLACING REINFORCING STEEL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. photographer unknown undated ERECTING FORMS, PLACING REINFORCING STEEL, AND CONCRETING DRAFT PIER OF POWERHOUSE. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  17. 1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. 29. photographer unknown 27 August 1935 GRAVEL AND SAND HOPPERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. photographer unknown 27 August 1935 GRAVEL AND SAND HOPPERS IN CONCRETE PLANT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

  1. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  2. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult.

  3. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  4. 15. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 194041 SOUTH ELEVATION WITH ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1940-41 SOUTH ELEVATION WITH ORIGINAL PORCH REMOVED - White Deer Lake Camp, Chimney Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  5. 15. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1933 INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1933 INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - White Deer Lake Camp, Living Room Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  6. Half-blind remote sensing image restoration with partly unknown degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Meihua; Yan, Fengxia

    2017-01-01

    The problem of image restoration has been extensively studied for its practical importance and theoretical interest. This paper mainly discusses the problem of image restoration with partly unknown kernel. In this model, the degraded kernel function is known but its parameters are unknown. With this model, we should estimate the parameters in Gaussian kernel and the real image simultaneity. For this new problem, a total variation restoration model is put out and an intersect direction iteration algorithm is designed. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index Measurement (SSIM) are used to measure the performance of the method. Numerical results show that we can estimate the parameters in kernel accurately, and the new method has both much higher PSNR and much higher SSIM than the expectation maximization (EM) method in many cases. In addition, the accuracy of estimation is not sensitive to noise. Furthermore, even though the support of the kernel is unknown, we can also use this method to get accurate estimation.

  7. Characterisation and Next-generation Sequencing Analysis of Unknown Arboviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    using techniques such as PCR-select subtraction and next-generation sequencing. Preliminary analysis of the four sequenced viruses has shown that they...HOJV) and Harrison Dam virus (HARDV), and two unknown bunyaviruses, Buffalo Creek Virus (BCV) and Maprik virus (MPKV). It describes the techniques such...unknown viruses with greater speed and at lower cost. The rapid advancement of new generation sequencing techniques allows for highly specific acquisition

  8. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Chinese unknown word recognition for PCFG-LA parsing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  10. Complex Generalized Synchronization and Parameter Identification of Nonidentical Nonlinear Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibing; Wang, Xingyuan; Han, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, generalized synchronization (GS) is extended from real space to complex space, resulting in a new synchronization scheme, complex generalized synchronization (CGS). Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive controller and parameter update laws are designed to realize CGS and parameter identification of two nonidentical chaotic (hyperchaotic) complex systems with respect to a given complex map vector. This scheme is applied to synchronize a memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, a chaotic complex Chen system and a memristor-based chaotic complex Lorenz system, as well as a memristor-based hyperchaotic complex Lü system and a chaotic complex Lü system with fully unknown parameters. The corresponding numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:27014879

  11. Fully scalable video coding with packed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Manuel F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian G.; Ortiz, Juan Pablo; Dana, Jose Miguel; Ruiz, Vicente G.; Garcia, Inmaculada

    2005-03-01

    Scalable video coding is a technique which allows a compressed video stream to be decoded in several different ways. This ability allows a user to adaptively recover a specific version of a video depending on its own requirements. Video sequences have temporal, spatial and quality scalabilities. In this work we introduce a novel fully scalable video codec. It is based on a motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF) of the video sequences and it uses some of the basic elements of JPEG 2000. This paper describes several specific proposals for video on demand and video-conferencing applications over non-reliable packet-switching data networks.

  12. Finite solutions of fully fuzzy linear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghassan; Ahmad, Nazihah; Ibrahim, Haslinda

    2014-12-01

    The solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS) is normally categorized as unique, finite and infinitely many solutions. However, in the case of more than one solution, the finite or alternative solution is not detected when linear programming is considered. Therefore this paper aims to provide a method of using min-max system and absolute system to append new concept for the consistency of FFLS, which is called finite solution of FFLS, where the FFLS have more than two solutions, and not only an infinite solution.

  13. Stereoselective Formation of Fully Substituted Ketone Enolates.

    PubMed

    Haimov, Elvira; Nairoukh, Zackaria; Shterenberg, Alexander; Berkovitz, Tiran; Jamison, Timothy F; Marek, Ilan

    2016-04-25

    The application of stereochemically defined acyclic fully substituted enolates of ketones to the enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocenters would be highly valuable. Herein, we describe an approach leading to the formation of several new stereogenic centers through a combined metalation-addition of a carbonyl-carbamoyl transfer to reveal in situ stereodefined α,α-disubstituted enolates of ketone as a single stereoisomer. This approach could produce a series of aldol and Mannich products from enol carbamate with excellent diastereomeric ratios.

  14. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A.; Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  15. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Craig C.

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  16. Laissez-Faire : Fully Asymmetric Backscatter Communication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pan; Zhang, Pengyu; Ganesan, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Backscatter provides dual-benefits of energy harvesting and low-power communication, making it attractive to a broad class of wireless sensors. But the design of a protocol that enables extremely power-efficient radios for harvesting-based sensors as well as high-rate data transfer for data-rich sensors presents a conundrum. In this paper, we present a new fully asymmetric backscatter communication protocol where nodes blindly transmit data as and when they sense. This model enables fully flexible node designs, from extraordinarily power-efficient backscatter radios that consume barely a few micro-watts to high-throughput radios that can stream at hundreds of Kbps while consuming a paltry tens of micro-watts. The challenge, however, lies in decoding concurrent streams at the reader, which we achieve using a novel combination of time-domain separation of interleaved signal edges, and phase-domain separation of colliding transmissions. We provide an implementation of our protocol, LF-Backscatter, and show that it can achieve an order of magnitude or more improvement in throughput, latency and power over state-of-art alternatives. PMID:28286885

  17. Comment on “Anti-synchronization in two non-identical hyperchaotic systems with known or unknown parameters”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianping

    2010-02-01

    The article "Anti-synchronization in two non-identical hyperchaotic systems with known or unknown parameters" was published in Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation [1]. In the article, active control and adaptive control were used to study anti-synchronization problem between hyperchaotic Rossler system and hyperchaotic Lorenz system with known or unknown parameters. Controllers and update laws of parameters were designed and Lyapunov stability theory was applied to prove the stability of the error dynamical system. Numerical simulations were performed to support the theoretical results. But a defect occurred in the design of update laws of parameters in Eq. (18) in [1]. Observe the update law of the first parameter

  18. Development of fully Bayesian multiple-time-window source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Aoi, Shin

    2016-03-01

    In the estimation of spatiotemporal slip models, kinematic source inversions using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) and the multiple-time-window method have often been used. However, there are cases in which conventional ABIC-based source inversions do not work well in the determination of hyperparameters when a non-negative slip constraint is used. In order to overcome this problem, a new source inversion method was developed in this study. The new method introduces a fully Bayesian method into the kinematic multiple-time-window source inversion. The multiple-time-window method is one common way of parametrizing a source time function and is highly flexible in terms of the shape of the source time function. The probability distributions of model parameters and hyperparameters can be directly obtained by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. These probability distributions are useful for simply evaluating the uniqueness and reliability of the derived model, which is another advantage of a fully Bayesian method. This newly developed source inversion method was applied to the 2011 Ibaraki-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 7.9) to demonstrate its usefulness. It was demonstrated that the problem with using the conventional ABIC-based source inversion method for hyperparameter determination appeared in the spatiotemporal source inversion of this event and that the newly developed source inversion could overcome this problem.

  19. Shock wave structure for a fully ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Masser, Thomas O; Wohibier, John G; Lowrie, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of planar shock waves in a two-temperature model of a fully ionized plasma that includes electron heat conduction and energy exchange between electrons and ions. For steady flow in a reference frame moving with the shock, the model reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations which can be numerically integrated. A phase space analysis of the ODEs provides additional insight into the structure of the solutions. For example, below a threshold mach number the model produces fully dispersed shocks; while above another threshold mach number, the solutions contain embedded hydrodynamic shocks. Between these two threshold values, the appearance of embedded shocks depends on the electron diffusivity and the electron-ion coupling term. We also find that the ion temperature may continue to increase after the shock and reaches a maximum near the isothermal sonic point. We summarize the methodology for solving for two-temperature shocks, and show results for several values of shock strength and material parameters to quantify the shock structure and explore the range of possible solutions. Such solutions may be used to verify hydrodynamic codes that use similar plasma physics models.

  20. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  1. A model for fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Chasnov, J.

    1987-11-01

    A model for stationary, fully developed turbulence is presented in which the turbulent spectral energy function is completely determined once the time scale for the energy fed into the eddy interaction is known. The form of the eddy correlation time scale determining the turbulent viscosity is suggested by the basic equation of the model itself, up to a dimensionless constant that is fixed by demanding that the coefficient of the spectrum in the Heisenberg-Kolmogoroff inertial range of wavenunmbers be the experimental value. The model makes quantitative predictions that are compared with data on turbulent convection; the k-epsilon and Smagorinsky relations; the spectral function, transfer term, and dissipation term; the skewness factor; the Kolmogoroff and Batchelor constants; and the inertial-conductive and inertial-convective ranges.

  2. A fully automated remote refraction system.

    PubMed

    Dyer, A M; Kirk, A H

    2000-01-01

    Traditional methods of performing refractions depend on a trained refractionist being present with the subject and conducting an interactive form of subjective testing. A fully automated refraction system was installed in 13 optical dispensaries and after 15 months the patient and statistical information was gathered. The data from all operators were consistent and suggested a lack of operator effect on the refraction results. The mean of the SD of subjective sphere measurements was 0.2, or slightly less than a quarter dioptre, which would be an acceptable level of accuracy for ordering corrective lenses. The present study suggests an absence of operator influence on the results of the refractions and a degree of consistency and accuracy compatible with the prescription of lenses.

  3. Osmotic flow through fully permeable nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Cottin-Bizonne, C; Biance, A-L; Joseph, P; Bocquet, L; Ybert, C

    2014-06-20

    Osmosis across membranes is intrinsically associated with the concept of semipermeability. Here, however, we demonstrate that osmotic flow can be generated by solute gradients across nonselective, fully permeable nanochannels. Using a fluorescence imaging technique, we are able to measure the water flow rate inside single nanochannels to an unprecedented sensitivity of femtoliters per minute flow rates. Our results indicate the onset of a convective liquid motion under salinity gradients, from the higher to lower electrolyte concentration, which is attributed to diffusio-osmotic transport. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence and quantitative investigation of this subtle interfacially driven transport, which need to be accounted for in nanoscale dynamics. Finally, diffusio-osmotic transport under a neutral polymer gradient is also demonstrated. The experiments highlight the entropic depletion of polymers that occurs at the nanochannel surface, resulting in convective flow in the opposite direction to that seen for electrolytes.

  4. Osmotic Flow through Fully Permeable Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Cottin-Bizonne, C.; Biance, A.-L.; Joseph, P.; Bocquet, L.; Ybert, C.

    2014-06-01

    Osmosis across membranes is intrinsically associated with the concept of semipermeability. Here, however, we demonstrate that osmotic flow can be generated by solute gradients across nonselective, fully permeable nanochannels. Using a fluorescence imaging technique, we are able to measure the water flow rate inside single nanochannels to an unprecedented sensitivity of femtoliters per minute flow rates. Our results indicate the onset of a convective liquid motion under salinity gradients, from the higher to lower electrolyte concentration, which is attributed to diffusio-osmotic transport. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence and quantitative investigation of this subtle interfacially driven transport, which need to be accounted for in nanoscale dynamics. Finally, diffusio-osmotic transport under a neutral polymer gradient is also demonstrated. The experiments highlight the entropic depletion of polymers that occurs at the nanochannel surface, resulting in convective flow in the opposite direction to that seen for electrolytes.

  5. Gaia14aae: the First Fully-Eclipsing AM CVn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Breedt, E.; Campbell, H. C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Littlefair, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    AM CVns are a class of cataclysmic variables consisting of a white dwarf accreting H-deficient matter from a donor star. With periods of 5 to 65 minutes, AM CVns include the shortest period binaries containing white dwarfs. AM CVns are believed to form by one of three formation channels which can in principle be distinguished by the nature of the donor star, but are difficult to constrain observationally. Gaia14aae was one of the first transients discovered by the Gaia Science Alerts project. It eclipses on a period of 50 minutes, and is the only known AM CVn in which the white dwarf is fully eclipsed. This makes it an attractive system for parameter studies. We present an update on our attempts to measure these properties, using high-speed multi-colour photometry. Preliminary results suggest that the donor star is not as degenerate as predicted by models of white dwarf donors.

  6. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  7. Testicular tumor with clinical picture of febricity of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Sladjana

    2010-01-01

    We present a typical example of a previously healthy boy, whose febricity of unknown etiology lasting for several months was not taken seriously, regardless of the presence of general symptoms of the disease. He was treated as an outpatient with antibiotics and antipyretics under different diagnoses until he was admitted to the Department for Febrile Conditions of Unknown Etiology of the Institute for Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center of Serbia. At that point, a diagnosis of testicular tumor of extragonadal origin with bilateral metastatic changes of lung parenchyma and retroperitoneal lymph nodes was made, after which the appropriate treatment was administered.

  8. Sectioning and super-resolution using unknown random patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Zachary R.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2016-03-01

    Random structured illumination patterns are used to demonstrate effective sectioning as well as super-resolution images in conjunction with an incoherent light source. By projecting patterns of varied spatial frequencies and using blind deconvolution of an unknown point spread function, super-resolution is achieved. Random patterns produce more consistent sectioning and super-resolution given an unknown optical transfer function. Further, using a randomly distributed pattern provides a low cost solution to obtaining information similar to that produced in confocal microscopy and other methods of structured illumination, without the requirement of precise projection patterns, coherent light sources, or fluorescence.

  9. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. On the Nonlinear Evolution of a Stationary Cross-Flow Vortex in a Fully Three-Dimensional Boundary Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear stability of a fully three-dimensional boundary layer flow in an incompressible fluid and derive an equation governing the nonlinear development of a stationary cross-flow vortex. The amplitude equation is a novel integro-differential equation which has spatial derivatives of the amplitude occurring in the kernal function. It is shown that the evolution of the cross-flow vortex is strongly coupled to the properties of an unsteady wall layer which is in fact driven by an unknown slip velocity, proportional to the amplitude of the cross-flow vortex. The work is extended to obtain the corresponding equation for rotating disk flow. A number of special cases are examined and the numerical solution for one of cases, and further analysis, demonstrates the existence of finite-distance as well as focussing type singularities. The numerical solutions also indicate the presence of a new type of nonlinear wave solution for a certain set of parameter values.

  11. 36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE E. SMITH (RIGHT), ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDERS OF THE VERDE RIVER SHEEP BRIDGE AND HIS SON, B. L. 'LES' SMITH. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER JUST AS WORK ON THE DAM IS BEGINNING. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE RAMMED EARTH WALL (NORTH WALL OF CHANCEL) AT LEFT; HOLES WERE LEFT BY WOODEN BRACES USED TO HOLD WALL FORMS DURING CONSTRUCTION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  14. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 August 1907 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Keechelus Crib Dam. View dam from right bank of river, showing downstream face and apron of dam". - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  15. 10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. Unknown input observer design and analysis for networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad F.; Elmahdi, Ahmed; Panchal, Jitesh H.; Sun, Dengfeng

    2015-05-01

    The insertion of communication networks in the feedback loops of control systems is a defining feature of modern control systems. These systems are often subject to unknown inputs in a form of disturbances, perturbations, or attacks. The objective of this paper is to design and analyse an observer for networked dynamical systems with unknown inputs. The network effect can be viewed as either a perturbation or time-delay to the exchanged signals. In this paper, we (1) review an unknown input observer (UIO) design for a non-networked system, (2) derive the networked unknown input observer (NetUIO) dynamics, (3) design a NetUIO such that the effect of higher delay order terms are nullified and (4) establish stability-guaranteeing bounds on the networked-induced time-delay and perturbation. The formulation and results derived in this paper can be generalised to scenarios and applications where the signals are perturbed due to a different source of perturbation or delay.

  1. 390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - EAST BAY CROSSING; SPANS YBI TO El - E9 TO El ; TYPICAL CROSSSECTION; CONTRACT NO. 7; SUP. DRAWING NO. 82 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; ANCHORAGE TUNNELS; CONTRACT NO. 5; DRAWING NO. 10A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES AND ATTACHMENTS - WEST BAY CROSSING; SPLAY CASTINGS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES & ATTACHMENTS WEST BAY CROSSING; CABLE BANDS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES USE OF CERTAIN COPYRIGHTED WORKS IN CONNECTION...

  7. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING...

  8. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  9. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  10. Oral cancer, fever of unknown origin, and listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Morritt, A N; Mclean, N R; Snow, M H

    2002-10-01

    Listeriosis is a rare cause of fever of unknown origin in patients with oral cancer. We report two patients who, because of pain and discomfort, ate large quantities of soft cheeses; this caused listeriosis and fever. Both cases responded to high doses of amoxycillin.

  11. 17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH AZ-10-16, SHOWING WOOD TOWER BEFORE CONCRETE WAS ADDED. NOTE GUY CABLE CONNECTED TO TOP RIGHT OF TOWER. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 1A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 7-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET 12 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 2 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. 26 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, July 1911 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "ORANGE-PEEL EXCAVATOR DREDGING OUTLET CHANNEL" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 4 April 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 4 April 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LOOKING SOUTH FROM INTAKE OF CONDUIT. LIDGERWOOD EXCAVATOR WORKING ON TRENCH EXCAVATION. TEMPORARY TOWER ON RIGHT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Pile driver driving piling for core-wall. Moving for the next pile." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  1. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. 45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, September 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, September 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "BLASTING IN LAKE (DREDGE) HT. 500'." - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  4. 18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown. Original negative can be found in D & H collection of the Anthracite Heritage Museum, Scranton, Pennsylvania. DETAIL VIEW OF SLUSH TROUGH FROM BREAKER NO. 2 TO BOREHOLE UNDER NORTH END OF BOILER HOUSE NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTH - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. PHOTOGRAPH OF AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. PHOTOGRAPH OF AN AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH BOUGHT AT THE KIMO CURIO SHOP IN ALBUQUERQUE N.M. IN 1928. SHOWS ENTIRE VILLAGE AND THE CHURCH. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  8. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM" WITH OVERFLOW SECTION IN FOREGROUND - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  9. Concentration for unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Zhuoliang; Yang Ming; Zhang Lihua

    2006-01-15

    We present a physical scheme for entanglement concentration of unknown atomic entangled states via cavity decay. In the scheme, the atomic state is used as a stationary qubit and the photonic state as a flying qubit, and a close maximally entangled state can be obtained from pairs of partially entangled states probabilistically.

  10. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east of marine railway (Haer no. Pa-387-W). The railway was being dismantled at the time this photograph was taken. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. 17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, April 13, 1964. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, April 13, 1964. View south of drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) with the destroyer U.S.S Vesole (DD-878) undergoing a fleet moderinzation and repair modernization (frame). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  15. Deriving Unknown Word Meaning from Context: Is It Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers often encourage L2 readers to guess the meaning of unknown words in texts. This paper argues that before any statements about the value of guessing can be made, it is necessary to show how reliable learners' guesses are. To this end, the present study investigates how accurately EFL learners assess their understanding of unknown…

  16. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 view northwest of caisson for drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) in drydock no. 1 (Haer no. PA-387-A) for overhaul and repair of rubber gasket. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL... fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if...

  20. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. The Unknowns and Possible Implications of Mandatory Labeling.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2017-01-01

    The National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard requires a mandatory label for genetically modified (GM) food. Currently, some aspects of the bill are unknown, including what constitutes a food to be considered GM. The costs associated with this legislation will depend on how actors in the food value chain respond.

  2. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LINING OF OUTLET TUNNEL BELOW THE DAM" - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  4. 9. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Thomas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Thomas G. Pratt, Photographer, c. 1890 PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND SOUTH SIDE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  5. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  8. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  9. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  10. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  11. 178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Utah State Historical Society Photograph Collection, Salt Lake City UT). DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  15. 48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Piling logs with Washington donkey." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  16. 8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  17. 25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. 24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. 26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. 28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. 19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  6. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  7. 42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  8. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  9. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  10. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE VIEW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. VIEW FROM BOW SHOWING MAIN DECK AND PILOTHOUSE. NOTE BUOYS STORED ON PIER AT RIGHT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. 28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original print in possession of St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) sectional elevation thru typical bay, view east - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. 359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BRIDGE RAILWAY SAN FRANCISCO LOOP; DETAILS OF VIADUCT; FINAL REPORT; DRG. NO. 92 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "CATERPILLAR TRACTOR USED TO HAUL LOGS TO THE LAKE AND WOOD AND TIE TIMBER TO THE MILL AT EASTON" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). AIRPLANE STUNT DURING DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. 54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  4. Target Capturing Control for Space Robots with Unknown Mass Properties: A Self-Tuning Method Based on Gyros and Cameras.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-30

    Satellite capturing with free-floating space robots is still a challenging task due to the non-fixed base and unknown mass property issues. In this paper gyro and eye-in-hand camera data are adopted as an alternative choice for solving this problem. For this improved system, a new modeling approach that reduces the complexity of system control and identification is proposed. With the newly developed model, the space robot is equivalent to a ground-fixed manipulator system. Accordingly, a self-tuning control scheme is applied to handle such a control problem including unknown parameters. To determine the controller parameters, an estimator is designed based on the least-squares technique for identifying the unknown mass properties in real time. The proposed method is tested with a credible 3-dimensional ground verification experimental system, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  5. Target Capturing Control for Space Robots with Unknown Mass Properties: A Self-Tuning Method Based on Gyros and Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Satellite capturing with free-floating space robots is still a challenging task due to the non-fixed base and unknown mass property issues. In this paper gyro and eye-in-hand camera data are adopted as an alternative choice for solving this problem. For this improved system, a new modeling approach that reduces the complexity of system control and identification is proposed. With the newly developed model, the space robot is equivalent to a ground-fixed manipulator system. Accordingly, a self-tuning control scheme is applied to handle such a control problem including unknown parameters. To determine the controller parameters, an estimator is designed based on the least-squares technique for identifying the unknown mass properties in real time. The proposed method is tested with a credible 3-dimensional ground verification experimental system, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27589748

  6. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  7. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  8. Near-Optimal Controller for Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems With Unknown Dynamics Using Policy Iteration.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Samrat; Patchaikani, Prem Kumar; Behera, Laxmidhar

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a single-network adaptive critic-based controller for continuous-time systems with unknown dynamics in a policy iteration (PI) framework. It is assumed that the unknown dynamics can be estimated using the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model with arbitrary precision. The successful implementation of a PI scheme depends on the effective learning of critic network parameters. Network parameters must stabilize the system in each iteration in addition to approximating the critic and the cost. It is found that the critic updates according to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation sometimes lead to the instability of the closed-loop systems. In the proposed work, a novel critic network parameter update scheme is adopted, which not only approximates the critic at current iteration but also provides feasible solutions that keep the policy stable in the next step of training by combining a Lyapunov-based linear matrix inequalities approach with PI. The critic modeling technique presented here is the first of its kind to address this issue. Though multiple literature exists discussing the convergence of PI, however, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no literature, which focuses on the effect of critic network parameters on the convergence. Computational complexity in the proposed algorithm is reduced to the order of (Fz)(n-1) , where n is the fuzzy state dimensionality and Fz is the number of fuzzy zones in the states space. A genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB is used for searching stable parameters while minimizing the training error. The proposed algorithm also provides a way to solve for the initial stable control policy in the PI scheme. The algorithm is validated through real-time experiment on a commercial robotic manipulator. Results show that the algorithm successfully finds stable critic network parameters in real time for a highly nonlinear system.

  9. Articulatory Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladefoged, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 16 parameters hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for linguistic phonetic specifications. Suggests seven parameters affecting tongue shapes, three determining the positions of the lips, one controlling the position of the velum, four varying laryngeal actions, and one controlling respiratory activity. (RL)

  10. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  11. Fully reusable launch vehicle with airbreathing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The performance of a two-stage, fully reusable scramjet-Shuttle launch vehicle is examined analytically. The first stage of the hybrid vehicle would be a hydrocarbon/hydrogen fueled air breathing hypersonic aircraft. The winged booster, in one configuration, would be equipped with both turbojets and scramjets, and the Orbiter would be a scaled-up version of the present STS Orbiter. The nominal mission would involve placing a 65,000 lb payload into a 92.5 x 185 km orbit. The size of the manned first stage is dictated by the ventricle gross weight, density, and contents, with the fuel carried in integrated tanks. A delta planform is presented, with an elliptical cone forebody, an elliptical cross-section afterbody, and a smooth transition surface from the end of the forebody to the straightline leading edge. Formulations are defined for the wing loading, gross density, fatness ratio, and breadpoint ratio, as well as for the propulsion, aerodynamics, and trajectories.

  12. Fully printed flexible carbon nanotube photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Wang, Tongyu; Miao, Jinshui; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Wang, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report fully printed flexible photodetectors based on single-wall carbon nanotubes and the study of their electrical characteristics under laser illumination. Due to the photothermal effect and the use of high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes, the devices exhibit gate-voltage-dependent photoresponse with the positive photocurrent or semiconductor-like behavior (conductivity increases at elevated temperatures) under positive gate biases and the negative photocurrent or metal-like behavior (conductivity decreases at elevated temperatures) under negative gate biases. Mechanism for such photoresponse is attributed to the different temperature dependencies of carrier concentration and carrier mobility, which are two competing factors that ultimately determine the photothermal effect-based photoresponse. The photodetectors built on the polyimide substrate also exhibit superior mechanical compliance and stable photoresponse after thousands of bending cycles down to a curvature radius as small as 3 mm. Furthermore, due to the low thermal conductivity of the plastic substrate, the devices show up to 6.5 fold improvement in responsivity compared to the devices built on the silicon substrate. The results presented here provide a viable path to low cost and high performance flexible photodetectors fabricated entirely by the printing process.

  13. Axisymmetric fully spectral code for hyperbolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panosso Macedo, Rodrigo; Ansorg, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    We present a fully pseudo-spectral scheme to solve axisymmetric hyperbolic equations of second order. With the Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions, the numerical grid is based on the Lobbato (for two spatial directions) and Radau (for the time direction) collocation points. The method solves two issues of previous algorithms which were restricted to one spatial dimension, namely, (i) the inversion of a dense matrix and (ii) the acquisition of a sufficiently good initial-guess for non-linear systems of equations. For the first issue, we use the iterative bi-conjugate gradient stabilized method, which we equip with a pre-conditioner based on a singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (“SDIRK”-) method. In this paper, the SDIRK-method is also used to solve issue (ii). The numerical solutions are correct up to machine precision and we do not observe any restriction concerning the time step in comparison with the spatial resolution. As an application, we solve general-relativistic wave equations on a black-hole space-time in so-called hyperboloidal slices and reproduce some recent results available in the literature.

  14. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging. PMID:27403922

  15. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  16. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  17. Face relighting from a single image under arbitrary unknown lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zicheng; Hua, Gang; Wen, Zhen; Zhang, Zhengyou; Samaras, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to modify the appearance of a face image by manipulating the illumination condition, when the face geometry and albedo information is unknown. This problem is particularly difficult when there is only a single image of the subject available. Recent research demonstrates that the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a low-dimensional linear subspace using a spherical harmonic representation. Moreover, morphable models are statistical ensembles of facial properties such as shape and texture. In this paper, we integrate spherical harmonics into the morphable model framework by proposing a 3D spherical harmonic basis morphable model (SHBMM). The proposed method can represent a face under arbitrary unknown lighting and pose simply by three low-dimensional vectors, i.e., shape parameters, spherical harmonic basis parameters, and illumination coefficients, which are called the SHBMM parameters. However, when the image was taken under an extreme lighting condition, the approximation error can be large, thus making it difficult to recover albedo information. In order to address this problem, we propose a subregion-based framework that uses a Markov random field to model the statistical distribution and spatial coherence of face texture, which makes our approach not only robust to extreme lighting conditions, but also insensitive to partial occlusions. The performance of our framework is demonstrated through various experimental results, including the improved rates for face recognition under extreme lighting conditions.

  18. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.

  19. Flow reversal of fully developed double diffusive mixed convection in a vertical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhatar, Nur Asiah Mohd; Saleh, Habibis; Hashim, Ishak

    2015-10-01

    The mixed convection flow within a vertical channel having internal heat generation at a rate proportional to a power of the temperature difference is considered. The analysis is concerning the studies of occurrence of flow reversal and the effects of three dimensionless parameters, identified as the internal heat parameter (G), a mixed convection parameter (λ) and the exponent (p) in the local heating term on the fully developed double diffusive mixed convection flow in a vertical channel. The governing equations are solved numerically via MAPLE. It was found that flow reversal occurs with larger values of internal heat parameter and mixed convection parameter, but smaller values of local-heating exponent. They also show that, unlike the internal heat parameter and the local-heating exponent, the mixed convection parameter do not give any significant effect on the temperature.

  20. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  1. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  2. The fully nonlinear stratified geostrophic adjustment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutino, Aaron; Stastna, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The study of the adjustment to equilibrium by a stratified fluid in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. We consider the fully nonlinear, stratified adjustment problem from a numerical point of view. We present results of smoothed dam break simulations based on experiments in the published literature, with a focus on both the wave trains that propagate away from the nascent geostrophic state and the geostrophic state itself. We demonstrate that for Rossby numbers in excess of roughly 2 the wave train cannot be interpreted in terms of linear theory. This wave train consists of a leading solitary-like packet and a trailing tail of dispersive waves. However, it is found that the leading wave packet never completely separates from the trailing tail. Somewhat surprisingly, the inertial oscillations associated with the geostrophic state exhibit evidence of nonlinearity even when the Rossby number falls below 1. We vary the width of the initial disturbance and the rotation rate so as to keep the Rossby number fixed, and find that while the qualitative response remains consistent, the Froude number varies, and these variations are manifested in the form of the emanating wave train. For wider initial disturbances we find clear evidence of a wave train that initially propagates toward the near wall, reflects, and propagates away from the geostrophic state behind the leading wave train. We compare kinetic energy inside and outside of the geostrophic state, finding that for long times a Rossby number of around one-quarter yields an equal split between the two, with lower (higher) Rossby numbers yielding more energy in the geostrophic state (wave train). Finally we compare the energetics of the geostrophic state as the Rossby number varies, finding long-lived inertial oscillations in the majority of the cases and a general agreement with the past literature that employed either hydrostatic, shallow-water equation-based theory or

  3. NASA WHY FILES: The Case of the Unknown Stink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Unknown Stink.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of trying to find the source of an unpleasant odor that is invading the surrounding neighborhoods. To determine the source of the stink, our detectives learn about the sense of smell: what it is, how people and animals smell, and how wind speed and direction influence the movement of odor. They also learn about how NASA's Atmospheric Science research can help solve the case. While investigating the case, the tree house detectives learn that the source of the 'unknown stink' is 'right under their very noses.'

  4. Quadrotor Control in the Presence of Unknown Mass Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorden, Rikky Ricardo Petrus Rufino

    Quadrotor UAVs are popular due to their mechanical simplicity, as well as their capability to hover and vertically take-off and land. As applications diversify, quadrotors are increasingly required to operate under unknown mass properties, for example as a multirole sensor platform or for package delivery operations. The work presented here consists of the derivation of a generalized quadrotor dynamic model without the typical simplifying assumptions on the first and second moments of mass. The maximum payload capacity of a quadrotor in hover, and the observability of the unknown mass properties are discussed. A brief introduction of L1 adaptive control is provided, and three different L 1 adaptive controllers were designed for the Parrot AR.Drone quadrotor. Their tracking and disturbance rejection performance was compared to the baseline nonlinear controller in experiments. Finally, the results of the combination of L1 adaptive control with iterative learning control are presented, showing high performance trajectory tracking under uncertainty.

  5. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  6. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  7. Nonlinear robust controller design for multi-robot systems with unknown payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. D.; Anderson, J. N.; Homaifar, A.; Lai, H. Y.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the control problem of a multi-robot system handling a payload with unknown mass properties. Force constraints at the grasp points are considered. Robust control schemes are proposed that cope with the model uncertainty and achieve asymptotic path tracking. To deal with the force constraints, a strategy for optimally sharing the task is suggested. This strategy basically consists of two steps. The first detects the robots that need help and the second arranges that help. It is shown that the overall system is not only robust to uncertain payload parameters, but also satisfies the force constraints.

  8. Spread-Spectrum Carrier Estimation With Unknown Doppler Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLeon, Phillip L.; Scaife, Bradley J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a method for the frequency estimation of a BPSK modulated, spread-spectrum carrier with unknown Doppler shift. The approach relies on a classic periodogram in conjunction with a spectral matched filter. Simulation results indicate accurate carrier estimation with processing gains near 40. A DSP-based prototype has been implemented for real-time carrier estimation for use in New Mexico State University's proposal for NASA's Demand Assignment Multiple Access service.

  9. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 November 1905 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW SHOWING LOCATION OF PROPOSED DAM SITE AT OUTLET OF LAKE KACHESS, WN., JUST BELOW PRESENT OLD DAM" - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  10. Optimal and Efficient Path Planning for Unknown and Dynamic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Figure 1 : Backpointers Based on Initial Propagation from Goal State 10 Figure 2 : Robot Discovers First Unknown Obstacle Cell I 1 Figure 3 : Robot...Moves Up in Search of Path around Obstacle 11 Figure 4 : Robot Moves Down in Search of Path around Obstacle 12 Figure 5 : RAISE States Propagate out of...Dynamic Obstacle 25 Figure 14 : Discovering that the Obstacle has Moved 25 Figure 15 : Path Planning with Potential Fields 26 Figure 16 : Path Planning

  11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 May 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 May 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). TEAM WORK ON OUTLET TRENCH NEAR STA. 24 AND LIDGERWOOD EXCAVATOR ON TRENCH NEAR STA. 17. SLUICING WASTE BANK RIGHT OF MACHINE AND GRAVEL PLANT SHOWS ON LEFT. TAKEN FROM DAM SITE NEAR STA. 7, LOOKING NORTH" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 April 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 April 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "TRESTLE TO BE USED IN HANDLING EMBANKMENT MATERIAL, ALSO SHOWS THE HEIGHT OF FILL IN CUT-OFF TRENCH, THE CUT-OFF TRENCH AND CORE-WALL TRENCH IN HILL AT EAST END OF DAM" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  13. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LIDGERWOOS-CRAWFORD EXCAVATOR AT WORK ON OUTLET TRENCH STA. 22-00 SHOWING DUMP ON THE RIGHT, AND OLD RIVER CHANNEL ON THE LEFT IN THE FOREGROUND. PICTURE TAKEN NEAR STA. 24-00 LOOKING NORTH" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  14. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. 13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  18. 14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print located at National Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado). "OUTLET TUNNEL PRIOR TO BACKFILLING." SHOWS CONDUIT SECTION THAT WOULD PASS THROUGH THE NOT-YET-BUILT DAM EMBANKMENT. THE CORE WALL IS VISIBLE THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE VIEW - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 13C Metabolomics: NMR and IROA for Unknown Identification

    PubMed Central

    Clendinen, Chaevien S.; Stupp, Gregory S.; Wang, Bing; Garrett, Timothy J.; Edison, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) is an untargeted metabolomics method that uses stable isotopic labeling and LC-HRMS for identification and relative quantification of metabolites in a biological sample under varying experimental conditions. Objective We demonstrate a method using high-sensitivity 13C NMR to identify an unknown metabolite isolated from fractionated material from an IROA LC-HRMS experiment. Methods IROA samples from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were fractionated using LC-HRMS using 5 repeated injections and collecting 30 sec fractions. These were concentrated and analyzed by 13C NMR. Results We isotopically labeled samples of C. elegans and collected 2 adjacent LC fractions. By HRMS, one contained at least 2 known metabolites, phenylalanine and inosine, and the other contained tryptophan and an unknown feature with a monoisotopic mass of m/z 380.0742 [M+H]+. With NMR, we were able to easily verify the known compounds, and we then identified the spin system networks responsible for the unknown resonances. After searching the BMRB database and comparing the molecular formula from LC-HRMS, we determined that the fragments were a modified anthranilate and a glucose modified by a phosphate. We then performed quantum chemical NMR chemical shift calculations to determine the most likely isomer, which was 3’-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-anthranilate. This compound had previously been found in the same organism, validating our approach. Conclusion We were able to dereplicate previously known metabolites and identify a metabolite that was not in databases by matching resonances to NMR databases and using chemical shift calculations to determine the correct isomer. This approach is efficient and can be used to identify unknown compounds of interest using the same material used for IROA. PMID:28090435

  1. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. 2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  4. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War II period. During drives to encourage purchase of war bonds, posters featuring female shipyard workers were widely distributed purchasers were allowed one vote for each bond bought. Votes were cast and the woman who got the most votes was named "War Bond Girl." The contest was won by Kay McGinty, 4th row, 2nd column. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-01-01

    Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) may be due to any of over 200 different disorders. We present a most unusual case of an FUO in a returning traveler from the Dominican Republic. Work-up for Q fever, Brucellosis, Bartonella, malaria and HIV were negative, but very highly elevated ESRs and ferritin levels suggested possible Legionnaire's disease. This is the third reported case of Legionnaire's disease presenting as an FUO.

  6. Unknown Bands Observed in the 266 NM Photolysis of Iodomethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jia-Jen; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Bor-Chen

    2012-06-01

    Unknown bands that were not seen in the nascent emission spectra following the near-UV photolysis of bromomathanes (CHBr3-nCl_n, n= 0, 1, 2 and CH_2Br_2) were observed in the 520-820 nm region of the nascent emission spectra following the 266 nm photolysis of iodomethanes (CHI_3, CH_2I_2, and CH_3I) in a slow flow system at ambient temperature. We have dramatically improved the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of these unknown bands for further data analyses. Pressure dependence and temporal waveforms of the unknown bands were also recorded. The analyses show that these bands have the vibrational intervals of roughly 400 cm-1 and possibly originate from the same upper level with emission to different lower levels. Moreover, the nascent emission spectra of photolyzing the deuterated or 13C-substituted isotopomers (CD_2I_2, CD_3I, and 13CH_2I_2) were also acquired, and the results indicate that the carrier molecule probably does not contain any hydrogen or carbon atoms. Our current progress will be presented. S.-X. Yang, G.-Y. Hou, J.-H. Dai, C-.H. Chang, and B.-C. Chang, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4785 (2010) C.-N. Liu, H.-F. Liao, G.-Y. Hou, S-.X. Yang, and B.-C. Chang, 65 OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, MI10 (2010).

  7. Identifying known unknowns using the US EPA's CompTox ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical features observed using high-resolution mass spectrometry can be tentatively identified using online chemical reference databases by searching molecular formulae and monoisotopic masses and then rank-ordering of the hits using appropriate relevance criteria. The most likely candidate “known unknowns,” which are those chemicals unknown to an investigator but contained within a reference database or literature source, rise to the top of a chemical list when rank-ordered by the number of associated data sources. The U.S. EPA’s CompTox Chemistry Dashboard is a curated and freely available resource for chemistry and computational toxicology research, containing more than 720,000 chemicals of relevance to environmental health science. In this research, the performance of the Dashboard for identifying “known unknowns” was evaluated against that of the online ChemSpider database, one of the primary resources used by mass spectrometrists, using multiple previously studied datasets reported in the peer-reviewed literature totaling 162 chemicals. These chemicals were examined using both applications via molecular formula and monoisotopic mass searches followed by rank-ordering of candidate compounds by associated references or data sources. A greater percentage of chemicals ranked in the top position when using the Dashboard, indicating an advantage of this application over ChemSpider for identifying known unknowns using data source ranking. Addition

  8. Protein-like fully reversible tetramerisation and super-association of an aminocellulose.

    PubMed

    Nikolajski, Melanie; Adams, Gary G; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, David Tabot; Rowe, Arthur J; Heinze, Thomas; Harding, Stephen E

    2014-01-24

    Unusual protein-like, partially reversible associative behaviour has recently been observed in solutions of the water soluble carbohydrates known as 6-deoxy-6-(ω-aminoalkyl)aminocelluloses, which produce controllable self-assembling films for enzyme immobilisation and other biotechnological applications. Now, for the first time, we have found a fully reversible self-association (tetramerisation) within this family of polysaccharides. Remarkably these carbohydrate tetramers are then seen to associate further in a regular way into supra-molecular complexes. Fully reversible oligomerisation has been hitherto completely unknown for carbohydrates and instead resembles in some respects the assembly of polypeptides and proteins like haemoglobin and its sickle cell mutation. Our traditional perceptions as to what might be considered "protein-like" and what might be considered as "carbohydrate-like" behaviour may need to be rendered more flexible, at least as far as interaction phenomena are concerned.

  9. Protein-like fully reversible tetramerisation and super-association of an aminocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolajski, Melanie; Adams, Gary G.; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, David Tabot; Rowe, Arthur J.; Heinze, Thomas; Harding, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Unusual protein-like, partially reversible associative behaviour has recently been observed in solutions of the water soluble carbohydrates known as 6-deoxy-6-(ω-aminoalkyl)aminocelluloses, which produce controllable self-assembling films for enzyme immobilisation and other biotechnological applications. Now, for the first time, we have found a fully reversible self-association (tetramerisation) within this family of polysaccharides. Remarkably these carbohydrate tetramers are then seen to associate further in a regular way into supra-molecular complexes. Fully reversible oligomerisation has been hitherto completely unknown for carbohydrates and instead resembles in some respects the assembly of polypeptides and proteins like haemoglobin and its sickle cell mutation. Our traditional perceptions as to what might be considered ``protein-like'' and what might be considered as ``carbohydrate-like'' behaviour may need to be rendered more flexible, at least as far as interaction phenomena are concerned.

  10. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  11. Fully defined saltwater medium for cultivation of and toxicity testing with marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Kusk, K.O.; Wollenberger, L.

    1999-07-01

    The marine copepod Acartia tonsa and the food organism Rhodomonas salina were cultured in fully defined medium for 8 months without problems. Both organisms were also cultured in natural seawater and in a commercial salt mixture for at least two generations before the sensitivities of A. tonsa to bisphenol A, potassium dichromate, and 3,5-dichlorophenol in the three different media were compared and found to be at the same level. The defined medium may be used for cultivation and testing, thus avoiding unknown background contaminants.

  12. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  13. Fully automatic contour detection in intravascular ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, Elisabeth F.; de Korte, Chris L.; Mastik, Fritz; Schaar, Johannes; van der Steen, Anton F.

    2004-04-01

    Segmentation of deformable structures remains a challenging task in ultrasound imaging especially in low signal-to-noise ratio applications. In this paper a fully automatic method, dedicated to the luminal contour segmentation in intracoronary ultrasound imaging is introduced. The method is based on an active contour with a priori properties that evolves according to the statistics of the ultrasound texture brightness, determined as being mainly Rayleigh distributed. However, contrary to classical snake-based algorithms, the presented technique neither requires from the user the pre-selection of a region of interest tight around the boundary, nor parameter tuning. This fully automatic character is achieved by an initial contour that is not set, but estimated and thus adapted to each image. Its estimation combines two statistical criteria extracted from the a posteriori probability, function of the contour position. These criteria are the location of the function maximum (or maximum a posteriori estimator) and the first zero-crossing of the function derivative. Then starting form the initial contour, a region of interest is automatically selected and the process iterated until the contour evolution can be ignored. In vivo coronary images from 15 patients, acquired with a 20 MHz central frequency Jomed Invision ultrasound scanner were segmented with the developed method. Automatic contours were compared to those manually drawn by two physician in terms of mean absolute difference. Results demonstrate that the error between automatic contours and the average of manual ones (0.099+/-0.032mm) and the inter-expert error (0.097+/-0.027mm) are similar and of small amplitude.

  14. Neural Network-Based Control of Networked Trilateral Teleoperation With Geometrically Unknown Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Xia, Yuanqing; Wang, Dehong; Zhai, Di-Hua; Su, Chun-Yi; Zhao, Xingang

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on bilateral teleoperation assume known system kinematics and only consider dynamical uncertainties. However, many practical applications involve tasks with both kinematics and dynamics uncertainties. In this paper, trilateral teleoperation systems with dual-master-single-slave framework are investigated, where a single robotic manipulator constrained by an unknown geometrical environment is controlled by dual masters. The network delay in the teleoperation system is modeled as Markov chain-based stochastic delay, then asymmetric stochastic time-varying delays, kinematics and dynamics uncertainties are all considered in the force-motion control design. First, a unified dynamical model is introduced by incorporating unknown environmental constraints. Then, by exact identification of constraint Jacobian matrix, adaptive neural network approximation method is employed, and the motion/force synchronization with time delays are achieved without persistency of excitation condition. The neural networks and parameter adaptive mechanism are combined to deal with the system uncertainties and unknown kinematics. It is shown that the system is stable with the strict linear matrix inequality-based controllers. Finally, the extensive simulation experiment studies are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  15. Theoretical performance assessment and empirical analysis of super-resolution under unknown affine sensor motion.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Brian J; Valenzuela, John R; LeBlanc, Joel W

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with super-resolution (SR) processing and associated theoretical performance assessment for under-sampled video data collected from a moving imaging platform with unknown motion and assuming a relatively flat scene. This general scenario requires joint estimation of the high-resolution image and the parameters that determine a projective transform that relates the collected frames to one another. A quantitative assessment of the variance in the random error as achieved through a joint-estimation approach (e.g., SR image reconstruction and motion estimation) is carried out via the general framework of M-estimators and asymptotic statistics. This approach provides a performance measure on estimating the fine-resolution scene when there is a lack of perspective information and represents a significant advancement over previous work that considered only the more specific scenario of mis-registration. A succinct overview of the theoretical framework is presented along with some specific results on the approximate random error for the case of unknown translation and affine motions. A comparison is given between the approximated random error and that actually achieved by an M-estimator approach to the joint-estimation problem. These results provide insight on the reduction in SR reconstruction accuracy when jointly estimating unknown inter-frame affine motion.

  16. A novel KFCM based fault diagnosis method for unknown faults in satellite reaction wheels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Sarosh, Ali; Dong, Yun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Reaction wheels are one of the most critical components of the satellite attitude control system, therefore correct diagnosis of their faults is quintessential for efficient operation of these spacecraft. The known faults in any of the subsystems are often diagnosed by supervised learning algorithms, however, this method fails to work correctly when a new or unknown fault occurs. In such cases an unsupervised learning algorithm becomes essential for obtaining the correct diagnosis. Kernel Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is one of the unsupervised algorithms, although it has its own limitations; however in this paper a novel method has been proposed for conditioning of KFCM method (C-KFCM) so that it can be effectively used for fault diagnosis of both known and unknown faults as in satellite reaction wheels. The C-KFCM approach involves determination of exact class centers from the data of known faults, in this way discrete number of fault classes are determined at the start. Similarity parameters are derived and determined for each of the fault data point. Thereafter depending on the similarity threshold each data point is issued with a class label. The high similarity points fall into one of the 'known-fault' classes while the low similarity points are labeled as 'unknown-faults'. Simulation results show that as compared to the supervised algorithm such as neural network, the C-KFCM method can effectively cluster historical fault data (as in reaction wheels) and diagnose the faults to an accuracy of more than 91%.

  17. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340...-Related Costs § 412.340 Fully prospective payment methodology. A hospital paid under the fully prospective payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on a proportion of the hospital-specific...

  18. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving

  19. Unknown unknowns in biomedical research: does an inability to deal with ambiguity contribute to issues of irreproducibility?

    PubMed

    Mullane, Kevin; Williams, Michael

    2015-09-15

    The credibility and consequent sustainability of the biomedical research "ecosystem" is in jeopardy, in part due to an inability to reproduce data from the peer-reviewed literature. Despite obvious and relatively inexpensive solutions to improve reproducibility-ensuring that experimental reagents, specifically cancer cell lines and antibodies, are authenticated/validated before use and that best practices in statistical usage are incorporated into the design, analysis, and reporting of experiments-these are routinely ignored, a reflection of hubris and a comfort with the status quo on the part of many investigators. New guidelines for the peer review of publications and grant applications introduced in the past year, while well-intended, lack the necessary consequences, e.g., denial of funding, that would result in sustained improvements when scientific rigor is lacking and/or transparency is, at best, opaque. An additional factor contributing to irreproducibility is a reductionist mindset that prioritizes certainty in research outcomes over the ambiguity intrinsic to biological systems that is often reflected in "unknown unknowns". This has resulted in a tendency towards codifying "rules" that can provide "yes-no" outcomes that represent a poor substitute for the intellectual challenge and skepticism that leads to an awareness and consideration of "unknown unknowns". When acknowledged as potential causes of unexpected experimental outcomes, these can often transition into the "knowns" that facilitate positive, disruptive innovation in biomedical research like the human microbiome. Changes in investigator mindset, both in terms of validating reagents and embracing ambiguity, are necessary to aid in reducing issues with reproducibility.

  20. Adaptive attitude controller for a satellite based on neural network in the presence of unknown external disturbances and actuator faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazlyab, Ali Reza; Fani Saberi, Farhad; Kabganian, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive attitude control algorithm is developed based on neural network for a satellite. The proposed attitude control is based on nonlinear modified Rodrigues parameters feedback control in the presence of unknown terms like external disturbances and actuator faults. In order to eliminate the effect of the uncertainties, a multilayer neural network with a new learning rule will be designed appropriately. In this method, asymptotic stability of the proposed algorithm has been proven in the presence of unknown terms based on Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, the performance of the designed attitude controller is investigated by simulations.

  1. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  2. SPICE analysis of the SEU sensitivity of a fully depleted SOI CMOS SRAM cell

    SciTech Connect

    Alles, M.L. )

    1994-12-01

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technologies are of interest for commercial applications as well as for use in harsh (radiation-intensive) environments. In both types of application, effects of charged particles (single-event effects) are of concern. Here, SPICE analysis of SEU sensitivity of a 6-T SRAM cell using commercially-representative fully depleted SOI CMOS technology parameters indicates that reduction of the minority carrier lifetime (parasitic bipolar gain) and use of thinner silicon can significantly reduce SEU sensitivity.

  3. Fever of unknown origin following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R D; Mysiw, W J

    1991-01-01

    Fever is a common complication of a traumatic brain injury, occurring during both the acute-care phase and the rehabilitation phase of recovery. The aetiology of fever in this population may remain obscure because of the presence of cognitive confusion associated with post-traumatic amnesia interfering with history taking and the difficult physical examination. We present a case where recovery from a traumatic brain injury was complicated by a fever of unknown origin that proved to be secondary to lateral sinus thrombophlebitis. This case emphasises the importance of a thorough knowledge of the differential diagnosis for fever that is unique to the traumatic brain injury population.

  4. Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C.; Vargas, A.; Vianna, R. O.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

  5. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  6. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print in possession of James E. Zielinski Earth Tech, Huntsville, AL). Pan American World Airways, photographer. Aerial view (north to south) of missile launch area. Warhead handling building can be seen at the bottom center of the picture and the universal missile building in the middle right. In the distance can be seen the missile site control building and related structures - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. Learned navigation in unknown terrains: A retraction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Stoltzfus, N.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    1989-01-01

    The problem of learned navigation of a circular robot R, of radius delta (is greater than or equal to 0), through a terrain whose model is not a-priori known is considered. Two-dimensional finite-sized terrains populated by an unknown (but, finite) number of simple polygonal obstacles are also considered. The number and locations of the vertices of each obstacle are unknown to R. R is equipped with a sensor system that detects all vertices and edges that are visible from its present location. In this context two problems are covered. In the visit problem, the robot is required to visit a sequence of destination points, and in the terrain model acquisition problem, the robot is required to acquire the complete model of the terrain. An algorithmic framework is presented for solving these two problems using a retraction of the freespace onto the Voronoi diagram of the terrain. Algorithms are then presented to solve the visit problem and the terrain model acquisition problem.

  8. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area) based on a single serum creatinine measurement was 0%-67% men and 0%-57% women. Prevalence was generally higher in male farmworkers aged 20-50 years, and varied by community economic activity and altitude. Cause was unknown in 57.4%-66.7% of patients. The dominant histopathological diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Associations were reported with agricultural work, agrochemical exposure, dehydration, hypertension, homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors.

  9. Shading-based Surface Detail Recovery under General Unknown Illumination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Duan, Qi; Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Juyong; Cai, Jianfei; Cham, Tat-Jen

    2017-02-17

    Reconstructing the shape of a 3D object from multi-view images under unknown, general illumination is a fundamental problem in computer vision and high quality reconstruction is usually challenging especially when fine detail is needed and the albedo of the object is non-uniform. This paper introduces vertex overall illumination vectors to model the illumination effect and presents a total variation (TV) based approach for recovering surface details using shading and multi-view stereo (MVS). Behind the approach are the two important observations: (1) the illumination over the surface of an object often appears to be piece wise smooth and (2) the recovery of surface orientation is not sufficient for reconstructing the surface, which was often overlooked previously. Thus we propose to use TV to regularize the overall illumination vectors and use visual hull to constrain partial vertices. The reconstruction is formulated as a constrained TV-minimization problem that simultaneously treats the shape and illumination vectors as unknowns. An augmented Lagrangian method is proposed to quickly solve the TV-minimization problem. As a result, our approach is robust, stable and is able to efficiently recover high quality of surface details even when starting with a coarse model obtained using MVS. These advantages are demonstrated by extensive experiments on the state-of-the-art MVS database, which includes challenging objects with varying albedo.

  10. An efficient fully atomistic potential model for dense fluid methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chuntao; Ouyang, Jie; Zhuang, Xin; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wuming

    2016-08-01

    A fully atomistic model aimed to obtain a general purpose model for the dense fluid methane is presented. The new optimized potential for liquid simulation (OPLS) model is a rigid five site model which consists of five fixed point charges and five Lennard-Jones centers. The parameters in the potential model are determined by a fit of the experimental data of dense fluid methane using molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution function and the diffusion coefficient are successfully calculated for dense fluid methane at various state points. The simulated results are in good agreement with the available experimental data shown in literature. Moreover, the distribution of mean number hydrogen bonds and the distribution of pair-energy are analyzed, which are obtained from the new model and other five reference potential models. Furthermore, the space-time correlation functions for dense fluid methane are also discussed. All the numerical results demonstrate that the new OPLS model could be well utilized to investigate the dense fluid methane.

  11. Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Fully Developed Duct Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokni, Masoud; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in both straight and wavy ducts, with rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions. A comparison of secondary flow patterns. including velocity vectors and velocity and temperature contours, are shown in order to study the effect of waviness on flow dynamics, and comparisons between the hydraulic parameters. Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number, are also presented. In all cases. isothermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls, and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled using gradient-diffusion type models. The formulation is valid for Reynolds numbers up to 10(exp 5) and this minimizes the need for wall functions that have been used with mixed success in previous studies of complex duct flows. In addition, the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Criteria in terms of heat transfer and friction factor needed to choose the optimal wavy duct cross-section for industrial applications among the ones considered are discussed.

  12. Mapping out Min protein patterns in fully confined fluidic chambers

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Yaron; Dekker, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial Min protein system provides a major model system for studying reaction-diffusion processes in biology. Here we present the first in vitro study of the Min system in fully confined three-dimensional chambers that are lithography-defined, lipid-bilayer coated and isolated through pressure valves. We identify three typical dynamical behaviors that occur dependent on the geometrical chamber parameters: pole-to-pole oscillations, spiral rotations, and traveling waves. We establish the geometrical selection rules and show that, surprisingly, Min-protein spiral rotations govern the larger part of the geometrical phase diagram. Confinement as well as an elevated temperature reduce the characteristic wavelength of the Min patterns, although even for confined chambers with a bacterial-level viscosity, the patterns retain a ~5 times larger wavelength than in vivo. Our results provide an essential experimental base for modeling of intracellular Min gradients in bacterial cell division as well as, more generally, for understanding pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19271.001 PMID:27885986

  13. Shape design sensitivities using fully automatic 3-D mesh generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work in three dimensional shape optimization involved specifying design variables by associating parameters directly with mesh points. More recent work has shown the use of fully-automatic mesh generation based upon a parameterized geometric representation. Design variables have been associated with a mathematical model of the part rather than the discretized representation. The mesh generation procedure uses a nonuniform grid intersection technique to place nodal points directly on the surface geometry. Although there exists an associativity between the mesh and the geometrical/topological entities, there is no mathematical functional relationship. This poses a problem during certain steps in the optimization process in which geometry modification is required. For the large geometrical changes which occur at the beginning of each optimization step, a completely new mesh is created. However, for gradient calculations many small changes must be made and it would be too costly to regenerate the mesh for each design variable perturbation. For that reason, a local remeshing procedure has been implemented which operates only on the specific edges and faces associated with the design variable being perturbed. Two realistic design problems are presented which show the efficiency of this process and test the accuracy of the gradient computations.

  14. Estimability of thrusting trajectories in 3-D from a single passive sensor with unknown launch point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ting; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Willett, Peter; Ben-Dov, R.; Pollak, S.

    2013-09-01

    The problem of estimating the state of thrusting/ballistic endoatmospheric projectiles moving in 3-dimensional (3-D) space using 2-dimensional (2-D) measurements from a single passive sensor is investigated. The location of projectile's launch point (LP) is unavailable and this could significantly affect the performance of the estimation and the IPP. The LP altitude is then an unknown target parameter. The estimability is analyzed based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) of the target parameter vector, comprising the initial launch (azimuth and elevation) angles, drag coefficient, thrust and the LP altitude, which determine the trajectory according to a nonlinear motion equation. The full rank of the FIM ensures that one has an estimable target parameters. The corresponding Craḿer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) quantifies the estimation performance of the estimator that is statistically efficient and can be used for IPP. In view of the inherent nonlinearity of the problem, the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the target parameter vector is found by using a mixed (partially grid-based) search approach. For a selected grid in the drag-coefficient-thrust-altitude subspace, the proposed parallelizable approach is shown to have reliable estimation performance and further leads to the final IPP of high accuracy.

  15. PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES

    SciTech Connect

    V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

    2012-01-03

    Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism via reverse

  16. A Concept Analysis of Fully Informed: Breastfeeding Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-21

    Running head: A CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF FULLY INFORMED A Concept Analysis of Fully Informed: Breastfeeding Promotion Kirsten M. Verkamp The University of...DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 21.Dec.05 MAJOR REPORT 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS A CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF FULLY INFORMED: BREASTFEEDING ...updated breastfeeding policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics 3 (AAP, 2005) identified the compelling advantages of breastfeeding and urged

  17. Annotation of Proteins of Unknown Function: Initial Enzyme Results

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Talia; Hart, Kaitlin; Horn, Alison; Kessler, Haeja; Dodge, Greg; Bardhi, Keti; Bardhi, Kostandina; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Working with a combination of ProMOL (a plugin for PyMOL that searches a library of enzymatic motifs for local structural homologs), BLAST and Pfam (servers that identify global sequence homologs), and Dali (a server that identifies global structural homologs), we have begun the process of assigning functional annotations to the approximately 3,500 structures in the Protein Data Bank that are currently classified as having “unknown function”. Using a limited template library of 388 motifs, over 500 promising in silico matches have been identified by ProMOL, among which 65 exceptionally good matches have been identified. The characteristics of the exceptionally good matches are discussed. PMID:25630330

  18. Simulated NMIS Imaging Data for an Unknown Object

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-04-01

    This report presents simulated Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging data for an unclassified object, whose characteristics are initially unknown to the reader. This data will be used to test various analysis capabilities and was created with a simple deterministic ray-tracing algorithm. NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence counting system that is used to characterize both fissile and non-fissile materials undergoing nondestructive assay. NMIS characterizes materials by interrogating them with neutrons, either from an associated-particle deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, which produces a time and directionally tagged monoenergetic beam of 14.1 MeV neutrons, or a time-tagged spontaneous fission source in an ionization chamber.

  19. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-07-26

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  20. Search for unknown isotopes using the JAERI-ISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, S.; Tsukada, K.; Oura, Y.; Iimura, H.; Nishinaka, I.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Nagame, Y.; Asai, M.; Osa, A.; Kojima, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kawade, K.; Ohyama, T.; Sueki, K.

    1996-04-01

    A search for unknown neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and neutron-deficient americium isotopes was carried out using a gas-jet coupled thermal ion source installed in the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL). New isotopes b166Tb and d165Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of 238U were identified. The half-lives were 21+/-6 s for b166Tb and 10.3+/-1.6 s for d.165Gd. Pu KX-rays associated with EC decays of americium isotopes produced in heavy-ion induced reactions were observed in the X/γ-ray spectra for the mass separated fraction of 237 and 236.

  1. Investigation of embedded structures in media with unknown acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmritz, S.; Wolf, M.; Kühnicke, E.

    2017-02-01

    This contribution presents new methods for the localization and characterization of discontinuities in media with unknown acoustic properties using annular arrays. The usage of annular arrays allows the focus position to be varied. By evaluating the signal amplitude as a function of the focus position and the measured time of flight, sound velocity and layer thickness can be determined simultaneously. For classifying the discontinuities, the directional patterns of the reflected sound fields are evaluated. The sound pressure distribution of the reflected sound field at the probe surface mainly depends on shape and size of the reflector. Evaluating the amplitude difference between the probe elements provides the ability to classify reflector shape and to determine its thickness.

  2. Metastatic cancer of unknown primary in 21 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rossi, F; Aresu, L; Vignoli, M; Buracco, P; Bettini, G; Ferro, S; Gattino, F; Ghiani, F; Costantino, R; Ressel, L; Bellei, E; Marconato, L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome of 21 dogs with metastatic cancer of unknown primary (MCUP), a biopsy-proven malignancy being diagnosed at a metastatic stage, in which the anatomical origin of the primary tumour cannot be detected. All dogs underwent total-body computed tomography. Signalment, type and duration of clinical signs, metastasis site, pathology results, treatment and outcome were recorded. Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (57.1%), followed by sarcoma, melanoma and mast cell tumour. The median number of disease sites per dog was 2, with bones, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen being the most frequent metastatic locations. The median survival for all dogs was 30 days. Overall, a primary site was not identified in 20 (95.2%) dogs. MCUP encompasses a variety of different pathologic entities and harbours a poor prognosis.

  3. Graves' disease presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Y.; Samra, Y.; Zwas, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Fever is a common clinical manifestation of inflammatory processes of the thyroid and thyroid crisis. On the other hand, fever alone as a presenting symptom of thyrotoxicosis, without other manifestations, is extremely rare. A female patient is described in whom fever persisted for two months prior to hospitalization, but without clinical symptoms or signs to lead to suspicion of thyroid disease. After exhaustive investigation it was found that the patient was suffering from hyperthyroidism. Fever disappeared gradually on antithyroid therapy, recurred when the drugs were withdrawn for a rechallenge trial, and cleared up again after renewal. Four other cases of persistent fever as a presenting symptom of hyperthyroidism were found on a review of previous publications. Thyrotoxicosis should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. Images Figure 1 PMID:3050943

  4. Interpolation schemes in the control of systems with unknown dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youcef-Toumi, K.; Mcmahon, E. H., II

    1990-01-01

    Time-delay control for systems with unknown dynamics involves estimations. In its present form, these estimations include not only the interpolation of a time-varying function but also its derivative between data points. Presently, the control law is reformulated, taking into account the computation delay. A window-shifting scheme is then devised to view n data points as they are sampled in order to perform the function estimation. At each new sampling time, the window shifts to include the new data point as well as the last n-1 points. Several interpolation methods are considered. These methods use data points from a sampled function to construct a polynomial estimate of the function. The control system performance was experimentally tested using a servosystem. The results show that a Newtonian interpolation provided best results when the computation time was 0.4 times the sampling period.

  5. Optimal design of an unsupervised adaptive classifier with unknown priors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakos, D.

    1974-01-01

    An adaptive detection scheme for M hypotheses was analyzed. It was assumed that the probability density function under each hypothesis was known, and that the prior probabilities of the M hypotheses were unknown and sequentially estimated. Each observation vector was classified using the current estimate of the prior probabilities. Using a set of nonlinear transformations, and applying stochastic approximation theory, an optimally converging adaptive detection and estimation scheme was designed. The optimality of the scheme lies in the fact that convergence to the true prior probabilities is ensured, and that the asymptotic error variance is minimum, for the class of nonlinear transformations considered. An expression for the asymptotic mean square error variance of the scheme was also obtained.

  6. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  7. [Structural analyses of unknown red dyes detected in dried strawberry].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Sadamasu, Yuki; Suzuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Yasukazu; Togawa, Akiko; Nakajima, Junichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    We examined two unknown red dyes (designated as red dyes "A" and "B") from a dried strawberry package with a label that indicated the presence of food red No. 40 (R40). Red dye "A" was identified as trisodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(2'-methoxy-5'-methyl-4'-sulfonatophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonate (CSA-R) by HPLC, UV-VIS spectra and MS spectra. This compound is one of the four reported subsidiary colors of R40. Detailed analyses of red dye "B" by MS and NMR demonstrated that its structure was disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(2'-methoxy-5'-methyl-4'-sulfonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonate. Red dye "B" is a structural isomer of R40, that has not been reported previously. Our results suggest that the two minor red dyes were subsidiary colors contained in R40, which had been added to the dried strawberries.

  8. Phase shift estimation in interferograms with unknown phase step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmau, Oscar; Rivera, Mariano; Gonzalez, Adonai

    2016-08-01

    We first present two closed formulas for computing the phase shift in interferograms with unknown phase step. These formulas obtain theoretically the exact phase step in fringe pattern without noise and only require the information in two pixels of the image. The previous formulas allows us to define a functional that yields an estimate of the phase step in interferograms corrupted by noise. In the experiment we use the standard Least Square formulation which also yields a closed formula, although the general formulation admits a robust potential. We provide two possible implementations of our approach, one in which the sites can be randomly selected and the other in which we can scan the whole image. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm presents the best results compared with state of the art algorithms.

  9. Kikuchi's Disease: A Rare Cause of Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Jalal-ud-din, Mir; Noor, Muhammad Munir; Ali, Shadab; Ali, Rashid

    2015-04-01

    Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease (KFD) or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis can present with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy. It is often mistaken for more serious conditions like malignant lymphoma or tuberculosis. First case was described by Kikuchi in Japan, very few cases have been reported in Pakistan. A middle aged female presented with fever and body aches for one month. She was investigated extensively for pyrexia of unknown origin, all of which came out to be normal except a raised ESR. Anti-tuberculous drugs were started on clinical suspicion, with no improvement after a month. Later, a detailed physical examination revealed cervical lymphadenopathy. One of the lymph nodes was excised and biopsied. The histopathology suggested Kikuchi's disease. Oral Prednisolone was started showing improvement. Her fever subsided and lymph nodes disappeared at the follow-up visit. No relapse was encountered in the subsequent visits.

  10. Prevalence of unknown thyroid disorders in a Sardinian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Delitala, Alessandro P.; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Ferreli, Liana; Loi, Francesco; Curreli, Nicolò; Balaci, Lenuta; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess thyroid function, the presence of thyroid antibodies, as well as the presence of goiter and/or nodules in subjects without a prior diagnosis of thyroid disorders, in a region with mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Design and methods This cross-sectional study is based on data coming from first and third visits of participants in the SardiNIA survey. We performed two different analyses. In one we assessed the prevalence of unknown thyroid dysfunctions among 6,252 subjects who had a medical examination and blood collection for assays of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and antibodies against thyroperoxidase (AbTPO) and against thyroglobulin (AbTG). In a second analysis, we evaluated the frequency of undiagnosed goiter and nodules among 3,377 subjects who had a thyroid ultrasound scan. Subjects were excluded if they had a previous history of thyroid disorders or presence of goiter and/or nodules, or thyroid surgery, or if they were taking drugs that could impair thyroid function. Results We found a low prevalence of overt thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism 0.4%, hypothyroidism 0.7%). The rates of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 4.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Almost 16% of individuals were positive for at least one antibody, and 5.2% for both AbTG and AbTPO. Nodules were detected in 17.4% of the subjects, and the prevalence of goiter was 22.1%. Conclusions Undiagnosed biochemical thyroid dysfunctions, unknown nodules and goiter were common in subjects living in a mild to moderate iodine deficient area. In this community, thyroid disorders often go undetected and screening could be reasonable in subjects at higher risk. PMID:24917664

  11. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  12. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  13. Glory on Venus cloud tops and the unknown UV absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, W. J.; Petrova, E.; Shalygina, O.; Almeida, M.; Titov, D. V.; Limaye, S. S.; Ignatiev, N.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K. D.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the implications of the observations of the glory phenomenon made recently by Venus Express orbiter. Glory is an optical phenomenon that poses stringent constraints on the cloud properties. These observations thus enable us to constrain two properties of the particles at the cloud tops (about 70 km altitude) which are responsible for a large fraction of the solar energy absorbed by Venus. Firstly we obtain a very accurate estimate of the cloud particles size to be 1.2 μm with a very narrow size distribution. We also find that for the two observations presented here the clouds are homogenous, as far as cloud particles sizes are concerned, on scale of at least 1200 km. This is in contrast to previous estimates that were either local, from entry probes data, or averaged over space and time from polarization data. Secondly we find that the refractive index for the data discussed here is higher than that of sulfuric acid previously proposed for the clouds composition (Hansen, J.E., Hovenier, J.W. [1974]. J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160; Ragent, B. et al. [1985]. Adv. Space Res. 5, 85-115). Assuming that the species contributing to the increase of the refractive index is the same as the unknown UV absorber, we are able to constrain the list of candidates. We investigated several possibilities and argue that either small ferric chloride (FeCl3) cores inside sulfuric acid particles or elemental sulfur coating their surface are good explanations of the observation. Both ferric chloride and elemental sulfur have been suggested in the past as candidates for the as yet unknown UV absorber (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2006]. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1352-1359; Mills, F.P. et al. [2007]. In: Esposito, L.W., Stofan, E.R., Cravens, T.E. (Eds.), Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, vol. 176. AGU Monogr. Ser., Washington, DC, pp. 73-100).

  14. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  15. Generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in fully flexible polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Douglas, Jack F.; Freed, Karl F.

    2016-12-01

    The generalized entropy theory (GET) offers many insights into how molecular parameters influence polymer glass-formation. Given the fact that chain rigidity often plays a critical role in understanding the glass-formation of polymer materials, the GET was originally developed based on models of semiflexible chains. Consequently, all previous calculations within the GET considered polymers with some degree of chain rigidity. Motivated by unexpected results from computer simulations of fully flexible polymer melts concerning the dependence of thermodynamic and dynamic properties on the cohesive interaction strength (ɛ), the present paper employs the GET to explore the influence of ɛ on glass-formation in models of polymer melts with a vanishing bending rigidity, i.e., fully flexible polymer melts. In accord with simulations, the GET for fully flexible polymer melts predicts that basic dimensionless thermodynamic properties (such as the reduced thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility) are universal functions of the temperature scaled by ɛ in the regime of low pressures. Similar scaling behavior is also found for the configurational entropy density in the GET for fully flexible polymer melts. Moreover, we find that the characteristic temperatures of glass-formation increase linearly with ɛ and that the fragility is independent of ɛ in fully flexible polymer melts, predictions that are again consistent with simulations of glass-forming polymer melts composed of fully flexible chains. Beyond an explanation of these general trends observed in simulations, the GET for fully flexible polymer melts predicts the presence of a positive residual configurational entropy at low temperatures, indicating a return to Arrhenius relaxation in the low temperature glassy state.

  16. An urban scale inverse modelling for retrieving unknown elevated emissions with building-resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Feiz, Amir-Ali; Ngae, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    This study illustrates an atmospheric source reconstruction methodology for identification of an unknown continuous point release in the geometrically complex urban environments. The methodology is based on the renormalization inversion theory coupled with a building resolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling approach which estimates the release height along with the projected location on the ground surface and the intensity of an unknown continuous point source in an urban area. An estimation of the release height in a three-dimensional urban environment is relatively more difficult from both technical and computational point of view. Thus, a salient feature of the methodology is to address the problem of vertical structure (i.e. height of a source) in atmospheric source reconstruction in three-dimensional space of an urban region. The inversion methodology presents a way to utilize a CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE in source reconstruction in the urban regions. The described methodology is evaluated with 20 trials of the Mock Urban Field Setting Test (MUST) field experiment in various atmospheric stability conditions varying from neutral to stable and very stable conditions. The retrieved source parameters in all the 20 trials are estimated close to their true source. The source height is retrieved within a factor of two and four in 55% and 75% of the MUST trials, respectively. The averaged location error for all 20 trials is obtained 14.54 m with a minimum of 3.58 m and maximum of 34.55 m. The averaged estimated release rate for all trials is overpredicted within a factor of 1.48 of the true source intensity and in 85% of the trials, it is retrieved within in factor of two. In source reconstruction with non-zero measurements, it was observed that the use of all concentration measurements instead of only non-zero essentially makes only the small differences in quality of the source reconstruction and gives a little additional information for better

  17. Fully Automated Enhanced Tumor Compartmentalization: Man vs. Machine Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Raphael; Verma, Rajeev; Jilch, Astrid; Fichtner, Jens; Knecht, Urspeter; Radina, Christian; Schucht, Philippe; Beck, Jürgen; Raabe, Andreas; Slotboom, Johannes; Reyes, Mauricio; Wiest, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective Comparison of a fully-automated segmentation method that uses compartmental volume information to a semi-automatic user-guided and FDA-approved segmentation technique. Methods Nineteen patients with a recently diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma (GBM) were included and MR images were acquired with a 1.5 T MR scanner. Manual segmentation for volumetric analyses was performed using the open source software 3D Slicer version 4.2.2.3 (www.slicer.org). Semi-automatic segmentation was done by four independent neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists using the computer-assisted segmentation tool SmartBrush® (referred to as SB), a semi-automatic user-guided and FDA-approved tumor-outlining program that uses contour expansion. Fully automatic segmentations were performed with the Brain Tumor Image Analysis (BraTumIA, referred to as BT) software. We compared manual (ground truth, referred to as GT), computer-assisted (SB) and fully-automated (BT) segmentations with regard to: (1) products of two maximum diameters for 2D measurements, (2) the Dice coefficient, (3) the positive predictive value, (4) the sensitivity and (5) the volume error. Results Segmentations by the four expert raters resulted in a mean Dice coefficient between 0.72 and 0.77 using SB. BT achieved a mean Dice coefficient of 0.68. Significant differences were found for intermodal (BT vs. SB) and for intramodal (four SB expert raters) performances. The BT and SB segmentations of the contrast-enhancing volumes achieved a high correlation with the GT. Pearson correlation was 0.8 for BT; however, there were a few discrepancies between raters (BT and SB 1 only). Additional non-enhancing tumor tissue extending the SB volumes was found with BT in 16/19 cases. The clinically motivated sum of products of diameters measure (SPD) revealed neither significant intermodal nor intramodal variations. The analysis time for the four expert raters was faster (1 minute and 47 seconds to 3 minutes and 39

  18. Robust control methods for nonlinear systems with uncertain dynamics and unknown control direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ton, Chau T.

    consideration is required in control design for systems that also include unknown bounded disturbances. To cope with these challenges, a robust continuous controller is developed using an ISMC technique, which achieves asymptotic trajectory tracking for systems with unknown bounded disturbances, while simultaneously compensating for parametric uncertainty in the input gain matrix. The ISMC design is rigorously proven to achieve asymptotic trajectory tracking for a quadrotor system and a synthetic jet actuator (SJA)-based aircraft system. In the ISMC designs, it is assumed that the signs in the uncertain input-multiplicative gain matrix (i.e., the actuator control directions) are known. A much more challenging scenario is encountered in designing controllers for classes of systems, where the uncertainty in the input gain matrix is extreme enough to result in an a priori-unknown control direction. Such a scenario can result when dealing with highly inaccurate dynamic models, unmodeled parameter variations, actuator anomalies, unknown external or internal disturbances, and/or other adversarial operating conditions. To address this challenge, a SMCbased self-recongurable control algorithm is presented, which automatically adjusts for unknown control direction via periodic switching between sliding manifolds that ultimately forces the state to a converging manifold. Rigorous mathematical analyses are presented to prove the theoretical results, and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the three proposed control algorithms.

  19. Asymptotic Normality of the Maximum Pseudolikelihood Estimator for Fully Visible Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien D; Wood, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    Boltzmann machines (BMs) are a class of binary neural networks for which there have been numerous proposed methods of estimation. Recently, it has been shown that in the fully visible case of the BM, the method of maximum pseudolikelihood estimation (MPLE) results in parameter estimates, which are consistent in the probabilistic sense. In this brief, we investigate the properties of MPLE for the fully visible BMs further, and prove that MPLE also yields an asymptotically normal parameter estimator. These results can be used to construct confidence intervals and to test statistical hypotheses. These constructions provide a closed-form alternative to the current methods that require Monte Carlo simulation or resampling. We support our theoretical results by showing that the estimator behaves as expected in simulation studies.

  20. FULLY COUPLED "ONLINE" CHEMISTRY WITHIN THE WRF MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fully coupled "online" Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model has been developed. The air quality component of the model is fully consistent with the meteorological component; both components use the same transport scheme (mass and scalar preserving), the s...

  1. A learning-based semi-autonomous controller for robotic exploration of unknown disaster scenes while searching for victims.

    PubMed

    Doroodgar, Barzin; Liu, Yugang; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-12-01

    Semi-autonomous control schemes can address the limitations of both teleoperation and fully autonomous robotic control of rescue robots in disaster environments by allowing a human operator to cooperate and share such tasks with a rescue robot as navigation, exploration, and victim identification. In this paper, we present a unique hierarchical reinforcement learning-based semi-autonomous control architecture for rescue robots operating in cluttered and unknown urban search and rescue (USAR) environments. The aim of the controller is to enable a rescue robot to continuously learn from its own experiences in an environment in order to improve its overall performance in exploration of unknown disaster scenes. A direction-based exploration technique is integrated in the controller to expand the search area of the robot via the classification of regions and the rubble piles within these regions. Both simulations and physical experiments in USAR-like environments verify the robustness of the proposed HRL-based semi-autonomous controller to unknown cluttered scenes with different sizes and varying types of configurations.

  2. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  3. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hongping; Xu, Peiliang; Geng, Jianghui; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-02-27

    Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC) semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 10(16) electrons/m²) with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the new proposed

  4. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hongping; Xu, Peiliang; Geng, Jianghui; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC) semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2) with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the new proposed

  5. The Role of Unknown Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rafighdoust Abbas; Asadollah, Mirzaee; Hossien, Rafigdoust Amir

    2010-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction (MI), which is initiated from childhood and progresses gradually by aging. Several risk factors influence its progress, and are categorized as classic, traditional and novel factors. The role of unknown risk factors is becoming increasingly more significant recently. The aim of this study is to underscore the novel risk factors despite the importance of classic factors and consider these factors for future studies. Methods This is a prospective study on 180 myocardial infarction cases, conducted in the cardiology ward and CCU of Imam-Reza hospital (Mashad-IRAN). A number of risk factors identified and evaluated in these patients included: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, activity, stress, hair of external ear canal and ear lobe crease, age, and sex. Then patients without any risk factor or with one or two risk factors were distinguished. Results The majority of our patients were old men in the age range of 60 - 69 years. Amongst all patients 42.2% were smokers, 68.3% were type A personality group, 19% were active, 81% were physically inactive, 37.2% had hairy ear canal, 35% had hypertension, 21.1% were diabetic, 14.4% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had positive family history of myocardial infarction. Of great interest was the fact that of the patients whose case was studied, many did not have any risk factor or in some cases had only one. Conclusions In regard of increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction even amongst the young population, and because of considerable need to improve vascular risk detection, much research over the past decade has focused on identification of novel atherosclerotic risk factors, and some of these new risk factors are identified and some may be unknown. Amongst the new risk factors, inflammation has an important role, other risk factors that must be assessed are homocysteine, serum amyloid, and

  6. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  7. Adaptive backstepping fault-tolerant control for flexible spacecraft with unknown bounded disturbances and actuator failures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ye; Hu, Qinglei; Ma, Guangfu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive fault-tolerant control approach to attitude tracking of flexible spacecraft is proposed for use in situations when there are reaction wheel/actuator failures, persistent bounded disturbances and unknown inertia parameter uncertainties. The controller is designed based on an adaptive backstepping sliding mode control scheme, and a sufficient condition under which this control law can render the system semi-globally input-to-state stable is also provided such that the closed-loop system is robust with respect to any disturbance within a quantifiable restriction on the amplitude, as well as the set of initial conditions, if the control gains are designed appropriately. Moreover, in the design, the control law does not need a fault detection and isolation mechanism even if the failure time instants, patterns and values on actuator failures are also unknown for the designers, as motivated from a practical spacecraft control application. In addition to detailed derivations of the new controller design and a rigorous sketch of all the associated stability and attitude error convergence proofs, illustrative simulation results of an application to flexible spacecraft show that high precise attitude control and vibration suppression are successfully achieved using various scenarios of controlling effective failures.

  8. Bearing fault diagnosis under unknown variable speed via gear noise cancellation and rotational order sideband identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyang; Liang, Ming; Li, Jianyong; Cheng, Weidong; Li, Chuan

    2015-10-01

    The interfering vibration signals of a gearbox often represent a challenging issue in rolling bearing fault detection and diagnosis, particularly under unknown variable rotational speed conditions. Though some methods have been proposed to remove the gearbox interfering signals based on their discrete frequency nature, such methods may not work well under unknown variable speed conditions. As such, we propose a new approach to address this issue. The new approach consists of three main steps: (a) adaptive gear interference removal, (b) fault characteristic order (FCO) based fault detection, and (c) rotational-order-sideband (ROS) based fault type identification. For gear interference removal, an enhanced adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) algorithm has been developed in this study. The new ANC algorithm does not require an additional accelerometer to provide reference input. Instead, the reference signal is adaptively constructed from signal maxima and instantaneous dominant meshing multiple (IDMM) trend. Key ANC parameters such as filter length and step size have also been tailored to suit the variable speed conditions, The main advantage of using ROS for fault type diagnosis is that it is insusceptible to confusion caused by the co-existence of bearing and gear rotational frequency peaks in the identification of the bearing fault characteristic frequency in the FCO sub-order region. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated using both simulation and experimental data. Our experimental study also indicates that the proposed method is applicable regardless whether the bearing and gear rotational speeds are proportional to each other or not.

  9. Parameter-space metric of semicoherent searches for continuous gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletsch, Holger J.

    2010-08-01

    Continuous gravitational-wave (CW) signals such as emitted by spinning neutron stars are an important target class for current detectors. However, the enormous computational demand prohibits fully coherent broadband all-sky searches for prior unknown CW sources over wide ranges of parameter space and for yearlong observation times. More efficient hierarchical “semicoherent” search strategies divide the data into segments much shorter than one year, which are analyzed coherently; then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. To optimally perform the incoherent combination, understanding of the underlying parameter-space structure is requisite. This problem is addressed here by using new coordinates on the parameter space, which yield the first analytical parameter-space metric for the incoherent combination step. This semicoherent metric applies to broadband all-sky surveys (also embedding directed searches at fixed sky position) for isolated CW sources. Furthermore, the additional metric resolution attained through the combination of segments is studied. From the search parameters (sky position, frequency, and frequency derivatives), solely the metric resolution in the frequency derivatives is found to significantly increase with the number of segments.

  10. Crystallizing highly-likely subspaces that contain an unknown quantum state of light

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Yong Siah; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Mikhalychev, Alexander; Řeháček, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    In continuous-variable tomography, with finite data and limited computation resources, reconstruction of a quantum state of light is performed on a finite-dimensional subspace. In principle, the data themselves encode all information about the relevant subspace that physically contains the state. We provide a straightforward and numerically feasible procedure to uniquely determine the appropriate reconstruction subspace by extracting this information directly from the data for any given unknown quantum state of light and measurement scheme. This procedure makes use of the celebrated statistical principle of maximum likelihood, along with other validation tools, to grow an appropriate seed subspace into the optimal reconstruction subspace, much like the nucleation of a seed into a crystal. Apart from using the available measurement data, no other assumptions about the source or preconceived parametric model subspaces are invoked. This ensures that no spurious reconstruction artifacts are present in state reconstruction as a result of inappropriate choices of the reconstruction subspace. The procedure can be understood as the maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum subspaces, which is an analog to, and fully compatible with that for quantum states. PMID:27905511

  11. Crystallizing highly-likely subspaces that contain an unknown quantum state of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Yong Siah; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Mikhalychev, Alexander; Řeháček, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    In continuous-variable tomography, with finite data and limited computation resources, reconstruction of a quantum state of light is performed on a finite-dimensional subspace. In principle, the data themselves encode all information about the relevant subspace that physically contains the state. We provide a straightforward and numerically feasible procedure to uniquely determine the appropriate reconstruction subspace by extracting this information directly from the data for any given unknown quantum state of light and measurement scheme. This procedure makes use of the celebrated statistical principle of maximum likelihood, along with other validation tools, to grow an appropriate seed subspace into the optimal reconstruction subspace, much like the nucleation of a seed into a crystal. Apart from using the available measurement data, no other assumptions about the source or preconceived parametric model subspaces are invoked. This ensures that no spurious reconstruction artifacts are present in state reconstruction as a result of inappropriate choices of the reconstruction subspace. The procedure can be understood as the maximum-likelihood reconstruction for quantum subspaces, which is an analog to, and fully compatible with that for quantum states.

  12. Comparison of methods for the detection of gravitational waves from unknown neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S.; Pitkin, M.; Oliver, M.; D'Antonio, S.; Dergachev, V.; Królak, A.; Astone, P.; Bejger, M.; Di Giovanni, M.; Dorosh, O.; Frasca, S.; Leaci, P.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Miller, A.; Palomba, C.; Papa, M. A.; Piccinni, O. J.; Riles, K.; Sauter, O.; Sintes, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars are promising sources of continuous gravitational wave radiation for the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. The majority of neutron stars in our galaxy have not been identified with electromagnetic observations. All-sky searches for isolated neutron stars offer the potential to detect gravitational waves from these unidentified sources. The parameter space of these blind all-sky searches, which also cover a large range of frequencies and frequency derivatives, presents a significant computational challenge. Different methods have been designed to perform these searches within acceptable computational limits. Here we describe the first benchmark in a project to compare the search methods currently available for the detection of unknown isolated neutron stars. The five methods compared here are individually referred to as the PowerFlux, sky Hough, frequency Hough, Einstein@Home, and time domain F -statistic methods. We employ a mock data challenge to compare the ability of each search method to recover signals simulated assuming a standard signal model. We find similar performance among the four quick-look search methods, while the more computationally intensive search method, Einstein@Home, achieves up to a factor of two higher sensitivity. We find that the absence of a second derivative frequency in the search parameter space does not degrade search sensitivity for signals with physically plausible second derivative frequencies. We also report on the parameter estimation accuracy of each search method, and the stability of the sensitivity in frequency and frequency derivative and in the presence of detector noise.

  13. Numerical study of natural convection in fully open tilted cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; Al-Najem, N.M.; El-Refaee, M.M.; Noor, A.A.

    1999-09-01

    A numerical simulation of two-dimensional laminar natural convection in a fully open tilted square cavity with an isothermally heated back wall is conducted. The remaining two walls of the cavity are adiabatic. Steady-state solutions are presented for Grashof numbers between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 5} and for tilt angles ranging from {minus}60{degree} to 90{degree} (where 90{degree} represents a cavity with the opening facing down). The fluid properties are assumed to be constant except for the density variation with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces, which is treated by the Boussinesq approximation. The fluid concerned is air with Prandtl number fixed at 0.71. The governing equations are expressed in a normalized primitive variables formulation. Numerical predictions of the velocity and temperature fields are obtained using the finite-volume-based power law (SIMPLER: Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations Revised) algorithm. For a vertical open cavity ({alpha} = 0{degree}), the algorithm generated results that were in good agreement with those previously published. Flow patterns and isotherms are shown in order to give a better understanding of the heat transfer and flow mechanisms inside the cavity. Effects of the controlling parameters-Grashof number and tilt angle-on the heat transfer (average Nusselt number) are presented and analyzed. The results also revealed that the open-cavity Nusselt number approaches the flat-plate solution when either Grashof number or tilt angle increases. In addition, a correlation of the Nusselt number in terms of the Grashof number and tilt angle is developed and presented; a comparison is made with available data from other literature.

  14. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

  15. Crowdsourcing the Unknown: The Satellite Search for Genghis Khan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min; Huynh, Andrew; Lanckriet, Gert; Barrington, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years), examined 6,000 km2, and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for “out of the ordinary” features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown. PMID:25549335

  16. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  17. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  18. Viral diseases in zebrafish: what is known and unknown.

    PubMed

    Crim, Marcus J; Riley, Lela K

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model.

  19. PMS2 monoallelic mutation carriers: the known unknown

    PubMed Central

    Goodenberger, McKinsey L.; Thomas, Brittany C.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas; Boland, C. Richard; Plon, Sharon E.; Clendenning, Mark; Ko Win, Aung; Senter, Leigha; Lipkin, Steven M.; Stadler, Zsofia K.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Lynch, Henry T.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Syngal, Sapna; Lynch, Patrick; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A.; Gallinger, Steven; Holter, Spring; Aronson, Melyssa; Newcomb, Polly A.; Burnett, Terrilea; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pichurin, Pavel; Hampel, Heather; Terdiman, Jonathan P.; Lu, Karen H.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Lindor, Noralane M.

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 have been shown to cause Lynch syndrome. The penetrance for cancer and tumor spectrum has been repeatedly studied and multiple professional societies have proposed clinical management guidelines for affected individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a reduced penetrance for monoallelic carriers of PMS2 mutations compared to the other mismatch repair (MMR) genes, but clinical management guidelines have largely proposed the same screening recommendations for all MMR gene carriers. The authors considered whether enough evidence existed to propose new screening guidelines specific to PMS2 mutation carriers with regard to age of onset and frequency of colonic screening. Published reports of PMS2 germline mutations were combined with unpublished cases from the authors’ research registries and clinical practices, and a discussion of potential modification of cancer screening guidelines was pursued. A total of 234 monoallelic PMS2 mutation carriers from 170 families were included. Approximately 8% of those with CRC were diagnosed under age 30 and each of these tumors presented on the left-side of the colon. As it is currently unknown what causes the early-onset of CRC in some families with monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations, the authors recommend against reducing cancer surveillance guidelines in families found having monoallelic PMS2 mutations in spite of the documented reduced penetrance. PMID:25856668

  20. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-03-14

    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR](-), in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies.

  1. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J.; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T.; Misra, Raju V.; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  2. Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

  3. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D.; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR]−, in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies. PMID:28242686

  4. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  5. Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-01

    Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

  6. [Diagnosis of fever of unknown origin: use of Bayes theorem].

    PubMed

    Campanella, N; Pergolini, M; Daher, W; Moraca, A; Borgognoni, C; Morosini, P

    1999-01-01

    Sophisticated tests and time are needed to establish the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO). Bayes theorem can guide the clinician to early probabilistic diagnosis. The authors had estimated the a priori probabilities in a previous study yet. In this paper the diagnostic probabilities of four clinical signs (arthralgias, myalgias, splenomegaly, multiple micro-lymphoadenopathies) and the probabilities of abnormalities of some routine laboratory tests (neutrophils count, lymphocytes count, platelets count, hemoglobin, lactic-dehydrogenase, C3 and C4 complement subunits and fibrinogen plasma concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and of the positive bacterial cultures, were estimated in the main groups of FUO disease (indefinite, aspecific bacteria infections, non-bacterial or specific bacteria infections, neoplasias, connective tissue diseases, miscellaneous group). The data suggest that the a priori probability is not affected by the clinical signs. Arthralgias increase the probability of connective tissue diseases. Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma fibrinogen concentrations increase the probability of paraneoplastic and indefinite fever. Thrombocytosis increases the probability of paraneoplastic fever. Over 1200 U/l serum lactic-dehydrogenase serum concentrations guide to non-bacterial or specific bacteria infectious diseases and to malignancies. Neutrophilia decreases the probability of indefinite diagnosis, even though it is not specific. The heterogeneity of the miscellaneous group makes the interpretations of the data very hard.

  7. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T; Misra, Raju V; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  8. Risk of cancer of unknown primary among immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaochen; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) varies globally, and environmental factors are suspected to be related to its development. Immigrant studies offer insights into disease etiology, but no studies have been published on CUP. We investigated CUP risk in immigrants to Sweden to search for etiological clues. The nationwide Swedish Family Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios for CUP in the first-generation immigrants compared with native Swedes from 1958 to 2008. A total of 2340 patients with CUP were identified among immigrants during a follow-up of 23 million person-years compared with 30 507 patients with CUP identified in native Swedes who were followed for 260 million person-years, showing an overall standardized incidence ratio of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.85-0.93). The median age at immigration was 28 years for men and 27 for women. Significantly lower CUP risks, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89, were mainly observed among Finnish, German, and Asian immigrants. The decreased risks tended to be lower for women compared with men. Danes of both sexes had an increased risk. The increased or decreased CUP risks observed in this novel study suggested that early life environmental risk factors or genetic factors influence the development of CUP. The risk patterns were modified by sex. The observed differences may give clues about incidence rates in countries of origin for which incidence data are lacking.

  9. [Claude Perrault, famous architect, unknown physician, untiring researcher].

    PubMed

    Hazard, Jean

    2007-01-01

    As a famous architect Charles Perrault persuaded Colbert to appoint a committee of the "Bâtiments du Roi" made up of three persons: Le Vau, Le Brun and one of his brothers Claude whose Louis XIV chose the plan. While Le Vau was busy in Versailles Perrault's influence became dominating. Although he was an unknown medical practitioner he managed to be allowed to practise and to teach medicine and to be a member of theses' jury for twenty five years. He was highly regarded by his colleagues who did not hesitate to hold a consultation. His trip in Bordeaux was consecrated to look after his brother but because of his numerous occupations he gave up practising medicine and he only treated the members of his family, his friends and some poor. He was a tireless researcher and at the "Académie des Sciences" he looked after the "Histoire naturelle des animaux" (Natural History of the Animals). In "Les Essais de Physique" he tackled numerous problems of physiology such as elasticity and contractility of arteries, studied the sense organs and did some experiments about blood transfusion. As an exceptional man he could practise the three of the occupations.

  10. Environmental distribution and persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).

    PubMed

    Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Audemard, Corinne; Lyons, M Maille; DeFavari, Jackie; Reece, Kimberly S; Leavitt, Dale; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2008-09-24

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is the cause of mass mortality events of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from Virginia, USA, to New Brunswick, Canada. Aquaculture areas in Massachusetts, USA, have been particularly hard hit. The parasite has been shown to be a directly infective organism, but it is unclear whether it could exist or persist outside of its clam host. We used molecular methods to examine water, sediment, seaweeds, seagrass and various invertebrates for the presence of QPX. Sites in Virginia and Massachusetts were selected based upon the incidence of QPX-induced clam die-offs, and they were monitored seasonally. QPX was detectable in almost all of our different sample types from Massachusetts, indicating that the parasite was widely distributed in the environment. Significantly more samples from Massachusetts were positive than from Virginia, and there was a seasonal pattern to the types of samples positive from Massachusetts. The data suggest that, although it may be difficult to completely eradicate QPX from the environment, it may be possible to keep the incidence of disease under control through good plot husbandry and the removal of infected and dying clams.

  11. Flatness-based active disturbance rejection control for linear systems with unknown time-varying coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Congzhi; Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt

    2015-12-01

    A flatness-based active disturbance rejection control approach is proposed to deal with the linear systems with unknown time-varying coefficients and external disturbances. By selecting appropriate nominal values for the parameters of the system, all the deviation between the nominal and actual dynamics of the controlled process, as well as all the external disturbances can be viewed as a total disturbance. Based on the accurately estimated total disturbance with the aid of the proposed extended state observer, a linear proportional derivative feedback control law taking into account the derivatives of the desired output is designed to eliminate the effect of the total disturbance on the system performance. Finally, the load frequency control problem of a single-area power system with non-reheated unit is employed as an illustrative example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Time‐dependent renewal‐model probabilities when date of last earthquake is unknown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    We derive time-dependent, renewal-model earthquake probabilities for the case in which the date of the last event is completely unknown, and compare these with the time-independent Poisson probabilities that are customarily used as an approximation in this situation. For typical parameter values, the renewal-model probabilities exceed Poisson results by more than 10% when the forecast duration exceeds ~20% of the mean recurrence interval. We also derive probabilities for the case in which the last event is further constrained to have occurred before historical record keeping began (the historic open interval), which can only serve to increase earthquake probabilities for typically applied renewal models.We conclude that accounting for the historic open interval can improve long-term earthquake rupture forecasts for California and elsewhere.

  13. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In November 2011, botanists on a remote island off Papua New Guinea discovered a new species of orchid—uniquely and mysteriously night-flowering [1]. New to science, and with so much more to understand, this flower is threatened by deforestation [2]. Also in November 2011, a survey of 583 conservation scientists reported a unanimous (99.5%) view that 'it is likely a serious loss of biological diversity is underway at a global extent' and that, for scientists, 'protection of biological diversity for its cultural and spiritual values and because of its usefulness to humans were low priorities, which suggests that many scientists do not fully support the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services' [3]. In terms of management, some scientists now advocate controversial conservation strategies such as triage (prioritization of species that provide unique or necessary functions to ecosystems) [4, 5]. Meanwhile, there are many scientists who contend that there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the importance of biodiversity for human health and well-being, arguing that only an anthropocentric view of biodiversity within a paradigm 'ecosystem service' will enable decision-makers to prioritize the theme [6-9]. A 2011 UN report argues that this need for understanding is especially urgent in fragile and vulnerable ecosystems where communities depend directly on the resources of their environment [10]. Here we have a paradox: international conservation scientists think that we cannot protect biodiversity on the basis of its cultural and spiritual value, nor its usefulness to humans. Other scientists argue that using a utilitarian ecosystem services framework is the only way to get humans to protect biodiversity. Meanwhile, communities directly dependent on biodiverse ecosystems are often those who best understand and protect biodiversity, for exactly these reasons of use and spiritual connection, but they do not hold only a utilitarian view of their

  14. Melanomas of unknown primary frequently harbor TERT-promoter mutations.

    PubMed

    Egberts, Friederike; Krüger, Sandra; Behrens, Hans M; Bergner, Inka; Papaspyrou, Giorgios; Werner, Jochen A; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Haag, Jochen; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Commonly, in patients with melanoma metastases of an unknown primary tumor (MUP), an extensive search for the primary tumor is carried out. Recently, highly recurrent telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-promoter mutations were found in malignant melanomas, which may function as driver mutations of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that MUP and mucosal melanomas harbor different prevalences of TERT-promoter mutations. Thirty-nine patients with MUP and 53 patients with mucosal melanomas were retrieved. In total, 152 paraffin samples of 92 patients were analyzed, and in 38 patients, multiple samples were tested. Mutational analysis of the TERT-promoter, BRAF, NRAS, and KIT genes was carried out. In total, 92 patients were eligible for mutational analysis. TERT-promoter mutations were found in 33 patients (35.9%): chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (18 patients); chr5, 1,295,250 C>T (11 patients); chr5, 1,295,228-229 CC>TT (three patients); chr5, 1,295,242-243 CC>TT (one patient). The mutations were significantly more prevalent in MUP [26 (66.7%)] than in mucosal melanomas [seven patients (13.2%); P<0.001]. In MUP, BRAF mutations were found in 46.2% of patients (18 patients) and NRAS mutations in 28.2% of patients (11 patients). In mucosal melanoma, NRAS mutations were found in 18.9% of patients (10), and BRAF and KIT mutations in 7.5% of patients (four patients), respectively. The prevalence of TERT-promoter mutations was associated with the patient's sex [23 (51.1%) men, 10 (21.3%) women; P=0.004]. No significant correlation was found between TERT-mutation and patient survival. The TERT-promoter genotype of MUP points toward a cutaneous and not mucosal origin. The significant sex differences merit further attention in having putative therapeutic implications.

  15. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Parsanezhad, Mohammad E; Alborzi, Saeed; Zolghadri1, Jaleh; Parsa-Nezhad, Maryam; Keshavarzi, Gholamreza; Omrani, Gholamhossein R; Schmidt, Ernst H

    2005-01-01

    Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011). The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981) respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended. PMID:16083511

  16. Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

    1987-06-01

    An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

  17. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  18. Deep Impact Autonomous Navigation : the trials of targeting the unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Werner, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Synnott, Stephen P.; Null, George W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Riedel, Joseph E.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2006-01-01

    On July 4, 2005 at 05:44:34.2 UTC the Impactor Spacecraft (s/c) impacted comet Tempel 1 with a relative speed of 10.3 km/s capturing high-resolution images of the surface of a cometary nucleus just seconds before impact. Meanwhile, the Flyby s/c captured the impact event using both the Medium Resolution Imager (MRI) and the High Resolution Imager (HRI) and tracked the nucleus for the entire 800 sec period between impact and shield attitude transition. The objective of the Impactor s/c was to impact in an illuminated area viewable from the Flyby s/c and capture high-resolution context images of the impact site. This was accomplished by using autonomous navigation (AutoNav) algorithms and precise attitude information from the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS). The Flyby s/c had two primary objectives: 1) capture the impact event with the highest temporal resolution possible in order to observe the ejecta plume expansion dynamics; and 2) track the impact site for at least 800 sec to observe the crater formation and capture the highest resolution images possible of the fully developed crater. These two objectives were met by estimating the Flyby s/c trajectory relative to Tempel 1 using the same AutoNav algorithms along with precise attitude information from ADCS and independently selecting the best impact site. This paper describes the AutoNav system, what happened during the encounter with Tempel 1 and what could have happened.

  19. Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Crespi, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA