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Sample records for function neurological assessment

  1. Quantitative methods in assessment of neurologic function.

    PubMed

    Potvin, A R; Tourtellotte, W W; Syndulko, K; Potvin, J

    1981-01-01

    Traditionally, neurologists have emphasized qualitative techniques for assessing results of clinical trials. However, in recent years qualitative evaluations have been increasingly augmented by quantitative tests for measuring neurologic functions pertaining to mental state, strength, steadiness, reactions, speed, coordination, sensation, fatigue, gait, station, and simulated activities of daily living. Quantitative tests have long been used by psychologists for evaluating asymptomatic function, assessing human information processing, and predicting proficiency in skilled tasks; however, their methodology has never been directly assessed for validity in a clinical environment. In this report, relevant contributions from the literature on asymptomatic human performance and that on clinical quantitative neurologic function are reviewed and assessed. While emphasis is focused on tests appropriate for evaluating clinical neurologic trials, evaluations of tests for reproducibility, reliability, validity, and examiner training procedures, and for effects of motivation, learning, handedness, age, and sex are also reported and interpreted. Examples of statistical strategies for data analysis, scoring systems, data reduction methods, and data display concepts are presented. Although investigative work still remains to be done, it appears that carefully selected and evaluated tests of sensory and motor function should be an essential factor for evaluating clinical trials in an objective manner.

  2. Expanding the neurological examination using functional neurologic assessment: part II neurologic basis of applied kinesiology.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, W H; Yanuck, S F

    1999-03-01

    Functional Neurologic Assessment and treatment methods common to the practice of applied kinesiology are presented. These methods are proposed to enhance neurological examination and treatment procedures toward more effective assessment and care of functional impairment. A neurologic model for these procedures is proposed. Manual assessment of muscular function is used to identify changes associated with facilitation and inhibition, in response to the introduction of sensory receptor-based stimuli. Muscle testing responses to sensory stimulation of known value are compared with usually predictable patterns based on known neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, guiding the clinician to an understanding of the functional status of the patient's nervous system. These assessment procedures are used in addition to other standard diagnostic measures to augment rather than replace the existing diagnostic armamentarium. The proper understanding of the neurophysiologic basis of muscle testing procedures will assist in the design of further investigations into applied kinesiology. Accordingly, the neurophysiologic basis and proposed mechanisms of these methods are reviewed.

  3. Functional Assessment in Young Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Stephen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the role and practice of functional-status assessment in young children with neurological impairments, examines issues in selection of functional assessment measures, and describes functional assessment approaches developed in the fields of special education and pediatric rehabilitation, including adaptive scales,…

  4. [Neurological lower torso function test. A new assessment].

    PubMed

    Merkert, J; Butz, S; Nieczaj, R; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Eckardt, R

    2013-02-01

    The neurological lower torso function test was developed in addition to the Berg Balance Scale as an assessment for diagnosis and follow-up of lower torso stability and functioning in neurological patients, used for example in subjects in the early rehabilitation phase or still showing low motoric recovery after suffering a stroke. Due to the ground effect for changes in severely affected neurological patients, other tests currently available do not provide an adequate level of sensitivity. The neurological function test was integrated into the study "Combined whole body vibration and balance training using Vibrosphere" with 66 inpatient/partial inpatient neurological subjects ≥ 60 years. Based on six tasks, a qualitative assessment of the selective function of movement and posture tone of the lower extremity, the muscular system around the hip, and the lower torso are performed. Analogous to the Berg Balance Scale, a 5 point scale is used. It shows a high degree of reliability and responsiveness and can be performed with little effort of time and personnel.

  5. Neurological assessment.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ann Butler

    2016-08-01

    Neurological system assessment is an important skill for the orthopaedic nurse because the nervous system has such an overlap with the musculoskeletal system. Nurses whose scope of practice includes such advanced evaluation, e.g. nurse practitioners, may conduct the examination described here but the information will also be useful for nurses caring for patients who have abnormal neurological assessment findings. Within the context of orthopaedic physical assessment, possible neurological findings are evaluated as they complement the patient's history and the examiner's findings. Specific neurological assessment is integral to diagnosis of some orthopaedic conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome. In other situations such as crushing injury to the extremities, there is high risk of associated neurological or neurovascular injury. These patients need anticipatory examination and monitoring to prevent complications. This article describes a basic neurological assessment; emphasis is on sensory and motor findings that may overlap with an orthopaedic presentation. The orthopaedic nurse may incorporate all the testing covered here or choose those parts that further elucidate specific diagnostic questions suggested by the patient's history, general evaluation and focused musculoskeletal examination. Abnormal findings help to suggest further testing, consultation with colleagues or referral to a specialist.

  6. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice.

  7. The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale: a tool to assess neurologic function for integration into the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lakshmi; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Brandes, Alba A; Peereboom, David M; Galanis, Evanthia; Lin, Nancy U; Soffietti, Riccardo; Macdonald, David R; Chamberlain, Marc; Perry, James; Jaeckle, Kurt; Mehta, Minesh; Stupp, Roger; Muzikansky, Alona; Pentsova, Elena; Cloughesy, Timothy; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wen, Patrick Y; van den Bent, Martin J; Reardon, David A

    2017-05-01

    The Macdonald criteria and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria define radiologic parameters to classify therapeutic outcome among patients with malignant glioma and specify that clinical status must be incorporated and prioritized for overall assessment. But neither provides specific parameters to do so. We hypothesized that a standardized metric to measure neurologic function will permit more effective overall response assessment in neuro-oncology. An international group of physicians including neurologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and neurosurgeons with expertise in neuro-oncology drafted the Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale as an objective and quantifiable metric of neurologic function evaluable during a routine office examination. The scale was subsequently tested in a multicenter study to determine its overall reliability, inter-observer variability, and feasibility. The NANO scale is a quantifiable evaluation of 9 relevant neurologic domains based on direct observation and testing conducted during routine office visits. The score defines overall response criteria. A prospective, multinational study noted a >90% inter-observer agreement rate with kappa statistic ranging from 0.35 to 0.83 (fair to almost perfect agreement), and a median assessment time of 4 minutes (interquartile range, 3-5). The NANO scale provides an objective clinician-reported outcome of neurologic function with high inter-observer agreement. It is designed to combine with radiographic assessment to provide an overall assessment of outcome for neuro-oncology patients in clinical trials and in daily practice. Furthermore, it complements existing patient-reported outcomes and cognition testing to combine for a global clinical outcome assessment of well-being among brain tumor patients.

  8. The Assessment of Neurological Systems with Functional Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelberg, David

    2007-01-01

    In recent years a number of multivariate approaches have been introduced to map neural systems in health and disease. In this review, we focus on spatial covariance methods applied to functional imaging data to identify patterns of regional activity associated with behavior. In the rest state, this form of network analysis can be used to detect…

  9. Functional neurological disorders: imaging.

    PubMed

    Voon, V

    2014-10-01

    Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. [Functional neurology of blepharospasm].

    PubMed

    León-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Benign essential blepharospasm is characterized by abnormal repetitive movements of lid closure and spasm of the orbiculari oculi muscles. Modern theories postulate that this movement disorder originates by abnormal processing of afferent information with further disintegration of the sensorimotor neural program at central levels of the nervous system all of which is seen as dystonic movements in genetically susceptible people. Different investigations including neuroimagin, genetic and neurophysiological studies have discovered new findings on what structures are involved and how this abnormal movement is generated. Among these research is noteworthy the study of electrically elicited blink reflex. It consists of three responses called non-nociceptive (R1), nociceptive (R2) and ultranociceptive (R3). Such blink reflexes, mostly the ultranociceptive response (R3), seem to be very useful to understand more deeply the pathophysiology of this focal dystonia, to perform the functional endophenotyping and to do a more appropriate follow-up of this complex neurological problem.

  11. Test repositioning for functional assessment of neurological outcome after experimental stroke in mice

    PubMed Central

    Godino, María del Carmen; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Moro, María Ángeles; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a cerebrovascular pathology for which the only approved treatment is fibrinolysis. Several studies have focused on the development of new drugs but none has led to effective therapies to date, due, among others, to the difficulty to evaluate clinical deficits in experimental animal models. The present study aims to explore the applicability of known behavioral tests not commonly used in ischemia for the neurological assessment of mice after experimental stroke in different brain areas. A total of 225 CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by ligature (pMCAO) or permanent anterior cerebral artery occlusion by photothrombosis (pACAO) models. Modified neuroseverity score, footprint test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze were performed. Under these experimental conditions, modified neuroseverity score showed neurological impairment early after experimental stroke in both models. By contrast, the footprint test and the elevated plus maze detected short-term neurological deterioration in the pMCAO model but not in the pACAO model. Furthermore, the forced swim test identified depression-like behavior in mice after ischemia only when the left hemisphere was affected. In conclusion, we propose the repositioning of known neurobehavioral tests, but not commonly used in the stroke field, for the fast detection of neurological impairments early after ischemia, and even specific to discriminate the territory affected by arterial occlusion as well as the hemisphere where brain damage occurs. All these findings may prove useful to improve the experimental design of neuroprotective drugs in order to bridge the gap between experimental studies and clinical trials. PMID:28472090

  12. Test repositioning for functional assessment of neurological outcome after experimental stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jiménez, Macarena; Peña-Martínez, Carolina; Godino, María Del Carmen; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Moro, María Ángeles; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a cerebrovascular pathology for which the only approved treatment is fibrinolysis. Several studies have focused on the development of new drugs but none has led to effective therapies to date, due, among others, to the difficulty to evaluate clinical deficits in experimental animal models. The present study aims to explore the applicability of known behavioral tests not commonly used in ischemia for the neurological assessment of mice after experimental stroke in different brain areas. A total of 225 CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by ligature (pMCAO) or permanent anterior cerebral artery occlusion by photothrombosis (pACAO) models. Modified neuroseverity score, footprint test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze were performed. Under these experimental conditions, modified neuroseverity score showed neurological impairment early after experimental stroke in both models. By contrast, the footprint test and the elevated plus maze detected short-term neurological deterioration in the pMCAO model but not in the pACAO model. Furthermore, the forced swim test identified depression-like behavior in mice after ischemia only when the left hemisphere was affected. In conclusion, we propose the repositioning of known neurobehavioral tests, but not commonly used in the stroke field, for the fast detection of neurological impairments early after ischemia, and even specific to discriminate the territory affected by arterial occlusion as well as the hemisphere where brain damage occurs. All these findings may prove useful to improve the experimental design of neuroprotective drugs in order to bridge the gap between experimental studies and clinical trials.

  13. The Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU) as an indicator of motor function problems in boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Stray, Liv Larsen; Stray, Torstein; Iversen, Synnøve; Ruud, Anne; Ellertsen, Bjørn; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2009-01-01

    Background The paper presents the Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU), as a tool for identifying typical motor function problems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study investigated motor functions in boys diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD, F.90.0). HKD corresponds to the ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) diagnosis in the DSM-IV. The paper addresses the ability of the instrument to discriminate between non-medicated boys with HKD and a control group consisting of normal non-referred boys without any clinical significant ADHD symptoms. Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 years and recently diagnosed as HKD F90.0, were compared with 27 controls, all boys in the same age range, on 17 MFNU subtests, and with a 'Total score' parameter. Results On the individual subtests 80–96% (median 88%) of the ADHD group showed 'moderate' to 'severe' problems, compared to 0–44% (median 14.8%) within the control group. The percentage of 'severe problems' ranged from 44–84%, (median 64%) in the ADHD group, and 0–44% (median 0%) in the control group. The highly significant differences found between the groups on all subtests, and on the Total score scores, indicated that the MFNU had a high discriminative power when children with ADHD and normal controls were compared. The Total score parameter seemed to be a meaningful discriminator of a common underlying factor of the 17 subtests used in the study. Conclusion The study confirms our clinical findings that the MFNU measures a consistent pattern of motor function problems in children with HKD, and that these problems are rarely represented in individuals without ADHD. Further research is needed to investigate to what extent the MFNU taps motor problems that are truly specific to ADHD, in contrast to motor problems common to children with DCD or other clinical problems. PMID:19450246

  14. Validity assessment and the neurological physical examination.

    PubMed

    Zasler, Nathan D

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of any patient or examinee with neurological impairment, whether acquired or congenital, provides a key set of data points in the context of developing accurate diagnostic impressions and implementing an appropriate neurorehabilitation program. As part of that assessment, the neurological physical exam is an extremely important component of the overall neurological assessment. In the aforementioned context, clinicians often are confounded by unusual, atypical or unexplainable physical exam findings that bring into question the organicity, veracity, and/or underlying cause of the observed clinical presentation. The purpose of this review is to provide readers with general directions and specific caveats regarding validity assessment in the context of the neurological physical exam. It is of utmost importance for health care practitioners to be aware of assessment methodologies that may assist in determining the validity of the neurological physical exam and differentiating organic from non-organic/functional impairments. Maybe more importantly, the limitations of many commonly used strategies for assessment of non-organicity should be recognized and consider prior to labeling observed physical findings on neurological exam as non-organic or functional.

  15. Wearable accelerometry-based technology capable of assessing functional activities in neurological populations in community settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steins, Dax; Dawes, Helen; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny

    2014-03-13

    Integrating rehabilitation services through wearable systems has the potential to accurately assess the type, intensity, duration, and quality of movement necessary for procuring key outcome measures. This review aims to explore wearable accelerometry-based technology (ABT) capable of assessing mobility-related functional activities intended for rehabilitation purposes in community settings for neurological populations. In this review, we focus on the accuracy of ABT-based methods, types of outcome measures, and the implementation of ABT in non-clinical settings for rehabilitation purposes. Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and IEEE Xplore. The search strategy covered three main areas, namely wearable technology, rehabilitation, and setting. Potentially relevant studies were categorized as systems either evaluating methods or outcome parameters. Methodological qualities of studies were assessed by two customized checklists, depending on their categorization and rated independently by three blinded reviewers. Twelve studies involving ABT met the eligibility criteria, of which three studies were identified as having implemented ABT for rehabilitation purposes in non-clinical settings. From the twelve studies, seven studies achieved high methodological quality scores. These studies were not only capable of assessing the type, quantity, and quality measures of functional activities, but could also distinguish healthy from non-healthy subjects and/or address disease severity levels. While many studies support ABT's potential for telerehabilitation, few actually utilized it to assess mobility-related functional activities outside laboratory settings. To generate more appropriate outcome measures, there is a clear need to translate research findings and novel methods into practice.

  16. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  17. Chapter 17: cognitive assessment in neurology.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Victor W

    2010-01-01

    Modern interests in cognitive assessment began with Franz Gall's early 19th century theory of mental organology and Paul Broca's reports in the 1860s on patients with focal brain injury and aphemia. These workers spurred interest in assessing delimited mental abilities in relation to discrete cerebral areas. With roots in experimental and educational psychology, the intelligence testing movement added assessment tools that could be applied to neurological patients. Early- to mid-20th-century landmarks were Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence scale, Howard Knox's nonverbal performance tests, and the intelligence quotient conceived by Lewis Terman and refined by David Wechsler. Also developed during this era were Henry Head's Serial Tests for aphasic patients and Kurt Goldstein's tests for brain-injured patients with impairments in "abstract attitude" and concept formation. Other investigators have contributed procedures for the evaluation of language functions, memory, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills, praxis, and executive functions. A further milestone was the development of short standardized cognitive instruments for dementia assessment. Within a neurological arena, the historical emphasis has been on a flexible, process-driven approach to the service of neurological diagnosis and syndrome identification. Advances in clinical psychology, neurology, and the cognate clinical neurosciences continue to enrich assessment options.

  18. Wearable accelerometry-based technology capable of assessing functional activities in neurological populations in community settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating rehabilitation services through wearable systems has the potential to accurately assess the type, intensity, duration, and quality of movement necessary for procuring key outcome measures. Objectives This review aims to explore wearable accelerometry-based technology (ABT) capable of assessing mobility-related functional activities intended for rehabilitation purposes in community settings for neurological populations. In this review, we focus on the accuracy of ABT-based methods, types of outcome measures, and the implementation of ABT in non-clinical settings for rehabilitation purposes. Data sources Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and IEEE Xplore. The search strategy covered three main areas, namely wearable technology, rehabilitation, and setting. Study selection Potentially relevant studies were categorized as systems either evaluating methods or outcome parameters. Methods Methodological qualities of studies were assessed by two customized checklists, depending on their categorization and rated independently by three blinded reviewers. Results Twelve studies involving ABT met the eligibility criteria, of which three studies were identified as having implemented ABT for rehabilitation purposes in non-clinical settings. From the twelve studies, seven studies achieved high methodological quality scores. These studies were not only capable of assessing the type, quantity, and quality measures of functional activities, but could also distinguish healthy from non-healthy subjects and/or address disease severity levels. Conclusion While many studies support ABT’s potential for telerehabilitation, few actually utilized it to assess mobility-related functional activities outside laboratory settings. To generate more appropriate outcome measures, there is a clear need to translate research findings and novel methods into practice. PMID:24625308

  19. The Cognition Battery of the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function: Validation in an Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Tulsky, David S.; Zelazo, Philip David; Slotkin, Jerry; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan; Havlik, Richard; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Moy, Claudia; Conway, Kevin; Edwards, Emmeline; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (R. C. Gershon et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first paper in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test-retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, standard deviation, range) are presented for each instrument and the gold standard instruments used to measure construct validity. Accompanying papers provide details on each instrument, including information about instrument development, psychometric properties, age and education effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. One paper in the series is devoted to a factor analysis of the NIHTB-CB in adults and another describes the psychometric properties of three composite scores derived from the individual measures representing fluid and crystallized abilities and their combination. The NIHTB-CB is designed to provide a brief, comprehensive, common set of measures to allow comparisons among disparate studies and to improve scientific communication. PMID:24959840

  20. [Assessment of sociocognitive functions in neurological patients Presentation of a French adaptation of two tools and implementation in frontal dementia].

    PubMed

    Ehrlé, Nathalie; Henry, Audrey; Pesa, Audrey; Bakchine, Serge

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a French battery designed to assess emotional and sociocognitive abilities in neurological patients in clinical practice. The first part of this battery includes subtests assessing emotions: a recognition task of primary facial emotions, a discrimination task of facial emotions, a task of expressive intensity judgment, a task of gender identification, a recognition task of musical emotions. The second part intends to assess some sociocognitive abilities, that is mainly theory of mind (attribution tasks of mental states to others: false believe tasks of first and second order, faux-pas task) and social norms (moral/conventional distinction task, social situations task) but also abstract language and humour. We present a general description of the battery with special attention to specific methodological constraints for the assessment of neurological patients. After a brief introduction to moral and conventional judgments (definition and current theoretical basis), the French version of the social norm task from RJR Blair (Blair and Cipolotti, 2000) is developed. The relevance of these tasks in frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD is illustrated by the report of the results of a study conducted in 18 patients by the Cambridge group and by the personal study of a patient with early stage of vfFTD. The relevance of the diagnostic of sociocognitive impairment in neurological patients is discussed.

  1. Dissociation and functional neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brown, R J

    2017-01-01

    Dissociation has been cited as a possible psychologic mechanism underpinning functional neurologic disorders (FND) since the 19th century. Since that time, changes in psychiatric classification have created confusion about what the term dissociation actually means. The available evidence suggests that it now refers to at least two qualitatively distinct types of phenomena: detachment (an altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of separation from the self or world) and compartmentalization (a reversible loss of voluntary control over apparently intact processes and functions), as well as their underlying mechanisms. This chapter considers some of the problems with conflating these phenomena under a single heading as well as the relationship between detachment, compartmentalization, and FND. It is argued that FNDs are fundamentally compartmentalization disorders, but that detachment is often part of the clinical picture and may contribute to the development and maintenance of functional symptoms in many cases. By this view, understanding compartmentalization requires an appreciation of the mechanisms involved in controlling and accessing mental processes and contents. Two possible mechanisms in this regard are described and the evidence for these is considered, followed by a discussion of clinical and empiric implications.

  2. The impact of cranioplasty on neurological function.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, Stephen; Janzen, Courtney; Kruger, Kate; Ho, Kwok M

    2013-10-01

    To assess changes in neurological function after cranioplasty. Functional and neurocognitive assessments including activities of daily living assessment, functional independence measure (FIM) and the Cognitive assessment report (COGNISTAT) were conducted on all patients within 72 h before and 7 days after cranioplasty. A change in the total FIM score of 2 points was taken to be clinically significant. Assessments were performed on 25 patients. The functional status was unchanged in eighteen patients (72%), four patients (16%) demonstrated a significant improvement and three patients (12%) deteriorated significantly. Those with deterioration after cranioplasty had some forms of complications including pneumocephalus or seizure. After excluding the three patients who had immediate medical or surgical complications after surgery, there was a mild overall improvement in the mean FIM score (2.1, 95% confidence interval 0.1-4.3, p = 0.049), mainly due to an improvement in their motor function. A small but significant number of patients appear to improve clinically following cranioplasty. The so-called syndrome of the trephined may be more common than had been previously appreciated.

  3. The effectiveness of interactive computer assisted instruction compared to videotaped instruction for teaching nurses to assess neurological function of stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Su-Chen; Cheng, Kuei-Yueh; Sun, Tzu-Kuan; Chang, Ku-Chou; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Huang, Yu-Ching; Chang, Jui-Kun; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2009-12-01

    Teaching inexperienced nurses to assess neurologic function of acute ischemic stroke patients poses challenges to educators in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of two programs that teach nurses the use of the Chinese version of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (C-NIHSS), and to evaluate the level of learner satisfaction with these teaching programs. An experimental research design with two groups, one pre-test and two post-tests was utilized. Six neurology and neurosurgery wards at two hospitals in southern Taiwan. Participating nurses were stratified based on their clinical level of experience and prior training on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). They were randomly assigned to either the experimental C-NIHSS interactive computer assisted instruction (ICAI) group (n=44) or the Instructor-led videotape learning program (IVLP) group (n=40) to learn the C-NIHSS. The measurement tools included the score verification unit (SVU) (score range from 0 to 45, content validity index, CVI=0.96, percentage agreement=84%) and the learner satisfaction scale (CVI=0.92, Cronbach's alpha=0.97). Both groups' scores on the assessment of correctness significantly increased (F=35.50, p=0.00) after intervention. However, there was an insignificant difference between the changes in the two groups (F=0.02, p=0.89). After using one-way ANCOVA analysis, and adjusting for the length of experience in neurological nursing, the results showed that in the second post-test, the ICAI group's score was significantly higher than that of the IVLP group (F=4.81, p=0.03). There was a positive correlation between assessment correctness on the second post-test and length of experience in neurological nursing (r=0.35, p<0.05). It was concluded that nurses with less experience in neurological nursing, who receive ICAI will perform a better assessment of stroke patients than those who received IVLP. The C-NIHSS ICAI teaching program

  4. Reptilian neurology: anatomy and function.

    PubMed

    Wyneken, Jeanette

    2007-09-01

    The reptilian nervous system is relatively simple in structure yet is characterized by great functional diversity. This article describes the reptilian nervous system, highlighting the similarities and differences among species in structures and functions.

  5. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-06

    reduction program must be evaluated to determine its effectiveness . Neurology Falls 8 In order to successfully reduce the risk of patient harm resulting...from falls, implementation of a fall reduction program and evaluation of the effectiveness of such a program is required. CDC Recommendations The... different from outpatient falls assessment where functional mobility of chronic nature with stable medications is more of an issue. In the inpatient

  6. [Assessment of Occupational Problems in Neurological Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Rollnik, J D; Schmidt, S B; Allmann, J; Boltzmann, M

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: The so-called Würzburg Screening (WS) is recommended for assessing occupational problems among rehabilitation patients. However, it is unclear whether it can be used in neurological rehabilitation. Data of the WS as well as of a medical opinion of occupational problems (both assessed at the beginning of rehabilitation) was compared with prognoses of occupation at the end of rehabilitation. Methods: Data of 347 neurological post-acute rehabilitation patients were analyzed. Data of the WS as well as of a medical opinion of occupational problems (both assessed at the beginning of rehabilitation) was compared with prognoses of occupation at the end of rehabilitation. Results: The sensitivity of the WS to predict poor occupational outcome was 61.5 % while its specificity was 59.4 %. When combined with medical opinion, its sensitivity was higher (75 %) with a specificity of only 50.9 %. Regarding the prediction of further need for rehabilitation, the WS had a sensitivity of 56.3 % and specificity 76.4 %. Combined with the medical assessment, the sensitivity increased to 76.5 %, whereas the specificity was slightly lower with 76,1 %. Conclusion: Neither the WS alone nor the combination with a medical assessment allows valid prognoses of occupational problems and further rehabilitation needs at the beginning of rehabilitation. This suggests that the validity of the WS, which has been demonstrated for other indications, does not simply apply to neurological rehabilitation. Further studies are necessary to determine the validity of this scale. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Sparring and Neurological Function in Professional Boxers

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Yu, Steven S.; Brenner, Lisa A.; Langenberg, Patricia; Scrofani, Phillip; Pannella, Patrick; Hsu, Edbert B.; Roberts, Darryl W.; Monsell, Ray M. T.; Binks, Sidney W.; Guzman, Alvaro; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased interest regarding the potentially long-term negative impact of chronic traumatic brain injury, limited research has been conducted regarding such injuries and neurological outcomes in real world settings. To increase understanding regarding the relationship between sparring (e.g., training under the tutelage of an experienced boxing coach for the purpose of improving skills and/or fitness) and neurological functioning, professional boxers (n = 237) who competed in Maryland between 2003 and 2008 completed measures regarding sparring exposure (Cumulative Sparring Index, CSI) and performance on tests of cognition (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT) and balance (Sharpened Romberg Test, SRT). Measures were completed prior to boxing matches. Higher scores on the CSI (increased sparring exposure) were associated with poorer performance on both tests of cognition (SDMT) and balance (SRT). A threshold effect was noted regarding performance on the SDMT, with those reporting CSI values greater than about 150 experiencing a decline in cognition. A history of frequent and/or intense sparring may pose a significant risk for developing boxing associated neurological sequelae. Implementing administration of clinically meaningful tests before bouts, such as the CSI, SDMT, and/or the SRT, as well as documentation of results into the boxer’s physicals or medical profiles may be an important step for improving boxing safety. PMID:25101253

  8. Sparring and neurological function in professional boxers.

    PubMed

    Stiller, John W; Yu, Steven S; Brenner, Lisa A; Langenberg, Patricia; Scrofani, Phillip; Pannella, Patrick; Hsu, Edbert B; Roberts, Darryl W; Monsell, Ray M T; Binks, Sidney W; Guzman, Alvaro; Postolache, Teodor T

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased interest regarding the potentially long-term negative impact of chronic traumatic brain injury, limited research has been conducted regarding such injuries and neurological outcomes in real world settings. To increase understanding regarding the relationship between sparring (e.g., training under the tutelage of an experienced boxing coach for the purpose of improving skills and/or fitness) and neurological functioning, professional boxers (n = 237) who competed in Maryland between 2003 and 2008 completed measures regarding sparring exposure (Cumulative Sparring Index, CSI) and performance on tests of cognition (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT) and balance (Sharpened Romberg Test, SRT). Measures were completed prior to boxing matches. Higher scores on the CSI (increased sparring exposure) were associated with poorer performance on both tests of cognition (SDMT) and balance (SRT). A threshold effect was noted regarding performance on the SDMT, with those reporting CSI values greater than about 150 experiencing a decline in cognition. A history of frequent and/or intense sparring may pose a significant risk for developing boxing associated neurological sequelae. Implementing administration of clinically meaningful tests before bouts, such as the CSI, SDMT, and/or the SRT, as well as documentation of results into the boxer's physicals or medical profiles may be an important step for improving boxing safety.

  9. Hypnosis as therapy for functional neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Q

    2017-01-01

    Suggestion in hypnosis has been applied to the treatment of functional neurologic symptoms since the earliest descriptions of hypnosis in the 19th century. Suggestion in this sense refers to an intentional communication of beliefs or ideas, whether verbally or nonverbally, to produce subjectively convincing changes in experience and behavior. The recognition of suggestion as a psychologic process with therapeutic applications was closely linked to the derivation of hypnosis from earlier healing practices. Animal magnetism, the immediate precursor of hypnosis, arrived at a psychologic concept of suggestion along with other ideas and practices which were then incorporated into hypnosis. Before then, other forms of magnetism and ritual healing practices such as exorcism involved unintentionally suggestive verbal and nonverbal stimuli. We consider the derivation of hypnosis from these practices not only to illustrate the range of suggestive processes, but also the consistency with which suggestion has been applied to the production and removal of dissociative and functional neurologic symptoms over many centuries. Nineteenth-century practitioners treated functional symptoms with induction of hypnosis per se; imperative suggestions, or commands for specific effects; "medical clairvoyance" in hypnotic trance, in which patients diagnosed their own condition and predicted the time and manner of their recovery; and suggestion without prior hypnosis, known as "fascination" or "psychotherapeutics." Modern treatments largely involve different types of imperative suggestion with or without hypnosis. However, the therapeutic application of suggestion in hypnosis to functional and other symptoms waned in the first half of the 20th century under the separate pressures of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. In recent decades suggestion in hypnosis has been more widely applied to treating functional neurologic symptoms. Suggestion is typically applied within the context of other

  10. Psychologic theories in functional neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Carson, A; Ludwig, L; Welch, K

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter. Our aim is an overview with the emphasis on breadth of coverage rather than depth. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    PubMed

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  12. Neurologic and functional long-term outcome after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierski, Piotr; Stelągowski, Mirosław; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Glabinski, Andrzej

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the neurologic status of patients a year after endarterectomy with the use of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the degree of disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and to examine the patients' subjective evaluation of their health. One hundred two patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis who underwent endarterectomy and attended a 1-year follow-up examination were enrolled in the study. The material comprised 72 (70.6%) men and 30 (29.4%) women. Before the surgery, the patients' neurologic status was assessed according to the NIHSS, and their functional status was rated with the mRS. Additionally, the patients were asked to assess their life quality on a 10-point Likert scale. The mean NIHSS score before the operation was 2.76 points (SD 2.47), whereas a year after it was 2.05 points (SD 1.84) (P < .0001). The NIHSS scores that improved significantly a year after endarterectomy were level of consciousness-questions and commands, motor leg, and sensory (P < .05). The patients' neurologic status assessed with the NIHSS improved significantly 1 year after carotid endarterectomy mostly because of the improvement in their verbal and motor communication ability, physical condition and agility, and reduction in sensory disturbances. The observed changes in the neurologic status were reflected in the functional status and subjective life quality assessment, which appeared to be significantly better a year after the surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pediatric Epilepsy: Neurology, Functional Imaging, and Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mountz, James M; Patterson, Christina M; Tamber, Mandeep S

    2017-03-01

    In this chapter we provide a comprehensive review of the current role that functional imaging can have in the care of the pediatric epilepsy patient from the perspective of the epilepsy neurologist and the epilepsy neurosurgeon. In the neurology section, the diagnosis and classification of epilepsy adapted by the International League Against Epilepsy as well as the etiology and incidence of the disease is presented. The neuroimaging section describes how advanced nuclear medicine imaging methods can be synergized to provide a maximum opportunity to localize an epileptogenic focus. This section described the value of FDG-PET and regional cerebral blood flow SPECT in the identification of an epileptogenic focus. The imaging section also emphasizes the importance on developing a dedicated epilepsy management team, comprised of an epilepsy imaging specialist, epilepsy neurologist and epilepsy neurosurgeon, to provide the maximum benefit to each child with epilepsy. An emphasis is placed on preparation for ictal SPECT injection procedures, including the critical role of an automated injector well as the use of state-of-the-art dedicated nuclear medicine imaging and analysis protocols to correctly localize the epileptogenic focus location. In the final section, surgical options, approaches and expected outcomes for the different classes of epilepsy is presented.

  14. The effects of neurologic assessment E-learning in nurses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji Yeon; Issenberg, S Barry; Roh, Young Sook

    2017-10-01

    A firm understanding of the preliminary assessment of a patient with neurological disorders is needed for ensuring optimal patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of using e-learning on neurologic assessment knowledge, ability, and self-confidence among nurses. This study used a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Nurses working in the neurology and neurosurgery wards, Republic of Korea PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 50 nurses was assigned to either the experimental group (n=24) or the control group (n=26). The experimental group participated in the self-directed e-learning program related to neurologic assessment, and control group underwent self-directed learning with handout. Knowledge, ability, and self-confidence were measured at pretest and posttest. There were no significant differences in knowledge (U=270, p=0.399) and self-confidence (U=241.5, p=0.171) between the two groups. Nurses in the experimental group showed higher neurologic assessment ability compared with those in the control group (U=199, p=0.028). Self-directed neurologic assessment e-learning induced improvement in the neurologic assessment ability among nurses. Self-directed e-learning can be applied for improving competencies in neurologic assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes.

  16. Neurologic, Functional and Cognitive Stroke Outcomes in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Baek, Jonggyu; Skolarus, Lesli E; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Our objective was to compare neurologic, functional, and cognitive stroke outcomes in Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) using data from a population-based study. Methods: Ischemic strokes (2008-2012) were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from patient or proxy interviews (conducted at baseline and 90 days post-stroke) and medical records. Ethnic differences in neurologic (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), range 0-44, higher scores worse), functional (activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score, range 1-4, higher scores worse), and cognitive (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), range 0-100, lower scores worse) outcomes were assessed with Tobit or linear regression adjusted for demographics and clinical factors. Results: 513, 510, and 415 subjects had complete data for neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes and covariates, respectively. Median age was 66 (IQR: 57-78); 64% were MA. In MAs, median NIHSS, ADL/IADL and 3MSE score were 3 (IQR: 1-6), 2.5 (IQR: 1.6-3.5) and 88 (IQR: 76-94), respectively. MAs scored 48% worse (95% CI: 23%-78%) on NIHSS, 0.36 points worse (95% CI: 0.16-0.57) on ADL/IADL score, and 3.39 points worse (95% CI: 0.35-6.43) on 3MSE than NHWs after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: MAs scored worse than NHWs on all outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors; differences were only partially explained by ethnic differences in survival. These findings in combination with the increased stroke risk in MAs suggest that the public health burden of stroke in this growing population is substantial. PMID:24627112

  17. Neurological assessment of Chinese infants with positional plagiocephaly using a Chinese version of the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Qing; Wang, Li-Yan; Zhao, Cong-Min; Men, Qing; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is the most common subtype of asymmetric deformity in the infant skull. Cumulative evidence has demonstrated that PP is associated with abnormal neuromotor development; however, neurological assessment scores of infants with PP have not been well established, and PP has not attracted sufficient attention in China. This study used a Chinese version of the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) to identify neurological abnormalities among infants with PP and to determine the differences between infants with different (mild, moderate, and severe) degrees of PP. We compared the neurological evaluation scores between 393 infants with different degrees of PP and 390 healthy infants from 0 to 18 months of age using a Chinese version of the INFANIB. The infants with PP aged 0-7.9 months had lower scores on the spasticity, head and trunk, leg, and French angle subscales and lower total scores than the normal infants. Additionally, the infants with PP aged 9-18 months showed statistically significantly lower scores on the spasticity, head and trunk, vestibular function, leg, and French angle subscales and total scores than the normal infants. Among the PP subgroups, the infants with mild PP had the highest scores, followed by the infants with moderate PP and the infants with severe PP. Compared with the normal infants, the infants with PP had abnormal neurological assessment scores, and the degree of neurological abnormality was associated with the severity of PP. The INFANIB revealed neurological abnormalities, including asymmetric movements and abnormal muscle tone, postures, and reflexes, in infants with PP, especially those with moderate or severe PP. These abnormalities were similar to those of infants with cerebral palsy. Therefore, PP may serve as a marker of neurodevelopmental risk and should receive considerable attention. Whether moderate or severe PP is related to cerebral palsy remains to be confirmed in long

  18. Functional (conversion) neurological symptoms: research since the millennium.

    PubMed

    Carson, Alan J; Brown, Richard; David, Anthony S; Duncan, Roderick; Edwards, Mark J; Goldstein, Laura H; Grunewald, Richard; Howlett, Stephaine; Kanaan, Richard; Mellers, John; Nicholson, Timothy R; Reuber, M; Schrag, Anette-Eleonore; Stone, Jon; Voon, Valerie

    2012-08-01

    Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) are commonly encountered but have engendered remarkably little academic interest. 'UK-Functional Neurological Symptoms (UK-FNS)' was an informal inaugural meeting of UK based clinicians in March 2011 with a variety of research and clinical interests in the field. This narrative review reflects the content of the meeting, and our opinion of key findings in the field since the turn of the millennium.

  19. Functional disorders in the Neurology section of ICD-11

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Mark; Carson, Alan; Bergen, Donna; Shakir, Raad

    2014-01-01

    Functional disorders are one of the most common diagnoses in neurologic practice, but this is not reflected in current classification systems. The 11th revision of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2017 offers an opportunity for these disorders to appear within both neurologic and psychiatric categories for the first time. We discuss the rationale for this proposal and highlight the potential benefits for health professionals and patients. PMID:25488992

  20. Assessing cardiac and neurological maturation during the intrauterine period.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Curtis L; Govindan, R B; Murphy, Pamela; Eswaran, Hari

    2008-08-01

    The world's first magnetoencephalography (MEG) system specifically designed for fetal and newborn assessment has been installed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. This noninvasive system called SARA (SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment) consists of 151 primary superconducting sensors that detect biomagnetic fields from the human body. Since the installation of SARA, significant progress has been made toward the ultimate goal of developing a clinical neurological assessment tool for the developing fetus. Using appropriate analysis techniques, cardiac and brain signals are recorded and studied to gain new understanding of fetal maturation. It is clear from our investigations that a combination of assessment protocols including both fetal heart and brain activity is necessary for the development of a comprehensive new method of fetal neurological testing. We plan to implement such a test protocol for fetuses at high risk for neurological impairment due to certain maternal risk factors and/or fetal diagnostic findings.

  1. Does efavirenz replacement improve neurological function in treated HIV infection?

    PubMed

    Payne, B; Chadwick, T J; Blamire, A; Anderson, K N; Parikh, J; Qian, J; Hynes, A M; Wilkinson, J; Price, D A

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of specific antiretroviral drugs to cognitive function in HIV-infected people remains poorly understood. Efavirenz (EFV) may plausibly cause cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether chronic EFV therapy is a modifier of neurocognitive and neurometabolic function in the setting of suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. We performed an open-label phase IV controlled trial. Adult subjects who were stable on suppressive EFV therapy for at least 6 months were switched to ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with no change in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone. The following parameters were assessed before and 10 weeks after therapy switch: cognitive function (by CogState(®) computerized battery); brain metabolites (by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy); brain activity [by attentional processing task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging]; and sleep quantity and quality [by sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale]. Sixteen subjects completed the study. Despite most subjects (81%) self-reporting memory problems at baseline, cognitive function, brain metabolites, and brain activity showed no change at 10 weeks after switch. Sleep quality improved on switch off EFV [mean PSQI (standard deviation): EFV, 8.5 (6.5); LPV/r, 5.8 (5.5); mean difference -0.4; 95% confidence interval -6.0 to -0.7]. This is the first study to assess the effects of chronic EFV therapy on neurological function in a controlled setting. We conclude that EFV withdrawal is unlikely to result in significant modification of neurocognitive function in otherwise stable HIV-infected people. © 2017 The Authors HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  2. A Factorial Approach to Neurological Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiercinsky, Dennis P.; Hallenbeck, Charles E.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in this study was to determine the factor structure of the independent variables in a brain-damaged population and to assess its predictive value for complex test variables independent of those variables that determine the factor set. (Author/RK)

  3. Phonatory Function of Neurologically Impaired Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirner, Petra; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared five parameters of phonatory function in an examination of the use of acoustic measures in differential diagnosis in 39 subjects in 3 neuropathological groups (Parkinson, Huntington, cerebellar ataxia) and a normal control group. Results indicated higher variability in perturbation in all the neuropathological groups.…

  4. Phonatory Function of Neurologically Impaired Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirner, Petra; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared five parameters of phonatory function in an examination of the use of acoustic measures in differential diagnosis in 39 subjects in 3 neuropathological groups (Parkinson, Huntington, cerebellar ataxia) and a normal control group. Results indicated higher variability in perturbation in all the neuropathological groups.…

  5. Rater agreement on gait assessment during neurologic examination of horses.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E; Dunkel, B; Barker, W H J; Finding, E J T; Perkins, J D; Witte, T H; Yates, L J; Andersen, P H; Baiker, K; Piercy, R J

    2014-01-01

    Reproducible and accurate recognition of presence and severity of ataxia in horses with neurologic disease is important when establishing a diagnosis, assessing response to treatment, and making recommendations that might influence rider safety or a decision for euthanasia. To determine the reproducibility and validity of the gait assessment component in the neurologic examination of horses. Twenty-five horses referred to the Royal Veterinary College Equine Referral Hospital for neurological assessment (n = 15), purchased (without a history of gait abnormalities) for an unrelated study (n = 5), or donated because of perceived ataxia (n = 5). Utilizing a prospective study design; a group of board-certified medicine (n = 2) and surgery (n = 2) clinicians and residents (n = 2) assessed components of the equine neurologic examination (live and video recorded) and assigned individual and overall neurologic gait deficit grades (0-4). Inter-rater agreement and assessment-reassessment reliability were quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The ICCs of the selected components of the neurologic examination ranged from 0 to 0.69. "Backing up" and "recognition of mistakes over obstacle" were the only components with an ICC > 0.6. Assessment-reassessment agreement was poor to fair. The agreement on gait grading was good overall (ICC = 0.74), but poor for grades ≤ 1 (ICC = 0.08) and fair for ataxia grades ≥ 2 (ICC = 0.43). Clinicians with prior knowledge of a possible gait abnormality were more likely to assign a grade higher than the median grade. Clinicians should be aware of poor agreement even between skilled observers of equine gait abnormalities, especially when the clinical signs are subtle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. The Spectrum of Functional Rating Scales in Neurology Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Pushpa

    2017-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate outcome measure is crucial to the success of a clinical trial, in order to obtain accurate results, which, in turn, influence patient care and future research. Outcomes that can be directly measured are mortality/survival. More frequently, neurology clinical trials evaluate outcomes that cannot be directly measured, such as disability, cognitive function, or change in symptoms of the condition under study. These complex outcomes are abstract ideas or latent constructs and are measured using rating scales. Functional rating scales typically assess the ability of patients to perform tasks and roles for everyday life. Rating scales should be valid (measure what they are supposed to measure), reliable (provide similar results if administered under the same conditions), and responsive (able to detect clinically important changes over time). The clinical relevance of rating scales depends on their ability to detect a minimal clinically important difference, and should be distinguished from statistical significance. Most rating scales are ordinal scales and have limitations. Modern psychometric methods of Rasch analysis and item response theory, termed latent trait theory, are increasingly being utilized to convert ordinal data to interval measurements, both to validate existing scales and to develop new scales. Patient-reported outcomes are being increasingly used in clinical trials and have a role in clinical quality assessment. The PROMIS and NeuroQoL databases are excellent resources for rigorously developed and validated patient-reported outcomes.

  7. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  8. Effects of material deprivation on neurological functioning.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G

    1983-01-01

    An intellectual deficit in low socio-economic strata (S-E) of underdeveloped countries is widespread. A similar phenomenon is observed in industrialized countries and is known as socio-cultural retardation (S-CR); one theory holds that it is due to psychosensory deprivation whilst another denies that there is in fact a deficit, there being only middle class-oriented testing applied to subjects whose skills lie in another direction. Whichever theory is true, in underdeveloped countries the problem is compounded by malnutrition and perennial infection so that the intellectual deficit in these societies may be qualitatively different. This paper sets out the point of view of a clinical neurologist who believes it likely that the technological Western mode of life entails an organization of the brain which is lacking in subjects in low S-E strata of less sophisticated cultures. These will therefore evince multiple mild deficiencies in specific functions of the brain. The core is thought to be incomplete maturation of neural mechanisms. Examples are given: (1) facial dyspraxia; (2) permanence of primitive reflexes; (3) poor body image and sensory integration; and (4) tactile-perceptual functioning (which in fact showed no deficiency but is given as the type of neuropsychological factor which may show delay). Middle class life in Western society is held to be more complex in absolute terms. This is an important cause of the large number of dropouts from primary education in Latin America, whose school systems are based on middle class values, themselves tailored to the technological age.

  9. Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on patients with phantom limbs suggest that neural connections in the adult human brain are much more malleable than previously assumed. Three weeks after amputation of an arm, sensations from the ipsilateral face are referred to the phantom; this effect is caused by the sensory input from the face skin 'invading' and activating deafferented hand zones in the cortex and thalamus. Many phantom arms are 'paralysed' in a painful position. If a mirror is propped vertically in the sagittal plane and the patient looks at the reflection of his/her normal hand, this reflection appears superimposed on the 'felt' position of the phantom. Remarkably, if the real arm is moved, the phantom is felt to move as well and this sometimes relieves the painful cramps in the phantom. Mirror visual feedback (MVF) has shown promising results with chronic regional pain syndrome and hemiparesis following stroke. These results suggest two reasons for a paradigm shift in neurorehabilitation. First, there appears to be tremendous latent plasticity even in the adult brain. Second, the brain should be thought of, not as a hierarchy of organised autonomous modules, each of which delivers its output to the next level, but as a set of complex interacting networks that are in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the brain's environment. Both principles can be potentially exploited in a clinical context to facilitate recovery of function.

  10. Multidisciplinary assessment of vision in children with neurological disability

    PubMed Central

    Lundy, Claire; Hill, Nan; Wolsley, Clive; Shannon, Myrtle; McClelland, Julie; Saunders, Kathryn; Jackson, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is no consensus as to the best method of assessing vision in children with neurological disability. There are a variety of tests and approaches that can be used. It is important to look at models of assessment that identify the visual diagnosis and provide appropriate feedback and explanation to parents, carers and educational professionals. Methods This study reports on the results of comprehensive visual assessments of fifty children with neurological disability over a three year period. It focuses on the feedback from families and professionals after the assessment report was disseminated. Results The majority of families and professionals strongly agreed that a specialist assessment was needed in this population. Parents and professionals particularly valued the written report which provided guidance on appropriate visual material including advice relevant to education. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of specialist teams engaging with local child development services and indicates how partnership working can potentially be emotionally supportive as well as developmentally beneficial. PMID:22347736

  11. DL-3-n-Butylphthalide, an anti-oxidant agent, prevents neurological deficits and cerebral injury following stroke per functional analysis, magnetic resonance imaging and histological assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihong; Yu, Wan-hua Amy; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Wang, Chunmei; Zhao, Feng; Qi, Wei; Chan, W M; Huang, Yin; Wai, Maria S M; Dong, Jinghui; Yew, D T

    2012-08-01

    DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) is a synthetic compound based on L-3-n-Butylphthalide which was isolated from seeds of Apium graveolens. The present study aims at evaluating the outcome of NBP given prior to and after the onset of ischemic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Stroke was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in SHR and WKY. For pre-treatment, NBP was administered to SHR and WKY daily for two months prior to MCAO. For post-treatment, NBP was given daily for seven consecutive days after MCAO. Seven days post-surgery, rats were tested for the presence of neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were employed to calculate the infarct volume. The cerebral cortex and corpus striatum in the ischemic penumbra area were examined microscopically for pathological changes. In SHR, NBP pre- and post-treatment significantly lowered neurological deficit scores, reduced infarct volume, and minimized pathological changes in the penumbra area when compared to oil-vehicle treated controls. In WKY, these beneficial effects were observed only in the post-treatment group. The beneficial effects of NBP post-treatment were greater in WKY than in SHR. Results indicated that NBP could exert both preventive and therapeutic effects on ischemic stroke in SHR, but only exerted therapeutic effect in WKY.

  12. Neurological soft signs in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Their relationship to executive function and parental neurological soft signs.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingbo; Xie, Jingtao; Chen, Gui; Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Suhong

    2015-07-30

    The correlations between neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their executive function, symptoms of inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity and the NSS of their parents remain unclear. This study aimed to examine: (1) the prevalence of NSS in children with ADHD and their parents; (2) the correlation between the NSS of children with ADHD and the NSS of their parents; and (3) the correlation between the NSS of children with ADHD and their executive function and symptoms. NSS were assessed with the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) in 57 children with ADHD (and 80 parents) and 60 healthy children (and 75 parents). Executive function was measured with the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Children with ADHD and their parents had significantly higher NSS than normal children and their parents, respectively, and the NSS of children with ADHD were correlated more strongly with the NSS of their fathers than their mothers. No correlation was found between NSS and BRIEF executive function, but Disinhibition in children with ADHD was significantly correlated with hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Paternal and maternal NSS provided different predictions for child NSS. It may be that NSS are more likely to be genetically transmitted by fathers.

  13. Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kado, Yoko; Diez, Midory Higa; Kishikawa, Toshihiro; Sanada, Satoshi

    2016-05-03

    In the 1950s, large-scale food poisoning caused by methylmercury was identified in Minamata, Japan. Although severe intrauterine exposure cases (ie, congenital Minamata disease patients) are well known, possible impacts of methylmercury exposure in utero among residents, which is likely at lower levels than in congenital Minamata disease patients, are rarely explored. In 2014, the authors examined neurological and neurocognitive functions among 18 exposed participants in Minamata, focusing on fine motor, visuospatial construction, and executive functions. More than half of the participants had some fine motor and coordination difficulties. In addition, several participants had lower performance for neurocognitive function tests (the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test and Keio version of the Wisconsin card sorting test). These deficits imply diffuse brain damage. This study suggests possible neurological and neurocognitive impacts of prenatal exposure to methylmercury among exposed residents of Minamata.

  14. Rett syndrome: disruption of epigenetic control of postnatal neurological functions.

    PubMed

    Pohodich, Amy E; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-10-15

    Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) cause a devastating pediatric neurological disorder called Rett syndrome. In males, these mutations typically result in severe neonatal encephalopathy and early lethality. On the other hand, owing to expression of the normal allele in ∼50% of cells, females do not suffer encephalopathy but instead develop Rett syndrome. Typically females with Rett syndrome exhibit a delayed onset of neurologic dysfunction that manifests around the child's first birthday and progresses over the next few years. Features of this disorder include loss of acquired language and motor skills, intellectual impairment and hand stereotypies. The developmental regression observed in patients with Rett syndrome arises from altered neuronal function and is not the result of neurodegeneration. Maintenance of an appropriate level of MeCP2 appears integral to the function of healthy neurons as patients with increased levels of MeCP2, owing to duplication of the Xq28 region encompassing the MECP2 locus, also present with intellectual disability and progressive neurologic symptoms. Despite major efforts over the past two decades to elucidate the molecular functions of MeCP2, the mechanisms underlying the delayed appearance of symptoms remain unclear. In this review, we will highlight recent findings that have expanded our knowledge of MeCP2's functions, and we will discuss how epigenetic regulation, chromatin organization and circuit dynamics may contribute to the postnatal onset of Rett syndrome.

  15. The Assessment of Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Infancy Using the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination: Strengths and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Middelburg, Karin J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Little is known of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) in infancy. This study aimed to evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of the assessment of MND with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination (TINE) and the construct and predictive validity of MND in infancy. Method: Inter-assessor agreement was determined in a sample of 40 infants…

  16. The Assessment of Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Infancy Using the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination: Strengths and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Middelburg, Karin J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Little is known of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) in infancy. This study aimed to evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of the assessment of MND with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination (TINE) and the construct and predictive validity of MND in infancy. Method: Inter-assessor agreement was determined in a sample of 40 infants…

  17. Neonatal physiological and behavioral stress during neurological assessment.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Jane K; Blackburn, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral effects of evaluative handling procedures were studied in 72 newborn infants: 36 preterm (30-35 weeks of gestation) and 36 full-term neonates (39-41 weeks of gestation). While the neurological assessment was physiologically and behaviorally destabilizing to both age groups, preterm subjects had higher heart rate (P < .001), greater increase in blood pressure (P < .01); decreased peripheral oxygenation inferred from mottled skin color (P < .001); and higher frequencies of finger splay (P < .001), arm salute (P < .01), hiccoughs (P < .001), and yawns (P < .001) than full-term subjects. Both groups demonstrated greater stress during the neuromotor phase of testing. Neonatal care professionals must scrutinize the diagnostic benefit, reliability, safety, and timing of neurological assessment given expected physiological and behavioral changes in stable preterm neonates.

  18. The influence of fish oil on neurological development and function.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ouf, Noran M; Jan, Mohammed M

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil originates from fish tissue rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Healthy individuals are advised to consume foods rich in fish oil at least twice a week. However, such intake varies depending on cultural or personal preference, and socio-economic status. Many families and patients with chronic neurological conditions consume supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids. We are frequently requested to give advice and recommendations on using such agents to help improve neurological developmental and cognitive functions. The objective of this review is to discuss the available literature supporting the role of fish oils on brain development and function. There is a growing body of literature suggesting a potential benefit of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; however it is still unclear if there are response variations according to the developmental stage, age, and dose.

  19. Neurological and functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Brian A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe neurological and functional outcomes after traumatic paraplegia. Design Retrospective analysis of longitudinal database. Setting Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems. Participants Six hundred sixty-one subjects enrolled in the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems database, injured between 2000 and 2011, with initial neurological level of injury from T2–12. Two hundred sixty-five subjects had second neurological exams and 400 subjects had Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores ≥6 months after injury. Outcome Measures American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade, sensory level (SL), lower extremity motor scores (LEMS), and FIM. Results At baseline, 73% of subjects were AIS A, and among them, 15.5% converted to motor incomplete. The mean SL increase for subjects with an AIS A grade was 0.33 ± 0.21; 86% remained within two levels of baseline. Subjects with low thoracic paraplegia (T10–12) demonstrated greater LEMS gain than high paraplegia (T2–9), and also had higher 1-year FIM scores, which had not been noted in earlier reports. Better FIM scores were also correlated with better AIS grades, younger age and increase in AIS grade. Ability to walk at 1 year was associated with low thoracic injury, higher initial LEMS, incomplete injury and increase in AIS grade. Conclusion Little neurological recovery is seen in persons with complete thoracic SCI, especially with levels above T10. Persons who are older at the time of injury have poorer functional recovery than younger persons. Conversion to a better AIS grade is associated with improvement in self-care and mobility at 1 year. PMID:25520184

  20. Neurological and neurobehavioral assessment of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyojin; Ai, Jinglu; Sabri, Mohamed; Tariq, Asma; Shang, Xueyuan; Chen, Gang; Macdonald, R Loch

    2009-01-01

    About 50% of humans with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) die and many survivors have neurological and neurobehavioral dysfunction. Animal studies usually focused on cerebral vasospasm and sometimes neuronal injury. The difference in endpoints may contribute to lack of translation of treatments effective in animals to humans. We reviewed prior animal studies of SAH to determine what neurological and neurobehavioral endpoints had been used, whether they differentiated between appropriate controls and animals with SAH, whether treatment effects were reported and whether they correlated with vasospasm. Only a few studies in rats examined learning and memory. It is concluded that more studies are needed to fully characterize neurobehavioral performance in animals with SAH and assess effects of treatment. PMID:19706182

  1. Inaccurate early assessment of neurological severity in head injury.

    PubMed

    Stocchetti, Nino; Pagan, Francesca; Calappi, Emiliana; Canavesi, Katia; Beretta, Luigi; Citerio, Giuseppe; Cormio, Manuela; Colombo, Angelo

    2004-09-01

    Intubation, which requires sedation and myorelaxants, may lead to inaccurate neurological evaluation of severely head-injured patients. Aims of this study were to describe the early clinical evolution of traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), to identify cases of over-estimated neurological severity, and to quantify the risk factors for this over-estimation. A total of 753 TBI patients consecutively admitted to ICU of three academic neurosurgical hospitals (NSH) were assessed. Cases whose severity was potentially over-estimated were identified by four criteria and indicated as "mistakenly severe" (MS): (1) no surgical intracranial masses; (2) could not follow commands at neurological assessment; (3) were dismissed from the ICU in < or =3 days to a regular ward; and (4) had regained the ability to obey commands. A total of 675 patients were intubated and/or sedated-paralyzed at the post-stabilization evaluation. In all, 304 patients had surgically treated intracranial masses. Among the 449 non-surgical cases, 58 patients fulfilling the criteria for MS were identified. The main features distinguishing MS from truly severe cases were younger age, higher Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at all time points, Marshall classification of Computerized Tomographic (CT) scan mostly Diffuse Injury I and II, fewer pupillary abnormalities, and a lower frequency of hypoxia, hypotension, and extra-cranial injuries. In a certain proportion of non-surgical TBI patients, mostly intubated and sedated, neurological examination is difficult and severity can be over-estimated. Risk factors for this inaccurate evaluation can be identified, and clinical decisions should be based on further examination.

  2. Can neurological evidence help courts assess criminal responsibility? Lessons from law and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Eyal; Funk, Chadd; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Gazzaniga, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Can neurological evidence help courts assess criminal responsibility? To answer this question, we must first specify legal criteria for criminal responsibility and then ask how neurological findings can be used to determine whether particular defendants meet those criteria. Cognitive neuroscience may speak to at least two familiar conditions of criminal responsibility: intention and sanity. Functional neuroimaging studies in motor planning, awareness of actions, agency, social contract reasoning, and theory of mind, among others, have recently targeted a small assortment of brain networks thought to be instrumental in such determinations. Advances in each of these areas bring specificity to the problems underlying the application of neuroscience to criminal law.

  3. Neurological Assessment Scores in Rabbit Embolic Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aliza; Woods, Sean; Skinner, Robert; Hatton, Jeff; Lowery, John; Roberson, Paula; Hennings, Leah; Culp, William C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neurological outcomes and behavioral assessments are widely used in animal models of stroke, but assessments in rabbit models are not fully validated. The wryneck model of neurological assessment scores (NAS) was compared to percent infarct volume (%IV) values (infarct volume is a proven clinical indicator of stroke severity) and arterial occlusion localization in three rabbit angiographic stroke models. Hypothesis: NAS values will correlate with percent infarct volume values. Methods: Anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits (N=131, 4-5 kg) received internal carotid artery emboli by angiographic catheter introduced into the femoral artery and occlusions were characterized. Rabbits were evaluated at 24 hours post embolism using the NAS test of 0 (normal) to 10 (death). Deficit criteria included neck twist, righting reflex, extension reflex in hind paw and forepaw, and posture. Brain sections stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) were analyzed for %IV. Volume of the infarct was measured and calculated as a percent of the total brain volume. Results: The aggregate correlation for NAS values vs. %IV values was R=0.61, p<0.0001, a strong positive relationship, while correlations of the NAS components ranged from R=0.28-0.46. Occlusionsof the posterior cerebral artery vs. the middle cerebral artery alone produced significantly greater deficit scores at p<0.0001. Conclusions: These positive results validate the NAS system in the rabbit angiographic embolic stroke model. PMID:24265650

  4. Student assessment by objective structured examination in a neurology clerkship

    PubMed Central

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Smith, Sandy; Blood, Angela; Brorson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the reliability and predictive ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 third-year medical students who took the OSCE. For each student, the OSCE consisted of 2 standardized patient encounters. The scores obtained from each encounter were compared. Faculty clinical evaluations of each student for 2 clinical inpatient rotations were also compared. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to test the ability of the averaged OSCE scores to predict standardized written examination scores and composite clinical scores. Results: Students' OSCE scores from the 2 standardized patient encounters were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.347, p < 0.001), and the scores for all students were normally distributed. In contrast, students' faculty clinical evaluation scores from 2 different clinical inpatient rotations were uncorrelated, and scores were skewed toward the highest ratings. After accounting for clerkship order, better OSCE scores were predictive of better National Board of Medical Examiners standardized examination scores (R2Δ = 0.131, p < 0.001) and of better faculty clinical scores (R2Δ = 0.078, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Student assessment by an OSCE provides a reliable and predictive objective assessment of clinical performance in a neurology clerkship. PMID:22855865

  5. Neurological function, information-motivation-behavioral skills factors, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors.

  6. Hypnosis as a model of functional neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Q

    2017-01-01

    In the 19th century it was recognized that neurologic symptoms could be caused by "morbid ideation" as well as organic lesions. The subsequent observation that hysteric (now called "functional") symptoms could be produced and removed by hypnotic suggestion led Charcot to hypothesize that suggestion mediated the effects of ideas on hysteric symptoms through as yet unknown effects on brain activity. The advent of neuroimaging 100 years later revealed strikingly similar neural correlates in experiments matching functional symptoms with clinical analogs created by suggestion. Integrative models of suggested and functional symptoms regard these alterations in brain function as the endpoint of a broader set of changes in information processing due to suggestion. These accounts consider that suggestions alter experience by mobilizing representations from memory systems, and altering causal attributions, during preconscious processing which alters the content of what is provided to our highly edited subjective version of the world. Hypnosis as a model for functional symptoms draws attention to how radical alterations in experience and behavior can conform to the content of mental representations through effects on cognition and brain function. Experimental study of functional symptoms and their suggested counterparts in hypnosis reveals the distinct and shared processes through which this can occur.

  7. Magnetoencephalographic Imaging of Resting-State Functional Connectivity Predicts Postsurgical Neurological Outcome in Brain Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tarapore, Phiroz E.; Martino, Juan; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Owen, Julia; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The removal of brain tumors in peri-eloquent or eloquent cortex risks causing new neurological deficits in patients. The assessment of the functionality of peri-lesional tissue is essential to avoidance of postoperative neurological morbidity. Objective To evaluate preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based functional connectivity as a predictor of short- and medium-term neurological outcome after removal of gliomas in peri-eloquent and eloquent areas. Methods Resting-state whole-brain MEG recordings were obtained from 79 consecutive subjects with focal brain gliomas near or within motor, sensory, or language areas. Neural activity was estimated using adaptive spatial filtering. The mean imaginary coherence between voxels in and around brain tumors was compared to contralesional voxels and used as an index of their functional connectivity with the rest of the brain. The connectivity values of the tissue resected during surgery were correlated to the early (one week post-operatively) and medium-term (six months post-operatively) neurological morbidity. Results Patients undergoing resection of tumors with decreased functional connectivity had a 29% rate of new neurological deficit 1 week after surgery and a 0% rate at 6-month follow-up. Patients undergoing resection of tumors with increased functional connectivity had a 60% rate of new deficit at 1 week and a 25% rate at 6 months. Conclusion MEG connectivity analysis gives a valuable preoperative evaluation of the functionality of the tissue surrounding tumors in peri-eloquent and eloquent areas. These data may be used to optimize pre-operative patient counseling and surgical strategy. PMID:22895403

  8. Assessment of Google Glass as an adjunct in neurological surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sahyouni, Ronald; Moshtaghi, Omid; Tran, Diem Kieu; Kaloostian, Sean; Rajaii, Ramin; Bustillo, David; Chen, Jefferson W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We assess Google Glass (“Glass”) in improving postoperative review (“debriefing”) and augmenting education in Neurological Surgery at a tertiary academic medical center. Methods: This was a prospective study. Participants were patients of Neurological Surgery physicians at a Tertiary Care Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. Resident physicians received a pre-questionnaire immediately following surgery. Next, the resident and attending physicians debriefed by reviewing the Glass operative recording. Then, residents completed a 4-part post-questionnaire. Questions 1–3 assessed: (1) the residents’ comfort level with the procedure, (2) the quality of education provided by their superiors, and (3) their comfort level in repeating the operation. Question 4 assessed: (4) the perceived benefit of debriefing using Glass. Results: Twelve surveys were collected. Scores were based on a 5-point Likert scale, with a higher score corresponding to a more positive response. For Questions 1–3, the average pre- and post-questionnaire scores were 3.75 and 4.42, respectively (P <.05). For Question 4, the average post-questionnaire score was 4.63, suggesting that postoperative Glass review improved their technical understanding of the procedure. Conclusions: Glass significantly improved neurosurgery residents’ comfort level and quality of training, and provided a high fidelity, reliable, and modifiable tool that enhanced residents’ understanding, expertise, and educational experience. Of note, certain limitations such as variable battery life, variable image quality, and subpar compatibility with surgeon loupes must still be overcome for Glass to become a realistic addition to neurosurgical education. PMID:28540134

  9. Angelman syndrome: a case series assessing neurological issues in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Marie; Daubail, Benoît; Khayat, Norbert; Chouchane, Mondher; Berger, Eric; Muzard, Emelyne; Medeiros de Bustos, Elisabeth; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence; Masurel, Alice; Darmency-Stamboul, Véronique; Huet, Frédéric; Béjot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Moulin, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical symptoms of Angelman syndrome (AS) in adults and to identify the neurological pathways affected in this disease. AS is a neurogenetic disorder resulting due to the deletion or inactivation of the ubiquitin-protein-ligase E3A gene on maternal chromosome 15. A retrospective analysis of data from six adults patients with clinical, electroencephalographic and genetic confirmation of AS was performed. Movement disorders of the hands and mouth, laughing spells, severe expressive speech disorders, a happy nature, hyposomnia and anxiety are the major neurological characteristics of AS in adulthood. Cerebellar ataxia, muscle hypotonia and tremor, though constant in childhood, tend to be attenuated in adulthood. Epilepsy, one of the most frequent symptoms in childhood and in adulthood, is characterised by specific electroencephalographic patterns. Key Messages: These clinical characteristics are important to improve the clinical awareness and genetic diagnosis of AS. Clinicians must be better informed concerning the adult phenotype as it is not well described in the literature. We stress the importance of AS as one of the main causes of intractable epilepsy. The authors suggest frontal and cerebellar dysfunction. Further functional cerebral imaging studies are necessary.

  10. Milestone-compatible neurology resident assessments: A role for observable practice activities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyell K; Dimberg, Elliot L; Boes, Christopher J; Eggers, Scott D Z; Dodick, David W; Cutsforth-Gregory, Jeremy K; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Capobianco, David J

    2015-06-02

    Beginning in 2014, US neurology residency programs were required to report each trainee's educational progression within 29 neurology Milestone competency domains. Trainee assessment systems will need to be adapted to inform these requirements. The primary aims of this study were to validate neurology resident assessment content using observable practice activities (OPAs) and to develop assessment formats easily translated to the Neurology Milestones. A modified Delphi technique was used to establish consensus perceptions of importance of 73 neurology OPAs among neurology educators and trainees at 3 neurology residency programs. A content validity score (CVS) was derived for each neurology OPA, with scores ≥4.0 determined in advance to indicate sufficient content validity. The mean CVS for all OPAs was 4.4 (range 3.5-5.0). Fifty-seven (78%) OPAs had a CVS ≥4.0, leaving 16 (22%) below the pre-established threshold for content validity. Trainees assigned a higher importance to individual OPAs (mean CVS 4.6) compared to faculty (mean 4.4, p = 0.016), but the effect size was small (η(2) = 0.10). There was no demonstrated effect of length of education experience on perceived importance of neurology OPAs (p = 0.23). Two sample resident assessment formats were developed, one using neurology OPAs alone and another using a combination of neurology OPAs and the Neurology Milestones. This study provides neurology training programs with content validity evidence for items to include in resident assessments, and sample assessment formats that directly translate to the Neurology Milestones. Length of education experience has little effect on perceptions of neurology OPA importance. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. The use of a battery of tracking tests in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.; Albers, J. W.; Potvin, A. R.; Tourtellotte, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A tracking test battery has been applied in a drug trail designed to compare the efficacy of L-DOPA and amantadine to that of L-DOPA and placebo in the treatment of 28 patients with Parkinson's disease. The drug trial provided an ideal opportunity for objectively evaluating the usefulness of tracking tests in assessing changes in neurologic function. Evaluating changes in patient performance resulting from disease progression and controlled clinical trials is of great importance in establishing effective treatment programs.

  12. The use of a battery of tracking tests in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.; Albers, J. W.; Potvin, A. R.; Tourtellotte, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A tracking test battery has been applied in a drug trail designed to compare the efficacy of L-DOPA and amantadine to that of L-DOPA and placebo in the treatment of 28 patients with Parkinson's disease. The drug trial provided an ideal opportunity for objectively evaluating the usefulness of tracking tests in assessing changes in neurologic function. Evaluating changes in patient performance resulting from disease progression and controlled clinical trials is of great importance in establishing effective treatment programs.

  13. [Assessment and treatment of conversion disorder: the most fascinating borderline of psychiatry and neurology].

    PubMed

    Vataja, Risto; Leppävuori, Antero

    2012-01-01

    Conversion disorder or functional neurological disorder is a neurological symptom complex originating from psychological factors, which manifests in voluntary motor and sensory functions or as unexplained epilepsy-like seizures. Until the 1980's the disorder was called hysterical neurosis. Later on, various general terms, such as unexplained somatic symptoms, pseudoneurological, somatoformic, psychogenic, or psychosomatic symptoms, have been applied. The latest phrase, functional neurological symptoms, emphasizes the change in the functioning of the nervous system rather than in its structure.

  14. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.

  15. Intellectual and neurological functioning in Morquio syndrome (MPS IVa).

    PubMed

    Davison, J E; Kearney, S; Horton, J; Foster, K; Peet, A C; Hendriksz, C J

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVa (MPS IVa, Morquio syndrome OMIM #253000) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS, EC 3.1.6.4; encoded by GALNS gene at 16q24.3). Unlike other MPS disorders involving excessive heparan and dermatan sulfate, Morquio syndrome has not been associated with neurological involvement nor with intellectual impairment as this disorder of keratan sulfate has been described as a purely visceral and skeletal disorder. Neurocognitive assessment was undertaken of MPS IVa patients with age appropriate intellectual tests as well as a Child Behaviour Checklist as part of clinical follow up. Available neuroimaging studies (MRI and MR spectroscopy) were reviewed. Whilst more than half of the overall IQ scores fell in the average range, scores for 3/8 children fell below average. A number of behavioural problems were highlighted, including anxiety/depression, attention and somatic complaints. Subtle neuroimaging abnormalities were demonstrated in over half of the children. These findings present a challenge to existing assumptions about the nature of Morquio A syndrome. A hypothesis regarding the potential role of calcium signalling is explored.

  16. Functional neurological symptom disorders in a pediatric emergency room: diagnostic accuracy, features, and outcome.

    PubMed

    de Gusmão, Claudio M; Guerriero, Réjean M; Bernson-Leung, Miya Elizabeth; Pier, Danielle; Ibeziako, Patricia I; Bujoreanu, Simona; Maski, Kiran P; Urion, David K; Waugh, Jeff L

    2014-08-01

    In children, functional neurological symptom disorders are frequently the basis for presentation for emergency care. Pediatric epidemiological and outcome data remain scarce. Assess diagnostic accuracy of trainee's first impression in our pediatric emergency room; describe manner of presentation, demographic data, socioeconomic impact, and clinical outcomes, including parental satisfaction. (1) More than 1 year, psychiatry consultations for neurology patients with a functional neurological symptom disorder were retrospectively reviewed. (2) For 3 months, all children whose emergency room presentation suggested the diagnosis were prospectively collected. (3) Three to six months after prospective collection, families completed a structured telephone interview on outcome measures. Twenty-seven patients were retrospectively assessed; 31 patients were prospectively collected. Trainees' accurately predicted the diagnosis in 93% (retrospective) and 94% (prospective) cohorts. Mixed presentations were most common (usually sensory-motor changes, e.g. weakness and/or paresthesias). Associated stressors were mundane and ubiquitous, rarely severe. Families were substantially affected, reporting mean symptom duration 7.4 (standard error of the mean ± 1.33) weeks, missing 22.4 (standard error of the mean ± 5.47) days of school, and 8.3 (standard error of the mean ± 2.88) of parental workdays (prospective cohort). At follow-up, 78% were symptom free. Parental dissatisfaction was rare, attributed to poor rapport and/or insufficient information conveyed. Trainees' clinical impression was accurate in predicting a later diagnosis of functional neurological symptom disorder. Extraordinary life stressors are not required to trigger the disorder in children. Although prognosis is favorable, families incur substantial economic burden and negative educational impact. Improving recognition and appropriately communicating the diagnosis may speed access to treatment and potentially reduce

  17. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  18. Clinical Skills Assessment: The Effects of Moving Certification Requirements Into Neurology, Child Neurology, and Psychiatry Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Dorthea; Brooks, Beth Ann; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Jibson, Michael; Faulkner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background A few years ago, when the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology decided to phase out the patient-based oral examinations in its 3 primary specialties, requirements for assessing clinical skills during residency training were instituted. Objective The purpose of this report is to describe the experiences of training program directors and graduates with these new credentialing requirements (labeled CSEs) as well as other effects on the specialties. Methods Surveys were administered electronically in 2012 to all current neurology, child neurology, and psychiatry program directors, and to a convenience sample of graduates who applied for the 2012 certification examinations. Results Response rates for graduates were similar across the 3 specialties but low (28%–33%). Response rates were higher for program directors (53%–62%) and were similar across the 3 specialties. The results indicated that the CSEs were usually administered early in training, were completed toward the end, were often passed on first attempt, generally took place during routine clinical assignments, were used to assess additional competencies, almost always included feedback to the residents, and did not often lead to remediation. Furthermore, the CSEs were perceived to be useful components in the assessment of clinical skills. Conclusions The results obtained from the early implementation of the CSEs suggest that they provide an opportunity to assess clinical skills with the additional benefit of feedback to trainees. Other effects included eventual incorporation into training program requirements, milestones, and related faculty development and research efforts. PMID:26217432

  19. A systematic review of self-reported swallowing assessments in progressive neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Keage, Megan; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise; Vogel, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia experienced as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease can have severe consequences on a patient's health and well-being. Regular assessment of swallowing function can assist to achieve adequate nutrition and hydration. Here we review subjective swallowing assessments currently available are suitable for use in people with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement properties were reviewed for each tool and coverage of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO ICF) was considered. Assessments were identified following a review of the published literature Instruments were reviewed on the basis of reliability and validity, as well as administrative properties, such an interpretability, acceptability, and feasibility. Tools were also evaluated according to the WHO ICF framework. In total, 19 studies were identified for full-text review from 13,315 abstracts. Nine self-reported dysphagia assessment tools suitable for use in progressive neurological disorders were identified. The Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) yields the strongest combination of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and convergent validity while simultaneously covering all WHO ICF domains. Lengthy administration time was identified as a limitation of the SWAL-QOL. The review highlights a relative lack of well-validated self-report questionnaires in dysphagia for people with progressive neurological disease. Additional validation and evaluation of the clinical utility of the tools currently available is required to further promote an informed selection of available assessments.

  20. [The comparison of volume of ischemia zone in CT examination with neurological and functional status of patients after cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Bartynowska, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between volume of ischemic zone in CT examination and neurological and functional (Barthel index) disorders after cerebral ischemia. The retrospective study was performed. The 30 patients (the median age was 73 years; 14 woman and 16 man) were examined. The medial cerebral artery stroke was recognised in CT. CT examinations without contrast media injection, neurological and functional (Barthel index) diagnostic tests were performed directly and 18 months after ischemia. The evolution of ischemic zone in CT and neurological and functional disorders were estimated. The correlation between volume of ischemic zone in CT, neurological parameters and Barthel index results was examined. The statistical correlation between ischemic zone volumetry and physiological reactions was ascertained. In acute phase the greater volume of ischemic zone responds to neurological dysfunctions. The same tendency, without statistical significance, was observed between volume of ischemic zone and Barthel index result (inversely proportional). 18 months after cerebral stroke the statistical correlation was significant only for comparison of volume of the ischemic zone and Barthel index result. The greater volume of ischemic zone responded to lower Barthel index. Ischemic stroke volumetry in CT examination can facilitate neurological (physiological reactions disorders) and functional (Barthel index) status assessment.

  1. Correlation between serum neuron specific enolase and functional neurological outcome in patients of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Sana; Beg, Mujahid; Rizvi, Imran; Islam, Najmul; Ullah, Ekram; Akhtar, Nishat

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomarkers to predict stroke prognosis is gaining particular attention nowadays. Neuron specific enolase (NSE), which is a dimeric isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase and is found mainly in the neurons is one such biomarker. This study was carried out on patients of acute ischemic stroke with the aims to determine the correlation between NSE levels on the day of admission with infarct volume, stroke severity, and functional neurological outcome on day 30. Seventy five patients of acute ischemic stroke admitted in the Department of Medicine were included in the study. Levels of NSE were determined on day 1 using the human NSE ELISA kit (Alpha Diagnostic International Texas 78244, USA). Volume of infarct was measured by computed tomography (CT) scan using the preinstalled software Syngo (version A40A) of Siemen's medical solutions (Forchheim, Germany). Stroke severity at admission was assessed using Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and functional neurological outcome was assessed using modified Rankin scale (mRS) on day 30. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software for windows version 15.0 (SPSS). A positive correlation was found between concentration of NSE on day 1 and infarct volume determined by CT scan (r = 0.955, P < 0.001). A strong negative correlation was found between GCS at presentation and concentration of NSE on day 1 (r = -0.806, P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between NSE levels at day 1 and functional neurological outcome assessed by mRS at day 30 (r = 0.744, P < 0.001). Serum levels of NSE in first few days of ischemic stroke can serve as a useful marker to predict stroke severity and early functional outcome. However, larger studies with serial estimation of NSE are needed to establish these observations more firmly.

  2. Soft Neurological Signs and Cognitive Function in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhuri, Chetali Vijay; Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Modern research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) indicates that the primary cause of OCD, which was earlier explained only on basis of psychoanalytical theories, is biological. Our study attempts to investigate the neurobiological signs in form of soft neurological signs and cognitive function in OCD. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at psychiatric facility of Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital. Materials and Method: 50 OCD patients and age- and education-matched controls were selected for the study. Established instruments were used to assess the neurological soft signs (NSS) and the cognitive deficits. Results: OCD patients had significant more NSS in tests for motor coordination, sensory integration, complex motor tasks, hard signs, and right/left and spatial orientation. Cognitive deficits in the domains of visuospatial ability, executive function, attention, and working memory were significantly more in OCD patients compared to controls. Conclusion: Our study highlights the role of biological factors in form of soft neurological signs and cognitive dysfunction in the development of the OCD. PMID:27570338

  3. Assessment of neurological clinical management reasoning in medical students.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Rimas V; Blood, Angela; Park, Yoon Soo; Brorson, James R

    2014-06-01

    In neurology education there is evidence that trainees may have greater ability in general localization and diagnosis than they do in treatment decisions, particularly with considering longer term care and supportive care. We hypothesized that medical students completing a neurology clerkship would exhibit greater skill at considering the acute diagnostic and therapeutic management than at considering supportive management measures. Data from 720 standardized patient encounters by 360 medical students completing a neurology clerkship being evaluated via an objective structured clinical examination were analyzed for skill in three components of clinical decision making: diagnostic evaluation, therapeutic intervention, and supportive intervention. Scores for all standardized patient encounters over the 2008-2012 interval revealed a significantly higher percentage of correct responses in both the diagnostic (mean [M]=62.6%, standard deviation [SD]=20.3%) and therapeutic (M=63.0%, SD=28.8%) categories in comparison to the supportive (M=31.8%, SD=45.2%) category. However, only scores in therapeutic and supportive treatment plans were found to be significant predictors of the USA National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) clinical neurology subject examination scores; on average, a percent increase in therapeutic and support scores led to 5 and 2 point increases in NBME scores, respectively. We demonstrate empirical evidence of deficits in a specific component of clinical reasoning in medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship.

  4. Effects of youth football on selected clinical measures of neurologic function: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Odney, Tryg O; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    We assessed 10 youth football players (13.4 ± 0.7 y) immediately before and after their season to explore the effects of football participation on selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Postseason postural stability in a closed-eye condition was improved compared to preseason (P = .017). Neurocognitive testing with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery revealed that reaction time was significantly faster at postseason (P = .015). There were no significant preseason versus postseason differences in verbal memory (P = .507), visual memory (P = .750), or visual motor speed (P = .087). Oculomotor performance assessed by the King-Devick test was moderately to significantly improved (P = .047-.115). A 12-week season of youth football did not impair the postural stability, neurocognitive function, or oculomotor performance measures of the players evaluated. Though encouraging, continued and more comprehensive investigations of this at-risk population are warranted.

  5. The use of a tracking test battery in the quantitative evaluation of neurological function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A number of tracking tasks that have proven useful to control engineers and psychologists measuring skilled performance have been evaluated for clinical use. Normal subjects as well as patients with previous diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy were used in the evaluation. The tests that were studied included step tracking, random tracking, and critical tracking. The results of the present experiments encourage the continued use of tracking tasks as assessment precedures in a clinical environment. They have proven to be reliable, valid, and sensitive measures of neurological function.

  6. Organic vs. functional neurological disorders: The role of childhood psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Karatzias, Thanos; Howard, Ruth; Power, Kevin; Socherel, Florentina; Heath, Craig; Livingstone, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Although the relationship between psychological trauma and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is well established, this relationship is less well understood in people with medically unexplained neurological symptoms. In the present study, we set out to compare people with functional neurological disorders, and organic neurological disorders, in terms of childhood and adulthood traumatic events, traumatic stress, emotional dysregulation and symptoms of depression and anxiety. We have hypothesised that those with functional neurological disorders would be more likely to report childhood and adulthood traumatic life events, traumatic symptomatology, emotional dysregulation and symptoms of anxiety and depression, compared to those with organic neurological disorders. Sample consisted of a consecutive series of people with functional neurological disorders and with organic neurological disorders (n=82) recruited from a hospital in Scotland. Participants completed measures of life events, traumatic stress, emotional regulation, anxiety and depression. The two groups were found to significantly differ in relation to all measures, with the MUS group being more likely to report childhood and adulthood life events, more severe emotional dysregulation, traumatic stress and symptoms of anxiety and stress. Logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to childhood traumatic life events, specifically childhood sexual abuse, and childhood physical neglect, were the only factors which were significantly associated with membership of the medically unexplained neurological symptoms group. Although further research is required to confirm our findings, our results suggest that identifying and addressing the impact of childhood trauma, may alleviate distress and aid recovery from functional neurological disorders.

  7. The Neurological Impairment Scale: reliability and validity as a predictor of functional outcome in neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Aung; Williams, Heather; Casey, Rebecca; Rose, Hilary; Siegert, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the construct validity and inter-rater reliability of the Neurological Impairment Scale (NIS) and compare ratings by medical and multidisciplinary teams in a mixed neurorehabilitation sample. To assess its concurrent and predictive validity as a predictor of outcome and functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation. Methods The NIS was rated in a consecutive cohort of patients (n = 428) recruited from nine specialist neurorehabilitation units in London. Dimensionality and internal consistency were explored through principal components analysis with Varimax rotation. Inter-rater reliability and the relationship between NIS and functional outcome (UK Functional Assessment Measure (FIM + FAM)) were analysed in a sub-sample (n = 94) from one centre. Results Factor analysis identified two principal domains (“Physical” and “Cognitive”) together accounting for 35% of the variance: their Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.76 and 0.67, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was excellent for overall scores between doctors (ICC = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.91–0.97)) and acceptable between the medical and multidisciplinary team (ICC = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88–0.95)). Change in NIS-physical score predicted 29% of the variance in functional gain (FIM + FAM change). Conclusion These findings provide the first formal evidence for the validity and reliability of the NIS as a measure of neurological impairment for use in general neuro-rehabilitation settings. Its further application and exploration are now warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation The extent of neurological recovery occurring during rehabilitation can make an important contribution to functional gains. In order to interpret measurement of functional outcome, we need to be able to identify changes at the level of impairment. Many of the available tools to measure severity of impairment are condition specific. The Neurological Impairment Scale (NIS) was developed for

  8. Neurological Gait Abnormalities Moderate the Functional Brain Signature of the Posture First Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Wang, Cuiling; Mahoney, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    The posture first hypothesis suggests that under dual-task walking conditions older adults prioritize gait over cognitive task performance. Functional neural confirmation of this hypothesis, however, is lacking. Herein, we determined the functional neural correlates of the posture first hypothesis and hypothesized that the presence of neurological gait abnormalities (NGA) would moderate associations between brain activations, gait and cognitive performance. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy we assessed changes in oxygenated hemoglobin levels in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) during normal walk and walk while talk (WWT) conditions in a large cohort of non-demented older adults (n = 236; age = 75.5 ± 6.49 years; female = 51.7 %). NGA were defined as central (due to brain diseases) or peripheral (neuropathic gait) following a standardized neurological examination protocol. Double dissociations between brain activations and behavior emerged as a function of NGA. Higher oxygenation levels during WWT were related to better cognitive performance (estimate = 0.145; p < 0.001) but slower gait velocity (estimate = −6.336, p <0.05) among normals. In contrast, higher oxygenation levels during WWT among individuals with peripheral NGA were associated with worse cognitive performance (estimate = −0.355; p <0.001) but faster gait velocity (estimate = 14.855; p <0.05). Increased activation in the PFC during locomotion may have a compensatory function that is designed to support gait among individuals with peripheral NGA. PMID:26613725

  9. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  10. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities.

  11. Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, K; Dick, R B; Howell, R J; Chrislip, D W; Hines, C J; Reid, T M; Lehman, E; Laber, P; Krieg, E F; Knott, C

    2000-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Houses and lawns in the United States receive a total of approximately 20 million annual chlorpyrifos treatments, and 82% of U.S. adults have detectable levels of a chlorpyrifos metabolite (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCP) in the urine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that there are 5,000 yearly reported cases of accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning, and approximately one-fourth of these cases exhibit symptoms. Organophosphates affect the nervous system, but there are few epidemiologic data on chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. We studied neurologic function in 191 current and former termiticide applicators who had an average of 2.4 years applying chlorpyrifos and 2.5 years applying other pesticides, and we compared them to 189 nonexposed controls. The average urinary TCP level for 65 recently exposed applicators was 629.5 microg/L, as compared to 4.5 microg/L for the general U.S. population. The exposed group did not differ significantly from the nonexposed group for any test in the clinical examination. Few significant differences were found in nerve conduction velocity, arm/hand tremor, vibrotactile sensitivity, vision, smell, visual/motor skills, or neurobehavioral skills. The exposed group did not perform as well as the nonexposed group in pegboard turning tests and some postural sway tests. The exposed subjects also reported significantly more symptoms, including memory problems, emotional states, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength; our more quantitative tests may not have been adequate to detect these symptoms. Eight men who reported past chlorpyrifos poisoning had a pattern of low performance on a number of tests, which is consistent with prior reports of chronic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Overall, the lack of exposure effects on the clinical examination was reassuring. The findings for self-reported symptoms raise some concern, as does the finding of low performance

  12. The relationship between subconcussive impacts and concussion history on clinical measures of neurologic function in collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Gysland, Sonia M; Mihalik, Jason P; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Trulock, Scott C; Shields, Edgar W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Concussions sustained during college and professional football careers have been associated with both acute and chronic neurologic impairment. The contribution of subconcussive impacts to this impairment has not been adequately studied. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between subconcussive impacts and concussion history on clinical measures of neurologic function. Forty-six collegiate football players completed five clinical measures of neurologic function commonly employed in the evaluation of concussion before and after a single season. These tests included the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Sensory Organization Test, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, and Graded Symptom Checklist. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System recorded head impact data including the frequency, magnitude, and location of impacts. College football players sustain approximately 1,000 subconcussive impacts to the head over the course of a season, but for the most part, do not demonstrate any clinically meaningful changes from preseason to postseason on measures of neurologic function. Changes in performance were mostly independent of prior concussion history, and the total number, magnitude and location of sustained impacts over one season as observed R(2) values ranged between 0.30 and 0.35. Repetitive subconcussive head impacts over a single season do not appear to result in short-term neurologic impairment, but these relationships should be further investigated for a potential dose-response over a player's career.

  13. [Training in cognitive functions in neurologic rehabilitation of craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Friedl-Francesconi, H; Binder, H

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates a new cognitive rehabilitation therapy for patients after severe head injury. In addition to the standard neurological rehabilitation therapy, one group was trained by the Wiener Determinationsgerät (WDT), a second group was treated by the new program REHACOM, while a third group received only conventional neurological rehabilitation therapy. The three groups each consisted of 12 patients; two groups received 20 sessions of training, each lasting 40 minutes. At the beginning as well as after the therapy a psychological test battery was applied, consisting of HAWIE, TULUC, AACHENER APHASIETEST, and BENTON-Test. They were also tested by a specific neuropsychological battery regarding hemispheric specialization. REHACOM showed significantly higher values on the HAWIE as well as on BENTON-Test than the other two groups. REHACOM also improved in right-hemispheric dimensions while WDT group did not improve in attention. Right-hemispheric training was more effective than attentional stimulation.

  14. Cognitive and motor function of neurologically impaired extremely low birth weight children

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Janine; Friedman, Harriet; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of neurological impairment among extremely low birth weight children (ELBW [<1 kg]) have decreased since 2000; however, their functioning is unexamined. OBJECTIVE: To compare motor and cognitive functioning of ELBW children with neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy and severe hypotonia/hypertonia, between two periods: 1990 to 1999 (n=83) and 2000 to 2005 (n=34). METHODS: Measures of function at 20 months corrected age included the Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Gross Motor Functional Classification System as primary outcomes and individual motor function items as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Analysis failed to reveal significant differences for the primary outcomes, although during 2000 to 2005, sitting significantly improved in children with neurological impairment (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Decreases in rates of neurological impairment among ELBW children have been accompanied by a suggestion of improved motor function, although cognitive function has not changed. PMID:26435676

  15. Cognitive and motor function of neurologically impaired extremely low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Janine; Friedman, Harriet; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Rates of neurological impairment among extremely low birth weight children (ELBW [<1 kg]) have decreased since 2000; however, their functioning is unexamined. To compare motor and cognitive functioning of ELBW children with neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy and severe hypotonia/hypertonia, between two periods: 1990 to 1999 (n=83) and 2000 to 2005 (n=34). Measures of function at 20 months corrected age included the Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Gross Motor Functional Classification System as primary outcomes and individual motor function items as secondary outcomes. Analysis failed to reveal significant differences for the primary outcomes, although during 2000 to 2005, sitting significantly improved in children with neurological impairment (P=0.003). Decreases in rates of neurological impairment among ELBW children have been accompanied by a suggestion of improved motor function, although cognitive function has not changed.

  16. Association of Extubation Failure and Functional Outcomes in Patients with Acute Neurologic Illness.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Muhammad Adeel; Kashyap, Rahul; Wilson, Gregory; Schenck, Louis; Hocker, Sara

    2016-04-01

    An association between extubation failure and neurologic and functional outcomes in patients with primary neurologic illness has not been investigated rigorously. We plan to conduct a retrospective chart review to study this association. A total of 949 unique patients intubated and ventilated for at least 48 h in Neuro ICU (NICU) were obtained. Extubation failure was defined as need for reintubation within 48 h of initial extubation. Independent and dependent association between extubation failure and clinical parameters was assessed. The patients had a median age [interquartile range (IQR)] of 58.5 (23.0) years. 60.5% were male and 81.9% were Caucasian. Extubation failure occurred in 108 (12.8%) patients. There was no difference in age, APACHE 3 score, FOUR score, or GCS score of patients at ICU admission between those who experienced extubation failure and those who did not. Extubation failure was associated with longer NICU and hospital LOS [median (IQR); 13.7 (11.3) vs. 9.1(8.2) days, P < 0.01 and 24.5 (20.0) vs. 16.8 (16.7) days, P < 0.01]. Patients with extubation failure had worse functional outcomes at 6 months as measured by the modified Rankin score [MRS; median (IQR), 5.0 (2.0) vs. 4.0 (3.0), P < 0.01]. After adjusting for confounders, extubation failure was associated with longer hospital and ICU LOS and worse functional outcomes. In patients with acute neurological illness, extubation failure is associated with longer ICU and hospital stays but does not impact hospital mortality. Patients with extubation failure may experience a worsening of their functional status over time.

  17. Vitamin B-12 status and neurologic function in older people: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline trial data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological Function (OPEN) study.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Allen, Elizabeth; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Uauy, Ricardo; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in vitamin B-12 status. Overt vitamin B-12 deficiency causes neurologic disturbances in peripheral and central motor and sensory systems, but the public health impact for neurologic disease of moderately low vitamin B-12 status in older people is unclear. Evidence from observational studies is limited by heterogeneity in the definition of vitamin B-12 status and imprecise measures of nerve function. We aimed to determine whether vitamin B-12 status is associated with electrophysiologic indexes of peripheral or central neurologic function in asymptomatic older people with moderately low vitamin B-12 status. We used a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological Function study conducted in Southeast England. This trial investigated the effectiveness of vitamin B-12 supplementation on electrophysiologic indexes of neurologic function in asymptomatic older people (mean age: 80 y) with moderately low vitamin B-12 status (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations ≥107 and <210 pmol/L without anemia, n = 201). Vitamin B-12 status was assessed with the use of total vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, and a composite indicator of vitamin B-12 status (cB-12). Electrophysiologic measures of sensory and motor components of peripheral and central nerve function were assessed in all participants by a single observer. In multivariate models, there was no evidence of an association of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, or cB-12 with any nerve conduction outcome. There was also no evidence of an association of vitamin B-12 status with clinical markers of neurologic function. This secondary analysis of high-quality trial data did not show any association of any measure of vitamin B-12 status with either peripheral or central neurologic function or any clinical markers of neurologic function in older people with moderately low vitamin B-12 status. The results of this study are unlikely to be

  18. [Postoperative surveillance in neurosurgical patients - usefulness of neurological assessment scores and bispectral index].

    PubMed

    Herrero, Silvia; Carrero, Enrique; Valero, Ricard; Rios, Jose; Fábregas, Neus

    We examined the additive effect of the Ramsay scale, Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS), Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC), and Bispectral Index (BIS) to see whether along with the assessment of pupils and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) it improved early detection of postoperative neurological complications. We designed a prospective observational study of two elective neurosurgery groups of patients: craniotomies (CG) and non-craniotomies (NCG). We analyze the concordance and the odds ratio (OR) of altered neurological scales and BIS in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) for postoperative neurological complications. We compared the isolated assessment of pupils and GCS (pupils-GCS) with all the neurologic assessment scales and BIS (scales-BIS). In the CG (n=70), 16 patients (22.9%) had neurological complications in PACU. The scales-BIS registered more alterations than the pupils-GCS (31.4% vs. 20%; p<0.001), were more sensitive (94% vs. 50%) and allowed a more precise estimate for neurological complications in PACU (p=0.002; OR=7.15, 95% CI=2.1-24.7 vs. p=0.002; OR=9.5, 95% CI=2.3-39.4). In the NCG (n=46), there were no neurological complications in PACU. The scales-BIS showed alterations in 18 cases (39.1%) versus 1 (2.2%) with the pupils-GCS (p<0.001). Altered CNS on PACU admission increased the risk of neurological complications in the ward (p=0.048; OR=7.28, 95% CI=1.021-52.006). Applied together, the assessment of pupils, GCS, Ramsay scale, CNS, Nu-DESC and BIS improved early detection of postoperative neurological complications in PACU after elective craniotomies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Postoperative surveillance in neurosurgical patients - usefulness of neurological assessment scores and bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Silvia; Carrero, Enrique; Valero, Ricard; Rios, Jose; Fábregas, Neus

    We examined the additive effect of the Ramsay scale, Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS), Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC), and Bispectral Index (BIS) to see whether along with the assessment of pupils and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) it improved early detection of postoperative neurological complications. We designed a prospective observational study of two elective neurosurgery groups of patients: craniotomies (CG) and non-craniotomies (NCG). We analyze the concordance and the odds ratio (OR) of altered neurological scales and BIS in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) for postoperative neurological complications. We compared the isolated assessment of pupils and GCS (pupils-GCS) with all the neurologic assessment scales and BIS (scales-BIS). In the CG (n=70), 16 patients (22.9%) had neurological complications in PACU. The scales-BIS registered more alterations than the pupils-GCS (31.4% vs. 20%; p<0.001), were more sensitive (94% vs. 50%) and allowed a more precise estimate for neurological complications in PACU (p=0.002; OR=7.15, 95% CI=2.1-24.7 vs. p=0.002; OR=9.5, 95% CI=2.3-39.4). In the NCG (n=46), there were no neurological complications in PACU. The scales-BIS showed alterations in 18 cases (39.1%) versus 1 (2.2%) with the pupils-GCS (p<0.001). Altered CNS on PACU admission increased the risk of neurological complications in the ward (p=0.048; OR=7.28, 95% CI=1.021-52.006). Applied together, the assessment of pupils, GCS, Ramsay scale, CNS, Nu-DESC and BIS improved early detection of postoperative neurological complications in PACU after elective craniotomies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroactive Steroids in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Association with Cognitive, Functional, and Neurological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casas, Sebastian; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; Gargiulo-Monachelli, Gisella M; Perez, Andres Felipe; Tourreilles, Martin; Mattiazzi, Marcelo; Ojeda, Cristian; Lotero Polesel, Daniel; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2017-01-01

    Despite several scientific and technological advances, there is no single neuroprotective treatment that can reverse the brain damage after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Neuroactive steroids are cholesterol-derived hormones that have the ability to modulate the normal and pathologic nervous system employing genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. In this work, we first investigated if AIS affects the plasma concentration of 5 neuroactive steroids (cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 3α-androstenediol glucuronide). Second, we studied if levels of circulating steroids associate with neurological, cognitive, and functional outcome in a cohort of 60- to 90 year-old male and female patients with AIS. For this purpose, we recruited patients who were hospitalized at the Emergency Room of the Central Military Hospital within the first 24 h after stroke onset. We designed 2 experimental groups, each one composed of 30 control subjects and 30 AIS patients, both males and females. The assessment of neurological deficit was performed with the NIHSS and the tests used for the functional and cognitive status were: (1) modified Rankin Scale; (2) Photo test, and (3) abbreviated Pfeiffer's mental status questionnaire. We observed a significant difference in plasma concentration of cortisol and estradiol between both experimental groups. In the AIS group, higher levels of these neuroactive steroids were associated with more pronounced neurological, cognitive and functional deficits in women compared to men. We propose that in elderly patients, high levels of circulating neuroactive steroids like cortisol and estradiol could potentiate AIS-mediated neuropathology in the ischemic and penumbra areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. NLRP3 Inflammasome in Neurological Diseases, from Functions to Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Limin; Pei, Lei; Yao, Shanglong; Wu, Yan; Shang, You

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation has been identified as a causative factor of multiple neurological diseases. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a subcellular multiprotein complex that is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), can sense and be activated by a wide range of exogenous and endogenous stimuli such as microbes, aggregated and misfolded proteins, and adenosine triphosphate, which results in activation of caspase-1. Activated caspase-1 subsequently leads to the processing of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediates rapid cell death. IL-1β and IL-18 drive inflammatory responses through diverse downstream signaling pathways, leading to neuronal damage. Thus, the NLRP3 inflammasome is considered a key contributor to the development of neuroinflammation. In this review article, we briefly discuss the structure and activation the NLRP3 inflammasome and address the involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in several neurological disorders, such as brain infection, acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, we review a series of promising therapeutic approaches that target the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling including anti-IL-1 therapy, small molecule NLRP3 inhibitors and other compounds, however, these approaches are still experimental in neurological diseases. At present, it is plausible to generate cell-specific conditional NLRP3 knockout (KO) mice via the Cre system to investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be instrumental in the development of novel pharmacologic investigations for neuroinflammation-associated diseases. PMID:28337127

  2. Auditory analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum 1971–2012: hearing function, sun sensitivity and DNA repair predict neurological degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Totonchy, Mariam B.; Tamura, Deborah; Pantell, Matthew S.; Zalewski, Christopher; Bradford, Porcia T.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Nadol, Joseph; Khan, Sikandar G.; Schiffmann, Raphael; Pierson, Tyler Mark; Wiggs, Edythe; Griffith, Andrew J.; DiGiovanna, John J.; Brewer, Carmen C.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the role of DNA repair in maintenance of hearing function and neurological integrity, we examined hearing status, neurological function, DNA repair complementation group and history of acute burning on minimal sun exposure in all patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, who had at least one complete audiogram, examined at the National Institutes of Health from 1971 to 2012. Seventy-nine patients, aged 1–61 years, were diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum (n = 77) or xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome (n = 2). A total of 178 audiograms were included. Clinically significant hearing loss (>20 dB) was present in 23 (29%) of 79 patients. Of the 17 patients with xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration, 13 (76%) developed hearing loss, and all 17 were in complementation groups xeroderma pigmentosum type A or type D and reported acute burning on minimal sun exposure. Acute burning on minimal sun exposure without xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration was present in 18% of the patients (10/55). Temporal bone histology in a patient with severe xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration revealed marked atrophy of the cochlear sensory epithelium and neurons. The 19-year mean age of detection of clinically significant hearing loss in the patients with xeroderma pigmentosum with xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration was 54 years younger than that predicted by international norms. The four frequency (0.5/1/2/4 kHz) pure-tone average correlated with degree of neurodegeneration (P < 0.001). In patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, aged 4–30 years, a four-frequency pure-tone average ≥10 dB hearing loss was associated with a 39-fold increased risk (P = 0.002) of having xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration. Severity of hearing loss parallels neurological decline in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration. Audiometric findings, complementation group, acute burning on minimal

  3. Auditory analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum 1971-2012: hearing function, sun sensitivity and DNA repair predict neurological degeneration.

    PubMed

    Totonchy, Mariam B; Tamura, Deborah; Pantell, Matthew S; Zalewski, Christopher; Bradford, Porcia T; Merchant, Saumil N; Nadol, Joseph; Khan, Sikandar G; Schiffmann, Raphael; Pierson, Tyler Mark; Wiggs, Edythe; Griffith, Andrew J; DiGiovanna, John J; Kraemer, Kenneth H; Brewer, Carmen C

    2013-01-01

    To assess the role of DNA repair in maintenance of hearing function and neurological integrity, we examined hearing status, neurological function, DNA repair complementation group and history of acute burning on minimal sun exposure in all patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, who had at least one complete audiogram, examined at the National Institutes of Health from 1971 to 2012. Seventy-nine patients, aged 1-61 years, were diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum (n = 77) or xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome (n = 2). A total of 178 audiograms were included. Clinically significant hearing loss (>20 dB) was present in 23 (29%) of 79 patients. Of the 17 patients with xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration, 13 (76%) developed hearing loss, and all 17 were in complementation groups xeroderma pigmentosum type A or type D and reported acute burning on minimal sun exposure. Acute burning on minimal sun exposure without xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration was present in 18% of the patients (10/55). Temporal bone histology in a patient with severe xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration revealed marked atrophy of the cochlear sensory epithelium and neurons. The 19-year mean age of detection of clinically significant hearing loss in the patients with xeroderma pigmentosum with xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration was 54 years younger than that predicted by international norms. The four frequency (0.5/1/2/4 kHz) pure-tone average correlated with degree of neurodegeneration (P < 0.001). In patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, aged 4-30 years, a four-frequency pure-tone average ≥10 dB hearing loss was associated with a 39-fold increased risk (P = 0.002) of having xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration. Severity of hearing loss parallels neurological decline in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum-type neurological degeneration. Audiometric findings, complementation group, acute burning on minimal sun

  4. Preclinical Assessment of Stem Cell Therapies for Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joers, Valerie L.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells, as subjects of study for use in treating neurological diseases, are envisioned as a replacement for lost neurons and glia, a means of trophic support, a therapeutic vehicle, and, more recently, a tool for in vitro modeling to understand disease and to screen and personalize treatments. In this review we analyze the requirements of stem cell–based therapy for clinical translation, advances in stem cell research toward clinical application for neurological disorders, and different animal models used for analysis of these potential therapies. We focus on Parkinson’s disease (typically defined by the progressive loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons), stroke (neurodegeneration associated with decreased blood perfusion in the brain), and multiple sclerosis (an autoimmune disorder that generates demyelination, axonal damage, astrocytic scarring, and neurodegeneration in the brain and spinal cord). We chose these disorders for their diversity and the number of people affected by them. An additional important consideration was the availability of multiple animal models in which to test stem cell applications for these diseases. We also discuss the relationship between the limited number of systematic stem cell studies performed in animals, in particular nonhuman primates and the delayed progress in advancing stem cell therapies to clinical success. PMID:20075496

  5. CSF hypocretin-1 assessment in sleep and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourgin, Patrice; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    Concentrations of CSF hypocretin-1 (formerly orexin A) have been measured in many patients with sleep or neurological conditions. Low CSF hypocretin-1 is most predictive of narcolepsy in patients positive for HLA allele DQB1*0602, most of whom have cataplexy. By contrast, the diagnostic significance of low CSF hypocretin-1 is unclear in the presence of acute CNS inflammation or trauma. The clinical usefulness of CSF testing in hypersomnia that is symptomatic of a neurological disorder remains to be evaluated. Determination of CSF hypocretin-1 concentration to diagnose narcolepsy might be most useful in ambulatory patients with cataplexy but with a normal multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) result, or if MSLT is not interpretable, conclusive, or feasible. Because 98% of patients with hypocretin-1 deficiency are positive for HLA DQB1*0602, we suggest that HLA typing is a useful screen before lumbar puncture. Although hypocretin-1 deficiency in narcolepsy might have therapeutic relevance, additional research is needed in this area.

  6. A study of the relationship between neurological function and serum vitamin E concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Willison, H J; Muller, D P; Matthews, S; Jones, S; Kriss, A; Stead, R J; Hodson, M E; Harding, A E

    1985-01-01

    A patient with cystic fibrosis and undetectable serum vitamin E concentrations is described who developed a progressive spinocerebellar syndrome and pigmentary retinopathy with abnormal somatosensory and visual evoked potentials (SSEPs and VEPs). In order to assess the relationship between neurological function and serum vitamin E concentrations in cystic fibrosis, 29 unselected patients who had no neurological symptoms were examined neurologically. Ten were randomly selected for neurophysiological assessment by recording SSEPs and VEPs. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were also performed in five cases. The findings were correlated with serum vitamin E concentrations which were unknown to the neurological investigators prior to completion of the study. Only one patient had definite reflex and sensory abnormalities, and the remaining 28 were clinically normal. The ERG was abnormal in two cases, one of whom had abnormal VEPs. SSEPs were normal in all 10 cases. Twenty six patients had serum vitamin E concentrations below the normal range. In two of the three patients who had definite neurological or electrophysiological abnormalities serum vitamin E concentrations were below the median value for the whole group. PMID:4078574

  7. Targeting L-Selectin to Improve Neurologic and Urologic Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    diclofenac (DFA), an anti-inflammatory agent with L-Selectin sheddase activity, in a murine model of spinal cord injury. Scope: These studies have...Selectin, diclofenac , mouse, urologic function, neurologic function 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...proposal is investigating the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DFA), acting as an L- selectin sheddase, will improve neurologic

  8. SUMO rules: regulatory concepts and their implication in neurologic functions.

    PubMed

    Droescher, Mathias; Chaugule, Viduth K; Pichler, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a potent regulator of various cellular events. Hundreds of substrates have been identified, many of them involved in vital processes like transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, protein degradation, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, chromatin organization, and nuclear transport. In recent years, protein sumoylation increasingly attracted attention, as it could be linked to heart failure, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, underlying mechanisms involving how modification by SUMO contributes to disease development are still scarce thus necessitating further research. This review aims to critically discuss currently available concepts of the SUMO pathway, thereby highlighting regulation in the healthy versus diseased organism, focusing on neurologic aspects. Better understanding of differential regulation in health and disease may finally allow to uncover pathogenic mechanisms and contribute to the development of disease-specific therapies.

  9. Factitious disorders and malingering in relation to functional neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bass, C; Halligan, P

    2017-01-01

    Interest in malingering has grown in recent years, and is reflected in the exponential increase in academic publications since 1990. Although malingering is more commonly detected in medicolegal practice, it is not an all-or-nothing presentation and moreover can vary in the extent of presentation. As a nonmedical disorder, the challenge for clinical practice remains that malingering by definition is intentional and deliberate. As such, clinical skills alone are often insufficient to detect it and we describe psychometric tests such as symptom validity tests and relevant nonmedical investigations. Finally, we describe those areas of neurologic practice where symptom exaggeration and deception are more likely to occur, e.g., postconcussional syndrome, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, motor weakness and movement disorders, and chronic pain. Factitious disorders are rare in clinical practice and their detection depends largely on the level of clinical suspicion supported by the systematic collection of relevant information from a variety of sources. In this chapter we challenge the accepted DSM-5 definition of factitious disorder and suggest that the traditional glossaries have neglected the extent to which a person's reported symptoms can be considered a product of intentional choice or selective psychopathology largely beyond the subject's voluntary control, or more likely, both. We present evidence to suggest that neurologists preferentially diagnose factitious presentations in healthcare workers as "hysterical," possibly to avoid the stigma of simulated illness.

  10. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking tests after 14-day Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected using immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg Ruyi Zhenbao for 14 days significantly improved neurological function, and increased the number of von Willebrand Factor- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of rats. Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment also significantly enhanced the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF in the ischemic hemisphere. The results demonstrated that the Ruyi Zhenbao pill improved neurological function following ischemia in rats. The mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill are associated with increasing the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF, and subsequently promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic zone. PMID:26893831

  11. The classification of conversion disorder (functional neurologic symptom disorder) in ICD and DSM.

    PubMed

    Levenson, J L; Sharpe, M

    2016-01-01

    The name given to functional neurologic symptoms has evolved over time in the different editions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), reflecting a gradual move away from an etiologic conception rooted in hysterical conversion to an empiric phenomenologic one, emphasizing the central role of the neurologic examination and testing in demonstrating that the symptoms are incompatible with recognized neurologic disease pathophysiology, or are internally inconsistent. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementation and Evaluation 
of a High-Dose Cytarabine Neurologic Assessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Szoch, Stephanie; Snow Kaiser, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Patients receiving high-dose cytarabine as part of their chemotherapy regimen have a chance of experiencing neurotoxicities. Prompt identification of signs and symptoms can greatly reduce the chance of patients sustaining permanent neurologic damage. This article describes the development and successful implementation of an evidence-based, standardized neurologic assessment and documentation tool that was evaluated using a clinical utility questionnaire and an adherence audit.

  13. [High-resolution eye movement recording in the assessment of neurologic complications in HIV-1 infection].

    PubMed

    Currie, J; Ramsden, B; McArthur, C; Lunch, J; Maruff, P; Benson, E; Perdices, M; Cooper, D

    1989-12-01

    HIV-1 related brain disease gives rise to widespread eye movement abnormalities that include impairment of fixation, saccadic speed and accuracy, antisaccadic generation and smooth pursuit function. Quantitative high resolution recording of eye movements is a valuable, non-invasive technique both for measuring the severity and progression of the AIDS dementia complex and the early detection of neurologic dysfunction in asymptomatic HIV-seropositive subjects or in patients with AIDS. In particular, it may be of use in neurologically at-risk patients requiring antiviral therapy and in monitoring the neurologic responses to such treatment.

  14. [Suitability of the SINGER as a tool for assessment in outpatient neurological rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Pöppl, D; Deck, R; Gerdes, N; Funke, U-N; Kringler, W; Friedrich, N; Kohlmann, T; Reuther, P

    2015-02-01

    The scales Barthel-Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) are the most frequently used instruments for measurement of outcome in neurological rehabilitation. Both instruments show appropriate psychometric characteristics but there are some limitations for their use in outpatient neurorehabilitation. The "Score of Independence for Neurologic and Geriatric Rehabilitation (SINGER)" was developed to compensate the weaknesses of the established instruments and to facilitate a direct connection to the ICF. The results of the original validation study of the SINGER in an inpatient setting recommended a test of the SINGER also in an outpatient setting. The SINGER has been applied in a multicentric validation study. Patients of 17 outpatient rehabilitation centres were included consecutively. In this study patients with stroke or TBI were asked to fill in a questionnaire at 4 points of measurement. Additionally, medical staff were asked to rate the patients' status at admission and discharge. SINGER-data could be collected of 429 patients. In sum, results recommend to use the SINGER in outpatient neurorehabilitation, though with some restrictions. In comparison to BI and FIM, the SINGER results show in any case considerably less ceiling effects. The further exclusive use of FIM and, above all, BI cannot be recommended. But for very weak affected patients SINGER is poor sensitive for change and because SINGER is not covering all relevant aspects of rehabilitation a combined clinical use of SINGER and other assessment instruments seems to be a constructive solution. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Functional disorders in the Neurology section of ICD-11: A landmark opportunity.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Hallett, Mark; Carson, Alan; Bergen, Donna; Shakir, Raad

    2014-12-09

    Functional disorders are one of the most common diagnoses in neurologic practice, but this is not reflected in current classification systems. The 11th revision of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2017 offers an opportunity for these disorders to appear within both neurologic and psychiatric categories for the first time. We discuss the rationale for this proposal and highlight the potential benefits for health professionals and patients.

  16. ASSESSING CARDIAC AND NEUROLOGICAL MATURATION DURING THE INTRA-UTERINE PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Curtis L.; Govindan, R. B.; Murphy, Pamela; Eswaran, Hari

    2010-01-01

    The world’s first magnetoencephalography (MEG) system specifically designed for fetal and newborn assessment has been installed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. This non-invasive system called SARA (Squid Array for Reproductive Assessment) consists of 151 primary superconducting sensors which detect biomagnetic fields from the human body. Since the installation of SARA, significant progress has been made toward the ultimate goal of developing a clinical neurological assessment tool for the developing fetus. Using appropriate analysis techniques, cardiac and brain signals are recorded and studied to gain new understanding of fetal maturation. It is clear from our investigations that a combination of assessment protocols including both fetal heart and brain activity is necessary for the development of a comprehensive new method of fetal neurological testing. We plan to implement such a test protocol for fetuses at high-risk for neurological impairment due to certain maternal risk factors and/or fetal diagnostic findings. PMID:18652925

  17. Assessment of professional development of neurology trainees: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Wills, Adrian J

    2005-04-01

    The European Working Time Directive has led to concerns that trainees' hours of work will decrease, with negative effects on their training. Various changes to the curriculum are needed to equip trainees for self-directed learning. A strong lobby argues for the introduction of examinations before entry to the consultant grade. Meanwhile, there is intense political pressure (in the UK at least), to shorten the duration of postgraduate training so that pledges for consultant numbers can be met. Reconciliation of these conflicting demands is a challenge for the future. Additional assessment procedures should be piloted. To successfully introduce changes, trainees and trainers will need to work in partnership. Course assessment and student feedback should be formalised. In this paper I summarise the assessment procedures in the UK and US, and suggest a model of best practice.

  18. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS AS A THREAT TO NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer. PMID:21474148

  19. Endocrine disruptors as a threat to neurological function.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-06-15

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer.

  20. [Clinical techniques for use in neurological physical examinations. III. Sensory functions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, P L; Rodríguez-Pupo, L; Rodríguez-García, D

    The purpose of this work is to focus on the main practical aspects of the techniques used for the neurological physical examination of the sensory functions and to present an approach for the practice of this study. Despite the difficulty often involved in interpreting its results, today the formal examination of sensation is still an important part of a complete neurological evaluation and remains valid in the search for a correct diagnosis and suitable treatment. We recommend clinicians to carry out a brief but consistent and effective exploration in a systematic, flexible and orderly manner to check for abnormalities in the sensory functions. Should any anomalies be detected, then a more detailed and thorough neurological exploration must be performed selectively. We present a detailed review of the practical aspects of the main techniques used in the physical examination of this neurological category. In addition to the tests used to examine the peripheral and cortical sensory systems, we also describe other techniques designed to trigger pain or other sensory symptoms due to radicular lesions or injury to the median nerve. We present a detailed description of the main clinical techniques used in the neurological physical examination of the sensory functions, as well as an approach that allows them to be performed on adult patients. In addition, we underline the importance of physically examining the sensory functions in contemporary medicine and the need to continually perfect the way these techniques are performed in order to achieve an efficient clinical practice.

  1. 75 FR 22596 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... four domains of neurological and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor and sensory) for use in large longitudinal or epidemiological studies where functioning is monitored over time. The... comparative norms. We will screen 52,800 households for members' age, gender and primary language to recruit...

  2. The Protective and Therapeutic Function of Small Heat Shock Proteins in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Becker, Rachel A.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Historically, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) have been extensively studied in the context of being intracellular molecular chaperones. However, recent studies looking at the role of sHSPs in neurological diseases have demonstrated a near universal upregulation of certain sHSPs in damaged and diseased brains. Initially, it was thought that sHSPs are pathological in these disease states because they are found in the areas of damage. However, transgenic overexpression and exogenous administration of sHSPs in various experimental disease paradigms have shown just the contrary – that sHSPs are protective, not pathological. This review examines sHSPs in neurological diseases and highlights the potential for using these neuroprotective sHSPs as novel therapeutics. It first addresses the endogenous expression of sHSPs in a variety of neurological disorders. Although many studies have examined the expression of sHSPs in neurological diseases, there are no review articles summarizing these data. Furthermore, it focuses on recent studies that have investigated the therapeutic potential of sHSPs for neurological diseases. Finally, it will explain what we think is the function of endogenous sHSPs in neurological diseases. PMID:22566955

  3. Improved Neuropsychological and Neurological Functioning Across Three Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Resource-Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5199, the International Neurological Study

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, K.; Jiang, H.; Kumwenda, J.; Supparatpinyo, K.; Evans, S.; Campbell, T. B.; Price, R.; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N.; La Rosa, A.; Santos, B.; Silva, M. T.; Montano, S.; Kanyama, C.; Faesen, S.; Murphy, R.; Hall, C.; Marra, C. M.; Marcus, C.; Berzins, B.; Allen, R.; Housseinipour, M.; Amod, F.; Sanne, I.; Hakim, J.; Walawander, A.; Nair, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. Methods. Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Results. The median weeks on study was 168 (Q1 = 96, Q3 = 192) for the 860 participants. NP test scores improved (P < .05) with the exception of semantic verbal fluency. No differences in neurological and neuropsychological functioning between treatment regimens were detected (P > .10). Significant country effects were noted on all NP tests and neurological outcomes (P < .01). Conclusions. The study detected no significant differences in neuropsychological and neurological outcomes between randomized ART regimens. Significant improvement occurred in neurocognitive and neurological functioning over time after initiation of ARTs. The etiology of these improvements is likely multifactorial, reflecting reduced central nervous system HIV infection, better general health, and practice effects. This study suggests that treatment with either of the World Health Organization –recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings will improve

  4. A multilayer ontology of instruments for neurological, behavioral and cognitive assessments.

    PubMed

    Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Dojat, Michel; Gibaud, Bernard; Kassel, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are underpinned by large, multicenter studies and a mass of heterogeneous datasets. When investigating the relationships between brain anatomy and brain functions under normal and pathological conditions, measurements obtained from a broad range of brain imaging techniques are correlated with the information on each subject's neurologic states, cognitive assessments and behavioral scores derived from questionnaires and tests. The development of ontologies in neuroscience appears to be a valuable way of gathering and handling properly these heterogeneous data - particularly through the use of federated architectures. We recently proposed a multilayer ontology for sharing brain images and regions of interest in neuroimaging. Here, we report on an extension of this ontology to the representation of instruments used to assess brain and cognitive functions and behavior in humans. This extension consists of a 'core' ontology that accounts for the properties shared by all instruments supplemented by 'domain' ontologies that conceptualize standard instruments. We also specify how this core ontology has been refined to build domain ontologies dedicated to widely used instruments and how various scores used in the neurosciences are represented. Lastly, we discuss our design choices, the ontology's limitations and planned extensions aimed at querying and reasoning across distributed data sources.

  5. Neurologic approaches to hysteria, psychogenic and functional disorders from the late 19th century onwards.

    PubMed

    Stone, J

    2017-01-01

    The history of functional neurologic disorders in the 20th century from the point of view of the neurologist is U-shaped. A flurry of interest between the 1880s and early 1920s gave way to lack of interest, skepticism, and concern about misdiagnosis. This was mirrored by increasing professional and geographic divisions between neurology and psychiatry after the First World War. In the 1990s the advent of imaging and other technology highlighted the positive nature of a functional diagnosis. Having been closer in the early 20th century but later more separate, these disorders are now once again the subject of academic and clinical interest, although arguably still very much on the fringes of neurology and neuropsychiatry. Revisiting older material provides a rich source of ideas and data for today's clinical researcher, but also offers cautionary tales of theories and treatments that led to stagnation rather than advancement of the field. Patterns of treatment do have a habit of repeating themselves, for example, the current enthusiasm for transcranial magnetic stimulation compared to the excitement about electrotherapy in the 19th century. For these reasons, an understanding of the history of functional disorders in neurology is arguably more important than it is for other areas of neurologic practice.

  6. Interactive videoconsultation is a feasible method for neurological in-patient assessment.

    PubMed

    Craig, J; Patterson, V; Russell, C; Wootton, R

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of interactive videoconsultation (IATV) as a means by which neurologists might assess patients admitted with neurological symptoms to hospitals distant from a neurological centre, we studied 25 unselected patients using interactive videoconsultation (IATV) and then validated the IATV diagnoses and management plans at a later face-to-face consultation. IATV consultation led to an eventual diagnosis in 23 out of 25 patients, with one diagnosis being changed and one remaining uncertain. The IATV management plans were felt to be appropriate for all patients in study. Twelve patients were able to be discharged from hospital on the same day as IATV on the advice of the neurologist. It is therefore practical to assess patients admitted with neurological symptoms to distant hospitals using IATV and this may result in more efficient use of in-patient resources.

  7. Assessment of Psychopharmacology on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K.; Sheiber, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). METHODS: The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or…

  8. Assessment of Psychopharmacology on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K.; Sheiber, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). METHODS: The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or…

  9. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Allen, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Astrid E; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Whyte, Ken; Uauy, Ricardo; Mills, Kerry

    2015-09-01

    Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12-deficient older people. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East England, United Kingdom. Study participants were aged ≥75 y and had moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations: 107-210 pmol/L) in the absence of anemia and received 1 mg crystalline vitamin B-12 or a matching placebo as a daily oral tablet for 12 mo. Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction, central motor conduction, a clinical neurologic examination, and cognitive function were assessed before and after treatment. A total of 201 participants were enrolled in the trial, and 191 subjects provided outcome data. Compared with baseline, allocation to vitamin B-12 was associated with a 177% increase in serum concentration of vitamin B-12 (641 compared with 231 pmol/L), a 331% increase in serum holotranscobalamin (240 compared with 56 pmol/L), and 17% lower serum homocysteine (14.2 compared with 17.1 μmol/L). In intention-to-treat analysis of covariance models, with adjustment for baseline neurologic function, there was no evidence of an effect of supplementation on the primary outcome of the posterior tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude at 12 mo (mean difference: -0.2 mV; 95% CI: -0.8, 0.3 mV). There was also no evidence of an effect on any secondary peripheral nerve or central motor function outcome, or on cognitive function or clinical examination. Results of the trial do not support the hypothesis that the correction of moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency, in the absence of anemia and of neurologic and cognitive signs or symptoms, has beneficial effects on neurologic or

  10. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Allen, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Astrid E; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Whyte, Ken; Uauy, Ricardo; Mills, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. Objective: We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12–deficient older people. Design: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East England, United Kingdom. Study participants were aged ≥75 y and had moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations: 107–210 pmol/L) in the absence of anemia and received 1 mg crystalline vitamin B-12 or a matching placebo as a daily oral tablet for 12 mo. Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction, central motor conduction, a clinical neurologic examination, and cognitive function were assessed before and after treatment. Results: A total of 201 participants were enrolled in the trial, and 191 subjects provided outcome data. Compared with baseline, allocation to vitamin B-12 was associated with a 177% increase in serum concentration of vitamin B-12 (641 compared with 231 pmol/L), a 331% increase in serum holotranscobalamin (240 compared with 56 pmol/L), and 17% lower serum homocysteine (14.2 compared with 17.1 μmol/L). In intention-to-treat analysis of covariance models, with adjustment for baseline neurologic function, there was no evidence of an effect of supplementation on the primary outcome of the posterior tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude at 12 mo (mean difference: −0.2 mV; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.3 mV). There was also no evidence of an effect on any secondary peripheral nerve or central motor function outcome, or on cognitive function or clinical examination. Conclusion: Results of the trial do not support the hypothesis that the correction of moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency, in the absence of anemia and of neurologic and cognitive

  11. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels and 6-year change in peripheral nerve function and neurological signs.

    PubMed

    Leishear, Kira; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lauretani, Fulvio; Boudreau, Robert M; Studenski, Stephanie A; Rosano, Caterina; Abbate, Rosanna; Gori, Anna M; Corsi, Anna M; Di Iorio, Angelo; Guralnik, Jack M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Newman, Anne B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2012-05-01

    Low vitamin B12 and high homocysteine (Hcy) levels are common in older adults and may be associated with worse neurological function. The aim of this study is to determine whether changes in B12 or Hcy levels are associated with longitudinal changes in peripheral nerve function and clinical neurological signs and symptoms. Participants aged 60 years and older at baseline (n = 678; 72.2 ± 6.2 years; 43.5% male) were from the InCHIANTI Study. Low B12 (<260 pmol/L) and high Hcy (≥13 μmol/L) were measured at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Neurological function was assessed by peroneal nerve conduction amplitude (compound motor action potential) and velocity, neurological examination, and peripheral neuropathy symptoms at baseline, 3-year, and 6-year follow-up. At baseline, 43.8% had low B12 levels and 58.6% had high Hcy levels. Over 6 years, 12.4% declined to poor compound motor action potential (<1 mV) and 42.1% declined to poor nerve conduction velocity (<40 m/s). In mixed models analyses, sustained high Hcy was associated with worse compound motor action potential compared with sustained normal Hcy (p = .04), adjusting for demographics, diabetes, and folate level. Participants whose Hcy level became high at follow-up were more likely to become unable to detect monofilament at 6-year follow-up compared with those with sustained normal Hcy (odds ratio: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.5-19.0), adjusting for demographics, diabetes, body mass index, and peripheral arterial disease. There was no association with vitamin B12 level or with symptoms. High Hcy may be associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function. Because poor nerve function has been associated with lower strength and physical performance, these results have important implications for disability in older adults.

  12. The concept of technology transfer. [for neurologically handicapped persons with impairment of sensorimotor functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, L.

    1974-01-01

    Potential benefits from aerospace technology applications are elaborated that will enable the neurologically handicapped to recapture and upgrade some of their motor and sensor functions. Considered are all individuals whose sensorimotor communication systems have been damaged as a result of disease, trauma, or aging.

  13. The concept of technology transfer. [for neurologically handicapped persons with impairment of sensorimotor functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, L.

    1974-01-01

    Potential benefits from aerospace technology applications are elaborated that will enable the neurologically handicapped to recapture and upgrade some of their motor and sensor functions. Considered are all individuals whose sensorimotor communication systems have been damaged as a result of disease, trauma, or aging.

  14. Patient-specific finite element model of the spine and spinal cord to assess the neurological impact of scoliosis correction: preliminary application on two cases with and without intraoperative neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Henao, Juan; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Labelle, Hubert; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Scoliosis is a 3D deformation of the spine and rib cage. For severe cases, surgery with spine instrumentation is required to restore a balanced spine curvature. This surgical procedure may represent a neurological risk for the patient, especially during corrective maneuvers. This study aimed to computationally simulate the surgical instrumentation maneuvers on a patient-specific biomechanical model of the spine and spinal cord to assess and predict potential damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. A detailed finite element model (FEM) of the spine and spinal cord of a healthy subject was used as reference geometry. The FEM was personalized to the geometry of the patient using a 3D biplanar radiographic reconstruction technique and 3D dual kriging. Step by step surgical instrumentation maneuvers were simulated in order to assess the neurological risk associated to each maneuver. The surgical simulation methodology implemented was divided into two parts. First, a global multi-body simulation was used to extract the 3D displacement of six vertebral landmarks, which were then introduced as boundary conditions into the personalized FEM in order to reproduce the surgical procedure. The results of the FEM simulation for two cases were compared to published values on spinal cord neurological functional threshold. The efficiency of the reported method was checked considering one patient with neurological complications detected during surgery and one control patient. This comparison study showed that the patient-specific hybrid model reproduced successfully the biomechanics of neurological injury during scoliosis correction maneuvers.

  15. Alemtuzumab improves neurological functional systems in treatment-naive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward J; Wynn, Daniel; Coles, Alasdair J; Palmer, Jeffrey; Margolin, David H

    2016-04-15

    Individual functional system scores (FSS) of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) play a central role in determining the overall EDSS score in patients with early-stage multiple sclerosis (MS). Alemtuzumab treatment improves preexisting disability for many patients; however, it is unknown whether improvement is specific to certain functional systems. We assessed the effect of alemtuzumab on individual FSS of the EDSS. CAMMS223 was a 36-month, rater-blinded, phase 2 trial; treatment-naive patients with active relapsing-remitting MS, EDSS ≤3, and symptom onset within 3 years were randomized to annual courses of alemtuzumab or subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNB-1a) 44 μg three times weekly. Alemtuzumab-treated patients had improved outcomes versus SC IFNB-1a patients on most FSS at Month 36; the greatest effect occurred for sensory, pyramidal, and cerebellar FSS. Among patients who experienced 6-month sustained accumulation of disability, clinical worsening occurred most frequently in the brainstem and sensory systems. For patients with 6-month sustained reduction in preexisting disability, pyramidal and sensory systems contributed most frequently to clinical improvement. Alemtuzumab demonstrated a broad treatment effect in improving preexisting disability. These findings may influence treatment decisions in patients with early, active relapsing-remitting MS displaying neurological deficits. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00050778. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly automated computer-aided diagnosis of neurological disorders using functional brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetsieris, P. G.; Ma, Y.; Dhawan, V.; Moeller, J. R.; Eidelberg, D.

    2006-03-01

    We have implemented a highly automated analytical method for computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of neurological disorders using functional brain imaging that is based on the Scaled Subprofile Model (SSM). Accurate diagnosis of functional brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is often difficult clinically, particularly in early stages. Using principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with SSM on brain images of patients and normals, we can identify characteristic abnormal network covariance patterns which provide a subject dependent scalar score that not only discriminates a particular disease but also correlates with independent measures of disease severity. These patterns represent disease-specific brain networks that have been shown to be highly reproducible in distinct groups of patients. Topographic Profile Rating (TPR) is a reverse SSM computational algorithm that can be used to determine subject scores for new patients on a prospective basis. In our implementation, reference values for a full range of patients and controls are automatically accessed for comparison. We also implemented an automated recalibration step to produce reference scores for images generated in a different imaging environment from that used in the initial network derivation. New subjects under the same setting can then be evaluated individually and a simple report is generated indicating the subject's classification. For scores near the normal limits, additional criteria are used to make a definitive diagnosis. With further refinement, automated TPR can be used to efficiently assess disease severity, monitor disease progression and evaluate treatment efficacy.

  17. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach. PMID:27635176

  18. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, Sietske A; Soechitram, Shalini D; Sauer, Pieter J J; Bos, Arend F

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether prenatal background exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old boys and girls. In a Dutch observational cohort study, we measured 10 PCBs and 6 OH-PCBs in maternal blood samples of 98 pregnant women. We assessed their infants neurologically with Touwen examination at 3 months and calculated an Optimality Score (OS, range 0-53, low-high optimality). We calculated correlation coefficients between compound levels and OS. Subsequently, we tested whether levels were associated with specific clusters and whether levels differed between infants with "normal" (dysfunction on ≤1 cluster) and "non-optimal" development (dysfunction on ≥2 clusters). The mean OS was 48 (range 44-52). Higher exposure to PCB-146 correlated significantly with higher OS (r = 0.209; p = 0.039). In boys, higher exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 correlated with lower OS (r = -0.305; p = 0.030). Higher exposure to 9 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs was associated with better visuomotor and/or better sensorimotor function. Infants classified as "non-optimal" (n = 36) had significantly lower prenatal exposure to 6 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs (p < 0.05) compared with infants classified as "normal" (n = 62). In conclusion, higher prenatal exposure to Dutch background PCB levels is associated with better neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants. Prenatal exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 is associated with less optimal neurological functioning in boys.

  19. [Clinical techniques for use in neurological physical examinations. II. Motor and reflex functions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, P L; Rodríguez-Pupo, L; Rodríguez-García, D

    The aim of this study is to highlight the chief practical aspects of the techniques used in the neurological physical examination of the motor and reflex functions. We recommend clinicians to carry out a brief but consistent and effective exploration in a systematic, flexible and orderly manner to check for abnormalities in the motor and reflex functions of the nervous system. Should any anomalies be detected, then a more detailed and thorough neurological exploration must be performed selectively. We present a detailed review of the practical aspects of the main techniques used in the physical examination of these neurological categories. The motor function is explored using techniques that examine muscle tone, muscle strength, muscle fatigability, hypokinesia, tremor, coordination and gait. Lastly, in this category several manoeuvres that are useful in hysterical or mimicking paralyses are also dealt with. Reflexes to examination are usually divided into: 1. Myotatic reflexes; 2. Cutaneomucous reflexes; 3. Spinal cord or defence automatism reflexes; 4. Posture and attitude reflexes. We also add the study of primitive pathological reflexes, remote reflexes, synkinesias and signs of meningeal irritation. We present a detailed description of the main clinical techniques used in the neurological physical examination of motility and reflexes, as well as an approach that allows them to be performed on adult patients. In addition, we underline the importance of physically examining the nervous system in contemporary medicine and the need to continually perfect the way these techniques are performed in order to achieve an efficient clinical practice.

  20. Nmf9 Encodes a Highly Conserved Protein Important to Neurological Function in Mice and Flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxiao; Ross, Kevin D.; Seidner, Glen A.; Gorman, Michael R.; Poon, Tiffany H.; Wang, Xiaobo; Keithley, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Patricia N.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Joiner, William J.; Hamilton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Many protein-coding genes identified by genome sequencing remain without functional annotation or biological context. Here we define a novel protein-coding gene, Nmf9, based on a forward genetic screen for neurological function. ENU-induced and genome-edited null mutations in mice produce deficits in vestibular function, fear learning and circadian behavior, which correlated with Nmf9 expression in inner ear, amygdala, and suprachiasmatic nuclei. Homologous genes from unicellular organisms and invertebrate animals predict interactions with small GTPases, but the corresponding domains are absent in mammalian Nmf9. Intriguingly, homozygotes for null mutations in the Drosophila homolog, CG45058, show profound locomotor defects and premature death, while heterozygotes show striking effects on sleep and activity phenotypes. These results link a novel gene orthology group to discrete neurological functions, and show conserved requirement across wide phylogenetic distance and domain level structural changes. PMID:26131556

  1. Formal faculty observation and assessment of bedside skills for 3rd-year neurology clerks.

    PubMed

    Thompson Stone, Robert; Mooney, Christopher; Wexler, Erika; Mink, Jonathan; Post, Jennifer; Jozefowicz, Ralph F

    2016-11-22

    To evaluate the feasibility and utility of instituting a formalized bedside skills evaluation (BSE) for 3rd-year medical students on the neurology clerkship. A neurologic BSE was developed for 3rd(-)year neurology clerks at the University of Rochester for the 2012-2014 academic years. Faculty directly observed 189 students completing a full history and neurologic examination on real inpatients. Mock grades were calculated utilizing the BSE in the final grade, and number of students with a grade difference was determined when compared to true grade. Correlation was explored between the BSE and clinical scores, National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores, case complexity, and true final grades. A survey was administered to students to assess their clinical skills exposure and the usefulness of the BSE. Faculty completed and submitted a BSE form for 88.3% of students. There was a mock final grade change for 13.2% of students. Correlation coefficients between BSE score and clinical score/NBME score were 0.36 and 0.35, respectively. A statistically significant effect of BSE was found on final clerkship grade (F2,186 = 31.9, p < 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between BSE score and differing case complexities. Incorporating a formal faculty-observed BSE into the 3rd year neurology clerkship was feasible. Low correlation between BSE score and other evaluations indicated a unique measurement to contribute to student grade. Using real patients with differing case complexity did not alter the grade. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Theory of mind tasks and executive functions: a systematic review of group studies in neurology.

    PubMed

    Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Christe, B; Martory, M-D; Annoni, J-M

    2011-03-01

    A growing number of studies have been addressing the relationship between theory of mind (TOM) and executive functions (EF) in patients with acquired neurological pathology. In order to provide a global overview on the main findings, we conducted a systematic review on group studies where we aimed to (1) evaluate the patterns of impaired and preserved abilities of both TOM and EF in groups of patients with acquired neurological pathology and (2) investigate the existence of particular relations between different EF domains and TOM tasks. The search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline. A total of 24 articles met the inclusion criteria. We considered for analysis classical clinically accepted TOM tasks (first- and second-order false belief stories, the Faux Pas test, Happe's stories, the Mind in the Eyes task, and Cartoon's tasks) and EF domains (updating, shifting, inhibition, and access). The review suggests that (1) EF and TOM appear tightly associated. However, the few dissociations observed suggest they cannot be reduced to a single function; (2) no executive subprocess could be specifically associated with TOM performances; (3) the first-order false belief task and the Happe's story task seem to be less sensitive to neurological pathologies and less associated to EF. Even though the analysis of the reviewed studies demonstrates a close relationship between TOM and EF in patients with acquired neurological pathology, the nature of this relationship must be further investigated. Studies investigating ecological consequences of TOM and EF deficits, and intervention researches may bring further contributions to this question.

  3. Neurologic Deficits Including Auditory Loss and Recovery of Function in Horses with Temporohyoid Osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Aleman, M; Spriet, M; Williams, D C; Nieto, J E

    2016-01-01

    Auditory loss is a common deficit in horses with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO), however, recovery of function is unknown. To investigate neurologic function with emphasis in audition in horses with THO after treatment. To describe anatomical alterations of the petrous temporal bone that might result in auditory loss. Twenty-four horses with a clinical diagnosis of THO. Prospective study. A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) study was done as part of the criteria for inclusion in horses with a clinical diagnosis of THO from the years of 2005 to 2014. Physical and neurologic status and BAER findings were recorded. Brainstem auditory evoked response variables were compared by using Wilcoxon sign test. Fisher's exact test was also used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. The most common signs included auditory loss (100% of horses), vestibular and facial nerve dysfunction (83%), and exposure ulcerative keratitis (71%). Concurrent left laryngeal hemiparesis was observed in 61% of horses through endoscopy. Auditory dysfunction was bilateral in 50% of the cases (complete and partial), and unilateral affecting more commonly the right ear (R = 8, L = 4). Short- and long-term follow-up revealed persistent auditory loss in all horses based on abnormal response to sound, and further confirmed through a BAER in 8 horses. Auditory dysfunction appears to be a permanent neurologic deficit in horses diagnosed with THO despite overall neurologic improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Neurological assessment and its relationship to CSF biomarkers in amateur boxers.

    PubMed

    Neselius, Sanna; Brisby, Helena; Marcusson, Jan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion is common in many sports. Today, neuropsychological evaluation is recommended in the monitoring of a concussion and in return-to-play considerations. To investigate the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment, we tested amateur boxers post bout and compared with controls. Further the relationship between neuropsychological test results and brain injury biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. Thirty amateur boxers on high elite level with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included. Memory tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure, Listening Span, Digit Span, Controlled Word Association Test, and computerized testing of episodic memory), tests of processing speed and executive functions (Trail Making, Reaction Time, and Finger Tapping) were performed and related to previously published CSF biomarker results for the axonal injury marker neurofilament light (NFL). The neurological assessment showed no significant differences between boxers and controls, although elevated CSF NFL, as a sign of axonal injury, was detected in about 80% of the boxers 1-6 days post bout. The investigation of the relationship between neuropsychological evaluation and CSF NFL concentrations revealed that boxers with persisting NFL concentration elevation after at least 14 days resting time post bout, had a significantly poorer performance on Trail Making A (p = 0.041) and Simple Reaction Time (p = 0.042) compared to other boxers. This is the first study showing traumatic axonal brain injury can be present without measureable cognitive impairment. The repetitive, subconcussive head trauma in amateur boxing causes axonal injury that can be detected with analysis of CSF NFL, but is not sufficient to produce impairment in memory tests, tests of processing speed, or executive functions. The association of prolonged CSF NFL increase in boxers with impairment of processing speed is an

  5. Neurological Assessment and Its Relationship to CSF Biomarkers in Amateur Boxers

    PubMed Central

    Neselius, Sanna; Brisby, Helena; Marcusson, Jan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion is common in many sports. Today, neuropsychological evaluation is recommended in the monitoring of a concussion and in return-to-play considerations. To investigate the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment, we tested amateur boxers post bout and compared with controls. Further the relationship between neuropsychological test results and brain injury biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. Method Thirty amateur boxers on high elite level with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included. Memory tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure, Listening Span, Digit Span, Controlled Word Association Test, and computerized testing of episodic memory), tests of processing speed and executive functions (Trail Making, Reaction Time, and Finger Tapping) were performed and related to previously published CSF biomarker results for the axonal injury marker neurofilament light (NFL). Results The neurological assessment showed no significant differences between boxers and controls, although elevated CSF NFL, as a sign of axonal injury, was detected in about 80% of the boxers 1–6 days post bout. The investigation of the relationship between neuropsychological evaluation and CSF NFL concentrations revealed that boxers with persisting NFL concentration elevation after at least 14 days resting time post bout, had a significantly poorer performance on Trail Making A (p = 0.041) and Simple Reaction Time (p = 0.042) compared to other boxers. Conclusion This is the first study showing traumatic axonal brain injury can be present without measureable cognitive impairment. The repetitive, subconcussive head trauma in amateur boxing causes axonal injury that can be detected with analysis of CSF NFL, but is not sufficient to produce impairment in memory tests, tests of processing speed, or executive functions. The association of prolonged CSF NFL increase in boxers with

  6. Olfactory Function in Latino Farmworkers: Subclinical Neurological Effects of Pesticide Exposure in a Vulnerable Population

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Walker, Francis O.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; McLeod, Diane K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We compared olfactory function in pesticide-exposed Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers to explore its use as a subclinical indicator of neurological pesticide effects. Methods We recruited 304 current farmworkers and 247 non-farmworkers. All completed odor identification (14 odors) and threshold tests (16 concentrations of n-butanol) using a well-established methodology. Results Farmworkers reported significantly greater lifetime pesticide exposure. Performance on both olfactory tests declined with age. Odor identification performance did not differ between groups. For odor threshold, farmworkers needed significantly higher concentrations to detect the odor. Results were unchanged when adjusted for sex, age, and smoking. Conclusions Olfactory function differences between farmworkers and non-farmworkers suggest possible neurological effects. Because declining olfactory function is an early symptom of Parkinson’s disease and related conditions, it is a possible subclinical indicator of neurodegenerative disease in this vulnerable worker population. PMID:26949874

  7. International Survey of Critically Ill Children With Acute Neurologic Insults: The Prevalence of Acute Critical Neurological Disease in Children: A Global Epidemiological Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ericka L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Tasker, Robert C; Beca, John; Bell, Michael J; Clark, Robert S B; Hutchison, Jamie; Vavilala, Monica S; Fabio, Anthony; Angus, Derek C; Watson, R Scott

    2017-04-01

    The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. Prospective study. Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass. None. We evaluated the prevalence and outcomes of children with predetermined acute neurologic insults. Child and center characteristics were recorded. Unfavorable outcome was defined as change in pre-post insult Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score greater than or equal to 2 or death at hospital discharge or 3 months, whichever came first. Screening data yielded overall prevalence of 16.2%. Of 924 children with acute neurologic insults, cardiac arrest (23%) and traumatic brain injury (19%) were the most common. All-cause mortality at hospital discharge was 12%. Cardiac arrest subjects had highest mortality (24%), and traumatic brain injury subjects had the most unfavorable outcomes (49%). The most common neurologic insult was infection/inflammation in South America, Asia, and the single African site but cardiac arrest in the remaining regions. Neurologic insults are a significant pediatric international health issue. They are frequent and contribute substantial morbidity and mortality. These data suggest a need for an increased focus on acute critical neurologic diseases in infants and children including additional research, enhanced availability of clinical resources, and the development of new therapies.

  8. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in the neurological patient: clinical assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Jalesh N; Fowler, Clare J; Kessler, Thomas M

    2015-07-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is a common sequela of neurological disease, resulting in symptoms that have a pronounced effect on quality of life. The site and nature of the neurological lesion affect the pattern of dysfunction. The risk of developing upper urinary tract damage and renal failure is much lower in patients with slowly progressive non-traumatic neurological disorders than in those with spinal cord injury or spina bifida; this difference in morbidity is taken into account in the development of appropriate management algorithms. Clinical assessment might include tests such as uroflowmetry, post-void residual volume measurement, renal ultrasound, (video-)urodynamics, neurophysiology, and urethrocystoscopy, depending on the indication. Incomplete bladder emptying is most often managed by intermittent catheterisation, and storage dysfunction by antimuscarinic drugs. Intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA have transformed the management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Neuromodulation offers promise for managing both storage and voiding dysfunction. An individualised, patient-tailored approach is required for the management of LUT dysfunction associated with neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooling of the epileptic focus suppresses seizures with minimal influence on neurologic functions.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masami; Inoue, Takao; Nomura, Sadahiro; Maruta, Yuichi; He, Yeting; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Shirao, Satoshi; Owada, Yuji; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Toshitaka; Tokiwa, Tatsuji; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2012-03-01

    Focal brain cooling is effective for suppression of epileptic seizures, but it is unclear if seizures can be suppressed without a substantial influence on normal neurologic function. To address the issue, a thermoelectrically driven cooling system was developed and applied in free-moving rat models of focal seizure and epilepsy. Focal seizures limited to the unilateral forelimb were induced by local application of a penicillin G solution or cobalt powder to the unilateral sensorimotor cortex. A proportional integration and differentiation (PID)-controlled, thermoelectrically driven cooling device (weight of 11 g) and bipolar electrodes were chronically implanted on the eloquent area (on the epileptic focus) and the effects of cooling (20, 15, and 10°C) on electrocorticography, seizure frequency, and neurologic changes were investigated. Cooling was associated with a distinct reduction of the epileptic discharges. In both models, cooling of epileptic foci significantly improved both seizure frequency and neurologic functions from 20°C down to 15°C. Cooling to 10°C also suppressed seizures, but with no further improvement in neurologic function. Subsequent investigation of sensorimotor function revealed significant deterioration in foot-fault tests and the receptive field size at 15°C. Despite the beneficial effects in ictal rats, sensorimotor functions deteriorated at 15°C, thereby suggesting a lower limit for the therapeutic temperature. These results provide important evidence of a therapeutic effect of temperatures from 20 to 15°C using an implantable, hypothermal device for focal epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Education research: case logs in the assessment of medical students in the neurology outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dara V; Brorson, James R; Amidei, Christina; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-04-22

    Using outpatient neurology clinic case logs completed by medical students on neurology clerkships, we examined the impact of outpatient clinical encounter volume per student on outcomes of knowledge assessed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Clinical Neurology Subject Examination and clinical skills assessed by the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Data from 394 medical students from July 2008 to June 2012, representing 9,791 patient encounters, were analyzed retrospectively. Pearson correlations were calculated examining the relationship between numbers of cases logged per student and performance on the NBME examination. Similarly, correlations between cases logged and performance on the OSCE, as well as on components of the OSCE (history, physical examination, clinical formulation), were evaluated. There was a correlation between the total number of cases logged per student and NBME examination scores (r = 0.142; p = 0.005) and OSCE scores (r = 0.136; p = 0.007). Total number of cases correlated with the clinical formulation component of the OSCE (r = 0.172; p = 0.001) but not the performance on history or physical examination components. The volume of cases logged by individual students in the outpatient clinic correlates with performance on measures of knowledge and clinical skill. In measurement of clinical skill, seeing a greater volume of patients in the outpatient clinic is related to improved clinical formulation on the OSCE. These findings may affect methods employed in assessment of medical students, residents, and fellows.

  11. Ionotropic glutamate receptor biology: effect on synaptic connectivity and function in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G N; Slevin, J T

    2003-10-01

    Glutamate receptor signaling is essential to normal synaptic function in the central nervous system. The major ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, Kainic, and NMDA) have different synaptic functions depending upon cellular and subcellular localization, subunit composition, and second messenger systems linked to the receptors. In this review, we examine major advances in glutamate receptor biology whose physiology plays a central role in neurologic disease such as epilepsy and stroke. A key feature of glutamate receptor activation in neurologic disease is the downstream effects on cell survival, genetic expression of axon guidance cues, synaptic connectivity/formation of networks, and neuronal excitability. Identification of therapeutic pharmacologic targets and development of antagonists specific to the disease process remain central themes in epilepsy and stroke research.

  12. Treatment of experimental stroke with opiate antagonists. Effects on neurological function, infarct size, and survival.

    PubMed

    Baskin, D S; Hosobuchi, Y; Grevel, J C

    1986-01-01

    The effects are reported of acute and long-term continuous administration of three opiate antagonists--naloxone, naltrexone, and diprenorphine--on neurological function, survival, and infarct size in a feline model of acute focal cerebral ischemia. All three drugs produced statistically significant improvement in motor function following acute administration without concomitant changes in level of consciousness; saline had no effect. Naloxone and naltrexone significantly prolonged survival (p less than 0.01); diprenorphine did not. Infarct size was not altered by any treatment administered. These findings confirm previous work suggesting that, with the appropriate methodology, treatment with opiate antagonists partially reverses neurological deficits. They also show that opiate antagonists prolong survival in certain conditions of acute and subacute focal cerebral ischemia without altering the area of infarcted tissue.

  13. Quantitative sleep stage analyses as a window to neonatal neurologic function

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Joseph W.; Barks, John D.E.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that neonatal sleep physiology reflects cerebral dysfunction, we compared neurologic examination scores to the proportions of recorded sleep/wake states, sleep depth, and sleep fragmentation in critically ill neonates. Methods: Newborn infants (≥35 weeks gestation) who required intensive care and were at risk for seizures were monitored with 8- to 12-hour polysomnograms (PSGs). For each infant, the distribution of sleep-wake states, entropy of the sequence of state transitions, and delta power from the EEG portion of the PSG were quantified. Standardized neurologic examination (Thompson) scores were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight infants participated (mean gestational age 39.0 ± 1.6 weeks). An increased fraction of quiet sleep correlated with worse neurologic examination scores (Spearman rho = 0.54, p = 0.003), but the proportion of active sleep did not (p > 0.1). Higher state entropy corresponded to better examination scores (rho = −0.43, p = 0.023). Decreased delta power during quiet sleep, but not the power at other frequencies, was also associated with worse examination scores (rho = −0.48, p = 0.009). These findings retained significance after adjustment for gestational age or postmenstrual age at the time of the PSG. Sleep stage transition probabilities were also related to examination scores. Conclusions: Among critically ill neonates at risk for CNS dysfunction, several features of recorded sleep—including analyses of sleep stages, depth, and fragmentation—showed associations with neurologic examination scores. Quantitative PSG analyses may add useful objective information to the traditional neurologic assessment of critically ill neonates. PMID:24384644

  14. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Benjamin Rix; Crumpacker, David; Fellus, Jonathan; Kantor, Daniel; Kaye, Randall E

    2013-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US) prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM) was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA. Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients (or their caregivers) completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS) and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL). Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded. PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7%) had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD) score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse) in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test). A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test). Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  15. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-05-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  16. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-02-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery.

  17. ABCA7 loss-of-function variants, expression, and neurologic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mariet; Lincoln, Sarah J; Corda, Morgane; Watzlawik, Jens O; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Reddy, Joseph S; Burgess, Jeremy D; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2017-02-01

    To investigate and characterize putative "loss-of-function" (LOF) adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette, subfamily A member 7 (ABCA7) mutations reported to associate with Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. We genotyped 6 previously reported ABCA7 putative LOF variants in 1,465 participants with AD, 381 participants with other neuropathologies (non-AD), and 1,043 controls and assessed the overall mutational burden for association with different diagnosis groups. We measured brain ABCA7 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels using Western blot and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 11 carriers of the 3 most common variants, and sequenced all 47 ABCA7 exons in these participants to screen for other coding variants. At least one of the investigated variants was identified in 45 participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease, 12 participants with other neuropathologies, and 11 elderly controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly higher burden of these variants in participants with AD (p = 5.00E-04) and those with other neuropathologies (p = 8.60E-03) when compared with controls. Concurrent analysis of brain ABCA7 mRNA and protein revealed lower protein but not mRNA in p.L1403fs carriers, lower mRNA but not protein in p.E709fs carriers, and additional deleterious mutations in some c.5570+5G>C carriers. Our results suggest that LOF may not be a common mechanism for these ABCA7 variants and expand the list of neurologic diseases enriched for them.

  18. Neurological Assessment and Nerve Conduction Study Findings in 22 Patients with Alkaptonuria from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alrawashdeh, Omar; Alsbou, Mohammad; Alzoubi, Hamed; Al-shagahin, Hani

    2017-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disease characterised by accumulative deposition of homogentisic acid in the connective tissue of the body. This results in early degeneration of tendons, cartilages, heart valves, and other tissues. The main objective of the study is to examine the possibility of the nervous system involvement in patients with alkaptonuria The sample consists of two groups; 22 patients with AKU and 20 controls. A neurological assessment has been carried out including detailed medical history, neurological examination, and a nerve conduction study of the nerves of the dominant hand. The prevalence of any abnormality was compared between the two groups using chi square test. The mean values of the nerve conduction study were compared between the two groups using student t-test. There was a higher prevalence of low back pain, hearing problems and tinnitus, numbness and neuropathic pain in alkaptonuria patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in other conditions such as seizures, headache, and syncope. The values of the nerve conduction study did not show significant difference between the two groups. Neurologically related symptoms in alkaptonuria mostly represent complications of the connective tissue degeneration rather than direct involvement of the nervous system. This has been supported further by the normal findings of the neurophysiology study in patients with alkaptonuria. PMID:28217270

  19. tDCS-enhanced motor and cognitive function in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that is now being widely used in neuroscientific and clinical research in humans. While initial studies focused on modulation of cortical excitability, the technique quickly progressed to studies on motor and cognitive functions in healthy humans and in patients with neurological diseases. In the present review we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of tDCS. In the main part, we will outline recent studies with tDCS that aimed at enhancing behavioral outcome or disease-specific symptoms in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and epilepsy, or persistent deficits after stroke. The review will close with a summary statement on the present use of tDCS in the treatment of neurological disorders, and an outlook to further developments in this realm. tDCS may be an ideal tool to be administered in parallel to intensive cognitive or motor training in neurological disease, but efficacy for the areas of activities and participation still needs to be established in controlled randomized trials. Its use in reducing disease-specific symptoms like dystonia or epileptic seizures is still unclear.

  20. [Assessment of the burden of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological disabilities on the caregiver].

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Luiz Carlos; Borges, Heloise Cazangi; Ozaki, Armando Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the burden of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations on informal caregivers. Sixteen informal caregivers of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations were evaluated, using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale to evaluate the burden on caregivers, as well as gather data on the care and socio-demographic profile of the caregivers, on the socio-economic data and the degree of functional independence of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations. Student's t-test, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey method and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The results associated lower education level of the caregiver (p = 0.01) and lower level of information of the affected pathology (p-value = 0.01) to a heavier burden on the caregiver. The therapeutic and social support provided by the support institutions, such as the Physiotherapy Clinic/School of CEUNSP, was revealed as being important to help caregivers to handle situations in an easier manner. Understanding the factors that influence the burden on the caregiver is important for planning and intervention for this specific population group.

  1. Semantic Pattern Analysis for Verbal Fluency Based Assessment of Neurological Disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ainsworth, Keela C; Brown, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.

  2. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  3. Current perception threshold for assessment of the neurological components of hand-arm vibration syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Kurozawa, Youichi; Hosoda, Takenobu; Nasu, Yoshiro

    2010-09-01

    Current perception threshold (CPT) has been proposed as a quantitative method for assessment of peripheral sensory nerve function. The aim of this review of selected reports is to provide an overview of CPT measurement for the assessment of the neurological component of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The CPT values at 2000 Hz significantly increased for patients with HAVS. This result supports the previous histological findings that demyelination is found predominantly in the peripheral nerves in the hands of men exposed to hand-arm vibration. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were high for severe cases of Stockholm sensorineural (SSN) stage 3 compared with non-exposed controls, but not high for mild cases of SSN stage 1 or 2 and for carpal tunnel syndrome associated with HAVS. However, there are only a few studies on the diagnostic validity of the CPT test for the neurological components of HAVS. Further research is needed and should include diagnostic validity and standardizing of measurement conditions such as skin temperature.

  4. Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Chitti, Ramana M.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Khan, Raja B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

  5. Association of Apgar score at five minutes with long-term neurologic disability and cognitive function in a prevalence study of Danish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Ehrenstein, Vera; Pedersen, Lars; Grijota, Miriam; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Rothman, Kenneth J; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2009-04-02

    Apgar score is used for rapid assessment of newborns. Low five-minute Apgar score has been associated with increased risk of severe neurologic outcome, but data on milder outcomes, particularly in the long term, are limited. We aimed to examine the association of five-minute Apgar score with prevalence of neurologic disability and with cognitive function in early adulthood. We conducted a prevalence study among draft-liable men born in Denmark in 1978-1983 and presenting for the mandatory army evaluation in a northern Danish conscription district. We linked records of this evaluation, which includes medical exam and intelligence testing, with the conscripts' records in the Medical Birth Registry, containing perinatal data. We examined prevalence of neurologic disability and of low cognitive function according to five-minute Apgar score. Less than 1% (136/19,559) of the conscripts had 5-minute Apgar scores <7. Prevalence of neurologic disability was 2.2% (435/19,559) overall; among conscripts with Apgar scores <7, 7-9, and 10 (reference), it was 8.8%, 2.5%, and 2.2% respectively. The corresponding prevalences of low cognitive function (intelligence test score in the bottom quartile) were 34.9%, 27.2%, and 25.0%. The outcomes were more prevalent if Apgar score <7 was accompanied by certain fetal or obstetric adversities. After accounting for perinatal characteristics, 5-minute Apgar score <7 was associated with prevalence ratios of 4.02 (95% confidence interval: 2.24; 7.24) for neurologic disability and 1.33 (0.94; 1.88) for low cognitive function. A five-minute Apgar score <7 has a consistent association with prevalence of neurologic disability and with low cognitive function in early adulthood.

  6. Impact of Thyroid Hormone Levels on Functional Outcome in Neurological and Neurosurgical Early Rehabilitation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rollnik, Jens D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation (NNER) is a specialized treatment option for patients with severe neurological disorders. The present study investigated whether thyroid hormone levels on admission have an impact on the outcome of NNER patients. Method The study included 500 NNER patients who were admitted to the BDH-Clinic Hessisch Oldendorf between 2009 and 2010. Data such as age, sex, diagnoses, comorbidities, Glasgow Coma Scale score, length of stay, and thyroid hormone levels (obtained as part of clinical routine care) were analyzed retrospectively. Improvement in the Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI) at the end of the NNER treatment was defined as outcome parameter. Results Most patients made functional progress during treatment, as reflected in significant enhancements of the ERBI. Approximately half of the patients were transferred to further rehabilitation treatment. Young age, early onset of NNER treatment, low functional impairment on admission, and, in particular, low total T3 levels were independently associated with a good outcome. Conclusion Age, severity of disease, and time between injury and admission are known to predict outcome. The present study confirms the influence of these general factors. In addition, an association between thyroid hormones and functional outcome was demonstrated for NNER patients. PMID:28900623

  7. Combination of methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi-gong; Lin, Xiang-jin; Du, Jun-hua; Xu, San-zhong; Lou, Xian-feng; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone exhibits anti-inflammatory antioxidant properties, and rosiglitazone acts as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the spinal cord. Methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone have been clinically used during the early stages of secondary spinal cord injury. Because of the complexity and diversity of the inflammatory process after spinal cord injury, a single drug cannot completely inhibit inflammation. Therefore, we assumed that a combination of methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone might promote recovery of neurological function after secondary spinal cord injury. In this study, rats were intraperitoneally injected with methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg) and rosiglitazone (2 mg/kg) at 1 hour after injury, and methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg) at 24 and 48 hours after injury. Rosiglitazone was then administered once every 12 hours for 7 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that a combined treatment with methylprednisolone and rosiglitazone had a more pronounced effect on attenuation of inflammation and cell apoptosis, as well as increased functional recovery, compared with either single treatment alone, indicating that a combination better promoted recovery of neurological function after injury. PMID:27904502

  8. Causality Assessment of Serious Neurologic Adverse Events Following 2009 H1N1 Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S Elizabeth; Pahud, Barbara A; Vellozzi, Claudia; Donofrio, Peter D; Dekker, Cornelia L; Halsey, Neal; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger P; Marchant, Colin D; LaRussa, Philip S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Tokars, Jerome I; McGeeney, Brian E; Sparks, Robert C; Aukes, Laurie L.; Jakob, Kathleen; Coronel, Silvia; Sejvar, James J; Slade, Barbara A; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse events occurring after vaccination are routinely reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We studied serious adverse events (SAEs) of a neurologic nature reported after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the 2009–10 influenza season. Investigators in the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network sought to characterize these SAEs and to assess their possible causal relationship to vaccination. Methods Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) physicians reviewed all SAE reports (as defined by the Code of Federal Regulations, 21CFR§314.80) after receipt of H1N1 vaccine reported to VAERS between October 1st 2009 and March 31st 2010. Non-fatal SAE reports with neurologic presentation were referred to CISA investigators, who requested and reviewed additional medical records and clinical information as available. CISA investigators assessed the causal relationship between vaccination and the event using modified WHO criteria as defined. Results 212 VAERS reports of non-fatal serious neurological events were referred for CISA review. Case reports were equally distributed by gender (50.9% female) with an age range of 6 months to 83 years (median 38 years). The most frequent diagnoses reviewed were: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (37.3%), seizures (10.8%), cranial neuropathy (5.7%), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (3.8%). Causality assessment resulted in classification of 72 events as “possibly” related (33%), 108 as “unlikely” related (51%), and 20 as “unrelated” (9%) to H1N1 vaccination; none were classified as “probable” or “definite” and 12 were unclassifiable (6%). Conclusion The absence of a specific test to indicate whether a vaccine component contributes to the pathogenesis of an event occurring within a biologically plausible time period makes assessing causality difficult. The development of standardized protocols

  9. Causality assessment of serious neurologic adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Williams, S Elizabeth; Pahud, Barbara A; Vellozzi, Claudia; Donofrio, Peter D; Dekker, Cornelia L; Halsey, Neal; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger P; Marchant, Colin D; Larussa, Philip S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Tokars, Jerome I; McGeeney, Brian E; Sparks, Robert C; Aukes, Laurie L; Jakob, Kathleen; Coronel, Silvia; Sejvar, James J; Slade, Barbara A; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2011-10-26

    Adverse events occurring after vaccination are routinely reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We studied serious adverse events (SAEs) of a neurologic nature reported after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Investigators in the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network sought to characterize these SAEs and to assess their possible causal relationship to vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) physicians reviewed all SAE reports (as defined by the Code of Federal Regulations, 21CFR§314.80) after receipt of H1N1 vaccine reported to VAERS between October 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010. Non-fatal SAE reports with neurologic presentation were referred to CISA investigators, who requested and reviewed additional medical records and clinical information as available. CISA investigators assessed the causal relationship between vaccination and the event using modified WHO criteria as defined. 212 VAERS reports of non-fatal serious neurological events were referred for CISA review. Case reports were equally distributed by gender (50.9% female) with an age range of 6 months to 83 years (median 38 years). The most frequent diagnoses reviewed were: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (37.3%), seizures (10.8%), cranial neuropathy (5.7%), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (3.8%). Causality assessment resulted in classification of 72 events as "possibly" related (33%), 108 as "unlikely" related (51%), and 20 as "unrelated" (9%) to H1N1 vaccination; none were classified as "probable" or "definite" and 12 were unclassifiable (6%). The absence of a specific test to indicate whether a vaccine component contributes to the pathogenesis of an event occurring within a biologically plausible time period makes assessing causality difficult. The development of standardized protocols for providers to use in evaluation of adverse events

  10. Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking.

  11. Limitations of the Neurological Evolutional Exam (ENE) as a motor assessment for first graders.

    PubMed

    Caçola, Priscila M; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Arias, Amabile V; Gonçalves, Vanda G; Gabbard, Carl

    2010-01-01

    many clinicians and researchers in Brazil consider the Neurological Developmental Exam (NDE), a valid and reliable assessment for Brazilian school-aged children. However, since its inception, several tests have emerged that, according to some researchers, provide more in-depth evaluation of motor ability and go beyond the detection of general motor status (soft neurological signs). to highlight the limitations of the NDE as a motor skill assessment for first graders. thirty-five children were compared on seven selected items of the NDE, seven of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT), and seven of the Visual-Motor Integration test (VMI). Participants received a "pass" or "fail" score for each item, as prescribed by the respective test manual. chi-square and ANOVA results indicated that the vast majority of children (74%) passed the NDE items, whereas values for the other tests were 29% (BOT) and 20% (VMI). Analysis of specific categories (e.g. visual, fine, and gross motor coordination) revealed a similar outcome. our data suggest that while the NDE may be a valid and reliable test for the detection of general motor status, its use as a diagnostic/remedial tool for identifying motor ability is questionable. One of our recommendations is the consideration of a revised NDE in light of the current needs of clinicians and researchers.

  12. Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

  13. Effect of nitrous oxide on neurologic and neuropsychological function after intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Diana G; Lanier, William L; Pasternak, Jeffrey J; Rusy, Deborah A; Hogan, Kirk; Samra, Satwant; Hindman, Bradley; Todd, Michael M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Bayman, Emine Ozgur; Clarke, William; Torner, James; Weeks, Julie

    2008-04-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that nitrous oxide augments brain injury after ischemia or hypoxia. The authors examined the relation between nitrous oxide use and outcomes using data from the Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial. The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial was a prospective randomized study of the impact of intraoperative hypothermia (temperature = 33 degrees C) versus normothermia (temperature = 36.5 degrees C) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage undergoing surgical clipping. Anesthesia was dictated by a limited-options protocol with the use of nitrous oxide determined by individual anesthesiologists. All patients were assessed daily for 14 days after surgery or until hospital discharge. Neurologic and neuropsychological testing were conducted at 3 months after surgery. Outcome data were analyzed via both univariate tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis correcting for factors thought to influence outcome. An odds ratio (OR) greater than 1.0 denotes a worse outcome in patients receiving nitrous oxide. Outcome data were available for 1,000 patients, of which 373 received nitrous oxide. There was no difference between groups in the development of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit. At 3 months after surgery, there were no significant differences between groups in any outcome variable: Glasgow Outcome Score (OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.14; P = 0.268), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.96-1.73; P = 0.087), Rankin Disability Score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15; P = 0.284), Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.51; P = 0.961), or neuropsychological testing (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.85-1.87; P = 0.252). In a population of patients at risk for ischemic brain injury, nitrous oxide use had no overall beneficial or detrimental impact on neurologic or neuropsychological outcomes.

  14. Neurological channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Graves, T; Hanna, M

    2005-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane-bound proteins that perform key functions in virtually all human cells. Such channels are critically important for the normal function of the excitable tissues of the nervous system, such as muscle and brain. Until relatively recently it was considered that dysfunction of ion channels in the nervous system would be incompatible with life. However, an increasing number of human diseases associated with dysfunctional ion channels are now recognised. Such neurological channelopathies are frequently genetically determined but may also arise through autoimmune mechanisms. In this article clinical, genetic, immunological, and electrophysiological aspects of this expanding group of neurological disorders are reviewed. Clinical situations in which a neurological channelopathy should enter into the differential diagnosis are highlighted. Some practical guidance on how to investigate and treat this complex group of disorders is also included. PMID:15640425

  15. [The role of the neuropsychologist in neurology services: a descriptive study of the users of the specialised neurological assessment unit of the Hospital Complex of Navarra during its first year in service].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, Pilar; Seijas-Gómez, Raquel; Carnés-Vendrell, Anna

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. A large number of neurological diseases course with impairment of higher cognitive functions, their evaluation being important for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The main purpose of neuropsychological assessment is to identify behavioral, emotional and cognitive consequences of brain dysfunction. The neuropsychologist's figure was included in Navarra's Hospital Neurology Service in February 2013 through a specialized practice in neuropsychological assessment. AIM. To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of all patients referred to the same from March 2013 to March 2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A total of 511 people have been treated in this practice. RESULTS. 73.2% are more than 55 years old and the most frequent reason of referral is to characterize the neuropsychological profile to detect and discriminate mild cognitive impairment and dementia, as well as the type of dementia. In younger adults (< 55 years old) the most prevalent cognitive deficit is memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS. The expert neuropsychologist performs thorough neuropsychological evaluations from an interpretative approach. The results of this study suggest the importance of this figures role in neurology services and point out future aims.

  16. Effectiveness of music-based interventions on motricity or cognitive functioning in neurological populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moumdjian, Lousin; Sarkamo, Teppo; Leone, Carmela; Leman, Marc; Feys, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Motor and cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with neurological disorders and often require extensive long-term rehabilitation. Recently, a variety of music-based interventions have been introduced into neurological rehabilitation as training tools. This review aims to 1) describe and define music-based intervention modalities and content which are applied in experimental studies; and 2) describe the effects of these interventions on motor and/or cognitive symptoms in the neurological population. The databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Cited references of included articles where screened for potential inclusion. A systematic literature search up to 20th of June 2016 was conducted to include controlled trials and cohort studies that have used music-based interventions for ≥3 weeks in the neurological population (in- and outpatients) targeting motor and/or cognitive symptoms. No limitations to publication date was set. EVIDENCE SYNTHESISː Nineteen articles comprising thirteen randomized controlled trials (total participants Nexp=241, Nctrl=269), four controlled trials (Nexp=59, Nctrl=53) and two cohort studies (N.=27) were included. Fourteen studies were conducted in stroke, three in Parkinson's disease, and two in multiple sclerosis population. Modalities of music-based interventions were clustered into four groups: instrument-based, listening-based, rhythm-based, and multicomponent-based music interventions. Overall, studies consistently showed that music-based interventions had similar or larger effects than conventional rehabilitation on upper limb function (N.=16; fine motricity, hand and arm capacity, finger and hand tapping velocity/variability), mobility (N.=7; gait parameters), and cognition (N.=4; verbal memory and focused attention). CONCLUSIONSː Variety of modalities using music-based interventions has been identified and grouped into four clusters. Effects of interventions demonstrate an improvement in the domains assessed

  17. Outcome measures: evolution in clinical trials of neurological/functional recovery in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ditunno, J F

    2010-09-01

    The need to determine the beneficial effect of the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) requires clearly defined standardized measures of the severity of injury and how well the function is restored. Improved neurological recovery should be linked to increased capacity to perform tasks such as walking, reaching and grasping, which results in meaningful gains in mobility and self-care. Measurements of recovery, capacity, mobility and self-care are the outcomes used to determine the benefits from the treatment and have evolved over the last century with contributions by the mentors and protégés of Sir Ludwig Guttmann, whom we honor today. Randomized clinical trials in the past 20 years have taught us many lessons as to which outcome measures have the greatest validity and reliability. The International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI have become the clinical gold standard for measurement of severity, but would benefit from pathophysiological surrogates to better understand the mechanisms of recovery. Measurements of walking capacity have emerged as valid/reliable/responsive and upper extremity measures are in development, which help distinguish neurological improvement from rehabilitation adaptation. Performance of self-care and mobility has been linked to capacity and severity outcomes. In addition, new partnerships between clinical trial entities, professional societies, industry and federal agencies should facilitate identification of priorities and uniformity of measurement standards. Our ultimate goal is to improve the quality of life of those individuals with SCI whom we serve, but we must focus our investigative efforts carefully, systematically and rigorously as clinical scientists.

  18. The impact of cognitive impairment, neurological soft signs and subdepressive symptoms on functional outcome in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Baş, Tuba Öcek; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Baş, Alper; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tosun, Musa

    2015-03-15

    Cognitive impairments and subsyndromal depressive symptoms are present during euthymic periods of bipolar disorder (BD). Most studies have determined that cognitive impairments and residual depressive symptoms have major impacts on psychosocial functioning. The aim of the present study was to identify the major factor responsible for low psychosocial functioning in a subgroup of patients with BD despite clinical recovery. Sixty patients with bipolar I disorder and 41 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Cognitive performance, neurological soft signs (NSSs), psychosocial functioning, residual mood symptoms and illness characteristics were assessed. Using the median value of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) as the cut-off point, the patients were divided into two groups, high- (n=29) or low-functioning (n=31), and they were compared based on total NSS, residual depressive symptoms, cognitive performance and clinical variables. Performances on the verbal memory tests and social functioning were significantly worse in the euthymic patients with BD. Increased rates of NSS were identified in the patients compared with the normal controls. The low-functioning patients performed significantly worse on verbal memory, and their NSS and residual depressive symptoms were significantly higher compared to high-functioning patients. In the regression analysis, subsyndromal depressive symptoms and verbal learning measures were identified as the best predictors of psychosocial functioning. The patients were artificially separated into two groups based on a FAST score cut-off. In this study, residual depressive symptoms and verbal memory impairments were the most prominent factors associated with the level of functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disrupted avoidance learning in functional neurological disorder: Implications for harm avoidance theories.

    PubMed

    Morris, Laurel S; To, Benjaman; Baek, Kwangyeol; Chang-Webb, Yee-Chien; Mitchell, Simon; Strelchuk, Daniela; Mikheenko, Yevheniia; Phillips, Wendy; Zandi, Michael; Jenaway, Allison; Walsh, Cathy; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Functional neurological disorder (FND) is an elusive disorder characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms alongside aberrant cognitive processing and negative affect, often associated with amygdala reactivity. We examined the effect of negative conditioning on cognitive function and amygdala reactivity in 25 FND patients and 20 healthy volunteers (HV). Participants were first conditioned to stimuli paired with negative affective or neutral (CS +/CS -) information. During functional MRI, subjects then performed an instrumental associative learning task to avoid monetary losses in the context of the previously conditioned stimuli. We expected that FND patients would be better at learning to avoid losses when faced with negatively conditioned stimuli (increased harm avoidance). Multi-echo resting state fMRI was also collected from the same subjects and a robust denoising method was employed, important for removing motion and physiological artifacts. FND subjects were more sensitive to the negative CS + compared to HV, demonstrated by a reinforcement learning model. Contrary to expectation, FND patients were generally more impaired at learning to avoid losses under both contexts (CS +/CS -), persisting to choose the option that resulted in a negative outcome demonstrated by both behavioural and computational analyses. FND patients showed enhanced amygdala but reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses when they received negative feedback. Patients also had increased resting state functional connectivity between these two regions. FND patients had impaired instrumental avoidance learning, findings that parallel previous observations of impaired action-outcome binding. FND patients further show enhanced behavioural and neural sensitivity to negative information. However, this did not translate to improved avoidance learning. Put together, our findings do not support the theory of harm avoidance in FND. We highlight a potential mechanism by which

  20. Parent development in clinical child neurological assessment process: encounters with the assimilation model.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Soile; Stiles, William B; Leiman, Mikael

    2011-09-01

    Child neurological diagnostic procedures involve extensive encounters with a multi-professional team and may have therapeutic effects. This study explored the therapeutic potential of the diagnostic process using the assimilation model as the conceptual frame of reference. The process of assimilation was tracked across nine consecutive encounters during the assessment of a 4-year-old girl who was referred to the child neurological team due to contact and communication problems. All parent-professional dialogues were transcribed and analyzed using dialogical sequence analysis, which yielded a core problematic reciprocal pattern that was named "controlling in relation to defiant and uncontrolled." Parent development in finding alternative patterns to excessive control was traced using the assimilation model. We could identify assimilation stages in parent development, from disowning the impact of their own actions and mainly seeing the problem as belonging to the child into a more flexible and self-related understanding of the problem. The parents also described more accommodating ways of managing the child at the follow-up. Benefits and limitations in applying the assimilation model in a non-therapy context are discussed.

  1. Calpain inhibitor AK 295 inhibits calpain-induced apoptosis and improves neurologic function after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Colak, A; Kaya, M; Karaoğlan, A; Sağmanligil, A; Akdemir, O; Sahan, E; Celik, O

    2009-06-01

    An increase in the level of intracellular calcium activates the calcium-dependent neutral protease calpain, which in turn leads to cellular dysfunction and cell death after an insult to the central nervous system. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a calpain inhibitor, AK 295, on spinal cord structure, neurologic function, and apoptosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a murine model. Thirty albino Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 each: the sham-operated control group (group 1), the spinal cord trauma group (group 2), and the spinal cord trauma plus AK 295 treatment group (group 3). After having received a combination of ketamine 60 mg/kg and xylazine 9 mg/kg to induce anesthesia, the rats in groups 2 and 3 were subjected to thoracic trauma by the weight drop technique (40 g-cm). One hour after having been subjected to that trauma, the rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of either dimethyl sulfoxide 2 mg/kg or AK 295 2 mg/kg. The effects of the injury and the efficacy of AK 295 were determined by an assessment of the TUNEL technique and the results of examination with a light microscope. The neurologic performance of 5 rats from group 2 and 5 from group 3 was assessed by means of the inclined plane technique and the modified Tarlov's motor grading scale 1, 3, and 5 days after spinal cord trauma. Light-microscopic examination of spinal cord specimens from group 2 revealed hemorrhage, edema, necrosis, and vascular thrombi 24 hours after trauma. Similar (but less prominent) features were seen in specimens obtained from group 3 rats. Twenty-four hours after injury, the mean apoptotic cell numbers in groups 1 and 2 were zero and 4.57 +/- 0.37 cells, respectively. In group 3, the mean apoptotic cell number was 2.30 +/- 0.34 cells, a value significantly lower than that in group 2 (P < .05). Five days after trauma, the injured rats in group 2 demonstrated significant motor dysfunction (P < .05). In comparison, the motor

  2. Synchrotron-Generated Microbeam Sensorimotor Cortex Transections Induce Seizure Control without Disruption of Neurological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Pantaleo; Fardone, Erminia; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; Requardt, Herwig; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Anschel, David J.; Spiga, Jenny; Bravin, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-ray microplanar beams (microbeams) are characterized by the ability to deliver extremely high doses of radiation to spatially restricted volumes of tissue. Minimal dose spreading outside the beam path provides an exceptional degree of protection from radio-induced damage to the neurons and glia adjacent to the microscopic slices of tissue irradiated. The preservation of cortical architecture following high-dose microbeam irradiation and the ability to induce non-invasively the equivalent of a surgical cut over the cortex is of great interest for the development of novel experimental models in neurobiology and new treatment avenues for a variety of brain disorders. Microbeams (size 100 µm/600 µm, center-to-center distance of 400 µm/1200 µm, peak entrance doses of 360-240 Gy/150-100 Gy) delivered to the sensorimotor cortex of six 2-month-old naïve rats generated histologically evident cortical transections, without modifying motor behavior and weight gain up to 7 months. Microbeam transections of the sensorimotor cortex dramatically reduced convulsive seizure duration in a further group of 12 rats receiving local infusion of kainic acid. No subsequent neurological deficit was associated with the treatment. These data provide a novel tool to study the functions of the cortex and pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy and other neurological diseases. PMID:23341950

  3. Functional Neurons Generated from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Neurological Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Fujimori, Koki; Andoh-Noda, Tomoko; Ando, Takayuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Toyoshima, Manabu; Tada, Hirobumi; Imaizumi, Kent; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Isoda, Miho; Zhou, Zhi; Sato, Shigeto; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Ohtaka, Manami; Nishimura, Ken; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Mahito; Ohyama, Manabu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Modeling of neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the somatic cells of patients has provided a means of elucidating pathogenic mechanisms and performing drug screening. T cells are an ideal source of patient-specific iPSCs because they can be easily obtained from samples. Recent studies indicated that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory relating to their cell of origin that restricts their differentiation potential. The classical method of differentiation via embryoid body formation was not suitable for T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs). We developed a neurosphere-based robust differentiation protocol, which enabled TiPSCs to differentiate into functional neurons, despite differences in global gene expression between TiPSCs and adult human dermal fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Furthermore, neurons derived from TiPSCs generated from a juvenile patient with Parkinson's disease exhibited several Parkinson's disease phenotypes. Therefore, we conclude that TiPSCs are a useful tool for modeling neurological diseases. PMID:26905201

  4. Neurophysiological assessment of divers with medical histories of neurological decompression illness.

    PubMed Central

    Murrison, A W; Glasspool, E; Pethybridge, R J; Francis, T J; Sedgwick, E M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the possibility that subclinical damage may persist after clinical recovery from neurological decompression illness. METHODS--The neuraxes of 71 divers with medical histories of neurological decompression illness and 37 non-diver controls were examined by recording the somatosensory evoked potentials produced on stimulation of the posterior tibial and median nerves. RESULTS--Although the tests gave some objective support for the presence of "soft" residual neurological symptoms and signs, no evidence was given for the presence of subclinical damage. CONCLUSIONS--The contention that neurological damage persists after full clinical recovery from the neurological decompression illness was not supported. PMID:7849848

  5. Neurological, functional, and biomechanical characteristics after high-velocity behind armor blunt trauma of the spine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Yifeng; Su, Zhenglin; Wang, Shuangping; Wang, Shu; Wang, Jianmin; Wang, Aimin; Lai, Xinan

    2011-12-01

    Behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) describes a nonpenetrating injury to the organs of an individual wearing body armor. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurologic and functional changes that occur in the central nervous system after high-velocity BABT of the spine as well as its biomechanical characteristics. This study evaluated 28 healthy adult white pigs. Animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups: (1) 15 animals (9 in the exposed group and 6 in the control group) were tested for neurologic changes; (2) 10 animals (5 in the exposed group and 5 in the control group) were used for studies of cognitive function; (3) and 3 animals were used for examination of biomechanics. In the group tested for neurologic changes, 9 anesthetized pigs wearing body armor (including a ceramic plate and polyethylene body armor) on the back were shot on the eighth thoracic vertebrae (T8) with a 5.56-mm rifle bullet (velocity appropriately 910 m/s). As a control, six pigs were shot with blank ammunition. Ultrastructural changes of the spinal cord and brain tissue were observed with light and electron microscopy. Expression levels of myelin basic protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glial cytoplasmic protein (S-100B) were investigated in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were monitored before and 10 minutes after the shot. Pressures in the spine, common carotid artery, and brain were detected. Acceleration of the 10th vertebrae (T10) was tested. Finally, cognitive outcomes between exposed and control groups were compared. Neuronal degeneration and nerve fiber demyelination were seen in the spinal cord. The concentrations of neuron-specific enolase, myelin basic protein, and S-100B were significantly increased in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid 3 hours after trauma (p < 0.05). The electroencephalogram was suppressed within 3 to 6 minutes after trauma. The pressure detected in the

  6. Corticolimbic structural alterations linked to health status and trait anxiety in functional neurological disorder.

    PubMed

    Perez, David L; Williams, Benjamin; Matin, Nassim; LaFrance, W Curt; Costumero-Ramos, Victor; Fricchione, Gregory L; Sepulcre, Jorge; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-08-26

    Affective symptoms influence health status (health-related quality of life) in functional neurological disorder (FND), and the salience network is implicated in the pathophysiology of FND and mood/anxiety disorders. We hypothesised that self-reported health status and affective symptoms would map onto salience network regions and that patients with FND would show decreased insular volumes compared with controls. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated volumetric differences in 26 patients with FND (21 women, 5 men; mean age=40.3±11.5) compared with 27 healthy controls (22 women, 5 men; mean age=40.5±10.8). Post hoc analyses stratified patients with FND by mental and physical health scores (Short Form Health Survey-36). Within-group analyses investigated associations with mental health, physical health, trait anxiety and depression in patients with FND. There were no volumetric differences between the complete FND cohort and controls. In stratified analyses, however, patients with FND reporting the most severe physical health impairments showed reduced left anterior insular volume compared with controls. In within-group analyses, impaired mental health and elevated trait anxiety were associated with increased right amygdalar volumes in patients with FND. The relationship between amygdalar volume and mental health, driven by emotional well-being deficits and role limitations due to emotional problems, was independent of sensorimotor functional neurological symptom severity and motor FND subtype. In secondary within-group analyses, increased periaqueductal grey volume was associated with role limitations due to emotional problems. Impaired physical functioning correlated with decreased left anterior insular volumes. These findings support roles for several regions of the salience network in the pathophysiology of FND. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  7. Potential of robots as next-generation technology for clinical assessment of neurological disorders and upper-limb therapy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2011-01-01

    Robotic technologies have profoundly affected the identification of fundamental properties of brain function. This success is attributable to robots being able to control the position of or forces applied to limbs, and their inherent ability to easily, objectively, and reliably quantify sensorimotor behavior. Our general hypothesis is that these same attributes make robotic technologies ideal for clinically assessing sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments in stroke and other neurological disorders. Further, they provide opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. The present opinionated review describes how robotic technologies combined with virtual/augmented reality systems can support a broad range of behavioral tasks to objectively quantify brain function. This information could potentially be used to provide more accurate diagnostic and prognostic information than is available from current clinical assessment techniques. The review also highlights the potential benefits of robots to provide upper-limb therapy. Although the capital cost of these technologies is substantial, it pales in comparison with the potential cost reductions to the overall healthcare system that improved assessment and therapeutic interventions offer.

  8. The Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term: Conceptual and Methodological Continuity in the Course of Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Julie; Gahagan, Sheila; Amiel-Tison, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT) is part of a set of three different instruments based on a neuro-maturative framework. By sharing a same methodology and a similar scoring system, the use of these three assessments prevents any rupture in the course of high risk children follow-up from 32 weeks post-conception to 6 years of…

  9. The Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term: Conceptual and Methodological Continuity in the Course of Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Julie; Gahagan, Sheila; Amiel-Tison, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT) is part of a set of three different instruments based on a neuro-maturative framework. By sharing a same methodology and a similar scoring system, the use of these three assessments prevents any rupture in the course of high risk children follow-up from 32 weeks post-conception to 6 years of…

  10. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jing; Yu, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

  11. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-jing; Yu, Hong-quan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Qun; Meng, Hong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL). Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27630696

  12. Adaptations in human neuromuscular function following prolonged unweighting: II. Neurological properties and motor imagery efficacy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian C; Manini, Todd M; Bolanowski, Stanley J; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2006-07-01

    Strength loss following disuse may result from alterations in muscle and/or neurological properties. In this paper, we report our findings on human plantar flexor neurological properties following 4 wk of limb suspension [unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS)], along with the effect of motor imagery (MI) training on these properties. In the companion paper (Part I), we report our findings on the changes in skeletal muscle properties. Additionally, in the present paper, we analyze our findings to determine the relative contribution of neural and muscular factors in strength loss. Measurements of central activation, the H-reflex, and nerve conduction were made before and after 4 wk of ULLS (n = 18; 19-28 yr). A subset of the subjects (n = 6) performed PF MI training 4 days/wk. Following ULLS, we observed a significant increase in the soleus H-reflex (45.4 +/- 4.0 to 51.9 +/- 3.7% expressed relative to the maximal muscle action potential). Additionally, there were longer intervals between the delivery of an electrical stimulus to the tibial nerve and the corresponding muscle action potential (M-wave latency; mean prolongation 0.49 ms) and H-reflex wave (H-wave latency; mean prolongation 0.46 ms). The efficacy of MI on strength was ambiguous, with no significant effect detected (although a modest effect size was observed; eta2 = 0.18). These findings suggest that unweighting induces plastic changes in neural function that appear to be spatially distributed throughout the nervous system. In terms of the relative contribution of neural and muscular factors regulating strength loss, we observed that neural factors (primarily deficits in central activation) explained 48% of the variability in strength loss, whereas muscular factors (primarily sarcolemma function) explained 39% of the variability.

  13. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of peripheral neurological disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Regular exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can result in symptoms and signs of peripheral vascular, neurological and other disorders collectively known as the hand-arm vibration syndrome. The measurement of the effects of hand-transmitted vibration involves converting the evidence of disorder (symptoms and signs) into information that can be stored. Evaluation requires the use of scales on which to indicate the severity of the various symptoms and signs. Assessment involves a judgement of severity relative to a criterion, usually for a specific purpose (e.g. to decide on removal from work or compensation). The measurement and evaluation of symptoms and signs is necessary when monitoring patient health and when performing epidemiological studies for research. The assessment of the severity of the hand-arm vibration syndrome is currently performed with staging systems, but the criteria are not clear and not related to defined methods for measuring or evaluating the symptoms and signs. Recognizing that similar symptoms can occur without injury from occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration, this paper attempts to define significant peripheral neurological symptoms caused by hand-transmitted vibration (i.e. 'unusual symptoms') and how these symptoms and related signs may be measured. Scales for evaluating the symptoms (e.g. their extent) and the related signs (e.g. their probability relative to the probability of the sign being present in persons not exposed to vibration) are defined. A method of relating unusual symptoms to both the signs of disorder and the pattern of vibration exposure is illustrated. Assessments of severity will vary according to the reasons for assessing the health effects of vibration, and will depend on local practice and convenience, but a way of combining evaluations of symptoms and signs is demonstrated in a staging system. Although inherently complex, the methods may assist the collection of data required to improve

  14. Neurologic examination of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, C L; Walsh, M; Meeks, J C; Zurawka, H; LaRock, R; Herbst, L; Schumacher, J

    1997-10-15

    To determine whether neurologic examination techniques established for use on dogs and cats could be adapted for use on sea turtles. Prospective controlled observational study. 4 healthy Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas), 1 healthy Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi), and 6 Green Turtles suspected to have neurologic abnormalities. Neurologic examinations were performed while sea turtles were in and out of the water and in ventral and dorsal recumbency. Mentation, general activity, head and body posture, movement and coordination, thoracic and pelvic limb movement, strength and muscle tone, and tail movement were observed. Thoracic and pelvic limb flexor reflexes and nociception, righting response, cranial nerve reflexes, clasp and cloacal reflexes, and neck, dorsal scute, cloacal and tail nociception were tested. Results of neurologic evaluations were consistent for healthy sea turtles. Sea turtles suspected to have neurologic abnormalities had abnormal results. Many of the neurologic examination techniques used to evaluate dogs and cats can be adapted and used to evaluate sea turtles. A standardized neurologic examination should result in an accurate assessment of neurologic function in impaired sea turtles and should help in evaluating effects of rehabilitation efforts and suitability for return to their natural environment.

  15. Neuropsychiatric Associations With Gender, Illness Duration, Work Disability, and Motor Subtype in a U.S. Functional Neurological Disorders Clinic Population.

    PubMed

    Matin, Nassim; Young, Sigrid S; Williams, Benjamin; LaFrance, W Curt; King, Julie N; Caplan, David; Chemali, Zeina; Weilburg, Jeffery B; Dickerson, Bradford C; Perez, David L

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of functional neurological disorders (FND) requires an interdisciplinary approach. The authors retrospectively reviewed charts for 100 outpatients with FND and used univariate and regression analyses to investigate neuropsychiatric associations with gender, illness duration, and work disability; secondary analyses evaluated for differences across motor FND subtypes. Men reported higher rates of cognitive complaints and functional weakness, whereas women endorsed increased past physical/sexual trauma. Number of self-reported medication allergies/sensitivities positively correlated with illness duration. Individuals with functional weakness compared with other motor FND subtypes exhibited lower rates of past psychiatric hospitalization and head trauma. This study supports the feasibility of integrating FND research.

  16. Revisiting Mitochondrial Function and Metabolism in Pluripotent Stem Cells: Where Do We Stand in Neurological Diseases?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla; Rego, A Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are powerful cellular tools that can generate all the different cell types of the body, and thus overcome the often limited access to human disease tissues; this becomes highly relevant when aiming to investigate cellular (dys)function in diseases affecting the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that PSC and differentiated cells show altered mitochondrial function and metabolic profiles and production of reactive oxygen species. This raises an emerging paradigm about the role of mitochondria in stem cell biology and urges the need to identify mitochondrial pathways involved in these processes. In this respect, this review focuses on the metabolic profile of PSC and how mitochondrial function can influence the reprogramming and differentiation processes. Indeed, both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) favor the glycolytic pathway as a major source of energy production over oxidative phosphorylation. PSC mitochondria are characterized by a spherical shape, low copy number of mitochondrial DNA, and a hyperpolarized state. Indeed, mitochondria appear to have a crucial role in reprogramming iPSC, in the maintenance of a pluripotent state, and in differentiation. Moreover, an increase in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation has to occur for differentiation to succeed. Therefore, in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons can be compromised if those mechanisms are impaired. Future research should shed light on how mitochondrial impairment occurring in pre differentiation neural stages (e.g., in NSC or premature neurons) may contribute for the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders.

  17. Noncoding RNAs and RNA editing in brain development, functional diversification, and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Mark F; Mattick, John S

    2007-07-01

    The progressive maturation and functional plasticity of the nervous system in health and disease involve a dynamic interplay between the transcriptome and the environment. There is a growing awareness that the previously unexplored molecular and functional interface mediating these complex gene-environmental interactions, particularly in brain, may encompass a sophisticated RNA regulatory network involving the twin processes of RNA editing and multifaceted actions of numerous subclasses of non-protein-coding RNAs. The mature nervous system encompasses a wide range of cell types and interconnections. Long-term changes in the strength of synaptic connections are thought to underlie memory retrieval, formation, stabilization, and effector functions. The evolving nervous system involves numerous developmental transitions, such as neurulation, neural tube patterning, neural stem cell expansion and maintenance, lineage elaboration, differentiation, axonal path finding, and synaptogenesis. Although the molecular bases for these processes are largely unknown, RNA-based epigenetic mechanisms appear to be essential for orchestrating these precise and versatile biological phenomena and in defining the etiology of a spectrum of neurological diseases. The concerted modulation of RNA editing and the selective expression of non-protein-coding RNAs during seminal as well as continuous state transitions may comprise the plastic molecular code needed to couple the intrinsic malleability of neural network connections to evolving environmental influences to establish diverse forms of short- and long-term memory, context-specific behavioral responses, and sophisticated cognitive capacities.

  18. Cingulo-insular structural alterations associated with psychogenic symptoms, childhood abuse and PTSD in functional neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Perez, David L; Matin, Nassim; Barsky, Arthur; Costumero-Ramos, Victor; Makaretz, Sara J; Young, Sigrid S; Sepulcre, Jorge; LaFrance, W Curt; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-06-01

    Adverse early-life events are predisposing factors for functional neurological disorder (FND) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cingulo-insular regions are implicated in the biology of both conditions and are sites of stress-mediated neuroplasticity. We hypothesised that functional neurological symptoms and the magnitude of childhood abuse would be associated with overlapping anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular volumetric reductions, and that FND and PTSD symptoms would map onto distinct cingulo-insular areas. This within-group voxel-based morphometry study probes volumetric associations with self-report measures of functional neurological symptoms, adverse life events and PTSD symptoms in 23 mixed-gender FND patients. Separate secondary analyses were also performed in the subset of 18 women with FND to account for gender-specific effects. Across the entire cohort, there were no statistically significant volumetric associations with self-report measures of functional neurological symptom severity or childhood abuse. In women with FND, however, parallel inverse associations were observed between left anterior insular volume and functional neurological symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms Conversion Disorder subscale. Similar inverse relationships were also appreciated between childhood abuse burden and left anterior insular volume. Across all subjects, PTSD symptom severity was inversely associated with dorsal ACC volume, and the magnitude of lifetime adverse events was inversely associated with left hippocampal volume. This study reveals distinct cingulo-insular alterations for FND and PTSD symptoms and may advance our understanding of FND. Potential biological convergence between stress-related neuroplasticity, functional neurological symptoms and reduced insular volume was identified. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  19. Teaching and assessment in otolaryngology and neurology: Does the timing of clinical courses matter?

    PubMed

    Dünne, A A; Zapf, S; Hamer, H M; Folz, B J; Käuser, G; Fischer, M R G

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of clinical courses as a learning environment. To accurately assess performance in these courses, equal conditions for all candidates are required. We investigated the influence of the proximity of the course to the students test taking, the students' learning styles, and their self-motivation for learning in relation to performance success. One hundred and eleven students were randomized into eight groups, each attending a 2 week course in otolaryngology with a high proportion of patient-related teaching, and a 2 week long course in neurology with a low level of patient-related teaching. All students took multiple-choice end-of-term exams to assess their knowledge in both subjects. There was a different time interval between the course participation and the test taking for each of the groups. Performance success was correlated with the different groups, as well as with the type of learning style (LIST questionnaire) and with motivation for learning (study interest questionnaire). Explorative rank variance analysis showed a significant correlation between students' performance on the written exam and the time interval between completion of the neurology course and test-taking, with the shortest interval corresponding to highest scores (P = 0.002). There was no such effect on the success rate in otolaryngology (P = 0.28). Study motivation was not the major component for performance success, but a strong correlation between the use of strategic and deep learning styles and success in the exam was observed (R = 0.62; P < 0.001). The duration of time between a clinical course with little practical teaching and the students' taking of the exam plays a significant role on performance success; this effect does not occur in a course with a high proportion of practical patient-related teaching. More studies on clinical courses are needed to establish how students can be given adequate opportunities to develop necessary skills for

  20. Occupational neurology.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:3577214

  1. Prefronto–cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves visuospatial memory, executive functions, and neurological soft signs in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Bernabei, Laura; Spagnoli, Francesco; Vergnani, Lucilla; Corrado, Alessandra; Taddei, Ines; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to improve neuropsychological functioning of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to cerebellar and prefrontal cortices. Methods Twenty-five BD outpatients underwent prefrontal (anodal) and cerebellar (cathodal) tDCS for 3 consecutive weeks. All participants were assessed through the Rey Complex Figure Test delay and copy and the Neurological Examination Scale at baseline and after therapy with tDCS. Results After tDCS treatment, patients showed significant improvements in visuospatial memory tasks. Patients with worse baseline cognitive performances also showed a significant improvement in executive functioning tasks. Neurological Examination Scale total score and motor coordination subscale significantly improved. Conclusion Prefrontal-excitatory and cerebellar-inhibitory stimulations in euthymic BD patients may lead to better neurocognitive performances. This improvement could result from the modulation of prefronto–thalamic–cerebellar circuit activity pattern, which can be disrupted in BD. PMID:26356034

  2. 75 FR 51467 - ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop. The purpose of the public workshop is to solicit... efficient strategies in evaluating pediatric neuroprostheses regulated by the Agency. Dates and Time: The...

  3. Measuring life quality, physical function and psychological well-being in neurological illness.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Lorna Jane; Hickey, Anne; Hardiman, Orla

    2010-10-01

    There is little in the literature comparing experiences of patients with disabling and uniformly terminal illness (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and illness characterized by episodic disability and prognostic uncertainty (e.g. multiple sclerosis). This study aimed to compare experiences of disability, quality of life (QoL) and psychological well-being in ALS and MS. One hundred patients with ALS and MS were interviewed at baseline and at six months. Variables measured included function, health related QoL, individualized QoL and psychological distress. Despite the divergent illness experiences of ALS and MS patients, groups did not differ on individualized QoL or mental well-being, and distress was in the normal range. Despite marked deterioration in ALS patients' health, there was no change in mental well-being and QoL. Psychological well-being appeared more important in maintaining QoL (individualized QoL and mental aspects of health related QoL) than physical factors. At the individual level, there was evidence of psychological adaptation to deteriorating function, which underlined the role of specific illness related challenges in determining perceived life quality and emotional well-being. In conclusion, the complex interplay between psychosocial and illness specific factors such as certainty with regard to prognosis has considerable implications for well-being and life quality. Recognizing such factors is essential when designing clinical interventions to promote adjustment and self-management among patients with neurological conditions.

  4. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for glioma removal: prognostic value in motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Tomokazu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Niki, Chiharu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-01-06

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i.e., before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks after surgery. To assess the response induced by nTMS, motor evoked potential (nTMS-MEP) was recorded using a surface electromyography electrode attached to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The cortical locations that elicited the largest electromyography response by nTMS were defined as hotspots. Hotspots for APB were confirmed as positive responsive sites by direct electrical stimulation (DES) during awake craniotomy. The distances between hotspots and lesions (DHS-L) were measured. Postoperative neurological deficits were assessed by manual muscle test and dynamometer. To validate the prognostic value of nTMS in recovery from upper-extremity paresis, the following were investigated: 1) the correlation between DHS-L and the serial grip strength change, and 2) the correlation between positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery and the serial grip strength change. RESULTS From the presurgical nTMS study, MEPs from targeted muscles were identified in 13 cases from affected hemispheres. In one case, MEP was not evoked due to a huge tumor. Among 9 cases from which intraoperative DES mapping for hand motor area was available, hotspots for APB identified by nTMS were concordant with DES-positive sites. Compared with the adjacent group (DHS-L < 10 mm, n = 6), the nonadjacent group (DHS-L ≥ 10 mm, n = 7) showed significantly better recovery of grip strength at 3 months after surgery (p < 0.01). There were correlations

  5. The Effectiveness of Singing or Playing a Wind Instrument in Improving Respiratory Function in Patients with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kexin; Maddocks, Matthew; Xu, Huiying; Higginson, Irene J

    2017-03-01

    Many long-term neurological conditions adversely affect respiratory function. Singing and playing wind instruments are relatively inexpensive interventions with potential for improving respiratory function; however, synthesis of current evidence is needed to inform research and clinical use of music in respiratory care. To critically appraise, analyze, and synthesize published evidence on the effectiveness of singing or playing a wind instrument to improve respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions. Systematic review of published randomized controlled trials and observational studies examining singing or playing wind instruments to improve respiratory function in individuals with long-term neurological conditions. Articles meeting specified inclusion criteria were identified through a search of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, CAIRSS for Music, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and AMED databases as early as 1806 through March 2015. Information on study design, clinical populations, interventions, and outcome measures was extracted and summarized using an electronic standardized coding form. Methodological quality was assessed and summarized across studies descriptively. From screening 584 references, 68 full texts were reviewed and five studies included. These concerned 109 participants. The studies were deemed of low quality, due to evidence of bias, in part due to intervention complexity. No adverse effects were reported. Overall, there was a trend toward improved respiratory function, but only one study on Parkinson's disease had significant between-group differences. The positive trend in respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions following singing or wind instrument therapy is of interest, and warrants further investigation.

  6. Neurological assessments after treatment with the antimalarial β-arteether in neonatal and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R I; Defensor, E B; Fairchild, D G; Mirsalis, J C; Steinmetz, K L

    2011-08-01

    The World Health Organization currently recommends combinatorial treatment including artemisinins as first-line therapy against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although highly efficacious, artemisinin and its derivatives, including β-arteether (βAE), are associated with ototoxicity, tremors, and other autonomic and motor impairments in the clinic. Similar neurological symptoms, as well as brainstem lesions, have been observed in adult laboratory species (mice, rats, dogs, and non human primates) following acute treatment with βAE; however, few long-term, nonclinical studies have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of deaths attributed to malarial infection occur in children under age five, yet no laboratory studies have been initiated in neonatal or juvenile animals. In the current study, neonatal 7-day-old rats were administered intramuscular doses of 1-90 mg/kg βAE in sesame oil for up to eight treatment cycles (one cycle=7 days treatment+7 days without treatment). Neonates were tested for changes in sensorimotor function, and the same animals were tested as adults in the Functional Observational Battery, for motor activity, and in the 8-arm radial maze. Pups receiving a single cycle of 60 or 90 mg/kg died within a week of treatment but had few behavioral changes and no brainstem pathology. In the long-term study, behavioral and motor changes and brainstem lesions were observed in a dose- and time-related manner. Rats given repeated cycles of 1 or 5mg/kg βAE showed subtle motor abnormalities (e.g., slight loss of righting reflex) while repeated cycles of 10mg/kg βAE treatment resulted in obvious motor and behavioral changes. Rats receiving 1mg/kg βAE had no brainstem lesions whereas some rats treated with 5mg/kg βAE and all rats treated with 10 mg/kg βAE had brainstem lesions. Brainstem lesions were observed after as few as five cycles and were characterized by gliosis, satellitosis and progressive necrosis in motor neurons of the

  7. Relationship between Insulin-Resistance Processing Speed and Specific Executive Function Profiles in Neurologically Intact Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Darvis T; Bettcher, Brianne M; Dutt, Shubir; Patel, Nihar; Mungas, Dan; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Kramer, Joel H

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between insulin-resistance and constituent components of executive function in a sample of neurologically intact older adult subjects using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and latent factors of working memory, cognitive control and processing speed derived from confirmatory factor analysis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), along with body mass index (BMI) and white matter hypointensity (WMH) were used to control for vascular risk factors, adiposity and cerebrovascular injury. The study included 119 elderly subjects recruited from the University of California, San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. Subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment, fasting blood draw and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Partial correlations and linear regression models were used to examine the HOMA-IR-executive function relationship. Pearson correlation adjusting for age showed a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and working memory (rp = -.18; p = .047), a trend with cognitive control (rp = -.17; p = .068), and no relationship with processing speed (rp = .013; p = .892). Linear regression models adjusting for demographic factors (age, education, and gender), LDL, MAP, BMI, and WMH indicated that HOMA-IR was negatively associated with cognitive control (r = -.256; p = .026) and working memory (r = -.234; p = .054). These results suggest a greater level of peripheral insulin-resistance is associated with decreased cognitive control and working memory. After controlling for demographic factors, vascular risk, adiposity and cerebrovascular injury, HOMA-IR remained significantly associated with cognitive control, with working memory showing a trend. These findings substantiate the insulin-resistance-executive function hypothesis and suggest a complex interaction, demonstrated by the differential impact of insulin-resistance on processing speed and specific aspects of executive function.

  8. Measuring complexity in neurological rehabilitation: the Oxford Case Complexity Assessment Measure (OCCAM).

    PubMed

    Troigros, Odile; Béjot, Yannick; Rodriguez, Patricia Marquez; Shoaib, Farhat; Ellis, Henrietta; Wade, Derick

    2014-05-01

    To investigate validity and reliability of a new measure of case complexity, the Oxford Case Complexity Assessment Measure (OCCAM). Data collection on inpatients and outpatients attending for rehabilitation. In subsets, repeat assessments were undertaken two weeks apart, by clinicians unaware of initial data, and on admission and on discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Specialist neurological rehabilitation service. Patients receiving rehabilitation after acute onset disability. Assessment by clinical staff as part of routine care. OCCAM, the INTERMED, Rehabilitation Complexity Scale - Extended (RCS-E), clinical judgement of complexity (0-10 numerical rating scale), length of stay and discharge destination (for inpatients). For the OCCAM, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.69 and item-total correlations were moderate to high except for pathology and time. The correlation coefficients with OCCAM were: INTERMED (ρ = 0.694), RCS-E (ρ = 0.736), and team judgement (ρ = 0.796). Inter-rater agreement was excellent (Weighted κ = 0.95). Correlation between admission and discharge scores was ρ = 0.917. Test-retest agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). Higher mean admission scores were associated with prolonged stays (38.6 ± 12.2 versus 32.9 ± 13.7, P = 0.04) and failure to return home (48.0 ± 13.7 versus mean 32.1 ± 10.7, P < 0.001). The optimal cut-off of OCCAM to detect patients not discharged home was ≥ 34, with corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 84.6% and 62.8%, respectively. This preliminary evidence suggests that the OCCAM may measure case complexity reliably, and may predict rehabilitation resource used and outcome. Further research is warranted.

  9. Predictors of Neurological Deficit after Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations and Functional Repercussions in Prospective Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jose; Llibre, Juan Carlos; Vazquez, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary Endovascular therapy is a well-established approach to the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The objective of this study was to determine the predictive factors of neurological deficit following endovascular procedures. Seventy-one patients with cerebral AVMs who underwent 147 embolization sessions from 2006 to 2011 were followed up prospectively (average 31.1 ± 17.5 months). Functional neurological condition was documented by means of the modified Rankin scale. Factors found to be predictors of neurological deficit were the partial obstruction of drainage veins (OR = 197.6; IC = 2.76 -1416.0; P = 0.015), a positive result in the Propofol test (OR = 50.2; IC = 6.18 - 566.5; P = 0.000), AVM diameter under 3 cm (OR = 21.3; IC: 1.71 − 265.6; P = 0.018), the presence of intranidal aneurysms (OR = 11.2; IC = 1.09 − 114.2; P = 0.042), the absence of post-procedure hypotension (OR = 10.2; IC = 1.35 − 77.7; P = 0.003), deep venous drainage (OR = 7.14; IC = 1.15 − 44.4; P = 0.035), and devascularization in excess of 40% per session (OR = 3.3; IC = 1.11 − 16.8; P = 0.056). Fifty-six patients (78.9%) did not experience changes in their neurological condition after the treatment and 13 patients (18.3%) showed a new neurological deficit related to the treatment; 95.8 % of the patients did not show significant long-term incapacity. Partial obstruction of drainage veins, small AVMs, intranidal aneurysms, faulty hemodynamic control and extensive devascularization were found to be predictors of neurological deficit. A significant number of patients with neurological deficit improved in the long term. PMID:25489896

  10. Assessment of psychopharmacology on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examinations.

    PubMed

    Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K; Sheiber, Stephen C

    2005-01-01

    To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or neuropharmacology was determined for each examination. For the multiple-choice certification exams, item performance was reviewed. The grade cards of failing candidates were reviewed for the oral certification exam. A significant number of the core competencies involved psychopharmacology. The percent of items addressing the topic varied by examination but was substantial in general. Performance on these items on the multiple-choice certification exam was similar to performance in other areas. However, a majority of those who failed the patient section of the oral examination had inadequate performance in the area of drug treatment, indicating that trainees may need additional experience with applying psychopharmacological knowledge in the context of patient cases. This review indicated that knowledge of psychopharmacology was a significant component of the ABPN's core competencies and of its certification and recertification exams.

  11. [Non-invasive brain stimulation in neurology : Transcranial direct current stimulation to enhance cognitive functioning].

    PubMed

    Antonenko, D; Flöel, A

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been successfully used in neuroscientific research to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies suggested that improvement of behavioral performance is associated with tDCS-induced modulation of neuronal activity and connectivity. Thus, tDCS may also represent a promising tool for reconstitution of cognitive functions in the context of memory decline related to Alzheimer's disease or aphasia following stroke; however, evidence from randomized sham-controlled clinical trials is still scarce. Initial results of tDCS-induced behavioral improvement in patients with Alzheimer's dementia and its precursors indicated that an intense memory training combined with tDCS may be effective. Early interventions in the stage of mild cognitive impairment could be crucial but further evidence is needed to substantiate this. In patients with aphasia following stroke tDCS was applied to the left and right hemispheres, with varying results depending on the severity of the symptoms and polarity of the stimulation. Patients with mild aphasia can benefit from tDCS of the language dominant hemisphere while in patients with severe aphasia tDCS of right hemispheric homologous brain language areas may be particularly relevant. Moreover, recent studies suggested that an intervention in the subacute phase of aphasia could be most promising. In summary, tDCS could provide the exciting possibility to reconstitute cognitive functions in patients with neurological disorders. Future studies have to elucidate whether tDCS can be used in the clinical routine to prevent further cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases and whether beneficial effects from experimental studies translate into long-term improvement in activities of daily life.

  12. Resveratrol Pretreatment Decreases Ischemic Injury and Improves Neurological Function Via Sonic Hedgehog Signaling After Stroke in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pingping; Wang, Li; Tang, Fanren; Zeng, Li; Zhou, Luling; Song, Xiaosong; Jia, Wei; Chen, Jixiang; Yang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol has neuroprotective effects for ischemic cerebral stroke. However, its neuroprotective mechanism for stroke is less well understood. Beneficial actions of the activated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in stroke, such as improving neurological function, promoting neurogenesis, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic effects, have been noted, but relatively little is known about the role of Shh signaling in resveratrol-reduced cerebral ischemic injury after stroke. The present study tests whether the Shh pathway mediates resveratrol to decrease cerebral ischemic injury and improve neurological function after stroke. We observed that resveratrol pretreatment significantly improved neurological function, decreased infarct volume, enhanced vitality, and reduced apoptosis of neurons in vivo and vitro after stroke. Meanwhile, expression levels of Shh, Ptc-1, Smo, and Gli-1 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and Gli-1 was relocated to the nucleus. Intriguingly, in vivo and in vitro inhibition of the Shh signaling pathway with cyclopamine, a Smo inhibitor, completely reversed the above effects of resveratrol. These results suggest that decreased cerebral ischemic injury and improved neurological function by resveratrol may be mediated by the Shh signaling pathway.

  13. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Leite, H P; Fantozzi, G

    1998-01-01

    To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. Retrospective analysis. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5% by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 +/- 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38). None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p < 0.01). The nitrogen balance increased from--7.05 to 2.2 g (p < 0.01). Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be increased by more aggressive feeding regimes than the usual ones. Early tube feeding was

  14. Molecular Underpinnings of Aprataxin RNA/DNA Deadenylase Function and Dysfunction in Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases seal DNA breaks in the final step of DNA replication and repair transactions via a three-step reaction mechanism that can abort if DNA ligases encounter modified DNA termini, such as the products and repair intermediates of DNA oxidation, alkylation, or the aberrant incorporation of ribonucleotides into genomic DNA. Such abortive DNA ligation reactions create 5’–adenylated nucleic acid termini in the context of DNA and RNA-DNA substrates in DNA base excision repair (BER), double strand break repair (DSBR) and ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). Aprataxin (APTX), a protein altered in the heritable neurological disorder Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (AOA1), acts as a DNA ligase “proofreader” to directly reverse AMP-modified nucleic acid termini in DNA- and RNA-DNA damage responses. Herein, we survey APTX function and the emerging cell biological, structural and biochemical data that has established a molecular foundation for understanding the APTX mediated deadenylation reaction, and is providing insights into the molecular bases of APTX deficiency in AOA1. PMID:25637650

  15. Connectome-based lesion-symptom mapping (CLSM): A novel approach to map neurological function.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping is a key tool in understanding the relationship between structure and function in neuroscience as it can provide objective evidence about which regions are crucial for a given process. Initial limitations with this approach were largely overcome by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), a method introduced in the early 2000s, which allows for a whole-brain approach to study the association between damaged areas and behavioral impairment by applying an independent statistical test at every voxel. By doing so, this technique eliminated the need to predefine regions of interest or classify patients into groups based on arbitrary cutoff scores. VLSM has nonetheless its own limitations; chiefly, a bias towards recognizing cortical necrosis/gliosis but with poor sensitivity for detecting injury along long white matter tracts, thus ignoring cortical disconnection, which can per se lead to behavioral impairment. Here, we propose a complementary method that, instead, establishes a statistical relationship between the strength of connections between all brain regions of the brain (as defined by a standard brain atlas) and the array of behavioral performance seen in patients with brain injury: connectome-based lesion-symptom mapping (CLSM). Whole-brain CLSM therefore has the potential to identify key connections for behavior independently of a priori assumptions with applicability across a broad spectrum of neurological and psychiatric diseases. We propose that this approach can further our understanding of brain-structure relationships and is worth exploring in clinical and theoretical contexts.

  16. Molecular underpinnings of Aprataxin RNA/DNA deadenylase function and dysfunction in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Matthew J; Tumbale, Percy P; Williams, R Scott

    2015-03-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases seal DNA breaks in the final step of DNA replication and repair transactions via a three-step reaction mechanism that can abort if DNA ligases encounter modified DNA termini, such as the products and repair intermediates of DNA oxidation, alkylation, or the aberrant incorporation of ribonucleotides into genomic DNA. Such abortive DNA ligation reactions act as molecular checkpoint for DNA damage and create 5'-adenylated nucleic acid termini in the context of DNA and RNA-DNA substrates in DNA single strand break repair (SSBR) and ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). Aprataxin (APTX), a protein altered in the heritable neurological disorder Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (AOA1), acts as a DNA ligase "proofreader" to directly reverse AMP-modified nucleic acid termini in DNA- and RNA-DNA damage responses. Herein, we survey APTX function and the emerging cell biological, structural and biochemical data that has established a molecular foundation for understanding the APTX mediated deadenylation reaction, and is providing insights into the molecular bases of APTX deficiency in AOA1.

  17. [Specific clinical and functional features in the patients presenting with neurologic manifestations of deforming dorsopathies and concomitant osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Miriutova, N F; Zaĭtsev, A A; Popova, A V

    2012-01-01

    The present study has revealed some specific clinical and functional features in the patients presenting with neurologic manifestations of deforming dorsopathies and concomitant osteoarthrosis. The negative influence of the latter condition on the pain intensity, microcirculation, and duration of the exacerbation of neurologic syndrome has been demonstrated based on the analysis of correlational relationships between the severity of referred projectional nerve root pain and articular pain syndrome. Special emphasis is laid on the interrelation between the duration of pain syndrome and characteristics of microcirculation.

  18. 75 FR 5335 - Workshop on Pediatric Neurological and Neurocognitive Assessments for Cardiovascular Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... to clinical research investigators involved in pediatric clinical device trials, health care givers... evaluating this critical area will benefit the pediatric cardiovascular device community by providing a clear... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Workshop on Pediatric Neurological and...

  19. Impact of baseline vitamin B12 status on the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on neurologic function in older people: secondary analysis of data from the OPEN randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miles, L M; Allen, E; Clarke, R; Mills, K; Uauy, R; Dangour, A D

    2017-02-22

    The available evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that vitamin B12 supplementation does not improve neurologic function in older people with marginal but not deficient Vitamin B12 status. This secondary analysis used data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological function (OPEN) randomised controlled trial to assess whether baseline vitamin B12 status or change in vitamin B12 status over 12 months altered the effectiveness of dietary vitamin B12 supplementation on neurologic function in asymptomatic older people with depleted vitamin B12 status at study entry. Vitamin B12 status was measured as serum concentrations of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, homocysteine and via a composite indicator (cB12). Neurological function outcomes included eleven electrophysiological measures of sensory and motor components of peripheral and central nerve function. Linear regression analyses were restricted to participants randomised into the intervention arm of the OPEN trial (n=91). Analyses revealed an inconsistent pattern of moderate associations between some measures of baseline vitamin B12 status and some neurological responses to supplementation. The directions of effect varied and heterogeneity in effect across outcomes could not be explained according to type of neurological outcome. There was no evidence of differences in the neurological response to vitamin B12 supplementation according to change from baseline over 12 months in any indicator of B12 status. This secondary analysis of high-quality data from the OPEN trial provides no evidence that baseline (or change from baseline) vitamin B12 status modifies the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on peripheral or central nerve conduction among older people with marginal vitamin B12 status. There is currently insufficient evidence of efficacy for neurological function to support population-wide recommendations for vitamin B12 supplementation in healthy asymptomatic older people with marginal

  20. Traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord lesions: an Italian comparison of neurological and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, G; Farchi, S; Laurenza, L; Molinari, M

    2011-03-01

    Retrospective study. To compare the rehabilitation outcomes of non-traumatic and traumatic spinal cord injury patients. Spinal cord unit of a rehabilitation hospital in Italy. In total, 380 patients at first rehabilitation stay after the lesion (144 traumatic patients and 236 non-traumatic patients; 244 men and 136 women; mean age 46.1±19.9 years; mean lesion to admission time 49.6±39.8 days). Not applicable. American Spinal Injury Association standards; Barthel index (BI), Rivermead mobility index and walking index for spinal cord injury. Poisson regression models with relative risks and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the following confounders: age, sex, lesion level and Asia impairment. Models were stratified by age because a strong interaction between different variables and age was found. Traumatic and non-traumatic populations showed several significant differences with regard to age, level and severity of lesion. When adjusted for these factors patients with traumatic injuries showed a significantly lower BI score at admission and significantly better improvement in the BI score by discharge. The two populations were discharged with similar functional outcome. No significant differences were found with regard to the others outcomes. In clinically stable patients, spinal cord injury etiology does not seem to affect the rehabilitative prognosis. At admission, traumatic patients show lower autonomy in daily life activities, probably because of the associated lesions that these patients often have. At discharge, traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord lesion patients achieved similar results with regard to neurological and functional improvement.

  1. Quantitative measures of sympathetic skin response in diabetes: relation to sudomotor and neurological function.

    PubMed

    Levy, D M; Reid, G; Rowley, D A; Abraham, R R

    1992-10-01

    The sympathetic skin response (SSR) at the foot to a deep inspiration was measured in 68 randomly selected diabetic patients and 46 age matched normal subjects and compared with other quantitative measures of neurological and sudomotor function. SSR was obtained in all but three diabetic patients. The upper limit of normal for the onset latency was 2202 ms and the lower limit for the amplitude of the first wave 92 microV. Ten diabetic patients had measurable but prolonged latencies, and 11 had measurable but low amplitudes. There were no significant associations between latency, height, and age, but in insulin dependent patients there was a significant diminution of response amplitude with increasing duration of diabetes. Latency was weakly associated with Marstock thermal thresholds, respiratory RR variation, and common peroneal nerve conduction velocity. SSR amplitude was associated with the density of pilocarpine activatable sweatspots in the same region of the foot. Patients with abnormal latencies were significantly older and had reduced thermal sensation than those with normal latencies. Median coefficients of variation for repeat testing in diabetic patients were 9% for latency and 13% for amplitude. The test is objective and reproducible, but latency measurements reflect conduction in a long multineuronal pathway and are not purely a measure of peripheral C fibre function; amplitude measurements reflect the density of spontaneously activable sweat glands and are therefore a valid measure of peripheral sympathetic activity, though they depend more on temperature than do latencies (mean change over the range 32-34 degrees C; 8.5% degrees C for amplitude, -2.5%/degrees C for latency).

  2. Neurological disease mutations of α3 Na(+),K(+)-ATPase: Structural and functional perspectives and rescue of compromised function.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rikke; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S; Einholm, Anja P; Schack, Vivien R; Andersen, Jens P; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-11-01

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase creates transmembrane ion gradients crucial to the function of the central nervous system. The α-subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase exists as four isoforms (α1-α4). Several neurological phenotypes derive from α3 mutations. The effects of some of these mutations on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function have been studied in vitro. Here we discuss the α3 disease mutations as well as information derived from studies of corresponding mutations of α1 in the light of the high-resolution crystal structures of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. A high proportion of the α3 disease mutations occur in the transmembrane sector and nearby regions essential to Na(+) and K(+) binding. In several cases the compromised function can be traced to disturbance of the Na(+) specific binding site III. Recently, a secondary mutation was found to rescue the defective Na(+) binding caused by a disease mutation. A perspective is that it may be possible to develop an efficient pharmaceutical mimicking the rescuing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice

    PubMed Central

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  4. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  5. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  6. ABCA7 loss-of-function variants, expression, and neurologic disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mariet; Lincoln, Sarah J.; Corda, Morgane; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Reddy, Joseph S.; Burgess, Jeremy D.; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly; Petersen, Ronald C.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and characterize putative “loss-of-function” (LOF) adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette, subfamily A member 7 (ABCA7) mutations reported to associate with Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Methods: We genotyped 6 previously reported ABCA7 putative LOF variants in 1,465 participants with AD, 381 participants with other neuropathologies (non-AD), and 1,043 controls and assessed the overall mutational burden for association with different diagnosis groups. We measured brain ABCA7 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels using Western blot and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 11 carriers of the 3 most common variants, and sequenced all 47 ABCA7 exons in these participants to screen for other coding variants. Results: At least one of the investigated variants was identified in 45 participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease, 12 participants with other neuropathologies, and 11 elderly controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly higher burden of these variants in participants with AD (p = 5.00E-04) and those with other neuropathologies (p = 8.60E-03) when compared with controls. Concurrent analysis of brain ABCA7 mRNA and protein revealed lower protein but not mRNA in p.L1403fs carriers, lower mRNA but not protein in p.E709fs carriers, and additional deleterious mutations in some c.5570+5G>C carriers. Conclusions: Our results suggest that LOF may not be a common mechanism for these ABCA7 variants and expand the list of neurologic diseases enriched for them. PMID:28097223

  7. Meglumine cyclic adenylate improves neurological function following acute spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jingwu; Xie, Jingming; Lin, Daqiang; Lu, Ning; Guo, Limin; Li, Weiqiang; Pu, Bo; Yang, Yang; Yang, Zhenlong; Zhang, Ying; Song, Yueming

    2014-09-01

    Elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels facilitates recovery following spinal injury by suppressing secondary pathology and promoting axonal regeneration. However, this treatment strategy is limited by lack of effective and tolerable clinical agents. The present study examined the effects of meglumine cyclic adenylate (MCA) on neurological recovery, cAMP concentration, adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) activity and phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) activity during early stage acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. A total of 48 Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups A, B or C, each consisting of 16 animals. SCI was induced by Allen's method using a 7 g x 3 cm extradural weight‑drop impact on spinal cord segment T11. A total of 30 min following SCI, group A received a single 30 mg/kg‑bw i.p. dose of methylprednisolone, group B received 2 mg/kg‑bw i.p. MCA daily for seven days and group C were administered an equal volume of normal saline. Seven days following SCI, the spinal cord samples from eight rats per group were obtained to measure the cAMP concentration, and the activities of AC3 and PDE4D. The remaining eight rats per group were used for behavioral assessments using the inclined plane stability test and Gale scale for up to six weeks post‑SCI. The drug‑treated groups A and B had higher cAMP concentrations and AC3 activities but lower PDE4D activities at the lesion sites, as well as superior behavioral scores post‑SCI compared with the vehicle‑treated group C (P<0.05). Furthermore, cAMP was higher in group B than in group A (P<0.05). It was concluded that MCA may serve as an effective SCI treatment by activating AC3 and suppressing PDE4D.

  8. Issues in neurological risk assessment for occupational exposures: the Bay Bridge welders.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert M; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Eggerth, Donald E; Diamond, Emily; Spencer, Katie J; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    The goal of occupational risk assessment is often to estimate excess lifetime risk for some disabling or fatal health outcome in relation to a fixed workplace exposure lasting a working lifetime. For sub-chronic or sub-clinical health effects measured as continuous variables, the benchmark dose method can be applied, but poses issues in defining impairment and in specifying acceptable levels of excess risk. Such risks may also exhibit a dose-rate effect and partial reversibility such that effects depend on how the dose is distributed over time. Neurological deficits as measured by a variety of increasingly sensitive neurobehavioral tests represent one such outcome, and the development of a parkinsonian syndrome among welders exposed to manganese fume presents a specific instance. Welders employed in the construction of piers for a new San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in San Francisco were previously evaluated using a broad spectrum of tests. Results for four of those tests (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Working Memory Index, Stroop Color Word Test and Auditory Consonant Trigrams Test) were used in the benchmark dose procedure. Across the four outcomes analyzed, benchmark dose estimates were generally within a factor of 2.0, and decreased as the percentile of normal performance defining impairment increased. Estimated excess prevalence of impairment, defined as performance below the 5th percentile of normal, after 2 years of exposure at the current California standard (0.2 mg/m3, 8 h TWA), ranged 15-32% for the outcomes studied. Because these exposures occurred over a 1-2-year period, generalization to lifetime excess risk requires further consideration of the form of the exposure response and whether short-term responses can be generalized to equivalent 45-year period. These results indicate unacceptable risks at the current OSHA PEL for manganese (5.0 mg/m3, 15 min) and likely at the Cal OSHA PEL as well.

  9. The Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures, Cognitive Functions, and Other Neurological Disorders in Classical Phenotype of Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Hakan; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Kardas, Fatih; Canpolat, Mehmet; Çağlayan, Ahmet Okay; Kumandas, Sefer; Kendirci, Mustafa; Per, Huseyin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize patients who were diagnosed with glucose transporter protein 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1D), and also to assess the efficacy of ketogenic diet (KD) therapy on seizure control, cognitive functions, and other neurological disorders. We studied six unrelated patients with the classical phenotype of Glut1D, focusing on clinical and laboratory features, the KD therapy and outcome over the 25-month follow-up period. Five patients became seizure-free with the onset of ketosis, and anticonvulsants were discontinued. Other neurological features such as ataxia, spasticity, and dystonia showed a less striking improvement than seizure control. There was no significant change in the intelligence quotient (IQ) level or microcephaly. In all patients, alertness, concentration, motivation, and activity resulted in a moderate improvement of variable degree. The early-onset adverse effects of KD were observed in five patients. The KD regimen failed in one patient, therefore, his diet was changed with an alternative to KD. Treatment with KD resulted in a marked improvement in seizures and cognitive functions but its effect appeared to be less striking on the other neurological disorders of the patients. When the classic KD is not tolerated, an alternative to KD may be helpful. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Functional assessment of nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mary Krystofiak

    2015-04-01

    Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters.

  11. Effects of professional rehabilitation training on the recovery of neurological function in young stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Jin-Zi; Du, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Kun; Song, Lu-Ping; Li, Peng-Kun; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Rong; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Lu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-11-01

    Young stroke patients have a strong desire to return to the society, but few studies have been conducted on their rehabilitation training items, intensity, and prognosis. We analyzed clinical data of young and middle-aged/older stroke patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, China Rehabilitation Research Center, Capital Medical University, China from February 2014 to May 2015. Results demonstrated that hemorrhagic stroke (59.6%) was the primary stroke type found in the young group, while ischemic stroke (60.0%) was the main type detected in the middle-aged/older group. Compared with older stroke patients, education level and incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in younger stroke patients, whereas, incidences of hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were lower. The average length of hospital stay was longer in the young group than in the middle-aged/older group. The main risk factors observed in the young stroke patients were hypertension, drinking, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, previous history of stroke, and heart disease. The most accepted rehabilitation program consisted of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. Average rehabilitation training time was 2.5 hours/day. Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale scores were increased at discharge. Six months after discharge, the degree of occupational and economic satisfaction declined, and there were no changes in family life satisfaction. The degrees of other life satisfaction (such as friendship) improved. The degree of disability and functional status improved significantly in young stroke patients after professional rehabilitation, but the number of patients who returned to society within 6 months after stroke was still small.

  12. Effects of professional rehabilitation training on the recovery of neurological function in young stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-jin-zi; Du, Xiao-xia; Yang, Kun; Song, Lu-ping; Li, Peng-kun; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Rong; Lin, Xiao-ling; Lu, Hong-yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Young stroke patients have a strong desire to return to the society, but few studies have been conducted on their rehabilitation training items, intensity, and prognosis. We analyzed clinical data of young and middle-aged/older stroke patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, China Rehabilitation Research Center, Capital Medical University, China from February 2014 to May 2015. Results demonstrated that hemorrhagic stroke (59.6%) was the primary stroke type found in the young group, while ischemic stroke (60.0%) was the main type detected in the middle-aged/older group. Compared with older stroke patients, education level and incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in younger stroke patients, whereas, incidences of hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were lower. The average length of hospital stay was longer in the young group than in the middle-aged/older group. The main risk factors observed in the young stroke patients were hypertension, drinking, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, previous history of stroke, and heart disease. The most accepted rehabilitation program consisted of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. Average rehabilitation training time was 2.5 hours/day. Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale scores were increased at discharge. Six months after discharge, the degree of occupational and economic satisfaction declined, and there were no changes in family life satisfaction. The degrees of other life satisfaction (such as friendship) improved. The degree of disability and functional status improved significantly in young stroke patients after professional rehabilitation, but the number of patients who returned to society within 6 months after stroke was still small. PMID:28123417

  13. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine].

    PubMed

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-05-30

    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  14. Neurological symptoms in hospitalised patients: do we assess hyponatraemia with sufficient care?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Jose; Alcaraz, Andrés; Solana, Maria Jose; García, Ana

    2014-01-01

    To review the incidence of hyponatraemic encephalopathy in children treated in a tertiary care centre hospital, together with the clinical setting and clinical management of these cases. Retrospective descriptive study by chart review of patients admitted to hospital during 2000-2010. Patients older than 1 month were included who had severe hyponatraemia (sodium concentration <125 mmol/L) on admission or during their hospital stay and co-incidental neurological symptoms. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. We analysed 41 cases of severe hypotonic hyponatraemia and neurological symptoms compatible with hyponatraemic encephalopathy. Boys accounted for 56.1% patients, and the median age was 1 year. Hyponatraemia was acquired in hospital by 61% of the patients, and 88% of those patients were receiving intravenous hypotonic fluids. The most frequent neurological symptom was seizures. The most common therapeutic strategy was sodium supplementation and antiepileptic drugs. Hypertonic fluids were only used in the initial treatment of 16 patients. There were two deaths related to hyponatraemic encephalopathy. Hyponatraemia should always be considered a cause of neurological symptoms in hospitalised patients. Treatment should be prompt to prevent neurological sequelae and death. Current recommendations for fluid management in hospitalised children should be reviewed. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Inertial Sensors to Assess Gait Quality in Patients with Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review of Technical and Analytical Challenges.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Aliénor; Barrois, Rémi P; Buffat, Stéphane; Ricard, Damien; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Gait disorders are major causes of falls in patients with neurological diseases. Understanding these disorders allows prevention and better insights into underlying diseases. InertiaLocoGraphy (ILG) -the quantification of gait by using inertial measurement units (IMUs) -shows great potential to address this public health challenge, but protocols vary widely and normative values of gait parameters are still unavailable. This systematic review critically compares ILG protocols, questions features extracted from inertial signals and proposes a semeiological analysis of clinimetric characteristics for use in neurological clinical routine. For this systematic review, PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for articles assessing gait quality by using IMUs that were published from January 1, 2014 to August 31, 2016. ILG was used to assess gait in a wide range of neurological disorders - including Parkinson disease, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, cerebral palsy, and cerebellar atrophy - as well as in the faller or frail older population and in people presenting rheumatological pathologies. However, results have not yet been driving changes in clinical practice. One reason could be that studies mainly aimed at comparing pathological gait to healthy gait, but there is stronger need for semiological descriptions of gait perturbation, severity or prognostic assessment. Furthermore, protocols used to assess gait using IMUs are too many. Likely, outcomes are highly heterogeneous and difficult to compare across large panels of studies. Therefore, homogenization is needed to foster the use of ILG to assess gait quality in neurological routine practice. The pros and cons of each protocol are emphasized so that a compromise can be reached. As well, analysis of seven complementary clinical criteria (springiness, sturdiness, smoothness, steadiness, stability, symmetry, synchronization) is advocated.

  16. Assessing executive function in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Reidy, Natalie

    2012-12-01

    Executive function develops at an unprecedented rate during the preschool period, yet few clinicians attempt to assess executive processes in young children. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that executive function can be assessed in preschoolers, and to highlight the importance of detecting executive dysfunction as early as possible. Following a description of executive function and the underlying neural systems, this article outlines some of the challenges in assessing executive function in young children. The various assessment paradigms used for assessing executive function in preschoolers are presented, and based on studies that have applied these measurement tools normal development of executive domains is described. Finally, the benefits and opportunities for executive function intervention in the preschool period are considered.

  17. Secondary Myelitis in Dermal Sinus Causing Paraplegia in a Child with Previously Normal Neurological Function

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Sakina; Kinabo, Grace; Kellogg, Marissa; Howlett, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects result from failure of neural tube fusion during early embryogenesis, the fourth week after conception. The spectrum of severity is not uniform across the various forms of this congenital anomaly as certain presentations are not compatible with extrauterine life (anencephaly) while, on the other hand, other defects may remain undiagnosed as they are entirely asymptomatic (occult spina bifida). We report a child with previously normal neurological development, a devastating clinical course following superinfection of a subtle spina bifida defect which resulted in a flaccid paralysis below the level of the lesion and permanent neurological deficits following resolution of the acute infection and a back closure surgery. PMID:28050293

  18. Neurologic Functional and Quality of Life Outcomes after TBI: Clinic Attendees versus Non-Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura D.; Bregman, Jana A.; Leath, Taylor C.; Humble, Stephen S.; Davidson, Mario A.; de Riesthal, Michael R.; Guillamondegui, Oscar D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This investigation describes the relationship between TBI patient demographics, quality of life outcome, and functional status outcome among clinic attendees and non-attendees. Of adult TBI survivors with intracranial hemorrhage, 63 attended our TBI clinic and 167 did not attend. All were telephone surveyed using the Extended-Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) scale, and a post-discharge therapy questionnaire. To determine risk factors for GOSE and QOLIBRI outcomes, we created multivariable regression models employing covariates of age, injury characteristics, clinic attendance, insurance status, post-discharge rehabilitation, and time from injury. Compared with those with severe TBI, higher GOSE scores were identified in individuals with both mild (odds ratio [OR]=2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.6) and moderate (OR=4.7; 95% CI: 1.6–14.1) TBIs. In addition, survivors with private insurance had higher GOSE scores, compared with those with public insurance (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.6), workers' compensation (OR=8.4; 95% CI: 2.6–26.9), and no insurance (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.6–6.2). Compared with those with severe TBI, QOLIBRI scores were 11.7 points (95% CI: 3.7–19.7) higher in survivors with mild TBI and 17.3 points (95% CI: 3.2–31.5) higher in survivors with moderate TBI. In addition, survivors who received post-discharge rehabilitation had higher QOLIBRI scores by 11.4 points (95% CI: 3.7–19.1) than those who did not. Survivors with private insurance had QOLIBRI scores that were 25.5 points higher (95% CI: 11.3–39.7) than those with workers' compensation and 16.8 points higher (95% CI: 7.4–26.2) than those without insurance. Because neurologic injury severity, insurance status, and receipt of rehabilitation or therapy are independent risk factors for functional and quality of life outcomes, future directions will include improving earlier access to post-TBI rehabilitation, social work

  19. Neurologic Functional and Quality of Life Outcomes after TBI: Clinic Attendees versus Non-Attendees.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mayur B; Wilson, Laura D; Bregman, Jana A; Leath, Taylor C; Humble, Stephen S; Davidson, Mario A; de Riesthal, Michael R; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2015-07-01

    This investigation describes the relationship between TBI patient demographics, quality of life outcome, and functional status outcome among clinic attendees and non-attendees. Of adult TBI survivors with intracranial hemorrhage, 63 attended our TBI clinic and 167 did not attend. All were telephone surveyed using the Extended-Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) scale, and a post-discharge therapy questionnaire. To determine risk factors for GOSE and QOLIBRI outcomes, we created multivariable regression models employing covariates of age, injury characteristics, clinic attendance, insurance status, post-discharge rehabilitation, and time from injury. Compared with those with severe TBI, higher GOSE scores were identified in individuals with both mild (odds ratio [OR]=2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.6) and moderate (OR=4.7; 95% CI: 1.6-14.1) TBIs. In addition, survivors with private insurance had higher GOSE scores, compared with those with public insurance (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6), workers' compensation (OR=8.4; 95% CI: 2.6-26.9), and no insurance (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.2). Compared with those with severe TBI, QOLIBRI scores were 11.7 points (95% CI: 3.7-19.7) higher in survivors with mild TBI and 17.3 points (95% CI: 3.2-31.5) higher in survivors with moderate TBI. In addition, survivors who received post-discharge rehabilitation had higher QOLIBRI scores by 11.4 points (95% CI: 3.7-19.1) than those who did not. Survivors with private insurance had QOLIBRI scores that were 25.5 points higher (95% CI: 11.3-39.7) than those with workers' compensation and 16.8 points higher (95% CI: 7.4-26.2) than those without insurance. Because neurologic injury severity, insurance status, and receipt of rehabilitation or therapy are independent risk factors for functional and quality of life outcomes, future directions will include improving earlier access to post-TBI rehabilitation, social work services, affordable insurance

  20. Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Modo, M; Stroemer, R P; Tang, E; Veizovic, T; Sowniski, P; Hodges, H

    2000-12-15

    Animal models of stroke, notably transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), are used to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and transplant treatments. Long-term studies (>1 month) of the functional effects of treatments in animal models are required to predict treatments likely to improve dysfunctions associated with stroke damage. These pre-clinical studies require (1) optimum post-operative care to ensure long-term survival, (2) methods for assignment of rats to groups with equivalent impairments to reduce variability and enhance detection of treatment effects, and (3) behavioural tests that detect long-term stable deficits. For long-term functional assessment, a battery of behavioural tests sensitive to a range of deficits observed after MCAo was developed. The bilateral asymmetry test evaluated the time course of sensory neglect. Deficits of motor integration were examined in the footfault test, and motor bias was assessed by pharmacological stimulation of rotation. The water maze was used to detect long-term deficits in spatial information processing. Long-term differences between control and MCAo animals in this battery of tests indicate that the protocol provides an efficient assessment suitable for evaluating treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies of stroke, and that the post-operative care procedure and method of assignment to groups were effective.

  1. Linking of the quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) to the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex W K; Lau, Stephen C L; Cella, David; Lai, Jin-Shei; Xie, Guanli; Chen, Lidian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Heinemann, Allen W

    2017-05-05

    The quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) is a U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative that produced a set of self-report measures of physical, mental, and social health experienced by adults or children who have a neurological condition or disorder. To describe the content of the Neuro-QoL at the item level using the World Health Organization's international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). We assessed the Neuro-QoL for its content coverage of functioning and disability relative to each of the four ICF domains (i.e., body functions, body structures, activities and participation, and environment). We used second-level ICF three-digit codes to classify items into categories within each ICF domain and computed the percentage of categories within each ICF domain that were represented in the Neuro-QoL items. All items of Neuro-QoL could be mapped to the ICF categories at the second-level classification codes. The activities and participation domain and the mental functions category of the body functions domain were the areas most often represented by Neuro-QoL. Neuro-QoL provides limited coverage of the environmental factors and body structure domains. Neuro-QoL measures map well to the ICF. The Neuro-QoL-ICF-mapped items provide a blueprint for users to select appropriate measures in ICF-based measurement applications.

  2. Sustained improvements in neurological function in spinal cord injured patients treated with oral 4-aminopyridine: three cases.

    PubMed

    Potter, P J; Hayes, K C; Hsieh, J T; Delaney, G A; Segal, J L

    1998-03-01

    Preclinical trials of intravenously administered 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) have demonstrated transient improvements in neurological function in patients with longstanding spinal cord injury (SCI). The present report describes three patients with SCI who responded favourably in preclinical trials and who were subsequently administered oral (capsule) 4-AP (10 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d.) over a 4 month interval. The three patients (two male: 1 female) all had incomplete tetraplegia (ASIA levels C and D) with the neurological level of the lesion between C5-C7. Following the administration of 4-AP the patients demonstrated marked and sustained reductions in upper (n = 1) or lower extremity (n = 2) spasticity. Other clinical benefits of 4-AP were reduced pain (n = 1), restored muscle strength (n = 3), improved sensation (n = 2), voluntary control of bowel function (n = 1), and sustained penile tumescence (n = 2). The patients exhibited improved hand function (n = 1), enhanced mobility in transfers and gait (n = 2), with improved energy and endurance. Only trivial side effects (transient light-headedness) were observed. In one case, the enhanced neurological function allowed the patient to stand with support for the first time post injury (16 years). The time course of therapeutic response to the initial dose matched the pharmacokinetic elimination profile derived from serum and urine analysis. There was no evidence of renal or hepatic toxicity with prolonged use. These results indicate a therapeutic benefit of oral 4-Aminopyridine in the management of various neurological deficits in a select group of SCI patients.

  3. Intrathecal Transplantation of Autologous Adherent Bone Marrow Cells Induces Functional Neurological Recovery in a Canine Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Hala; El-Kheir, Wael Abo; Farghali, Haithem A M A; Ismail, Zeinab M K; Zickri, Maha B; El Maadawi, Zeinab M; Kishk, Nirmeen A; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in demyelination of surviving axons, loss of oligodendrocytes, and impairment of motor and sensory functions. We have developed a clinical strategy of cell therapy for SCI through the use of autologous bone marrow cells for transplantation to augment remyelination and enhance neurological repair. In a preclinical large mammalian model of SCI, experimental dogs were subjected to a clipping contusion of the spinal cord. Two weeks after the injury, GFP-labeled autologous minimally manipulated adherent bone marrow cells (ABMCs) were transplanted intrathecally to investigate the safety and efficacy of autologous ABMC therapy. The effects of ABMC transplantation in dogs with SCI were determined using functional neurological scoring, and the integration of ABMCs into the injured cords was determined using histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations and electron microscopic analyses of sections from control and transplanted spinal cords. Our data demonstrate the presence of GFP-labeled cells in the injured spinal cord for up to 16 weeks after transplantation in the subacute SCI stage. GFP-labeled cells homed to the site of injury and were detected around white matter tracts and surviving axons. ABMC therapy in the canine SCI model enhanced remyelination and augmented neural regeneration, resulting in improved neurological functions. Therefore, autologous ABMC therapy appears to be a safe and promising therapy for spinal cord injuries.

  4. Symmetry of cardiac function assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xu-Fang; Ma, Amy X

    2016-01-01

    Both right and left ventricles are developed from two adjacent segments of the primary heart tube. Though they are different with regard to shape and power, they mirror each other in terms of behavior. This is the first level of symmetry in cardiac function assessment. Both cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation are active. This constructs the second level of symmetry in cardiac function assessment. Combination of the two levels will help to find some hidden indexes or approaches to evaluate cardiac function. In this article, four major indexes from echocardiography were analyzed under this principal, another seventeen indexes or measurement approaches came out of the shadow, which is very helpful in the assessment of cardiac function, especially for the right cardiac function and diastolic cardiac function. PMID:27582768

  5. Aerobic exercise to improve cognitive function in adults with neurological disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Smith, Ashleigh E; Mackintosh, Shylie F

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate whether aerobic exercise improves cognition in adults diagnosed with neurologic disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, AMED, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Google Scholar, with the last search performed in December 2010. We included controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled trials with adults diagnosed with a neurologic disorder. Studies were included if they compared a control group with a group involved in an aerobic exercise program to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and if they measured cognition as an outcome. Two reviewers independently extracted data and methodologic quality of the included trials. From the 67 trials reviewed, a total of 7 trials, involving 249 participants, were included. Two trials compared the effectiveness of yoga and aerobic exercise in adults with multiple sclerosis. Two trials evaluated the effect of exercise on patients with dementia, and 2 trials evaluated the effectiveness of exercise to improve cognition after traumatic brain injury. One trial studied the effect of a cycling program in people with chronic stroke. Lack of commonality between measures of cognition limited meta-analyses. Results from individual studies show that aerobic exercise improved cognition in people with dementia, improved attention and cognitive flexibility in patients with traumatic brain injury, improved choice reaction time in people with multiple sclerosis, and enhanced motor learning in people with chronic stroke. There is limited evidence to support the use of aerobic exercise to improve cognition in adults with neurologic disorders. Of the 67 studies retrieved, less than half included cognition as an outcome, and few studies continued the aerobic exercise program long enough to be considered effective. Further studies investigating the effect of aerobic exercise interventions on cognition in people with neurologic conditions are required. Copyright

  6. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Jie; Wang, Peng-Yun; Jiang, Yang; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Hua-Li; Li, Juan

    2012-06-07

    Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS) in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition) of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  7. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Neurological Function Associated with Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins in Rats with Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-min; Xu, Hong; Sun, Hua; Chen, Su-hui; Wang, Fu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to develop effective neuroprotective therapy to reduce brain damage and related behavioral deficits in stroke patients are of great significance. Electroacupuncture (EA), which derives from traditional Chinese medicine, may be effective as a complementary and alternative method for promoting recovery of neurological function and quality of life. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) sham, (2) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion, and (3) EA groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion. EA groups received EA therapy by needling at GV20 and left ST36. The results show that EA therapy improved the neurological function and reduced infarct volume, confirmed by modified neurological severity scores and TTC staining. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay verified that EA upregulated the expression of tight junction (TJ) claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluding-1 from 1 to 7 d after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that EA reduces brain damage and related behavioral deficits via upregulation of the TJ proteins. PMID:25009574

  8. Electroacupuncture treatment improves neurological function associated with regulation of tight junction proteins in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Min; Xu, Hong; Sun, Hua; Chen, Su-Hui; Wang, Fu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to develop effective neuroprotective therapy to reduce brain damage and related behavioral deficits in stroke patients are of great significance. Electroacupuncture (EA), which derives from traditional Chinese medicine, may be effective as a complementary and alternative method for promoting recovery of neurological function and quality of life. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) sham, (2) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion, and (3) EA groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion. EA groups received EA therapy by needling at GV20 and left ST36. The results show that EA therapy improved the neurological function and reduced infarct volume, confirmed by modified neurological severity scores and TTC staining. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay verified that EA upregulated the expression of tight junction (TJ) claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluding-1 from 1 to 7 d after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that EA reduces brain damage and related behavioral deficits via upregulation of the TJ proteins.

  9. Assessment of macular ganglion cell loss patterns in neurologic lesions that mimic glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shon, Kilhwan; Sung, Kyung Rim

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate patterns of macular retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with neurologic lesions mimicking glaucoma. We evaluated four patients with neurological lesions who showed characteristic patterns of RGC loss, as determined by ganglion cell thickness (GCT) mapping. Case 1 was a 30-year-old man who had been treated with glaucoma medication. A left homonymous vertical pattern of RGC loss was observed in his GCT map and a past brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the right optic radiation. Case 2 was a 72-year-old man with a pituitary adenoma who had a binasal vertical pattern of RGC loss that corresponded with bitemporal hemianopsia. Case 3 was a 77-year-old man treated for suspected glaucoma. His GCT map showed a right inferior quadratic pattern of loss, indicating a right superior homonymous quadranopsia in his visual field (VF). His brain MRI revealed a left posterior cerebral artery territory infarct. Case 4 was a 38-year-old woman with an unreliable VF who was referred for suspected glaucoma. Her GCT map revealed a left homonymous vertical pattern of RGC loss, which may have been related to a previous head trauma. Evaluation of the patterns of macular RGC loss may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of RGC-related diseases, including glaucoma and neurologic lesions. When a patient's VF is unavailable, this method may be an effective tool for diagnosing and monitoring transneuronal retrograde degeneration-related structural changes.

  10. Assessment of Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Who Complain of Neurologic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Mi Kyung; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Dae Hwan; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having neuropathic symptoms, and to investigate the relationship between electrophysiological findings of peripheral neuropathy and clinical findings of RA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of RA and who had tingling or burning sensation in any extremity were electrophysiologically examined for evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Study parameters, including age, gender, laboratory parameters, duration of RA, and medication, were recorded. The symptoms and signs of neuropathy were quantified with the neuropathy symptom score, and the functional statuses of these patients were assessed. Results Out of a total of 30 RA patients, 10 (33%) had peripheral neuropathy: 2 had bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 5 had unilateral CTS, 1 had sensory polyneuropathy, and 2 had motor-sensory polyneuropathy. The mean ages of the patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were 69.4 and 56.5 years, respectively (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. However, no relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and the type of medication, RA duration, the patients' functional status, neuropathic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values. Conclusion Neuropathic symptoms are common in RA patients, and it is difficult to distinguish peripheral neuropathy symptoms from those of arthritis. Patients with RA, particularly elderly patients and anti-CCP antibody positive patients who complain of neuropathic symptoms should undergo electrophysiological examination. PMID:24855620

  11. Assessment of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who complain of neurologic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Dae-Yul; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Dae Hwan; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2014-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having neuropathic symptoms, and to investigate the relationship between electrophysiological findings of peripheral neuropathy and clinical findings of RA. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of RA and who had tingling or burning sensation in any extremity were electrophysiologically examined for evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Study parameters, including age, gender, laboratory parameters, duration of RA, and medication, were recorded. The symptoms and signs of neuropathy were quantified with the neuropathy symptom score, and the functional statuses of these patients were assessed. Out of a total of 30 RA patients, 10 (33%) had peripheral neuropathy: 2 had bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 5 had unilateral CTS, 1 had sensory polyneuropathy, and 2 had motor-sensory polyneuropathy. The mean ages of the patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were 69.4 and 56.5 years, respectively (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. However, no relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and the type of medication, RA duration, the patients' functional status, neuropathic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values. Neuropathic symptoms are common in RA patients, and it is difficult to distinguish peripheral neuropathy symptoms from those of arthritis. Patients with RA, particularly elderly patients and anti-CCP antibody positive patients who complain of neuropathic symptoms should undergo electrophysiological examination.

  12. The effect of captopril on the expression of MMP-9 and the prognosis of neurological function in herpes simplex encephalitis mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Qin; Guan, Jing-Xia; Lu, Zu-Neng

    2016-08-01

    Early increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is involved in the evolution of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) by facilitating the development of cerebrovascular complications. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the detrimental effects of MMP-9 in HSE has not been elucidated. Recent research finds angiotensin II plays an important role in regulation of MMP-9 activity. The aim of this work was to identify the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) captopril on MMP-9 activation after herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Animal models of HSE were established by intracerebral inoculation of HSV-1 into mice. Brain tissue ROS levels were measured by staining with dihydroethidium. MMP-9 protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence and brain water content was measured with dry-wet weight method. Neurological function score was quantified 5 d after HSV-1 infection. Microglial cells were treated with various concentrations of captopril. MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity in the supematant of the cell cultures was assessed by zymography. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expressions of p47phox and MMP-9. Immunofluorescence showed that expression of MMP-9 in brain tissue was mainly presented in OX-42 positive microglia. Quantification of gelatinolytic activity by densitometry showed that expression of MMP-9 in microglia was significantly increased after HSV-1 infection and inhibited by captopril treatment. NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox and MMP-9 mRNA expression were significantly increased 6 h after HSV-1 infection, and were seen reduced after captopril treatment in dose dependence. Captopril also downregulated ROS and MMP-9 protein expression following encephalitis in vivo, and attenuated brain edema, and improved neurological function. This compelling evidence suggests that MMP-9 is a key pathogenic factor within HSE. ACEI captopril could reduce the expression of MMP-9 mediated by ROS, then relieve cerebral edema and

  13. Biodegradable seeds of holmium don't change neurological function after implant in brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Mirla Fiuza; Ferreira, Diogo Milioli; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; de Almeida Araujo, Stanley; Sampaio, Kinulpe Honorato; de Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro; Siqueira, Savio Lana

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical procedure and parenchymal abnormalities related to implantation of ceramic seeds with holmium-165 in rats' brain. An effective method of cancer treatment is brachytherapy in which radioactive seeds are implanted in the tumor, generating a high local dose of ionizing radiation that can eliminate tumor cells while protecting the surrounding healthy tissue. Biodegradable Ho(166)-ceramic-seeds have been addressed recently. The experiments in this study were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use at the Federal University of Ouro Preto, protocol number 2012/034. Twenty-one adult Fischer rats were divided into Naive Group, Sham Group and Group for seed implants (ISH). Surgical procedures for implantation of biodegradable seeds were done and 30 days after the implant radiographic examination and biopsy of the brain were performed. Neurological assays were also accomplished to exclude any injury resulting from either surgery or implantation of the seeds. Radiographic examination confirmed the location of the seeds in the brain. Neurological assays showed animals with regular spontaneous activity. The histological analysis showed an increase of inflammatory cells in the brain of the ISH group. Electron microscopy evidenced cytoplasmic organelles to be unchanged. Biochemical analyzes indicate there was neither oxidative stress nor oxidative damage in the ISH brain. CAT activity showed no difference between the groups as well as lipid peroxidation measured by TBARS. The analysis of the data pointed out that the performed procedure is safe as no animal showed alterations of the neurological parameters and the seeds did not promote histological architectural changes in the brain tissue.

  14. Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians Can Predict Neurologic Prognosis in Patients with Isolated Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Hung; Su, Yu-Feng; Chan, Hon-Man; Huang, Shiuh-Lin; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lou, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) has been proved to be a simple and effective tool for recognizing osteoporosis risk. Our previous study has demonstrated that the preoperative OSTA index was a good prognostic predictor for stage II and III colon cancer patients after surgery. We aim to evaluate the value of OSTA index in prognostication of isolated traumatic brain injury with moderate severity (GCS 9-13). We retrospectively reviewed all patients visiting Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital emergency department due to isolated moderate traumatic brain injury from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2012. Background data (including the OSTA index), clinical presentations, management and outcomes (ICU admission days, total admission days, complications, Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at discharge, mortality) of the patients were recorded for further analysis. Our major outcome was good neurologic recovery defined as GOS of 5. Pearson chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare demographic features. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors. 107 isolated moderate TBI patients were studied. 40 patients (37.4%) showed good recovery and 10 (9.3%) died at discharge. The univariate analysis revealed that younger age, higher OSTA index, lower ISS, lower AIS-H, and avoidance to neurosurgery were associated with better neurologic outcome for all moderate TBI patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that lower ISS, higher OSTA, and the avoidance of neurosurgery were independent risk factors predicting good neurologic recovery. Higher ISS, lower OSTA index and exposure to neurosurgery were the independent risk factors for poorer recovery from isolated moderate TBI. In addition to labeling the cohort harboring osteoporotic risk, OSTA index could predict neurologic prognosis in patients with isolated moderate traumatic brain injury.

  15. Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians Can Predict Neurologic Prognosis in Patients with Isolated Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hon-Man; Huang, Shiuh-Lin; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lou, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) has been proved to be a simple and effective tool for recognizing osteoporosis risk. Our previous study has demonstrated that the preoperative OSTA index was a good prognostic predictor for stage II and III colon cancer patients after surgery. We aim to evaluate the value of OSTA index in prognostication of isolated traumatic brain injury with moderate severity (GCS 9-13). Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients visiting Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital emergency department due to isolated moderate traumatic brain injury from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2012. Background data (including the OSTA index), clinical presentations, management and outcomes (ICU admission days, total admission days, complications, Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at discharge, mortality) of the patients were recorded for further analysis. Our major outcome was good neurologic recovery defined as GOS of 5. Pearson chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare demographic features. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors. Results 107 isolated moderate TBI patients were studied. 40 patients (37.4%) showed good recovery and 10 (9.3%) died at discharge. The univariate analysis revealed that younger age, higher OSTA index, lower ISS, lower AIS-H, and avoidance to neurosurgery were associated with better neurologic outcome for all moderate TBI patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that lower ISS, higher OSTA, and the avoidance of neurosurgery were independent risk factors predicting good neurologic recovery. Conclusion Higher ISS, lower OSTA index and exposure to neurosurgery were the independent risk factors for poorer recovery from isolated moderate TBI. In addition to labeling the cohort harboring osteoporotic risk, OSTA index could predict neurologic prognosis in patients with isolated moderate traumatic brain injury. PMID:26186582

  16. Can the Assessment of Spontaneous Oscillations by Near Infrared Spectrophotometry Predict Neurological Outcome of Preterm Infants?

    PubMed

    Stammwitz, André; von Siebenthal, Kurt; Bucher, Hans U; Wolf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the correlation between cerebral autoregulation and outcome. Included were 31 preterm infants, gestational age 26 1/7 to 32 2/7 and <24 h life. Coherence between cerebral total haemoglobin (tHb) or oxygenation index (OI) measured by near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) and systemic heart rate (HR) or arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated as a measure of autoregulation. In contrast to previous studies, low coherences in the first 24 h were significantly associated with intraventricular haemorrhage, death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months or later. We suggest that our results can be explained by the concept of a multi-oscillatory-functions-order.

  17. Function Over Form: Modeling Groups of Inherited Neurological Conditions in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kozol, Robert A.; Abrams, Alexander J.; James, David M.; Buglo, Elena; Yan, Qing; Dallman, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish are a unique cell to behavior model for studying the basic biology of human inherited neurological conditions. Conserved vertebrate genetics and optical transparency provide in vivo access to the developing nervous system as well as high-throughput approaches for drug screens. Here we review zebrafish modeling for two broad groups of inherited conditions that each share genetic and molecular pathways and overlap phenotypically: neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID) and Schizophrenia (SCZ), and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Cerebellar Ataxia (CATX), Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) and Charcot-Marie Tooth Disease (CMT). We also conduct a small meta-analysis of zebrafish orthologs of high confidence neurodevelopmental disorder and neurodegenerative disease genes by looking at duplication rates and relative protein sizes. In the past zebrafish genetic models of these neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases have provided insight into cellular, circuit and behavioral level mechanisms contributing to these conditions. Moving forward, advances in genetic manipulation, live imaging of neuronal activity and automated high-throughput molecular screening promise to help delineate the mechanistic relationships between different types of neurological conditions and accelerate discovery of therapeutic strategies. PMID:27458342

  18. Function Over Form: Modeling Groups of Inherited Neurological Conditions in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kozol, Robert A; Abrams, Alexander J; James, David M; Buglo, Elena; Yan, Qing; Dallman, Julia E

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish are a unique cell to behavior model for studying the basic biology of human inherited neurological conditions. Conserved vertebrate genetics and optical transparency provide in vivo access to the developing nervous system as well as high-throughput approaches for drug screens. Here we review zebrafish modeling for two broad groups of inherited conditions that each share genetic and molecular pathways and overlap phenotypically: neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID) and Schizophrenia (SCZ), and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Cerebellar Ataxia (CATX), Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) and Charcot-Marie Tooth Disease (CMT). We also conduct a small meta-analysis of zebrafish orthologs of high confidence neurodevelopmental disorder and neurodegenerative disease genes by looking at duplication rates and relative protein sizes. In the past zebrafish genetic models of these neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases have provided insight into cellular, circuit and behavioral level mechanisms contributing to these conditions. Moving forward, advances in genetic manipulation, live imaging of neuronal activity and automated high-throughput molecular screening promise to help delineate the mechanistic relationships between different types of neurological conditions and accelerate discovery of therapeutic strategies.

  19. Assessing quality and normalization of microarrays: case studies using neurological genomic data.

    PubMed

    Hershey, A D; Burdine, D; Liu, C; Nick, T G; Gilbert, D L; Glauser, T A

    2008-07-01

    Genomic analysis using microarray tools has the potential benefit of enhancing our understanding of neurological diseases. The analysis of these data is complex due to the large amount of data generated. Many tools have been developed to assist with this, but standard methods of analysis of these tools have not been established. This study analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of different analytical methods for gene identification and presents a standardized approach. Affymetrix HG-U133 plus 2.0 microarray datasets from two neurological diseases - chronic migraine and new-onset epilepsy - were used as source data and methods of analysis for normalization of data and identification of gene changes were compared. Housekeeping genes were used to identify non-specific changes and gender related genes were used to identify specific changes. Initial normalization of data revealed that 5-10% of the microarray were potential outliers due to technical errors. Two separate methods of analysis (dChip and Bioconductor) identified the same microarray chips as outliers. For specificity and sensitivity testing, performing a per-gene normalization was found to be inferior to standard preprocessing procedures using robust multichip average analysis. Technical variation in microarray preprocessing may account for chip-to-chip and batch-to-batch variations and outliers need to be removed prior to analysis. Specificity and sensitivity of the final results are best achieved following this identification and removal with standard genomic analysis techniques. Future tools may benefit from the use of standard tools of measurement.

  20. Assessing Respiratory System Mechanical Function.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Serrato, Diana M; Adasme, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    The main goals of assessing respiratory system mechanical function are to evaluate the lung function through a variety of methods and to detect early signs of abnormalities that could affect the patient's outcomes. In ventilated patients, it has become increasingly important to recognize whether respiratory function has improved or deteriorated, whether the ventilator settings match the patient's demand, and whether the selection of ventilator parameters follows a lung-protective strategy. Ventilator graphics, esophageal pressure, intra-abdominal pressure, and electric impedance tomography are some of the best-known monitoring tools to obtain measurements and adequately evaluate the respiratory system mechanical function.

  1. Reliability and validity of the assessment of neurological soft-signs in children with and without attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Peik; Svedin, Carl Göran; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Lindén, Christian; Karlsson, Magnus K; Thernlund, Gunilla

    2010-04-01

    To study the value and reliability of an examination of neurological soft-signs, often used in Sweden, in the assessment of children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by examining children with and without ADHD, as diagnosed by an experienced clinician using the DSM-III-R. We have examined interrater reliability (26 males, nine females; age range 5y 6mo-11y), internal consistency (94 males, 43 females; age range 5y 6mo-11y), test-retest reliability (12 males, eight females; age range 6-9y), and validity (79 males, 33 females; age range 5y 6mo-9y). The sum of the scores for the items on the examination had good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation [ICC] 0.95) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.76). The test-retest study also showed good reliability (ICC 0.91). There were modest associations between the examination and the assessment of motor function made by the physical education teacher (ICC 0.37) as well as from the parents' description (ICC 0.39). The examination of neurological soft-signs had a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.76 in predicting motor problems as evaluated by the physical education teacher. The reliability and validity of this examination seem to be good and can be recommended for clinical practice and research.

  2. Current neurology

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, S.H. )

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include: Duchenne muscular dystrophy: DNA diagnosis in practice; Central nervous system magnetic resonance imaging; and Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of neurologic diseases.

  3. Iatrogenic neurology.

    PubMed

    Sposato, Luciano A; Fustinoni, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic disease is one of the most frequent causes of hospital admissions and constitutes a growing public health problem. The most common type of iatrogenic neurologic disease is pharmacologic, and the central and peripheral nervous systems are particularly vulnerable. Despite this, iatrogenic disease is generally overlooked as a differential diagnosis among neurologic patients. The clinical picture of pharmacologically mediated iatrogenic neurologic disease can range from mild to fatal. Common and uncommon forms of drug toxicity are comprehensively addressed in this chapter. While the majority of neurologic adverse effects are listed and referenced in the tables, the most relevant issues are further discussed in the text.

  4. The effects of perinatal tebuconazole exposure on adult neurological, immunological, and reproductive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, V C; Barone, S; Smialowicz, R J; Harris, M W; Davis, B J; Overstreet, D; Mauney, M; Chapin, R E

    2001-08-01

    Studies are under way to address concerns of potential persistent immunotoxic, reproductive, and neurotoxic effects of perinatal exposure to several pesticides. Tebuconazole, a triazole fungicide, was evaluated as part of this project. Sprague-Dawley dams were administered tebuconazole (0, 6, 20, or 60 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND)7; the pups were then dosed daily at the same levels from PND7-42. Separate groups of rats were used for testing of immunological parameters, neurobehavioral testing using a screening battery of functional tests, and cognitive evaluations. Other groups of rats were evaluated for reproductive development and function, while yet others were sacrificed at the end of the dosing period for histological analyses of major organs systems, including neuropathological assessments. Pup viability and body weight were decreased in the highest dose group. There were no differences in the fertility indices in the exposed rats mated as adults. In the sheep RBC-immunized high-dose rats, spleen weights and cellularity were increased, and the ratio of cell types was altered compared to controls. There were, however, no biologically significant changes in the immune function of these rats. At necropsy on PND46 or 152, kidney, liver, and spleen weights were altered by tebuconazole treatment, but a dose-response relationship was not clear for most organs; only decreased kidney and increased liver weights were consistent in both sexes. Histological analyses were generally unremarkable outside of the brain. One month after the end of dosing, acquisition of learning the platform location in a water tank (i.e., Morris water maze) was impaired in the high-dose group; there were no differences in neuromuscular ability, motor activity, or swim speed to account for this finding. Furthermore, there was no effect on recall of the position during a free-swim trial. Neuropathological evaluations revealed pyknotic cells across

  5. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    BIDAKI, Reza; ZAREPUR, Ehsan; AKRAMI, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse’s trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  6. Asymptomatic carotid disease--a new tool for assessing neurological risk.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Luís M; Sanches, J Miguel; Seabra, José; Suri, Jasjit S; Fernandes E Fernandes, José

    2014-03-01

    Active carotid plaques are associated with atheroembolism and neurological events; its identification is crucial for stroke prevention. High-definition ultrasound (HDU) can be used to recognize plaque structure in carotid bifurcation stenosis associated with plaque vulnerability and occurrence of brain ischemic events. A new computer-assisted HDU method to study the echomorphology of the carotid plaque and to determine a risk score for developing appropriate symptoms is proposed in this study. Plaque echomorphology characteristics such as presence of ulceration at the plaque surface, juxta-luminal location of echolucent areas, echoheterogeneity were obtained from B-mode ultrasound scans using several image processing algorithms and were combined with measurement of severity of stenosis to obtain a clinical score--enhanced activity index (EAI)--which was correlated with the presence or absence of ipsilateral appropriate ischemic symptoms. An optimal cutoff value of EAI was determined to obtain the best separation between symptomatic (active) from asymptomatic (inactive) plaques and its diagnostic yield was compared to other 2 reference methods by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Classification performance was evaluated by leave-one-patient-out cross-validation applied to a cohort of 146 carotid plaques from 99 patients. The proposed method was benchmarked against (a) degree of stenosis criteria and (b) earlier proposed activity index (AI) and demonstrated that EAI yielded the highest accuracy up to an accuracy of 77% to predict asymptomatic plaques that developed symptoms in a prospective cross-sectional study. Enhanced activity index is a noninvasive, easy to obtain parameter, which provided accurate estimation of neurological risk of carotid plaques.

  7. Unravelling functional neurology: a scoping review of theories and clinical applications in a context of chiropractic manual therapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Laure; Meyer, Amanda; Etherington, Sarah; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Functional Neurology (FN), a seemingly attractive treatment approach used by some chiropractors, proposes to have an effect on a multitude of conditions but some of its concepts are controversial. A scoping review was performed to describe, in the context of chiropractic manual therapy, 1) the FN theories, and 2) its clinical applications (i.e. its indications, examination procedures, treatment modalities, treatment plans, and clinical outcomes) using four sources: i) one key textbook, ii) the scientific peer-reviewed literature, iii) websites from chiropractors using FN, and iv) semi-structured interviews of chiropractors using FN. The scientific literature was searched in PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus, completed by a hand search in the journal Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics (November 2016 and March 2017, respectively). The only textbook on the topic we found was included and articles were chosen if they had an element of manual therapy. There was no restriction for study design but discussion papers were excluded. Websites were found in Google using the search term "Functional Neurology". Chiropractors, known to use FN, were invited based on their geographical location. Theories were mainly uncovered in the textbook as were all aspects of the clinical applications except treatment plans. The other three sources were used for the five aspects of clinical applications. Results were summarized and reported extensively in tables. Eleven articles were included, five websites scrutinized, and four semi-structured interviews performed. FN is based on the belief that reversible lesions in the nervous system are the cause of a multitude of conditions and that specific clusters of neurons can be positively affected by manipulative therapy, but also by many other stimuli. Diagnostic procedures include both conventional and unusual tests, with an interpretation specific to FN. Initial treatment is intense and clinical outcomes reported as positive

  8. Common Polymorphisms in the Solute Carrier SLC30A10 are Associated With Blood Manganese and Neurological Function.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Karin; Kippler, Maria; Alhamdow, Ayman; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Smith, Donald R; Vahter, Marie; Lucchini, Roberto G; Broberg, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient in humans, but excessive exposure to Mn may cause neurotoxicity. Despite homeostatic regulation, Mn concentrations in blood vary considerably among individuals. We evaluated if common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC30A10, which likely encodes an Mn transporter, influence blood Mn concentrations and neurological function. We measured blood Mn concentrations by ICP-MS or atomic absorption spectroscopy and genotyped 2 SLC30A10 non-coding SNPs (rs2275707 and rs12064812) by TaqMan PCR in cohorts from Bangladesh (N = 406), the Argentinean Andes (N = 198), and Italy (N = 238). We also measured SLC30A10 expression in whole blood by TaqMan PCR in a sub-group (N = 101) from the Andean cohort, and neurological parameters (sway velocity and finger-tapping speed) in the Italian cohort. The rs2275707 variant allele was associated with increased Mn concentrations in the Andes (8%, P = .027) and Italy (10.6%, P = .012), but not as clear in Bangladesh (3.4%, P = .21; linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and plasma ferritin). This allele was also associated with increased sway velocity (15%, P = .033; adjusted for age and sex) and reduced SLC30A10 expression (-24.6%, P = .029). In contrast, the rs12064812 variant homozygous genotype was associated with reduced Mn concentrations, particularly in the Italian cohort (-18.4%, P = .04), and increased finger-tapping speed (8.7%, P = .025). We show that common SNPs in SLC30A10 are associated with blood Mn concentrations in 3 unrelated cohorts and that their influence may be mediated by altered SLC30A10 expression. Moreover, the SNPs appeared to influence neurological functions independent of blood Mn concentrations, suggesting that SLC30A10 could regulate brain Mn levels.

  9. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33 weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term‐born controls at 17–18 years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub‐divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8 years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18 years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term‐born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term‐born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  10. MS-CANE: a computer-aided instrument for neurological evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis: enhanced reliability of expanded disability status scale (EDSS) assessment.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y C; Hassin-Baer, S; Olmer, L; Barishev, R; Goldhammer, Y; Freedman, L; Mozes, B

    2000-10-01

    Kurtzke's EDSS remains the most widely-used measure for clinical evaluation of MS patients. However, several studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of this tool. We introduce a computerized instrument, MS-CANE (Multiple Sclerosis Computer-Aided Neurological Examination), for clinical evaluation and follow up of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to compare its reliability to that of conventional Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) assessment. We developed a computerized interactive instrument, based on the following principles: structured gathering of neurological findings, reduction of compound notions to their basic components, use of precise definitions, priority setting and automated calculations of EDSS and functional systems scores. An expert panel examined the consistency of MS-CANE with Kurtzke's specifications. To determine the effect of MS-CANE on the reliability of EDSS assessment, 56 MS patients underwent paired conventional EDSS and MS-CANE-based evaluations. The inter-observer agreement in both methods was determined and compared using the kappa statistic. The expert panel judged the tool to be compatible with the basic concepts of Kurtzke's EDSS. The use of MS-CANE increased the reliability of EDSS assessment: Kappa statistic was found to be 0.42 (i.e. moderate agreement) for conventional EDSS assessment versus 0.69 (i.e. substantial agreement) for MS-CANE (P=0.002). We conclude that the use of this tool may contribute towards a standardized and reliable assessment of EDSS. Within clinical trials, this could increase the power to detect effects, thus reducing trial duration and the cohort size required. Multiple Sclerosis (2000) 6 355 - 361

  11. Improved differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and neurological function after spinal cord injury in rats by oscillating field stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jing, J-H; Qian, J; Zhu, N; Chou, W-B; Huang, X-J

    2015-09-10

    Oscillating field stimulation (OFS) has been used in attempts to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been shown to improve remyelination after SCI in rats. However, some controversies regarding the effects of OFS have been presented in previous papers. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the main cell for remyelination and are derived from the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). To date, it has been unclear whether the differentiation of OPCs can be regulated by OFS. The goal of this study was to determine if OFS can improve the differentiation of OPCs and promote the recovery of neurological function after SCI in rats. Immature and mature OLs were observed in spinal cord slices through immunofluorescence staining. Levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scores and transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) were used to evaluate the locomotor outcomes of rats after SCI. Our results showed a significant improvement in the differentiation of OPCs and the content of ATP and LIF in the injured spinal cord in the OFS group. Furthermore, BBB scores and tcMMEPs were significantly improved in the rats stimulated by OFS. These findings suggest that OFS can improve the differentiation of OPCs and promote the recovery of neurological function following SCI in rats. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurological Soft Signs Are Not “Soft” in Brain Structure and Functional Networks: Evidence From ALE Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. NSS have been conventionally considered as clinical neurological signs without localized brain regions. However, recent brain imaging studies suggest that NSS are partly localizable and may be associated with deficits in specific brain areas. Method: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to quantitatively review structural and functional imaging studies that evaluated the brain correlates of NSS in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Six structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and 15 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were included. Results: The results from meta-analysis of the sMRI studies indicated that NSS were associated with atrophy of the precentral gyrus, the cerebellum, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. The results from meta-analysis of the fMRI studies demonstrated that the NSS-related task was significantly associated with altered brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, the cerebellum, and the superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings from both sMRI and fMRI meta-analyses further support the conceptualization of NSS as a manifestation of the “cerebello-thalamo-prefrontal” brain network model of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. PMID:23671197

  13. Assessing Functional Vision Using Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Simon; Ross, Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a software system which uses microcomputers to aid in the assessment of functional vision in visually impaired students. The software also aims to be visually stimulating and to develop hand-eye coordination, visual memory, and cognitive abilities. (DB)

  14. Recovery of Neurological Function Despite Immediate Sleep Disruption Following Diffuse Brain Injury in the Mouse: Clinical Relevance to Medically Untreated Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K.; Harrison, Jordan L.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Design: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Setting: Neurotrauma research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Conclusion: Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury. Citation: Rowe RK; Harrison JL; O'Hara BF; Lifshitz J. Recovery of neurological

  15. Differentiating Levels of Neurological Impairment in Children with Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Carol A.

    This study was designed to identify differences in the neurological functioning of three groups of children with developmental dyslexia and to assess whether any of the groups were characterized by a particular pattern of neurological soft signs. Subjects were 88 children, aged 11-14, who were identified as developmentally dyslexic. The children…

  16. Clinical neurologic indices of toxicity in animals.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, J L

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental structures and functions of the nervous systems of animals and humans are conserved in many ways across species. These similarities provide a basis for developing common neurologic examinations for a number of species of animals and also provide a basis for developing risk assessments across species for neurologic end points. The neurologic examination requires no expensive equipment and can be conducted in the field or wherever impaired animals are identified. The proper conduct of neurologic examinations in animals assumes that the examiner has a fundamental understanding of the normal structure and function of the nervous system as well as knowledge about the spontaneous disease background of the species being studied. PMID:9182039

  17. Propofol administration improves neurological function associated with inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult rats after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Chen, Mei-Rong; Liu, Jia; Zou, Yu; Wang, Ting-Yong; Zuo, Yun-Xia; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) result in dramatic impacts on the survivors, but the effect of propofol and associated mechanism are waiting to be determined. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into Sham, TBI, TBI+Intralipid and TBI+Propofol group. Modified Feeney method was adopted to generate TBI model from free hammer fall injury, and animals in TBI+Propofol group were immediately treated with propofol administration for 2hours after TBI, rats after TBI without propofol treatment was used as injury control, intralipid as vehicle in propofol was injected in TBI+intralipid group. Then, neurological severity scores (NSS) were evaluated at 1, 3, 7 and 14days. Moreover, the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA and protein were examined using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, immunohistochemical staining was used to localize cytokines. The NSS increased greatly in the rats induced by TBI, while propofol could effectively decreased NSS, confirming the neuroprotective effect of propofol. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, at 1, 3, 7days after operation (dpo), were significantly augmented in the injured cortex, compared with sham one. But there was no difference between TBI and TBI+Intralipid group, but markedly decreased after propofol treatment. Additionally, the protein level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in four groups determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed the similar change with mRNA expression. Propofol treatment could elicit a robust neuroprotective response, resulting in significant neurological function improvement for TBI rats, which was independent with intralipid. The underlying molecular mechanism may be partially associated with an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    PubMed Central

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. METHODS: In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury. PMID:26598084

  19. Neurological soft signs and cognitive functions: Amongst euthymic bipolar I disorder cases, non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2016-01-01

    Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p = 0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p = 0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p = 0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p = 0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p = 0.04), and emotion efficiency (p = 0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894

  20. Functional assessment of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Matteson, M A

    1997-09-01

    Functional levels, Orem's levels of self-care abilities, and need for services of 20 low income elders living in a senior housing project were assessed. The majority of the subjects were at Orem's supportive educative level in the areas of social resources and mental health, and partly compensatory in the areas of economic resources, physical health, and activities of daily living. As expected in a community setting, very few were in the wholly compensatory level. Service needs fell primarily in the partly compensatory level. The results suggest that there is a continuum of needs in this population, and that functional assessment of older adults is an important component of nursing practice in a primary care setting.

  1. Cerebral localization of functions and the neurology of language: fact versus fiction or is it something else?

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliott D

    2010-06-01

    Over the last 15 years there has been a burgeoning number of publications using functional brain imaging (>40,000 articles based on an ISI/Web of Science search) to localize behavioral and cognitive processes to specific areas in the human brain that are often not confirmed by traditional, lesion-based studies. Thus, there is a need to reassess what cerebral localization of functions is and is not. Otherwise, there is no rational way to interpret the escalating claims of localization in the functional imaging literature that is taking on the appearance of neurophysiologic "phrenology". This article will present arguments to suggest that functional localization in the brain is a robust but very dynamic, four-dimensional process. It is a learned phenomenon driven over time by large-scale, spatially distributed, neural networks seeking to efficiently maximize the processing, storage, and manipulation of information for cognitive and behavioral operations. Because of historical considerations and space limitations, the main focus will be on localization of language-related functions whose theoretical neurological basis can be generalized for any complex cognitive-behavioral function.

  2. [Neurological phenocopying].

    PubMed

    Pascual, J M

    To expand the -supposedly- narrow relationships that exist between genes and clinical syndromes by reflecting on several illustrative examples that disturb current simplistic genotype: phenotype correlations, and to explore a variety of biological mechanisms that account for this emerging phenomenon. Because it is well known that mutations in a single gene can give rise to numerous phenotypes, it would appear, at least intuitively, that the converse relationship might also hold true: that different genotypes may converge on just one single phenotype. Several examples taken from the study of selected neurological diseases illustrate that the latter principle indeed occurs in nature because disparate human genetic anomalies manifest similarly by exhibiting only a relatively limited phenotypic repertoire. This interesting biological phenomenon and vexing clinical problem is best described as phenocopying. Conditions such as spinal muscular atrophy, congenital glycosylation disorders, and mitochondrial diseases are but a few notorious examples of phenocopying. The nervous system is endowed with a limited number of genes and of types of molecules and, especially during development, its functional repertoire, at least from an observable point of view, is also limited. Therefore, ample genotyping capabilities are necessary to avoid erring in the process of diagnostic attribution because of phenocopying.

  3. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K.; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35 days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure to not only protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair. PMID:25771800

  4. Autoantibodies that recognize functional domains of hnRNPA1 implicate molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Dunnavant, Floyd D; Jang, Haeman; Zunt, Joseph; Levin, Michael C

    2006-06-19

    As a model for molecular mimicry in neurological disease, we study people infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) who develop HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In HAM/TSP, data suggests molecular mimicry is the result of cross-reactive antibodies between HTLV-1-tax and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), a protein over-expressed in human CNS neurons. The hnRNP A1 epitope recognized by autoantibodies was unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that antibodies purified from HAM/TSP patients would react with functionally significant domains of hnRNP A1. Western blotting of functionally significant deletion mutants and overlapping fusion proteins using HAM/TSP IgG revealed two core epitopes within the C-terminal region of hnRNP A1. The first (aminoacids 191-SSQRGRSGSGNF-202), overlapped the RGG domain and the second (aminoacids 293-GQYFAKPRNQGG-304), with the M9 shuttling sequence, two functionally important regions of hnRNP A1. Monoclonal antibodies to HTLV-1-tax also reacted with the epitopes. These data fulfill an important criterion of molecular mimicry, namely that mimicking epitopes are not random, but include biologically significant regions of target proteins. This suggests an important role for the cross-reactive immune response between HTLV-1 and hnRNP A1 in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated neurological diseases via molecular mimicry.

  5. Assessment of differential item functioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chung

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses several important issues in assessment of differential item functioning (DIF). It starts with the definition of DIF, effectiveness of using item fit statistics to detect DIF, and linear modeling of DIF in dichotomous items, polytomous items, facets, and testlet-based items. Because a common metric over groups of test-takers is a prerequisite in DIF assessment, this study reviews three such methods of establishing a common metric: the equal-mean-difficulty method, the all-other-item method, and the constant-item (CI) method. A small simulation demonstrates the superiority of the CI method over the others. As the CI method relies on a correct specification of DIF-free items to serve as anchors, a method of identifying such items is recommended and its effectiveness is illustrated through a simulation. Finally, this study discusses how to assess practical significance of DIF at both item and test levels.

  6. Neurologic Examination at 24 to 48 Hours Predicts Functional Outcomes in Basilar Artery Occlusion Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Jovin, Tudor G; Frankel, Michael; Schonewille, Wouter J; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nogueira, Raul G

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term outcome prognostication in basilar artery occlusion strokes may guide clinical management in the subacute stage. We determine the prognostic value of the follow-up neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and identify 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories in basilar artery occlusion patients. Participants of an observational registry of radiologically confirmed acute basilar artery occlusion (BASICS [Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study]) with prospectively collected 24- to 48-hour NIHSS and 1-month modified Rankin scale scores were included. Uni- and multivariable modeling were performed to identify independent predictors of poor outcome. Predictive powers of baseline and 24- to 48-hour NIHSS for poor outcome (modified Rankin scale, 4-6) and 1-month mortality were determined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed to identify risk groups. Three hundred seventy-six of 619 BASICS participants were included, of whom 65.4% had poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, 24- to 48-hour NIHSS (odds ratio=1.28 [1.21-1.35]), history of minor stroke (odds ratio=2.64 [1.04-6.74], time to treatment >6 hours (odds ratio=3.07 [1.35-6.99]), and age (odds ratio=1.02 [0.99-1.04]) were retained in the final model as predictors of poor outcome. Prognostic power of 24- to 48-hour NIHSS was higher than baseline NIHSS for 1-month poor outcome (area under the curve, 0.92 versus 0.75) and mortality (area under the curve, 0.85 versus 0.72). Classification and regression tree analysis identified five 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories with poor outcome rates of 9.4% (NIHSS 0-4), 36% (NIHSS 5-11), 84.3% (NIHSS 12-22), 96.1% (NIHSS 23-27), and 100% (NIHSS≥28). Twenty-four- to 48-hour NIHSS accurately predicts 1-month poor outcome and mortality and represents a clinically valuable prognostic tool for the care of basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2016

  7. Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the Computerized Cognitive Assessment Aid for Concussion. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-12-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Computerized Cognitive Assessment Aid for Concussion into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the computerized cognitive assessment aid for concussion's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  8. Safety of open suprapectoral and subpectoral biceps tenodesis: an anatomic assessment of risk for neurologic injury.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Vadasdi, Katherine; Greene, R Timothy; Vitale, Mark A; Duong, Michelle; Miller, Seth R

    2015-01-01

    Surgical techniques for proximal biceps tenodesis that include penetration of the posterior humeral cortex for fixation may pose risk to the surrounding neurovascular structures. The risk of neurologic injury with techniques that involve penetration of the posterior humeral cortex for fixation in proximal biceps tenodesis will increase as the tenodesis site moves proximally from the subpectoral to the suprapectoral location. Proximal biceps tenodesis was performed on 10 cadaveric upper extremities with 3 separate techniques. The proximity of the hardware to the relevant neurovascular structures was measured. The distances between the tenodesis site and the relevant neurovascular structures were measured. The guide pin was in direct contact with the axillary nerve in 20% of the suprapectoral tenodeses. The distance between the axillary nerve and the tenodesis site was 10.5 ± 5.5 mm for the suprapectoral location, 36.7 ± 11.2 mm in the subpectoral scenario, and 24.1 ± 11.2 mm in the 30° cephalad scenario (P = .003). The distance between the radial nerve and the anterior tenodesis site was 41.3 ± 9.3 mm for the suprapectoral location and 48.0 ± 10.7 mm for the subpectoral location. The distance of the musculocutaneous nerve from the tenodesis site was 28.4 ± 9.2 mm for the suprapectoral location and 37.4 ± 11.2 mm for the subpectoral location. In a cadaveric model of open biceps tenodesis, penetration of the posterior humeral cortex at the suprapectoral location results in proximity to the axillary nerve and should be avoided. Subpectoral bicortical button fixation drilled perpendicular to the axis of the humerus was a uniformly safe location with respect to the axillary nerve. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The embodied mind: A review on functional genomic and neurological correlates of mind-body therapies.

    PubMed

    Muehsam, David; Lutgendorf, Susan; Mills, Paul J; Rickhi, Badri; Chevalier, Gaétan; Bat, Namuun; Chopra, Deepak; Gurfein, Blake

    2017-02-01

    A broad range of mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used by the public today, and a growing body of clinical and basic sciences research has resulted in evidence-based integration of many MBTs into clinical practice. Basic sciences research has identified some of the physiological correlates of MBT practices, leading to a better understanding of the processes by which emotional, cognitive and psychosocial factors can influence health outcomes and well-being. In particular, results from functional genomics and neuroimaging describe some of the processes involved in the mind-body connection and how these can influence health outcomes. Functional genomic and neurophysiological correlates of MBTs are reviewed, detailing studies showing changes in sympathetic nervous system activation of gene transcription factors involved in immune function and inflammation, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies on MBT practices, and persistent changes in neural function and morphology associated with these practices. While the broad diversity of study designs and MBTs studied presents a patchwork of results requiring further validation through replication and longitudinal studies, clear themes emerge for MBTs as immunomodulatory, with effects on leukocyte transcription and function related to inflammatory and innate immune responses, and neuromodulatory, with effects on brain function and morphology relevant for attention, learning, and emotion regulation. By detailing the potential mechanisms of action by which MBTs may influence health outcomes, the data generated by these studies have contributed significantly towards a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying MBTs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring Performance Degradation of Cerebellar Functions Using Computational Neuroscience Methods: Implications on Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocki, Robert A.; Shaalan, Majid; Shaheen, Sean E.; Lorenzon, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is a major cause of human disease. Within the cerebellum, neuronal degeneration and/or dysfunction has been associated with many diseases, including several forms of cerebellar ataxia, since normal cerebellar function is paramount for proper motor coordination, balance, and motor learning. The cerebellum represents a well-established neural circuit. Determining the effects of neuronal loss is of great importance for understanding the fundamental workings of the cerebellum and disease-associated dysfunctions. This paper presents computational modeling of cerebellar function in relation to neurodegeneration either affecting a specific cerebellar cell type, such as granule cells or Purkinje cells, or more generally affecting cerebellar cells and the implications on effects in relation to performance degradation throughout the progression of cell death. The results of the models show that the overall number of cells, as a percentage of the total cell number in the model, of a particular type and, primarily, their proximity to the circuit output, and not the neuronal convergence due to the relative number of cells of a particular type, is the main indicator of the gravity of the functional deficit caused by the degradation of that cell type. Specifically, the greater the percentage loss of neurons of a specific type and the closer proximity of those cells to the deep cerebellar neurons, the greater the deficit caused by the neuronal cell loss. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional consequences of neurodegeneration and the functional importance of specific connectivity within a neuronal circuit. PMID:23029114

  11. Motor milestone assessment of infants with spinal muscular atrophy using the hammersmith infant neurological Exam-Part 2: Experience from a nusinersen clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Kathie M; Montes, Jacqueline; Finkel, Richard S

    2017-05-26

    In this study we examined the feasibility of assessing motor milestone performance of infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Exam-Part 2 (HINE-2) in a phase 2 study of nusinersen. Nineteen SMA infants were assessed using the HINE-2 at baseline (≤7 months of age), and periodically up to 39 months of age. We evaluated whether the HINE-2 was feasible, reliable, and sensitive to change. Motor milestone assessments in SMA infants were feasible using the HINE-2. Baseline test-retest reliability was excellent (R = 0.987; P < 0.0001). SMA infants were extremely low functioning at baseline and the HINE-2 was able to detect changes over time in 16 of 19 infants within all 8 domains. HINE-2 improvements were correlated with changes in other neuromuscular outcome measures. Results support the use of the HINE-2 motor milestone assessment in clinical trials of SMA infants. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The role of long non-coding RNAs in neurodevelopment, brain function and neurological disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas C.; Morris, Kevin V.; Wood, Matthew J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts with low protein-coding potential that represent a large proportion of the transcriptional output of the cell. Many lncRNAs exhibit features indicative of functionality including tissue-restricted expression, localization to distinct subcellular structures, regulated expression and evolutionary conservation. Some lncRNAs have been shown to associate with chromatin-modifying activities and transcription factors, suggesting that a common mode of action may be to guide protein complexes to target genomic loci. However, the functions (if any) of the vast majority of lncRNA transcripts are currently unknown, and the subject of investigation. Here, we consider the putative role(s) of lncRNAs in neurodevelopment and brain function with an emphasis on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Associations of lncRNAs with neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders, neurodegeneration and brain cancers are also discussed. PMID:25135968

  13. The role of long non-coding RNAs in neurodevelopment, brain function and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas C; Morris, Kevin V; Wood, Matthew J A

    2014-09-26

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts with low protein-coding potential that represent a large proportion of the transcriptional output of the cell. Many lncRNAs exhibit features indicative of functionality including tissue-restricted expression, localization to distinct subcellular structures, regulated expression and evolutionary conservation. Some lncRNAs have been shown to associate with chromatin-modifying activities and transcription factors, suggesting that a common mode of action may be to guide protein complexes to target genomic loci. However, the functions (if any) of the vast majority of lncRNA transcripts are currently unknown, and the subject of investigation. Here, we consider the putative role(s) of lncRNAs in neurodevelopment and brain function with an emphasis on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Associations of lncRNAs with neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders, neurodegeneration and brain cancers are also discussed.

  14. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  15. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  16. MotorBrain: A mobile app for the assessment of users' motor performance in neurology.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Andrea; Chittaro, Luca; Burigat, Stefano; Budai, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    Human motor skills or impairments have been traditionally assessed by neurologists by means of paper-and-pencil tests or special hardware. More recently, technologies such as digitizing tablets and touchscreens have offered neurologists new assessment possibilities, but their use has been restricted to a specific medical condition, or to stylus-operated mobile devices. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we propose a mobile app (MotorBrain) that offers six computerized versions of traditional motor tests, can be used directly by patients (with and without the supervision of a clinician), and aims at turning millions of smartphones and tablets available to the general public into data collection and assessment tools. Then, we carry out a study to determine whether the data collected by MotorBrain can be meaningful for describing aging in human motor performance. A sample of healthy participants (N= 133) carried out the motor tests using MotorBrain on a smartphone. Participants were split into two groups (Young, Old) based on their age (less than or equal to 30 years, greater than or equal to 50 years, respectively). The data collected by the app characterizes accuracy, reaction times, and speed of movement. It was analyzed to investigate differences between the two groups. The app does allow measuring differences in neuromotor performance. Data collected by the app allowed us to assess performance differences due to the aging of the neuromuscular system. Data collected through MotorBrain is suitable to make meaningful distinctions among different kinds of performance, and allowed us to highlight performance differences associated to aging. MotorBrain supports the building of a large database of neuromotor data, which can be used for normative purposes in clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrospun fibrous membranes featuring sustained release of ibuprofen reduce adhesion and improve neurological function following lumbar laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shen; Pan, Guoqing; Liu, Guangwang; Neves, José das; Song, Sa; Chen, Shuai; Cheng, Bangjun; Sun, Zhiyong; Sarmento, Bruno; Cui, Wenguo; Fan, Cunyi

    2017-08-10

    Electrospun fibrous membranes provide suitable physical anti-adhesion barriers for reducing tissue anti-adhesion following surgery. However, often during the biodegradation process, these barriers trigger inflammation and cause a foreign body reaction with subsequent decrease in anti-adhesion efficacy. Here, a facile strategy comprising the incorporation of ibuprofen (IBU) into implantable membranes and its sustained release was proposed in order to improve anti-adhesion effects and neurological outcomes, namely to prevent failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). The combination of free IBU and a newly synthetized polymeric prodrug of IBU, namely poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with ester-linked IBU, was successfully used in order to reduce initial burst drug release and provide sustained drug release from fibrous membranes throughout several weeks. Such release profile was shown useful in preventing both acute and chronic inflammation in rats following laminectomy and membrane implantation. Moreover, histological analysis provided evidence of an excellent anti-adhesion effect, while associated neurological deficits were effectively reduced. Furthermore, the assessment of macrophage density, neovascularization, and related gene expression at the lesion site revealed that a sustained anti-inflammatory effect was achieved with the IBU-loaded proposed fibrous membranes. Results suggested that the COX2 pathway plays an important role in the development epidural fibrosis and arachnoiditis. Overall, this study provided evidence that precisely engineered IBU-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes may be useful in preventing FBSS and able to potentially impact the outcome of patients undergoing spine surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurological surgery planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Charlie Z. W.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Kadi, A. Majeed

    1993-09-01

    The computer-assisted neurological surgery planning system (NSPS), developed by the Neurological Surgery Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, is designed to offer neurosurgeons a safe and accurate method to approach intracranial lesions. Software consisting of the most advanced technologies in computer vision, computer graphics, and stereotactic numeric analysis forms the kernel of the system. Our paper discusses the functionalities and background theories used in NSPS.

  19. The neurological effects of ghrelin in brain diseases: Beyond metabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Qian; Du, Xixun; Li, Yong; Gong, Bing; Shi, Limin; Tang, Tingting; Jiang, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide released by the stomach that plays a major role in regulating energy metabolism, has recently been shown to have effects on neurobiological behaviors. Ghrelin enhances neuronal survival by reducing apoptosis, alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress, and accordingly improving mitochondrial function. Ghrelin also stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and migration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). Additionally, the ghrelin is benefit for the recovery of memory, mood and cognitive dysfunction after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Because of its neuroprotective and neurogenic roles, ghrelin may be used as a therapeutic agent in the brain to combat neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we highlight the pre-clinical evidence and the proposed mechanisms underlying the role of ghrelin in physiological and pathological brain function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genes that affect brain structure and function identified by rare variant analyses of Mendelian neurologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Ender; Harel, Tamar; Pehlivan, Davut; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Gambin, Tomasz; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Erdin, Serkan; Bayram, Yavuz; Campbell, Ian M.; Hunter, Jill V.; Atik, Mehmed M.; Van Esch, Hilde; Yuan, Bo; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Isikay, Sedat; Yesil, Gozde; Yuregir, Ozge O.; Bozdogan, Sevcan Tug; Aslan, Huseyin; Aydin, Hatip; Tos, Tulay; Aksoy, Ayse; De Vivo, Darryl C.; Jain, Preti; Geckinli, B. Bilge; Sezer, Ozlem; Gul, Davut; Durmaz, Burak; Cogulu, Ozgur; Ozkinay, Ferda; Topcu, Vehap; Candan, Sukru; Cebi, Alper Han; Ikbal, Mevlit; Gulec, Elif Yilmaz; Gezdirici, Alper; Koparir, Erkan; Ekici, Fatma; Coskun, Salih; Cicek, Salih; Karaer, Kadri; Koparir, Asuman; Duz, Mehmet Bugrahan; Kirat, Emre; Fenercioglu, Elif; Ulucan, Hakan; Seven, Mehmet; Guran, Tulay; Elcioglu, Nursel; Yildirim, Mahmut Selman; Aktas, Dilek; Alikaşifoğlu, Mehmet; Ture, Mehmet; Yakut, Tahsin; Overton, John D.; Yuksel, Adnan; Ozen, Mustafa; Muzny, Donna M.; Adams, David R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chung, Wendy K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R

    2015-01-01

    Development of the human nervous system involves complex interactions between fundamental cellular processes and requires a multitude of genes, many of which remain to be associated with human disease. We applied whole exome sequencing to 128 mostly consanguineous families with neurogenetic disorders that often included brain malformations. Rare variant analyses for both single nucleotide variant (SNV) and copy number variant (CNV) alleles allowed for identification of 45 novel variants in 43 known disease genes, 41 candidate genes, and CNVs in 10 families, with an overall potential molecular cause identified in >85% of families studied. Among the candidate genes identified, we found PRUNE, VARS, and DHX37 in multiple families, and homozygous loss of function variants in AGBL2, SLC18A2, SMARCA1, UBQLN1, and CPLX1. Neuroimaging and in silico analysis of functional and expression proximity between candidate and known disease genes allowed for further understanding of genetic networks underlying specific types of brain malformations. PMID:26539891

  1. Dose-effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-03-01

    Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore-processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose-effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n = 43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn-air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5 months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8 years of age and had on average 12.6 years of education. The mean time weighted average of Mn-air ranged from 0.11-0.46 mg/m(3) (55% >0.20 mg/m(3)). MnB >10 microg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV(1)/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5 years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose-effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (pfunction (p

  2. Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore‐processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n = 43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn‐air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5 months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8 years of age and had on average 12.6 years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn‐air ranged from 0.11–0.46 mg/m3 (55% >0.20 mg/m3). MnB >10 µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5 years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p⩽0.05), executive function (p⩽0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p⩽0.04), verbal learning (p

  3. Targeting L-Selectin to Improve Neurologic and Urologic Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Terminal assessments of coordination and gait analysis were performed 6 weeks post-injury utilizing gridwalking (Figure 9) and CatWalk kinematic gait ...Finally, kinematic gait analysis was performed on a small cohort of mice at 6 weeks with CatWalk software. Mice were run across a glass walkway...distance in SCI mice receiving DFA. Vehicle N=10, 40mg/kg & 60mg/kg DFA N=12. One-way ANOVA. Figure 10. CatWalk kinematic gait analysis of SCI

  4. The body electric: a long view of electrical therapy for functional neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Laura; Carson, Alan; Stone, Jon

    2015-04-01

    The use of electricity in medical treatment has always been technology-driven, rather than aetiology-driven; as new techniques have appeared, clinicians have quickly looked to try them in the treatment of all sorts of conditions where existing treatment options are limited. Functional disorders--as identified anachronistically in our analysis--have been key contenders for emerging electrical treatments: with Leyden jars, with galvanic and electromagnetic machines, and more recently with TMS and TENS. Parallels can be drawn with the history of electrical treatments for migraine and headache (Koehler and Boes, 2010). Regardless of the mode of delivery of electricity, stimulating a limb to produce movement has repeatedly been found to aid and assist recovery in functional motor disorders. This may also be true of non-electrical methods: we have found benefits using both therapeutic sedation and explanatory demonstration of a positive Hoover's sign as therapeutic methods of demonstrating normal movement in functionally weak limbs (Stone et al., 2014). Each surge in enthusiasm for new electrical treatments has been followed by questions about the nature of the disorder and validity of the treatment response. Physicians have tended to attribute therapeutic success initially to powerful biological or even metaphysical effects, but with time and experience these explanations have been replaced by views that the treatment works through suggestion and placebo. Discomfort with these conclusions has in the past discouraged ongoing development of electrical treatments, even if the end result for patients has been encouraging. In Edwards's Bayesian model, functional motor and sensory symptoms are hypothesized to arise when 'pathologically precise prior beliefs' mediated by attentional processes cause experience of symptoms via a hierarchy of false inferences (Edwards, 2012). It can be argued that use of TMS or peripheral stimulation to produce movement of a functionally weak

  5. Assessment of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Neurological Patients with Restricted Mobility – VTE-NEURO Study

    PubMed Central

    BAJENARU, Ovidiu; ANTOCHI, Florina; BALASA, Rodica; BURAGA, Ioan; PATRICHI, Sanda; SIMU, Mihaela; SZABOLCS, Szatmari; TIU, Cristina; ZAHARIA, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the data of a medical registry which evaluated if the physicians assess VTE risk in stroke patients, during hospitalization period and at hospital discharge and if the thromboprophylaxis is used according to National Guidelines for VTE Prophylaxis. 884 patients with acute ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between June 2010 and December 2011, from 62 centers, 51.4% male and 48.6% female with mean age 70.07 years (68.25 years in the male group and 71.92 years in the female one). There were two co-primary endpoints: the percentage of patients at risk for VTE at hospital admission assessed by the physician, and the percentage of patients with risk factors for VTE that persist at hospital discharge from the total number of patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke. The secondary endpoints were: the percentage of hospitalized patients receiving prophylaxis according to the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis from the total number of patients at risk of VTE, the percentage of hospitalized patients with VTE risk receiving recommendation for thromboprophylaxis at discharge, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized patients, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis at discharge. Results: 879 (99.4%) of the total number of patients at risk of VTE have received prophylaxis during hospitalization. The most frequently types of prophylaxis used during hospitalisation were LMWH in 96.3% of the patients and mechanic method in 16.6% that were in accordance with the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis recommendations. Conclusions: There is a clear improvement in both assessment and thromprophylaxis recommendation in acute stroke patients with restricted mobility at VTE risk and in our country. LMWH is preferred to unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this high-risk patient population in view of its better clinical benefits to risk ratio and convenience of once daily administration. PMID:25553119

  6. Anatomical and functional brain imaging in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--a neurological view.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marc; Retz, Wolfgang; Coogan, Andrew; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2006-09-01

    In this review, we discuss current structural and functional imaging data on ADHD in a neurological and neuroanatomical framework. At present, the literature on adult ADHD is somewhat sparse, and so results from imaging have to therefore be considered mainly from the childhood or adolescence perspective. Most work has considered the impairment of executive functions (motor execution, inhibition, working memory), and as such a number of attention networks and their anatomical correlates are discussed in this review (e.g. the cerebello-(thalamo-)-striato-cortical network seems to play a pivotal role in ADHD pathology from childhood to adulthood). The core findings in ADHD imaging are alterations in the architecture and function of prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. The dorsal part of anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) is an important region for decision making, and executive control is impaired in adult ADHD. Finally, dysfunction of basal ganglia is a consistent finding in childhood and adulthood ADHD, reflecting dysregulation of fronto-striatal circuitry. The cerebellum, and its role in affect and cognition, is also persistently implicated in the pathology of ADHD.

  7. Geriatric assessment and driver functioning.

    PubMed

    Colsher, P L; Wallace, R B

    1993-05-01

    In this article, the sensory, cognitive, and motor function relevant to driving, their measurement, the epidemiology of age-associated functional impairments, and the relationship of functional impairments to both self-reported driving and the imposition of legal restrictions are reviewed. A number of issues remain to be resolved before the scientific basis for public policy recommendations on aging drivers is sufficiently sound. For example, although an association between various functional impairments and the imposition of restrictions was found, with the exception of visual impairments, which under Iowa law may require the imposition of restrictions, those aspects of functional impairment that precipitate state-imposed license restrictions cannot be identified by the authors. The authors' measures of functional status may serve as surrogates for other, more important variables. If so, it has implications for both prevention of impairment-associated restrictions and interventions occurring after restrictions have been imposed. One of the most important issues confronting clinicians, researchers, and regulators is the development of appropriate tests to screen for dysfunctional driving with safety risks. Whether an appropriate battery could be created from already-existing tests and questionnaires is unclear. Certainly it seems desirable to consider the issue of face validity and explore items more clearly related to driving, such as self-reported loss of concentration or difficulty with manipulating controls. Many of the current tests focus on low levels of cognitive and physical performance. Relatively severe impairments are clearly related to driving behavior, as the authors found. Relatively minor impairments also may have an impact on driving performance, however, and it is important to explore tests sensitive to these mild impairments. Finally, it is critical to conduct appropriate studies of the reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity of any

  8. Effect of pretreatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PP1) on brain oedema and neurological function in an automated cortical cryoinjury model in mice.

    PubMed

    Turel, Mazda K; Moorthy, Ranjith K; Sam, Gift Ajay; Samuel, Prasanna; Murthy, Muthukumar; Babu, K Srinivas; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2013-04-01

    Cerebral oedema is a significant cause of morbidity in neurosurgical practice. To our knowledge, there is no ideal drug for prevention or treatment of brain oedema. Based on the current understanding of the pathogenesis of brain oedema, tyrosine kinase inhibitors could have a role in reducing brain oedema but preclinical studies are needed to assess their effectiveness. We evaluated the role of pretreatment with 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine (PP1), an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in reducing cerebral oedema and preserving neurological function measured 24hours after an automated cortical cryoinjury in mice. Sixteen adult male Swiss albino mice were subjected to an automated cortical cryoinjury using a dry ice-acetone mixture. The experimental group (n=8) received an intraperitoneal injection of PP1 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at a dose of 1.5mg/kg body weight 45minutes prior to the injury. The control group (n=8) received an intraperitoneal injection of DMSO alone. A further eight mice underwent sham injury. The animals were evaluated using the neurological severity score (NSS) at 24hours post-injury, after which the animals were sacrificed and their brains removed, weighed, dehydrated for 48hours and weighed again. The percentage of brain water content was calculated as: {[(wet weight - dry weight)/wet weight] × 100}. The mean (standard deviation, SD) NSS was 11.7 (1.8) in the experimental group and 10.5 (1.3) in the control group (p=0.15). The mean (SD) percentage water content of the brain was 78.6% (1.3%) in the experimental group and 77.2% (1.1%) in the control group (p=0.03). The percentage water content in the experimental and control groups were both significantly higher than in the sham injury group. The immediate pre-injury administration of PP1 neither reduced cerebral oedema (water content %) nor preserved neurological function (NSS) when compared to a control group in this model of cortical cryoinjury.

  9. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    PubMed

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  10. Subtoxic chlorpyrifos treatment resulted in differential expression of genes implicated in neurological functions and development.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Andrea R; Chan, Victor T

    2009-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide, induces acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic toxicity. Subtoxic exposure to CPF has long-term adverse effects on synaptic function/development and behavioral performance. To gain insight into the possible mechanism(s) of these observations, this study aims to investigate gene expression changes in the forebrain of rats treated with subtoxic CPF doses using DNA microarrays. Statistical analysis revealed that CPF treatment resulted in differential expression of 277 genes. Gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed that these genes have important roles in nervous system development and functions including axon guidance, dorso-ventral axis formation, long-term potentiation, synaptic transmission, and insulin signaling. The results of biological associated network analysis showed that Gsk3b is highly connected in several of these networks suggesting its potential role in cellular response to CPF exposure/neurotoxicity. These findings might serve as the basis for future mechanistic analysis of the long-term adverse effects of subtoxic CPF exposure.

  11. A longitudinal study of differences in late and early onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning

    PubMed Central

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L.; Collins, Nicole; Sawyer, Kathryn; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H.; Steffens, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Studies suggest early onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. Method At regular intervals over a four year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). They were also assessed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Results Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. Conclusions EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression. PMID:22934752

  12. Neurologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Piecuch, J F; Lieblich, S E

    1995-07-01

    Neurologic emergencies are rare, and they usually occur in easily identifiable patients, provided that a thorough medical history has been previously obtained. Rare as these may be, however, they occur without warning and are potentially life threatening. Consequently, the dentist should be prepared by virtue of knowledge of the pathophysiology and therapy and by formal training and certification in basic life support.

  13. [Effects study of standardized tertiary rehabilitation on promoting of the neurological functions in stroke patients with hemiplegia].

    PubMed

    2006-10-10

    To investigate the effects of standardized tertiary rehabilitation (STR) on promotion of the neurological functions in stroke patients with hemiplegia. A large-sample, multi-center, randomized, controlled prospective study was conducted nationwide. 1209 stroke patients with hemiplegia, aged 40 - 80, within 11 d +/- 5 d after the onset, stabilized in vital life signs in the past one week, of 20 hospitals affiliated to medical colleges or of hospitals at the provincial level in mainland China were randomly allocated to one of the 2 baseline data-matched groups: control group (n = 599, 446 with cerebral infarction and 153 with cerebral hemorrhage) receiving routine intervention of internal medicine, and STR group (n = 610, 455 with cerebral infarction and 155 with cerebral hemorrhage), receiving routine intervention and STR including physical therapy and occupational therapy (OT) in addition. Evaluation was conducted by the time of enrollment, and by the ends of the first, third, and sixth months by the national clinical neurological function defects (CNFD) scoring. There were no significant differences in the baseline indexes between these 2 groups. The scores of CNFD at enrollment of the patients with cerebral infarction in the STR group was 21.55, not significantly different from that of the patients with cerebral infarction in the control group (22.16), however, the scores of these patients with cerebral infarction in the STR group by the ends of the first, third, and sixth months were 16.32, and 11.48, and 8.63 respectively, all significantly lower than those of the corresponding patients in the control group (18.95, 15.57, and 13.78 respectively, all P < 0.01). The CNFD score at enrollment of the patients with cerebral hemorrhage in the STR group was 23.27, not significantly different from that of the corresponding patients in the control group (24.36), however, the scores of the patients with cerebral hemorrhage in the STR group by the ends of the first, third

  14. Spinal Anesthesia in Infant Rats: Development of a Model and Assessment of Neurological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yahalom, Barak; Athiraman, Umeshkumar; Soriano, Sulpicio G.; Zurakowski, David; Carpino, Elizabeth; Corfas, Gabriel; Berde, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies in infant rats and case-control studies of human infants undergoing surgery have raised concerns about potential neurodevelopmental toxicities of general anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia is an alternative to general anesthesia for some infant surgeries. To test for potential toxicity, we developed a spinal anesthesia model in infant rats. Methods Rats of postnatal ages 7, 14, and 21 days were assigned to: no treatment; 1% isoflurane for either 1 h or 6 h, or lumbar spinal injection of saline or bupivacaine, at doses of 3.75 mg/kg (low dose) or 7.5 mg/kg (high dose). Subgroups of animals underwent neurobehavioral testing and blood gas analysis. Brain and lumbar spinal cord sections were examined for apoptosis using cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining. Lumbar spinal cord was examined histologically. Rats exposed to spinal or general anesthesia as infants underwent Rotarod testing of motor performance as adults. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using general linear models, Friedman Tests, and Mann–Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Results Bupivacaine 3.75 mg/kg was effective for spinal anesthesia in all age groups, and produced sensory and motor function recovered in 40 to 60 min. Blood gases were similar among groups. Brain and spinal cord apoptosis increased in rats receiving 6 h of 1% isoflurane, but not among the other treatments. All groups showed intact motor performance at adulthood. Conclusions Spinal anesthesia is technically feasible in infant rats, and appears benign in terms of neuroapoptotic and neuromotor sequelae. PMID:21555934

  15. Koumine exhibits anxiolytic properties without inducing adverse neurological effects on functional observation battery, open-field and Vogel conflict tests in rodents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Jie; Zhong, Zhi-Feng; Xin, Zhi-Ming; Hong, Long-Hui; Su, Yan-Ping; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats. Koumine exhibited anxiolytic-like activities but did not affect other autonomic, neurological and physical functions in FOB. Furthermore, koumine released anxiolytic responses and anti-punishment action in a manner similar to diazepam in OFT and VCT, respectively. The results constitutes solid set of fundamental data further demonstrating anxiolytic properties of koumine at the therapeutic doses without inducing adverse neurological effects, which supports the perspectives for the development of safe and effective koumine medicine against pathological anxiety.

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Assessment of Neurological Soft-Signs in Children with and without Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peik; Svedin, Carl Goran; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Linden, Christian; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Thernlund, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To study the value and reliability of an examination of neurological soft-signs, often used in Sweden, in the assessment of children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by examining children with and without ADHD, as diagnosed by an experienced clinician using the DSM-III-R. Method: We have examined interrater reliability…

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Assessment of Neurological Soft-Signs in Children with and without Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peik; Svedin, Carl Goran; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Linden, Christian; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Thernlund, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To study the value and reliability of an examination of neurological soft-signs, often used in Sweden, in the assessment of children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by examining children with and without ADHD, as diagnosed by an experienced clinician using the DSM-III-R. Method: We have examined interrater reliability…

  18. [Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: cognitive and functional evaluation. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology].

    PubMed

    Nitrini, Ricardo; Caramelli, Paulo; Bottino, Cássio Machado de Campos; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Anghinah, Renato

    2005-09-01

    The educational and cultural heterogeneity of the Brazilian population leads to peculiar characteristics regarding the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This consensus had the objective of recommending evidence-based guidelines for the clinical diagnosis of AD in Brazil. Studies on the diagnosis of AD published in Brazil were systematically evaluated in a thorough research of PUBMED and LILACS databases. For global cognitive evaluation, the Mini-Mental State Examination was recommended; for memory evaluation: delayed recall subtest of CERAD or of objects presented as drawings; attention: trail-making or digit-span; language: Boston naming, naming test from ADAS-Cog or NEUROPSI; executive functions: verbal fluency or clock-drawing; conceptualization and abstraction: similarities from CAMDEX or NEUROPSI; construction: drawings from CERAD. For functional evaluation, IQCODE, or Pfeffer Questionnaire or Bayer Scale for Activities of Daily Living was recommended. The panel concluded that the combined use of cognitive and functional evaluation based on interview with informant is recommended.

  19. [Neurological rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Hömberg, V

    2010-10-01

    This article describes state of the art concepts of neurological rehabilitation in Germany. In parallel to enormous growth of knowledge in the neurosciences also neurological rehabilitation has made significant progress. The increasing use of concepts of evidence based medicine and an early translation of knowledge from the neurosciences into clinical rehabilitation practice contribute to therapeutic advances. It is now widely accepted, that rehabilitation should start early and should be organized in a multidisciplinary professional team. Therapeutic procedures selected should be evidence based and have to be modified to find custom tailored solutions for individual patients. General rules derived from neuroscientific knowledge have been shown to be useful to design new therapeutic techniques. Neuromodulatory stimulation and special pharmacological treatments provide further options for enhancing results of rehabilitation.

  20. Bladder function - neurological control

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with urine, sensory nerves send impulses to the brain indicating that the bladder is full. The sensory ... cord to relay this information. In turn, the brain sends impulses back to the bladder instructing the ...

  1. Application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging or diffusion tensor imaging to quantify the severity of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and to assess postoperative neurologic recovery.

    PubMed

    Okita, Genki; Ohba, Tetsuro; Takamura, Tomohiro; Ebata, Shigeto; Ueda, Ryo; Onishi, Hiroshi; Haro, Hirotaka; Hori, Masaaki

    2017-07-12

    Surgical outcome and the severity of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are unpredictable and cannot be estimated by conventional anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to quantify the severity of CSM and to assess postoperative neurologic recovery has been investigated. However, whether conventional DTI should be applied in a clinical setting remains controversial. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a recently introduced model-based diffusion-weighted MRI technique that quantifies specific microstructural features related directly to neuronal morphology. However, there are as yet few clinical applications of NODDI reported. Indeed, there are no reports to indicate NODDI is useful for diagnosing CSM. This is a retrospective cohort study using consecutive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of NODDI and conventional DTI for detecting changes in the spinal cord microstructure. In particular, this study aimed to quantify the preoperative severity of CSM and to assess postoperative neurologic recovery from this myelopathy. We included 27 consecutive patients with a nontraumatic cervical lesion from CSM who underwent laminoplasty at a single institution between April 2012 and April 2015. The patients underwent MRI before and approximately 2 weeks after surgery. In addition to conventional DTI metrics, we evaluated the intracellular volume fraction (ICVF) and the orientation dispersion index (ODI), which are metrics derived from NODDI. The 10-second grip and release test and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system were used before and 1 year after surgery to assess neurologic outcome. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging and conventional DTI values were measured at the C2-C3 intervertebral level (control value) and at the most compressed levels (C3-C7 intervertebral levels) were measured. The changes in these values pre- and

  2. Happiness and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Barak, Yoram; Achiron, Anat

    2009-04-01

    Happiness is an emotional state reflecting positive feelings and satisfaction with life, which, as an outcome in disease states or as an end point in clinical trials, is a neglected concept in most therapeutic areas. In neurological disease, happiness is important as it can be diminished either as a direct result of damage to neuronal tissue or as a reaction to a poor prognosis. The monitoring and maintenance of happiness and wellbeing have historically been considered to be peripheral to medicine. However, as happiness interacts with the patient's physical health, it is an important parameter to assess alongside all aspects of any given disease. Happiness provides a reliable overview of the patient's general status over and above standard parameters for quality of life, and is more wide-ranging than the narrow measures of disease activity or treatment efficacy that are the focus of most clinical trials. In many studies, happiness has been associated with health and success in most areas of life, including performance at work, sporting achievement and social functioning. For approximately a decade, previously studied aspects of psychology have been grouped under the label of positive psychology (PoP). Principles of this discipline are now being used to guide some treatments in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PoP aims to define patient wellbeing in scientific terms and to increase understanding of happiness, meaning in life, resilience and character strengths, as well as to determine how this knowledge can be applied clinically to promote health. Some evidence has emerged recently suggesting that improvements in patient status can result from interventions to improve the patient's level of happiness in diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Several effective approaches to increase happiness employ activities to engage and stimulate patients who might otherwise be unoccupied and isolated. In

  3. A Type-II Positive Allosteric Modulator of α7 nAChRs Reduces Brain Injury and Improves Neurological Function after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fen; Jin, Kunlin; Uteshev, Victor V.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of clinically-efficacious therapies for ischemic stroke there is a critical need for development of new therapeutic concepts and approaches for prevention of brain injury secondary to cerebral ischemia. This study tests the hypothesis that administration of PNU-120596, a type-II positive allosteric modulator (PAM-II) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as long as 6 hours after the onset of focal cerebral ischemia significantly reduces brain injury and neurological deficits in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by a transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Animals were then subdivided into two groups and injected intravenously (i.v.) 6 hours post-MCAO with either 1 mg/kg PNU-120596 (treated group) or vehicle only (untreated group). Measurements of cerebral infarct volumes and neurological behavioral tests were performed 24 hrs post-MCAO. PNU-120596 significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume and improved neurological function as evidenced by the results of Bederson, rolling cylinder and ladder rung walking tests. These results forecast a high therapeutic potential for PAMs-II as effective recruiters and activators of endogenous α7 nAChR-dependent cholinergic pathways to reduce brain injury and improve neurological function after cerebral ischemic stroke. PMID:23951360

  4. Rapamycin protects against neuronal death and improves neurological function with modulation of microglia after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Liu, F; Yang, T; Jin, T; Zhang, H; Luo, X; Wang, M

    2016-09-30

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a devastating brain disorder with high mortality and poor prognosis and effective therapeutic intervention for the disease remains a challenge at present. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin on ICH-induced brain damage and the possible involvement of activated microglia. ICH was induced in rats by injection of type IV collagenase into striatum. Different dose of rapamycin was systemically administrated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at 1 h after ICH induction. Western blot analysis showed that ICH led to a long-lasting increase of phosphorylated mTOR and this hyperactivation of mTOR was reduced by systemic administration of rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the sensorimotor deficits induced by ICH, and attenuated ICH-induced brain edema formation as well as lesion volume. Nissl and Fluoro-Jade C staining demonstrated that administration with rapamycin remarkably decreased neuronal death surrounding the hematoma at 7 d after ICH insult. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that rapamycin inhibited ICH-induced excessive expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in ipsilateral hemisphere. Furthermore, activation of microglia induced by ICH was significantly suppressed by rapamycin administration. These data indicated that treatment of rapamycin following ICH decreased the brain injuries and neuronal death at the peri-hematoma striatum, and increased neurological function, which associated with reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. The results provide novel insight into the neuroprotective therapeutic strategy of rapamycin for ICH insult, which possibly involving the regulation of microglial activation.

  5. CBT-based group therapy intervention for nonepileptic attacks and other functional neurological symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Conwill, Martin; Oakley, Louise; Evans, Kerry; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence and disabling nature of nonepileptic attacks (NEAs) and other types of functional neurological symptoms (FNSs), treatment trials are few. Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches, and CBT-based group therapies have the potential to improve cost-effectiveness and deliverability of treatment. This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate whether CBT-based group therapy would offer a feasible treatment option for patients with NEAs and other FNSs. We evaluated the outcomes of an information and management intervention within a neuropsychiatry service, which included weekly CBT-based group therapy sessions for patients with NEAs and other FNSs. Outcomes pertaining to quality of life and physical and emotional well-being were measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale. Data were collected from 16 patients, of whom 10 presented with NEAs. Significant improvements were selectively reported in the 'emotional well-being' (p=0.04) and 'role limitation due to emotional well-being' (p=0.04) subscores of the SF-36. Improvements in overall quality-of-life scores (p=0.22), as well as in HADS anxiety (p=0.34) and depression (p=0.46) scores, did not reach statistical significance. These trends were supported by a positive mean CGI improvement scale score of 2.4, indicating minimal-to-considerable improvement. Group therapy intervention with a CBT-based approach is a feasible treatment option in the management of NEAs and other FNSs, as shown by significant improvements in emotional domains of quality of life in this low power pilot study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cornel iridoid glycoside reduces infarct size measured by magnetic resonance imaging and improves neurological function after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui-Cui; Li, Lin; Zheng, Sha-Sha; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Li; Li, Ya-Li; Zhang, Lan

    2015-08-11

    To investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG), an ingredient extracted from traditional Chinese herb Cornus offificinalis, on neurological function and infarct size in rats as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ischemic stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three group: control (n=11), model (n=20) and CIG (n=16) groups. Rats in the model and CIG groups underwent 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Their neurological defect was measured by using a modified neurological severity score (mNSS). T2-weighted MRI (T2-MRI) of the brain was performed in vivo from 2 to 28 days after MCAO. The infarct volume in the brain was also measured using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining 28 days after stroke. CIG, 60 mg/(kg day), administered by oral gavage starting from 6 h after the onset of MCAO improved neurological function at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post occlusion (P<0.05 orP<0.01) and decreased mortality. The infarct volumes computed from the T2-MR images were reduced in the CIG-treated group compared with the model group at 7, 14 and 28 days after MCAO (P<0.05); and the rate at which the infarct volume decreased from 2 to 28 days was higher in the CIG-treated group than that in the model group (P<0.05). The infarct volumes measured by TTC staining were also decreased 28 days after stroke (P<0.05). CIG treatment, starting from 6 h after MCAO, reduced infarct size in the brain as measured by MRI and improved neurological function 2-28 days after focal cerebral ischemia in rats, suggesting that CIG could be a clinical application in improving stroke treatment.

  7. A comparative study of the effects of asan, pranayama and asan-pranayama training on neurological and neuromuscular functions of Pondicherry police trainees.

    PubMed

    Trakroo, Madanmohan; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Udupa, Kaviraja; Krishnamurthy, N

    2013-07-01

    Though neurological benefits of yoga training have been reported, lacunae still exists in understanding neurophysiological effects of such training. Hence, the present study was conducted to find the effect of yogasanas and pranayams on neurological and neuromuscular functions in healthy human volunteers and also determined differential effects of training in asan, pranayama and their combination. Eighty male trainees from Pondicherry Police Training School were randomly divided into asan, pranayama, and asan-pranayama groups who received a training of 4 days a week for 6 months and a control group. Electroencephalogram (EEG), nerve conduction (NC), electromyogram (EMG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and auditory reaction time (ART) were recorded before and after the study period. NC, EMG, and VEP data were obtained from 28 subjects; EEG data from 48 subjects; and RT from 67 subjects. Intergroup differences were assessed by AVOVA/Kruskal-Wallis and intragroup differences by Student's t-test. Police trainees showed beneficial effects of yoga training, although they were undergoing intensive police training and the yoga training was relatively less intense. Alpha, theta, and total power of EEG increased as a result of asan training. A shortening of visual reaction time and a decrease in red-green discriminatory reaction time signifies an improved and faster processing of visual input. They also showed a decrease in resting EMG voltage, signifying better muscular relaxation following pranayama training. Beta, theta and total power of EEG increased. ART and red-green discriminatory reaction times decreased in the trainees, signifying a more alert state as well as improved central neural processing. A combination of asan and pranayama training for 6 months produced an improvement in motor and sensory nerve conduction. Total power of EEG, alpha and theta power as well as delta % increased, while reaction time decreased signifying an alert and yet relaxed state of the

  8. A comparative study of the effects of asan, pranayama and asan-pranayama training on neurological and neuromuscular functions of Pondicherry police trainees

    PubMed Central

    Trakroo, Madanmohan; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Udupa, Kaviraja; Krishnamurthy, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Though neurological benefits of yoga training have been reported, lacunae still exists in understanding neurophysiological effects of such training. Hence, the present study was conducted to find the effect of yogasanas and pranayams on neurological and neuromuscular functions in healthy human volunteers and also determined differential effects of training in asan, pranayama and their combination. Materials and Methods: Eighty male trainees from Pondicherry Police Training School were randomly divided into asan, pranayama, and asan-pranayama groups who received a training of 4 days a week for 6 months and a control group. Electroencephalogram (EEG), nerve conduction (NC), electromyogram (EMG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and auditory reaction time (ART) were recorded before and after the study period. NC, EMG, and VEP data were obtained from 28 subjects; EEG data from 48 subjects; and RT from 67 subjects. Intergroup differences were assessed by AVOVA/Kruskal–Wallis and intragroup differences by Student's t-test. Results and Discussion: Police trainees showed beneficial effects of yoga training, although they were undergoing intensive police training and the yoga training was relatively less intense. Alpha, theta, and total power of EEG increased as a result of asan training. A shortening of visual reaction time and a decrease in red-green discriminatory reaction time signifies an improved and faster processing of visual input. They also showed a decrease in resting EMG voltage, signifying better muscular relaxation following pranayama training. Beta, theta and total power of EEG increased. ART and red-green discriminatory reaction times decreased in the trainees, signifying a more alert state as well as improved central neural processing. A combination of asan and pranayama training for 6 months produced an improvement in motor and sensory nerve conduction. Total power of EEG, alpha and theta power as well as delta % increased, while reaction time

  9. Creativity and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y

    2014-08-01

    Although humans have long valued creativity, the generation of such innovation is still incompletely understood. Looking at the healthy brain, researchers have localized certain parts for a basic understanding of these mechanisms. By researching the brain affected by neurological disease, scientists have observed unique manifestations of creativity, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian spectrum disorders, and stroke, which help clarify these creative underpinnings. Incorporating both healthy and disease models of cerebral functioning, neurological and neuroscientific research from recent years has built on established theories and expanded current knowledge.

  10. The Incidence of Neurologic Susceptibility to a Skull Defect.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, Stephen; Janzen, Courtney; Kruger, Kate; Ho, Kwok M

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether there is a measureable change in neurologic function after cranioplasty. This is a prospective single-surgeon, single-center study. Fifty patients who required a cranioplasty procedure were assessed neurologically within 72 hours before and 7 days after surgery. The assessment tools were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Cognitive assessment report (Cognistat). The scores for both assessments were calculated and then compared before and after surgery. FIM assessment was performed on all fifty patients, and a Cognistat assessment was performed on 47 patients. Most improvements were seen in the Cognistat scores; however, there appeared to be no specific areas in which there was consistent improvement. There were substantial improvements in the Cognistat assessment in 9 patients. One patient had a much-improved FIM assessment (improved from 18 to 34), but a Cognistat assessment was not possible because of poor neurologic function. These results suggested that improvements after cranioplasty were more likely to occur in the domain of cognitive function than motor function, although overall these results did not reach statistically significance. Bifrontal (vs. unilateral) cranioplasty, timing between decompression and cranioplasty, and age of the patients did not appear to affect the postoperative FIM scores, after we adjusted for preoperative FIM scores and surgical complications. A small but significant number of patients appear to improve clinically after cranioplasty. Neurologic susceptibility to a skull defect may be more common than had been appreciated previously. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  12. The Spectrum of Neurological Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Tanveer P.

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence of brain death with death is largely, although not universally accepted. Patients may have suffered insults such as cardiac arrest, vascular catastrophe, poisoning, or head trauma. Early identification of patients at greatest risk of poor neurologic outcome and management in the appropriate critical care setting is the key to maximizing neurological recovery. Recent technological advances and neuroimaging have made it possible to predict neurological reversibility with great accuracy. Significant improvements in therapy such as hypothermia, will improve outcomes in neurological catastrophies, particularly in anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The clinical spectrum and diagnostic criteria of minimally conscious and vegetative states is reviewed. The current understanding of the differences in prognosis and prediction of meaningful cognitive and functional recovery in each neurological state is described. Establishing an understanding of the ethical principles that guide medical decisions in clinical practice related to different neurological states is evolving into a new field called neuroethics. PMID:23610514

  13. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  14. Human Neurological Development: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelligra, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Neurological development is considered as the major human potential. Vision, vestibular function, intelligence, and nutrition are discussed as well as the treatment of neurological disfunctions, coma, and convulsive seizures.

  15. Assessing thalamocortical functional connectivity with Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Maybhate, Anil; Israel, David; Thakor, Nitish V; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2013-09-01

    Assessment of network connectivity across multiple brain regions is critical to understanding the mechanisms underlying various neurological disorders. Conventional methods for assessing dynamic interactions include cross-correlation and coherence analysis. However, these methods do not reveal the direction of information flow, which is important for studying the highly directional neurological system. Granger causality (GC) analysis can characterize the directional influences between two systems. We tested GC analysis for its capability to capture directional interactions within both simulated and in vivo neural networks. The simulated networks consisted of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons; GC analysis was used to estimate the causal influences between two model networks. Our analysis successfully detected asymmetrical interactions between these networks ( , t -test). Next, we characterized the relationship between the "electrical synaptic strength" in the model networks and interactions estimated by GC analysis. We demonstrated the novel application of GC to monitor interactions between thalamic and cortical neurons following ischemia induced brain injury in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA). We observed that during the post-CA acute period the GC interactions from the thalamus to the cortex were consistently higher than those from the cortex to the thalamus ( 1.983±0.278 times higher, p = 0.021). In addition, the dynamics of GC interactions between the thalamus and the cortex were frequency dependent. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of GC to monitor the dynamics of thalamocortical interactions after a global nervous system injury such as CA-induced ischemia, and offers preferred alternative applications in characterizing other inter-regional interactions in an injured brain.

  16. Assessing Thalamocortical Functional Connectivity with Granger Causality

    PubMed Central

    Israel, David; Thakor, Nitish V.; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of network connectivity across multiple brain regions is critical to understanding the mechanisms underlying various neurological disorders. Conventional methods for assessing dynamic interactions include cross-correlation and coherence analysis. However, these methods do not reveal the direction of information flow, which is important for studying the highly directional neurological system. Granger causality (GC) analysis can characterize the directional influences between two systems. We tested GC analysis for its capability to capture directional interactions within both simulated and in-vivo neural networks. The simulated networks consisted of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons; GC analysis was used to estimate the causal influences between two model networks. Our analysis successfully detected asymmetrical interactions between these networks (p<10−10, t-test). Next, we characterized the relationship between the “electrical synaptic strength” in the model networks and interactions estimated by GC analysis. We demonstrated the novel application of GC to monitor interactions between thalamic and cortical neurons following ischemia induced brain injury in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA). We observed that during the post-CA acute period the GC interactions from the thalamus to the cortex were consistently higher than those from the cortex to the thalamus (1.983±0.278 times higher, p=0.021). In addition, the dynamics of GC interactions between the thalamus and the cortex were frequency dependent. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of GC to monitor the dynamics of thalamocortical interactions after a global nervous system injury such as CA-induced ischemia, and offers preferred alternative applications in characterizing other inter-regional interactions in an injured brain. PMID:23864221

  17. Neurological complications of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, David L; Berger, Miles; Mathew, Joseph P; Graffagnino, Carmelo; Milano, Carmelo A; Newman, Mark F

    2014-05-01

    As increasing numbers of elderly people undergo cardiac surgery, neurologists are frequently called upon to assess patients with neurological complications from the procedure. Some complications mandate acute intervention, whereas others need longer term observation and management. A large amount of published literature exists about these complications and guidance on best practice is constantly changing. Similarly, despite technological advances in surgical intervention and modifications in surgical technique to make cardiac procedures safer, these advances often create new avenues for neurological injury. Accordingly, rapid and precise neurological assessment and therapeutic intervention rests on a solid understanding of the evidence base and procedural variables.

  18. Neurological assessment of preterm infants at term conceptional age in comparison with normal full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Forslund, M; Bjerre, I

    1983-10-01

    In a long-term prospective study 46 unselected infants born before 35 weeks of gestational age were followed up, which included repeated neurological and psychological examination. 40 of them were neurologically evaluated at term conceptional age and compared with 26 full-term newborns, all the infants being considered healthy. There was no difference in mean weight or length between the two groups, but mean head circumference was greater in the preterm group. The preterm infants had lower muscle tone as judged by spontaneous posture of arms and legs, and poor resistance to passive movements and slow arm recoil. In the traction test they had more head lag. The withdrawal and Moro reflexes were weaker, while asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) was easier to elicit. Head control in the sitting position was better. All infants were evaluated with a prenatal and perinatal optimality score, which was not however significantly correlated with the neurological findings. The preterm infants with only slightly reduced optimality score (low risk group) had approximately the same birth weight and gestational age as the other preterms. They more resembled the full-term infants with good resistance to passive movements, fast arm recoil and good responses concerning the withdrawal and Moro reflexes. However, they had a semiflexed position in supine and thus in this respect were more like the other preterms.

  19. Functional assessment of laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David O.

    1988-03-01

    Exposure of the fovea to intense coherent light can produce either transient or permanent changes in the eye's ability to resolve fine spatial detail. Permanent functional changes can occur in the absence of gross morphological damage and at power densities below the ED50 level. Furthermore, the eye may become increasingly susceptible to damage after repeated low-level exposures which initially produce only transient effects. Independent of any long-term hazards, laser exposures can also disrupt visual/motor behavior for periods of up to 96 hrs

  20. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  1. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  2. Neurology on the internet.

    PubMed

    Henson, John W; Jung, Lily K

    2010-05-01

    Since the Internet's inception in 1969, neurologists have witnessed a continuous parade of innovative phases. There is tremendous potential for near-instantaneous dissemination of the latest developments in neurologic knowledge, although their value is dependent on the degree of awareness of neurologists and is limited by the reluctance of some sources to make information readily accessible. The encyclopedic nature of the Internet, with its vast resources of online information, may be diminished by issues of access, variable quality and reliability, and a lack of intelligent retrieval systems. A major hindrance, for example, is seen with restrictions on archival, but proprietary, neurologic literature. Neurologic patients and their caregivers use the Internet heavily, but for somewhat different reasons. It is important for neurologists to understand these differences. The emergence of the online Personal Health Record will become increasingly valuable as these sites evolve and more medical providers incorporate electronic applications and medical records into their practices. Online groups for neurologists with similar interests, often referred to as "networks," have the potential to catalyze the natural organizing tendencies among those seeking solutions to shared problems. Networking can function well for neurologists, neurologic patients, and for focused efforts in an area such as advocacy. These considerations are discussed in this article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive functioning self-assessment scale (CFSS): preliminary psychometric data.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, M A; Muzzatti, B; Giovannini, L; Lucchini, G

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive functioning is included in the concept of quality of life. Many times well-being remains incomplete because of cognitive difficulties, that people are not always able to properly recognize and explain. Nonetheless, only few instruments, specifically thought for non-clinical neurologic populations, are available to measure them. The present study is an attempt at providing a self-report instrument--cognitive functioning self-assessment scale (CFSS)--to measure the individual cognitive functioning in general population. The CFSS is itemized into18 questions to which participants answer on a five-point scale. Two hundred and eighty-two patients in a General Practitioner study have filled-in the CFSS together with a clinical and socio-demographic data form. Explorative factor analysis, using principal component analysis, suggests the consideration of the CFSS as one-dimensional; internal reliability = 0.856. Non-parametric tests have shown that women report a worse cognitive functioning than men, while no differences emerged in relation to age, manual prevalence, presence of an illness or being in pharmacological treatment. Although further verifications are necessary, the CFSS seems to be a promising self-report cognitive functioning measure.

  4. NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH RELEVANT TO READING--1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ISOM, JOHN B.

    ASPECTS OF NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED UNDER THE TOPICS OF NEUROLOGICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, CEREBRAL DOMINANCE, "SPLIT-BRAIN" SYNDROME, AND SEQUENCING. THE FIRST TWO AREAS INDICATE THAT ASSESSMENT OF A CHILD'S NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT VARIATION OF RATE AND DEGREE OF DEVELOPMENT, AND THAT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF…

  5. [Medico-legal assessment in neurological malpractice based on casework material collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok].

    PubMed

    Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Janica, Jerzy; Dopierała, Tomasz; Załuski, Janusz; Wardaszka, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    Medical malpractice results from inadequate professional knowledge, incompliance to the present state of medical knowledge or negligence and inattention. The aim of the paper was the analysis of medical malpractice cases based on material in the field of neurology. The cases were assessed according to the number and type in 32 medico-legal opinions issued by specialist teams of forensic medicine and neurology in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok in the years 2001-2006. In 11 cases (34%) medical malpractice was concluded with reference to improper treatment after head injury or brain pathology, inadequate care at neurology unit, lacked or delayed diagnostics of head pathology and injury, non-referral to hospital by neurologists. In the material analysed diagnostic errors predominated. Majority of them originated from the open health care system. Incompetence of neurologists with regard to differential diagnostics resulting in misdiagnosis and improper therapy was noted. In one third of the overall cases medical malpractice was concluded. The most common causes included misinterpretation of disease signs and symptoms, misapplication of available diagnostic potential and unjustified delay before commencing diagnostics.

  6. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality.

    PubMed

    Selimovic-Hamza, Senija; Boujon, Céline L; Hilbe, Monika; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-01-18

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections.

  7. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic-Hamza, Senija; Boujon, Céline L.; Hilbe, Monika; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections. PMID:28106800

  8. Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society.

    PubMed

    Ashwal, S; Russman, B S; Blasco, P A; Miller, G; Sandler, A; Shevell, M; Stevenson, R

    2004-03-23

    The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society develop practice parameters as strategies for patient management based on analysis of evidence. For this parameter the authors reviewed available evidence on the assessment of a child suspected of having cerebral palsy (CP), a nonprogressive disorder of posture or movement due to a lesion of the developing brain. Relevant literature was reviewed, abstracted, and classified. Recommendations were based on a four-tiered scheme of evidence classification. CP is a common problem, occurring in about 2 to 2.5 per 1,000 live births. In order to establish that a brain abnormality exists in children with CP that may, in turn, suggest an etiology and prognosis, neuroimaging is recommended with MRI preferred to CT (Level A). Metabolic and genetic studies should not be routinely obtained in the evaluation of the child with CP (Level B). If the clinical history or findings on neuroimaging do not determine a specific structural abnormality or if there are additional and atypical features in the history or clinical examination, metabolic and genetic testing should be considered (Level C). Detection of a brain malformation in a child with CP warrants consideration of an underlying genetic or metabolic etiology. Because the incidence of cerebral infarction is high in children with hemiplegic CP, diagnostic testing for coagulation disorders should be considered (Level B). However, there is insufficient evidence at present to be precise as to what studies should be ordered. An EEG is not recommended unless there are features suggestive of epilepsy or a specific epileptic syndrome (Level A). Because children with CP may have associated deficits of mental retardation, ophthalmologic and hearing impairments, speech and language disorders, and oral-motor dysfunction, screening for these conditions should be part of the initial assessment (Level A). Neuroimaging

  9. Assessment of Neurological Effects of Drugs on Oculomotor and Visual Function in the Primate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-10

    be affected. These include generalized muscle weakness, ataxia, loss of concentration and memory , fatigue, irritability, and visual hallucinations...TIME TO FIND TARGETA --,ERL Ce-) LATE 8 7 SUBJECT 3 5 r 3 2-------------..----- ------------- I,, 2 ------------- - --- -3 -4 -5 -7 -8 8 7 6 SUBJECT 6 5

  10. Loss of somatosensory evoked potentials during intramedullary spinal cord surgery predicts postoperative neurologic deficits in motor function [corrected].

    PubMed

    Kearse, L A; Lopez-Bresnahan, M; McPeck, K; Tambe, V

    1993-01-01

    To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) for predicting new postoperative motor neurologic deficits during intramedullary spinal cord surgery; to establish whether SSEPs more accurately predicted postoperative deficits in position and vibration sense than in strength. Prospective open and retrospective study. University-affiliated hospital. 20 patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors scheduled for surgery with intraoperative SSEPs. Median, ulnar, and tibial nerve cortical and subcortical SSEPs were recorded continuously. Conventional intraoperative SSEP criteria considered indicative of neurologic injury were modified and defined as either the complete and permanent loss of the SSEP or the simultaneous amplitude reduction of 50% or greater in the nearest recording electrode rostral to the surgical site and 0.5 millisecond increase in the central latency. Our definition required confirmation of both amplitude and latency changes on a repeated average. All patients had 1 or more SSEPs, which were reproducible and sufficiently stable for analysis throughout the operation. Six patients developed new postoperative neurologic deficits. One had new motor deficits in an extremity from which no baseline SSEPs could be elicited. In each of the other 5 patients, significant SSEP changes preceded the postoperative motor deficits in the extremity or extremities monitored. In no patient without a new postoperative motor deficit was there a significant change in the SSEP. In only 2 of these 5 patients was there a documented postoperative loss or diminution in vibration or position sense. Intraoperative SSEP changes during intramedullary spinal cord surgery are a sensitive predictor of new postoperative motor deficits, but such changes may not correlate reliably with postoperative deficits in position or vibration sense. In this setting SSEP monitoring serves primarily to reassure the operating team that, when the SSEPs remain

  11. Neurological diseases and pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

  12. Assessing the Utility of a Demand Assessment for Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Pence, Sacha T.; Longworth, Lynlea J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of…

  13. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  14. Palliative care and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  15. [Functional assessment and rehabilitation of eosinophilic fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Joassin, R; Donnay, M; Hugé, J; Brasseur, J-P

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate functional assessment and rehabilitation in eosinophilic fasciitis. Description of a clinical case of eosinophilic fasciitis, including the evolution of functional assessment after treatment with corticotherapy and rehabilitation. Our case was a 33-year-old patient with major walking disability and pain in the left calf. Biological examination and imaging, including nuclear magnetic resonance and bone scintigraphy, showed inflammation of the adipose and muscular tissues of the posterior area of the leg. Cutaneomuscular biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis. Corticotherapy was then instituted in parallel with rehabilitation to limit deficiencies and disability function. Functional assessment used as indicating objective could, in partnership with follow-up of the biological inflammatory syndrome, lead to decreased use of corticoids in iosinophilic fasciitis. Moreover, supplemental rehabilitation could limit deficiencies and the functional disability resulting from the fasciitis.

  16. Improvement of cardiac function and neurological remodeling in a patient with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy after catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Omichi, Chikaya; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kakizawa, Yoshiko; Yamada, Ayako; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Hirotaka; Kanmatsuse, Katsuo; Endo, Masahiro

    2009-08-01

    Incessant ventricular tachycardia and long-standing ectopic beats lead to tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Catheter ablation eliminates ventricular tachycardia and reverses left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. 201-Thallium ((201)Tl) scintigraphy demonstrates perfusion defects with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Reversible perfusion defects are observed even in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, related to regional flow or metabolism derangements. 123-I-metaiodobezylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy delineates regional cardiac sympathetic denervation and heterogeneity. We demonstrated the progression of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in a patient with idiopathic LV outflow tract tachycardia using (201)Tl and (123)I-MIBG scintigraphic findings. Regional defects were reversed predominantly in the basal interventricular septal wall in (201)Tl scintigraphy and (123)I-MIBG scintigraphic findings. This report suggests that incessant ventricular tachycardia or long-standing ventricular ectopic beats may develop adverse myocardial remodeling and sympathetic neurological remodeling. Treatment with catheter ablation for tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy can reverse sympathetic neurological remodeling as well as myocardial structural remodeling.

  17. Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Richard M; Miyasaki, Janis

    2010-01-12

    To determine if transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is efficacious in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders. We performed a systematic literature search of Medline and the Cochrane Library from inception to April 2009. There are conflicting reports of TENS compared to sham TENS in the treatment of chronic low back pain, with 2 Class II studies showing benefit, but 2 Class I studies and another Class II study not showing benefit. Because the Class I studies are stronger evidence, TENS is established as ineffective for the treatment of chronic low back pain (2 Class I studies). TENS is probably effective in treating painful diabetic neuropathy (2 Class II studies). Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is not recommended for the treatment of chronic low back pain (Level A). TENS should be considered in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (Level B). Further research into the mechanism of action of TENS is needed, as well as more rigorous studies for determination of efficacy.

  18. Virtual environment for assessment of neurocognitive functioning: virtual reality cognitive performance assessment test.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D; Silva, Teri M; Pair, Jarrell; Rizzo, Albert A

    2008-01-01

    While standard neuropsychological measures have been found to have adequate predictive value, their ecological validity may diminish predictions about real world functioning. Virtual environments (VEs) are increasingly recognized as ecologically valid tools for neuropsychological assessment. We aim to develop a VE-based neuropsychological battery delivered within the context of a virtual city: Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test (VRCPAT). The 15 minute VRCPAT battery and 1.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a sample of 40 healthy adults, between the ages of 21 and 36, that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. No subjects had history of psychiatric or neurologic conditions. Results supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The VRCPAT was found to correlate significantly with traditional neuropsychological tests assessing similar target constructs. No significant correlations existed between VRCPAT measures and non-target constructs. Findings suggest that the VRCPAT measures a capacity consistent with that of traditional neurocognitive measures; and is inconsistent with potential confounds. We conclude that the VRCPAT provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study neurocognitive function within an ecologically valid environment.

  19. Balancing the Dual Functions of Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky; Lee, Icy

    2010-01-01

    While research on portfolio assessment (PA) has focused largely on the summative aspects of writing assessment, not much has been done to find out its formative potential. Drawing upon student questionnaires and student and teacher interview data, this paper aims to explore the formative functions of PA and, specifically, how the formative…

  20. Subclinical neurological and neuropsychological effect of infection with HIV.

    PubMed

    Carne, C A; Stibe, C; Bronkhurst, A; Newman, S P; Weller, I V; Kendall, B E; Harrison, M J

    1989-06-01

    Thirty one homosexual men with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but without major neurological complaints were assessed in a cross sectional study of neurological and neuropsychological function. Eleven patients had AIDS, 10 had persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (PGL), and 10 had HIV infection without PGL (called "well"). Thirteen age matched homosexual men without antibody to HIV acted as controls. Significant abnormalities were found in six on clinical neurological examination, in eight on nerve conduction studies, in six on electroencephalography, in six on neuropsychological assessment, and in eight on computed tomography of the head. Eighteen patients (nine with AIDS, four with PGL, and five "well") performed abnormally in at least one section of the assessment. The study highlights the incidence of nervous system dysfunction in HIV infection even in people who do not have AIDS. Prospective evaluation using electrophysiological and imaging techniques is necessary to assess the natural history of such manifestations and the effect of antiviral treatment.

  1. Functional assessment of the stomatognathic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linping; Monahan, Richard

    2007-07-01

    Clinically objective assessment of the occlusal function remains largely, even today, in the research laboratory instead of in the clinical setting, as part of the routine assessment along with the morphologic documentation. Functional outcomes of the stomatognathic system can be measured in terms of occlusal contact area, maximal voluntary bite force, maximal voluntary excursions, masticatory force, masticatory cycle pattern and masticatory performance. It should be emphasized, however, that many of these measures remain to be standardized and validated as tools relevant for assessment of patients who have dentofacial skeletal deformities. This remains a promising area of active research.

  2. Key sleep neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep disorders are frequent comorbidities in neurologic patients. This review focuses on clinical aspects and prognosis of 3 neurologic sleep disorders: narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Narcolepsy causes pervasive, enduring excessive daytime sleepiness, adversely affecting patients' daily functioning. RLS/WED is characterized by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs before sleep, often evolving toward augmentation and resulting in daylong bothersome symptoms. RBD causes potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors that often signify future evolution of overt synucleinopathy neurodegeneration in as many as 81% of patients. Timely recognition, referral for polysomnography, and longitudinal follow-up of narcolepsy, RLS/WED, and RBD patients are imperatives for neurologists in providing quality comprehensive patient care. PMID:24605270

  3. Neurology or rehabilitation medicine?

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, D L

    1992-01-01

    Rehabilitation is a process of active change by which a person who is disabled acquires and uses the knowledge and skills necessary for optimal physical, psychological and social function. Rehabilitation medicine is now established in Britain as a specialty concerned primarily with three groups: 1) those with multiple disability; 2) disabled people undergoing personal or social transitions, for example, school leavers; and 3) those with disabilities requiring complex technical or medical solutions. Rehabilitation medicine is distinguished from traditional clinical neurology by its emphasis on teamwork and on the analysis and reduction of disability rather than the diagnosis and treatment of impairment. Both neurology and rehabilitation medicine are dwarfed by the size of the problems they are expected to overcome and there is no justification for competition between the two specialties. The training of neurologists requires fundamental changes if they are to be equipped to assist rehabilitation effectively and contribute to the scientific development of the subject. PMID:1532980

  4. Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Särkämö, Teppo; Leo, Vera; Tervaniemi, Mari; Altenmüller, Eckart; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-08-01

    During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis. Music-based interventions can affect divergent functions such as motor performance, speech, or cognition in these patient groups. However, the psychological effects and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of music interventions are likely to share common neural systems for reward, arousal, affect regulation, learning, and activity-driven plasticity. Although further controlled studies are needed to establish the efficacy of music in neurological recovery, music-based interventions are emerging as promising rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Agroecosystem functional assessment and its difficulties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-Ping; Dawson, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Agroecosystem functional assessment indicators provide a necessary bridge between decision-makers and scientists. The development of acceptable indicators, however, remains a difficult task because the current knowledge and understanding of ecosystems is not sufficient to allow an objective assessment of all ecosystem functions. These difficulties were summarized from three perspectives. First, there are difficulties in individual function assessment. Of the four functions associated with agroecosystems-energy flow, materials cycling, information flow and value flow-data on material cycling and information flow remain difficult to obtain and the indicators relatively immature. Secondly, there are difficulties of integration. During the assessment process, the integration of the agroecosystem functions remains the biggest obstacle. Until now, there has been no practical or effective methodology established to resolve the problem. At present, the makeshift approach has been to weight the various indicators and then add them together. Thirdly, there is the problem of obscure concepts and concept confusion. When assessments of agroecosystems are conducted, concepts such as structure, function, benefit, and resource utilization are used extensively. To date, no logical relationship (either real or implied) has been developed between any of these concepts. Are they causes and results such that the relationship between them is linear, or are they independent from one another such that the relationship is parallel? Thus far, the essence of this question is yet to be explored.

  6. [Acute vertigo of neurological origin].

    PubMed

    Bruun, Marie; Højgaard, Joan L Sunnleyg; Kondziella, Daniel

    2013-11-04

    Acute vertigo of neurological origin may be caused by haemorrhages and tumours in the posterior fossa and, most frequently, by ischaemic infarction in the vertebrobasilar circulation. Urgent diagnosis is necessary to avoid further ischaemic episodes, herniation due to cerebellar oedema and/or fatal brainstem infarction. The history should focus on accompanying neurological symptoms. However, vertigo with cerebellar lesions may be monosymptomatic and then bedside evaluation of oculomotor function is the key to correct diagnosis. This paper discusses the pathophysiology, symptomatology and clinical evaluation of acute vertigo of neurological origin.

  7. [Radiologic differential diagnosis of neurologically-induced deglutition disorders].

    PubMed

    Wuttge-Hanning, A; Hannig, C

    1995-10-01

    This paper explains the differential diagnosis of neurological dysphagia. Special groups of diseases are described that can only be assessed by dynamic recording modalities like videofluoroscopy and high-speed cineradiography. The need for dynamic recording results from the physiological data of deglutition. The act of deglutition lasts only 0.7 s, but requires the well-coordinated action of 5 cranial nerves and 26 muscle groups. For a systematic analysis of the underlying neurological disease a precise description of possible pathological single observations from the oral cavity to the cardia is offered to the radiologist. Important hints concerning possible "pitfalls" due to non-neurologically caused pharyngoesophageal motility disturbances are given. Although dynamic recording does not always allow the precise diagnosis of the underlying neurological disease, it enables us to classify the motor disturbances and leads to distinct "groups of disease." Thus, dynamic recording of deglutition is of crucial importance for further conservative or functional surgical treatment of the dysphagic patient.

  8. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus

  9. Functional assessment of time course microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Nueda, María José; Sebastián, Patricia; Tarazona, Sonia; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Ferrer, Alberto; Conesa, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Time-course microarray experiments study the progress of gene expression along time across one or several experimental conditions. Most developed analysis methods focus on the clustering or the differential expression analysis of genes and do not integrate functional information. The assessment of the functional aspects of time-course transcriptomics data requires the use of approaches that exploit the activation dynamics of the functional categories to where genes are annotated. Methods We present three novel methodologies for the functional assessment of time-course microarray data. i) maSigFun derives from the maSigPro method, a regression-based strategy to model time-dependent expression patterns and identify genes with differences across series. maSigFun fits a regression model for groups of genes labeled by a functional class and selects those categories which have a significant model. ii) PCA-maSigFun fits a PCA model of each functional class-defined expression matrix to extract orthogonal patterns of expression change, which are then assessed for their fit to a time-dependent regression model. iii) ASCA-functional uses the ASCA model to rank genes according to their correlation to principal time expression patterns and assess functional enrichment on a GSA fashion. We used simulated and experimental datasets to study these novel approaches. Results were compared to alternative methodologies. Results Synthetic and experimental data showed that the different methods are able to capture different aspects of the relationship between genes, functions and co-expression that are biologically meaningful. The methods should not be considered as competitive but they provide different insights into the molecular and functional dynamic events taking place within the biological system under study. PMID:19534758

  10. Functional assessment of time course microarray data.

    PubMed

    Nueda, María José; Sebastián, Patricia; Tarazona, Sonia; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Ferrer, Alberto; Conesa, Ana

    2009-06-16

    Time-course microarray experiments study the progress of gene expression along time across one or several experimental conditions. Most developed analysis methods focus on the clustering or the differential expression analysis of genes and do not integrate functional information. The assessment of the functional aspects of time-course transcriptomics data requires the use of approaches that exploit the activation dynamics of the functional categories to where genes are annotated. We present three novel methodologies for the functional assessment of time-course microarray data. i) maSigFun derives from the maSigPro method, a regression-based strategy to model time-dependent expression patterns and identify genes with differences across series. maSigFun fits a regression model for groups of genes labeled by a functional class and selects those categories which have a significant model. ii) PCA-maSigFun fits a PCA model of each functional class-defined expression matrix to extract orthogonal patterns of expression change, which are then assessed for their fit to a time-dependent regression model. iii) ASCA-functional uses the ASCA model to rank genes according to their correlation to principal time expression patterns and assess functional enrichment on a GSA fashion. We used simulated and experimental datasets to study these novel approaches. Results were compared to alternative methodologies. Synthetic and experimental data showed that the different methods are able to capture different aspects of the relationship between genes, functions and co-expression that are biologically meaningful. The methods should not be considered as competitive but they provide different insights into the molecular and functional dynamic events taking place within the biological system under study.

  11. ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF A DEMAND ASSESSMENT FOR FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Eileen M; Rooker, Griffin W; Pence, Sacha T; Longworth, Lynlea J

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of compliance or high levels of problem behavior (low-probability demands) and demands associated with high levels of compliance or low levels of problem behavior (high-probability demands). Results showed that clearer functional analysis outcomes were obtained for 3 of the 4 participants when low-probability rather than high-probability demands were used. PMID:20514188

  12. Assessing the utility of a demand assessment for functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Eileen M; Rooker, Griffin W; Pence, Sacha T; Longworth, Lynlea J

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of compliance or high levels of problem behavior (low-probability demands) and demands associated with high levels of compliance or low levels of problem behavior (high-probability demands). Results showed that clearer functional analysis outcomes were obtained for 3 of the 4 participants when low-probability rather than high-probability demands were used.

  13. Clinical neurology of ferrets.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Figueroa, Orlando; Smith, Mary O

    2007-09-01

    Neurology represents an important specialty within ferret clinical medicine. Veterinarians should become familiar with the unique anatomic and physiologic differences between ferrets to improve their management of theses cases. In addition, veterinarians should use available diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of neurologic diseases. Recent advances in ferret medicine and veterinary neurology offer new capabilities to investigate and treat neurological disease in ferrets.

  14. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation.

  15. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  16. Distinctive role of KV1.1 subunit in the biology and functions of low threshold K(+) channels with implications for neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Ovsepian, Saak V; LeBerre, Marie; Steuber, Volker; O'Leary, Valerie B; Leibold, Christian; Oliver Dolly, J

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of pore-forming subunits of KV1 channels (KV1.1-KV1.8) affords their physiological versatility and predicts a range of functional impairments resulting from genetic aberrations. Curiously, identified so far human neurological conditions associated with dysfunctions of KV1 channels have been linked exclusively to mutations in the KCNA1 gene encoding for the KV1.1 subunit. The absence of phenotypes related to irregularities in other subunits, including the prevalent KV1.2 subunit of neurons is highly perplexing given that deletion of the corresponding kcna2 gene in mouse models precipitates symptoms reminiscent to those of KV1.1 knockouts. Herein, we critically evaluate the molecular and biophysical characteristics of the KV1.1 protein in comparison with others and discuss their role in the greater penetrance of KCNA1 mutations in humans leading to the neurological signs of episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). Future research and interpretation of emerging data should afford new insights towards a better understanding of the role of KV1.1 in integrative mechanisms of neurons and synaptic functions under normal and disease conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Benefit of temozolomide compared to procarbazine in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse: effect on neurological functioning, performance status, and health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, David R; Kiebert, Gwendoline; Prados, Michael; Yung, Alfred; Olson, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Since high-grade malignant gliomas can seldom be treated curatively, the main aim of first line therapy is to improve progression free survival (PFS), to reduce morbidity, and to preserve, if not restore neurological functions and the capacity to perform daily activities. Focusing on a single clinical efficacy parameter in clinical trials may provide a potentially biased result, as for patients the overall result of treatment entails a more complex picture of weighing and balancing gains and losses on different outcome measures. In this paper we address different clinical outcomes measures separately and we illustrate the value of multiple outcome measures using the results of a recent clinical trial comparing temozolomide with procarbazine in the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme. Compared with procarbazine, temozolomide not only prolonged PFS, but also maintained neurological functioning and performance status for a longer period of time, and also improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). All these statistically significant outcomes demonstrate a remarkable consistency. In addition, temozolomide showed a trend of extending overall survival over procarbazine.

  18. Comparison of pediatric perioperative risk assessment by ASA physical status and by NARCO-SS (neurological, airway, respiratory, cardiovascular, other-surgical severity) scores.

    PubMed

    Udupa, Ashwin N; Ravindra, Madhavi N; Chandrika, Y R; Chandrakala, K R; Bindu, N; Watcha, Mehernoor F

    2015-03-01

    ASA-PS is a widely used perioperative health assessment method, but with poor reproducibility. A novel objective, pediatric-specific risk classification system based on Neurological, Airway, Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Other categories and Surgical Severity (NARCO-SS) has been validated in only one US center. Independent external validation of the NARCO-SS and comparison with the ASA-PS in predicting perioperative outcomes. Preoperative ASA-PS and NARCO-SS scores were assigned to 387 children by pediatric anesthesia consultants at a tertiary care center in India and predefined perioperative adverse events and escalation of care recorded. Spearman's correlations determined the relationship between outcomes and scores and kappa statistics for interobserver reliability. The predictive performance of the ASA-PS and NARCO-SS was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC-ROC) for discrimination and Pearson's chi-square for calibration. NARCO-SS and ASA scores had significant Spearman's correlation coefficients with perioperative outcomes and moderate interobserver reliability. The NARCO-SS showed greater discrimination than the ASA-PS (AUC-ROC 0.778 vs 0.710 for escalation of care and 0.822 vs 0.724 for adverse events, P < 0.01). However, both scores had poor calibration (Pearson's chi-square, P < 0.0001). Individual NARCO-SS categories for neurological and airway lacked statistically significant Spearman's correlations. NARCO-SS is a valid risk stratification tool that is better than the ASA-PS in discriminating children with adverse perioperative outcomes. The poor calibration of both scores suggests neither can reliably predict perioperative outcomes in individual patients. Modification of neurological and airway categories may improve the predictive accuracy of the NARCO-SS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Electrophysiological assessment of retinal ganglion cell function

    PubMed Central

    Porciatti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can be non-invasively assessed in experimental and genetic models of glaucoma by means of variants of the ERG technique that emphasize the activity of inner retina neurons. The best understood technique is the Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) in response to contrast-reversing gratings or checkerboards, which selectively depends on the presence of functional RGCs. In glaucoma models, the PERG can be altered before histological loss of RGCs; PERG alterations may be either reversed with moderate IOP lowering or exacerbated with moderate IOP elevation. Under particular luminance-stimulus conditions, the Flash-ERG displays components that may reflect electrical activity originating in the proximal retina and be altered in some experimental glaucoma models (positive Scotopic Threshold response, pSTR; negative Scotopic Threshold Response, nSTR; Photopic Negative Response, PhNR; Oscillatory Potentials, OPs; multifocal ERG, mfERG). It is not yet known which of these components is most sensitive to glaucomatous damage. Electrophysiological assessment of RGC function appears to be a necessary outcome measure in experimental glaucoma models, which complements structural assessment and may even predict it. Neuroprotective strategies could be tested based on enhancement of baseline electrophysiological function that results in improved RGC survival. The use of electrophysiology in glaucoma models may be facilitated by specifically designed instruments that allow high throughput, robust assessment of electrophysiological function. PMID:25998495

  20. Functional assessment in physiotherapy. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Thonnard, J L; Penta, M

    2007-12-01

    The present literature review on functional assessment in physiotherapy was carried out for the following reasons: 1) to identify the functional instruments used in the field of physiotherapy that were supported by published evidence of their psychometric qualities; 2) to investigate how these instruments relate to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF); and 3) to investigate the use of functional instruments in the financing of physiotherapy. A search of Medline from 1990 to December 2005, in the domains of functional evaluation, psychometric qualities, functional classification, and health policy in relation to physiotherapy resulted in a list of 1,567 studies. Two reviewers examined the resulting references on the basis of their title and abstract, in order to select the studies that presented data on the psychometric qualities of functional evaluation tests, leading to a final selection of 44 such studies. A selection of functional tests was identified in four major diagnostic groups treated in community physiotherapy: musculoskeletal disorders (including lower back pain), stroke, the elderly, and traumatic brain injuries. The functional tests authors identified essentially cover the body and activities dimension of the ICF. The selected tests could be used as a basis for the standardisation of functional evaluation of the major diagnostic groups treated in community physiotherapy. This means that standards are available for reporting and following the evolution of patients both longitudinally and transversally. Nevertheless, in the current literature review no attempt at using functional outcomes as a rationale for financing physiotherapy could be found to date.

  1. Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dalili, Hosein; Nili, Firouzeh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Shariat, Mamak; Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and neonatal seizure. The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95%) and specific (97%). The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95%) but not sensitive (67%) and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (81%) in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02) and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01). The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates.

  2. Are aluminium potroom workers at increased risk of neurological disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, M; Dick, R; Russo, J; Bernard, B; Grubb, P; Krieg, E; Mueller, C; McCammon, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long term potroom workers in an aluminium smelter are at increased risk of neurological disorders. METHODS: Cross sectional study of 63 current and former aluminium potroom workers first employed before 1970 and with at least 10 years of service. A group of 37 cast house and carbon plant workers with similar durations of employment and starting dates in the same smelter were used as controls. The prevalence of neurological symptoms was ascertained by questionnaire. Objective tests of tremor in both upper and lower limbs, postural stability, reaction time, and vocabulary were conducted. All subjects were examined by a neurologist. RESULTS: No significant differences in age, race, or education were found between the two groups. Although the potroom group had higher prevalences for all but one of the neurological symptoms, only three odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased; for incoordination (OR 10.6), difficulty buttoning (OR 6.2), and depression (OR 6.2). Tests of arm or hand and leg tremor in both the visible and non-visible frequencies did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Testing of postural stability showed no definitive pattern of neurologically meaningful differences between the groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in reaction time, vocabulary score, or clinical neurological assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The objective measures of neurological function provided little support for the finding of increased neurological symptom prevalences in the potroom workers, although increased symptoms may be an indicator of early, subtle neurological changes. The results provide no firm basis for concluding that neurological effects among long term potroom workers are related to the working environment, in particular aluminium exposure, in potrooms. These findings should be treated with caution due to the low participation of former workers and the possibility of information bias in

  3. Are aluminium potroom workers at increased risk of neurological disorders?

    PubMed

    Sim, M; Dick, R; Russo, J; Bernard, B; Grubb, P; Krieg, E; Mueller, C; McCammon, C

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether long term potroom workers in an aluminium smelter are at increased risk of neurological disorders. Cross sectional study of 63 current and former aluminium potroom workers first employed before 1970 and with at least 10 years of service. A group of 37 cast house and carbon plant workers with similar durations of employment and starting dates in the same smelter were used as controls. The prevalence of neurological symptoms was ascertained by questionnaire. Objective tests of tremor in both upper and lower limbs, postural stability, reaction time, and vocabulary were conducted. All subjects were examined by a neurologist. No significant differences in age, race, or education were found between the two groups. Although the potroom group had higher prevalences for all but one of the neurological symptoms, only three odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased; for incoordination (OR 10.6), difficulty buttoning (OR 6.2), and depression (OR 6.2). Tests of arm or hand and leg tremor in both the visible and non-visible frequencies did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Testing of postural stability showed no definitive pattern of neurologically meaningful differences between the groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in reaction time, vocabulary score, or clinical neurological assessment. The objective measures of neurological function provided little support for the finding of increased neurological symptom prevalences in the potroom workers, although increased symptoms may be an indicator of early, subtle neurological changes. The results provide no firm basis for concluding that neurological effects among long term potroom workers are related to the working environment, in particular aluminium exposure, in potrooms. These findings should be treated with caution due to the low participation of former workers and the possibility of information bias in the potroom group.

  4. 17-Year Outcome of Preterm Infants with Diverse Neonatal Morbidities: Part 1, Impact on Physical, Neurological, and Psychological Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Mary C.; Msall, Michael E.; Miller, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine physical, neurological, and psychological health in a U.S. sample of 180 infants at age 17. Design & Methods The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model framed the health-related domains and contextual factors. Assessments included growth, chronic conditions, neurological status, and psychological health. Results Physical health, growth, and neurological outcomes were poorer in the preterm groups. Minor neurological impairment was related to integrative function. Preterm survivors reported higher rates of depression, anxiety, and inattention/hyperactivity. Practice Implications Complex health challenges confront preterm survivors at late adolescence suggesting the necessity of continued health surveillance. PMID:22734876

  5. Neurological theory of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eggers, A E

    2003-06-01

    Review of the older literature on the relationship between migraine and hypertension, written in the era before either condition could be treated, discloses a high rate of co-morbidity. A neurological theory of essential hypertension is proposed in which the two diseases are brought together into one entity. It is hypothesized that abnormally functioning serotonergic pacemaker cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus, as part of a chronic stress response, inappropriately activate and inhibit parts of the central and autonomic nervous systems, so as to cause the two conditions. This theory builds on a previously published neural theory of migraine.

  6. [Determination of visual function in legal assessment].

    PubMed

    Springer, C; Bültmann, S; Krastel, H; Rohrschneider, K

    2007-06-01

    For the determination of visual function an objective assessment is essential. Basic ophthalmologic examinations such as measurement of visual acuity and perimetry are dependent on patient statements. If the patient is not being able to provide adequate answers, as is the case for small children or mentally retarded patients, or also if the accuracy of the patient's statements is doubtful or simulation or aggravation is suspected, the denoted function in the evaluation of visual acuity has to be checked on consistency using different examination methods, and the results of objective functional tests, such as electrophysiology and morphological features, have to be taken into account.

  7. Renal function assessment in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pérez Calvo, J I; Josa Laorden, C; Giménez López, I

    Renal function is one of the most consistent prognostic determinants in heart failure. The prognostic information it provides is independent of the ejection fraction and functional status. This article reviews the various renal function assessment measures, with special emphasis on the fact that the patient's clinical situation and response to the heart failure treatment should be considered for the correct interpretation of the results. Finally, we review the literature on the performance of tubular damage biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. Infection control assessment after an influenza outbreak in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Peacock, Georgina; Moore, Cynthia A; Rodgers, Loren; DiOrio, Mary; Page, Shannon L; Fowler, Brian; Stone, Nimalie D; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of infection control among staff in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. Self-administered survey. Residential care facility (facility A). Facility A staff ([Formula: see text]). We distributed a survey to staff at facility A. We classified staff with direct care responsibilities as clinical (ie, physicians, nurses, and therapists) or nonclinical (ie, habilitation assistants, volunteers, and teachers) and used χ(2) tests to measure differences between staff agreement to questions. Of 248 surveys distributed, 200 (81%) were completed; median respondent age was 36 years; 85% were female; and 151 were direct care staff (50 clinical, 101 nonclinical). Among direct care staff respondents, 86% agreed they could identify residents with respiratory symptoms, 70% stayed home from work when ill with respiratory infection, 64% agreed that facility administration encouraged them to stay home when ill with respiratory infection, and 72% reported that ill residents with respiratory infections were separated from well residents. Clinical and nonclinical staff differed in agreement about using waterless hand gel as a substitute for handwashing (96% vs 78%; [Formula: see text]) and whether handwashing was done after touching residents (92% vs 75%; [Formula: see text]). Respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control could be improved, especially among nonclinical staff. Facilities caring for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should encourage adherence to infection control best practices among all staff having direct contact with residents.

  9. Functional outcome assessment of adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    McHorney, C A; Rosenbek, J C

    1998-01-01

    Neurologic and mechanical abnormalities of the oropharynx often result in oropharyngeal dysphagia. Assessment of dysphagia and its treatment has been limited largely to measurement of the biomechanical aspects of bolus flow. This article reviews the measurement tools in current use and in development for assessing oropharyngeal dysphagia in terms of the "value compass" for health services. A number of measurement needs for this clinical population are identified and discussed.

  10. Assessment: use of epidural steroid injections to treat radicular lumbosacral pain: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Armon, Carmel; Argoff, Charles E; Samuels, Jeffrey; Backonja, Misha-Miroslav

    2007-03-06

    Based on the available evidence, the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment subcommittee concluded that 1) epidural steroid injections may result in some improvement in radicular lumbosacral pain when assessed between 2 and 6 weeks following the injection, compared to control treatments (Level C, Class I-III evidence). The average magnitude of effect is small and generalizability of the observation is limited by the small number of studies, highly selected patient populations, few techniques and doses, and variable comparison treatments; 2) in general, epidural steroid injection for radicular lumbosacral pain does not impact average impairment of function, need for surgery, or provide long-term pain relief beyond 3 months. Their routine use for these indications is not recommended (Level B, Class I-III evidence); 3) there is insufficient evidence to make any recommendation for the use of epidural steroid injections to treat radicular cervical pain (Level U).

  11. A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

  12. Functional Assessment: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Ruth A.; Ehrhardt, Kristal E.; Poling, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Traces functional assessment (FA) in school settings to early contributions by B. F. Skinner. FA plays an important role in behavior analysis, and the value of this approach in dealing with behavior problems in many settings has long been evident. Although interest in FA in school settings has only recently become widespread, FA in education has a…

  13. Functional Assessment: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Ruth A.; Ehrhardt, Kristal E.; Poling, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Traces functional assessment (FA) in school settings to early contributions by B. F. Skinner. FA plays an important role in behavior analysis, and the value of this approach in dealing with behavior problems in many settings has long been evident. Although interest in FA in school settings has only recently become widespread, FA in education has a…

  14. Neurological outcome after experimental lung injury.

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Johannes; Biener, Ingeborg; Czaplik, Michael; Nolte, Kay; Dembinski, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf; Fries, Michael

    2011-12-15

    We examined the influences of acute lung injury and hypoxia on neurological outcome. Functional performance was assessed using a neurocognitive test and a neurologic deficit score (NDS) five days before. On experimental day, mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized to hypoxia only (HO group, n=5) or to acute lung injury (ALI group, n=5). Hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, systemic cytokines and further physiologic variables were obtained at baseline, at the time of ALI, 2, 4 and 8h thereafter. Subsequently, injured lungs were recruited and animals weaned from the ventilator. Neurocognitive testing was re-examined for five days. Then, brains were harvested for neurohistopathology. After the experiment, neurocognitive performance was significantly worsened and the NDS increased in the ALI group. Histopathology revealed no significant differences. Oxygenation was comparable between groups although significantly higher inspiratory pressures occured after ALI. Cytokines showed a trend towards higher levels after ALI. Neurocognitive compromise after ALI seems due to a more pronounced inflammatory response and complex mechanical ventilation.

  15. DHA but Not EPA Emulsions Preserve Neurological and Mitochondrial Function after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sosunov, Sergey A.; Williams, Jill J.; Zirpoli, Hylde; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Ten, Vadim S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Treatment with triglyceride emulsions of docosahexaenoic acid (tri-DHA) protected neonatal mice against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. The mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. We hypothesized that administration of tri-DHA enriches HI-brains with DHA/DHA metabolites. This reduces Ca2+-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and attenuates brain injury. Methods 10-day-old C57BL/6J mice following HI-brain injury received tri-DHA, tri-EPA or vehicle. At 4–5 hours of reperfusion, mitochondrial fatty acid composition and Ca2+ buffering capacity were analyzed. At 24 hours and at 8–9 weeks of recovery, oxidative injury, neurofunctional and neuropathological outcomes were evaluated. In vitro, hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ buffering capacity were measured in the presence or absence of DHA or EPA. Results Only post-treatment with tri-DHA reduced oxidative damage and improved short- and long-term neurological outcomes. This was associated with increased content of DHA in brain mitochondria and DHA-derived bioactive metabolites in cerebral tissue. After tri-DHA administration HI mitochondria were resistant to Ca2+-induced membrane permeabilization. In vitro, hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS production and reduced Ca2+ buffering capacity; DHA, but not EPA, significantly attenuated these effects of hyperoxia. Conclusions Post-treatment with tri-DHA resulted in significant accumulation of DHA and DHA derived bioactive metabolites in the HI-brain. This was associated with improved mitochondrial tolerance to Ca2+-induced permeabilization, reduced oxidative brain injury and permanent neuroprotection. Interaction of DHA with mitochondria alters ROS release and improves Ca2+ buffering capacity. This may account for neuroprotective action of post-HI administration of tri-DHA. PMID:27513579

  16. DHA but Not EPA Emulsions Preserve Neurological and Mitochondrial Function after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Sosunov, Sergey A; Williams, Jill J; Zirpoli, Hylde; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Ten, Vadim S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with triglyceride emulsions of docosahexaenoic acid (tri-DHA) protected neonatal mice against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. The mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. We hypothesized that administration of tri-DHA enriches HI-brains with DHA/DHA metabolites. This reduces Ca2+-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and attenuates brain injury. 10-day-old C57BL/6J mice following HI-brain injury received tri-DHA, tri-EPA or vehicle. At 4-5 hours of reperfusion, mitochondrial fatty acid composition and Ca2+ buffering capacity were analyzed. At 24 hours and at 8-9 weeks of recovery, oxidative injury, neurofunctional and neuropathological outcomes were evaluated. In vitro, hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ buffering capacity were measured in the presence or absence of DHA or EPA. Only post-treatment with tri-DHA reduced oxidative damage and improved short- and long-term neurological outcomes. This was associated with increased content of DHA in brain mitochondria and DHA-derived bioactive metabolites in cerebral tissue. After tri-DHA administration HI mitochondria were resistant to Ca2+-induced membrane permeabilization. In vitro, hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS production and reduced Ca2+ buffering capacity; DHA, but not EPA, significantly attenuated these effects of hyperoxia. Post-treatment with tri-DHA resulted in significant accumulation of DHA and DHA derived bioactive metabolites in the HI-brain. This was associated with improved mitochondrial tolerance to Ca2+-induced permeabilization, reduced oxidative brain injury and permanent neuroprotection. Interaction of DHA with mitochondria alters ROS release and improves Ca2+ buffering capacity. This may account for neuroprotective action of post-HI administration of tri-DHA.

  17. Assessment of ventricular function in dilated cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Pak, P H; Kass, D A

    1995-05-01

    Regardless of its cause, systolic dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy triggers a wide variety of compensatory responses resulting in cardiac dilatation, fluid retention, and systemic vasoconstriction. Standard therapy with vasodilators, digoxin, and diuretics can provide symptomatic relief in many patients. However, many others do not respond adequately, and mortality from heart failure remains high. This has driven the search for novel therapies. To evaluate the efficacy and decipher mechanisms of action of these treatments, accurate assessments of left ventricular function are valuable. In particular, one seeks indexes that are cardiac-specific, in that they are minimally influenced by vascular loading conditions. An increasingly used "gold standard" that can achieve this goal is the invasively measured pressure-volume relation. Newer noninvasive methods have yielded several surrogates that have the key advantage of being applicable to chronic disease assessment. In this report, we review the current state-of-the-art in left ventricular function assessment, and describe recent advances in its noninvasive evaluation.

  18. Impedance Threshold Device Combined With High-Quality Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Improves Survival With Favorable Neurological Function After Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Duval, Sue; Nakamura, Yuji; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-09-23

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been recently shown to affect clinical outcome. The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed Analysis (PRIMED) trial showed no differences in outcomes with an active vs. sham impedance threshold device (ITD), a CPR adjunct that enhances circulation. It was hypothesized the active ITD would improve survival with favorable neurological outcomes in witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients when used with high-quality CPR. Using the publicly accessible ROC PRIMED database, a post-hoc analysis was performed on all witnessed subjects with both compression rate and depth data (n=1,808) who received CPR within the study protocol definition of adequate CPR quality (compression rate 80-120/min and depth 4-6 cm; n=929). Demographics were similar between sham and active ITD groups. In witnessed subjects who received quality CPR, survival with favorable neurological function was 11.9% for the active ITD subjects (56/470) vs. 7.4% for the sham (34/459) (odds ratio 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.08, 2.64]). There were no statistically significant differences for this primary outcome when CPR was performed outside the boundaries of the definition of adequate CPR quality. Multivariable models did not change these associations. An active ITD combined with adequate-quality conventional CPR has the potential to significantly improve survival after witnessed cardiac arrest. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2124-2132).

  19. Neurologic Diseases in Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Miriam R

    2016-07-01

    Neurologic diseases can have a major impact on functional capacity. Patients with neurologic disease require individualized management considerations depending on the extent of impairment and impact on functional capacity. This article reviews 4 of the more common and significant neurologic diseases (Alzheimer disease, cerebrovascular accident/stroke, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease) that are likely to present to a dental office and provides suggestions on the dental management of patients with these conditions.

  20. Neurology and neurologic practice in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions. PMID:22123780

  1. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  2. Assessment of functional vision and its rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Colenbrander, August

    2010-03-01

    This article, based on a report prepared for the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and the International Society for Low Vision Research and Rehabilitation (ISLRR), explores the assessment of various aspects of visual functioning as needed to document the outcomes of vision rehabilitation. Documenting patient abilities and functional vision (how the person functions) is distinct from the measurement of visual functions (how the eye functions) and also from the assessment of quality of life. All three areas are important, but their assessment should not be mixed. Observation of task performance offers the most objective measure of functional vision, but it is time-consuming and not feasible for many tasks. Where possible, timing and error rates provide an easy score. Patient response questionnaires provide an alternative. They may save time and can cover a wider area, but the responses are subjective and proper scoring presents problems. Simple Likert scoring still predominates but Rasch analysis, needed to provide better result scales, is gaining ground. Selection of questions is another problem. If the range of difficulties does not match the range of patient abilities, and if the difficulties are not distributed evenly, the results are not optimal. This may be an argument to use different outcome questions for different conditions. Generic questionnaires are appropriate for the assessment of generic quality of life, but not for specific rehabilitation outcomes. Different questionnaires are also needed for screening, intake and outcomes. Intake questions must be relevant to actual needs to allow prioritization of rehabilitation goals; the activity inventory presents a prototype. Outcome questions should be targeted at predefined rehabilitation goals. The Appendix cites some promising examples. The Low Vision Intervention Trial (LOVIT) is an example of a properly designed randomized control study, and has demonstrated the remarkable effectiveness of

  3. Neurological outcome of childhood brain tumor survivors.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Sari; Korpela, Raija; Lenko, Hanna L; Haapasalo, Hannu; Alalantela, Riitta; Nieminen, Pirkko; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Mäkipernaa, Anne

    2012-05-01

    We assessed neurological and neurocognitive outcome in childhood brain tumor survivors. Altogether, 75 out of 80 brain tumor survivors diagnosed below 17 years between 1983 and 1997; and treated in Tampere University Hospital, Finland, were invited to participate in this population-based cross-sectional study. Fifty-two (69%) participated [mean age 14.2 (3.8-28.7) years, mean follow-up 7.5 (1.5-15.1) years]. Neurological status was abnormal in 69% cases. All were ambulatory, but only 50% showed normal motor function. Twenty-nine percent showed clumsiness/mild asymmetry and 21% hemiparesis. One suffered from intractable epilepsy. According to structured interview, 87% coped normally in daily living. Median full-scale IQ was 85 (39-110) in 21 6-16 year olds (70%); in 29% IQ was <70. Thirty of the 44 school-aged subjects attended school with normal syllabus and 32% needed special education. Six of the 16 patients over 18 years of age were working. Regarding quality of life, 38% were active without disability, 33% active with mild disability, 21% were partially disabled, but capable of self-care, and 8% had severe disability, being incapable of self-care. Supratentorial/hemispheric tumor location, tumor reoperations, shunt revisions and chemotherapy were associated with neurological, cognitive and social disabilities. In conclusion, of the 52 survivors, neurological status was abnormal in 69%; 71% lived an active life with minor disabilities, 29% had major neurological, cognitive and social disabilities, and 8% of them were incapable of self-care. Predictors of these disabilities included supratentorial/hemispheric tumor location, tumor reoperations, shunt revisions and chemotherapy. Survivors need life-long, tailor-made multiprofessional support and follow-up.

  4. Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event Related Potentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    important in educational, therapeutic, and other clinical settings in which individuals with autism are taught new words. What was the impact on...language assessment using event-related potentials: Development of a clinical protocol. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 740–747. Colombo, J...Connolly, J. F. (2003). Electrophysiological assess- ment of language function following stroke. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114, 662–672. Dahan, D

  5. The Microstructural Status of the Corpus Callosum Is Associated with the Degree of Motor Function and Neurological Deficit in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fanrong; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Human neuroimaging studies and animal models have suggested that white matter damage from ischemic stroke leads to the functional and structural reorganization of perilesional and remote brain regions. However, the quantitative relationship between the transcallosal tract integrity and clinical motor performance score after stroke remains unexplored. The current study employed a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the relationship between white matter diffusivity changes and the clinical scores in stroke patients. Probabilistic fiber tracking was also used to identify structural connectivity patterns in the patients. Thirteen ischemic stroke patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this study. TBSS analyses showed that the corpus callosum (CC) and bilateral corticospinal tracts (CST) in the stroke patients exhibited significantly decreased fractional anisotropy and increased axial and radial diffusivity compared with those of the controls. Correlation analyses revealed that the motor and neurological deficit scores in the stroke patients were associated with the value of diffusivity indices in the CC. Compared with the healthy control group, probabilistic fiber tracking analyses revealed that significant changes in the inter-hemispheric fiber connections between the left and right motor cortex in the stroke patients were primarily located in the genu and body of the CC, left anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, bilateral CST, anterior/superior corona radiate, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, strongly suggesting that ischemic induces inter-hemispheric network disturbances and disrupts the white matter fibers connecting motor regions. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that DTI-derived measures in the CC can be used to predict the severity of motor skill and neurological deficit in stroke patients. Changes in structural

  6. Routine functional assessment for hip fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Tonny J; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Pre-fracture functional level has been shown to be a consistent predictor of rehabilitation outcomes in older hip fracture patients. We validated 4 overall pre-fracture functional level assessment instruments in patients aged 65 or more, used the prediction of outcome at 4 months post-fracture, and assessed cutoff values for decision making in treatment and rehabilitation. Patients and methods 165 consecutive patients with acute primary hip fracture were prospectively included in the study. Pre-fracture Barthel-20, Barthel-100, cumulated ambulation score, and new mobility score were scored immediately after admission. Outcome defined as mortality, residential status, and independent walking ability was assessed at 4 months. Results 3 of the assessment instruments, namely Barthel-20, Barthel-100, and new mobility score, correlated with outcome at 4 months post-fracture and were valid predictors. Thresholds were estimated. We found no evidence that Barthel-100, with its finer granularity, performs better than Barthel-20 as a predictor. Interpretation Our findings indicate that pre-fracture scores of Barthel-20 and new mobility score have predictive ability, and further investigation of usage for guidance of clinical and rehabilitation decisions concerning hip fracture patients is warranted. PMID:27329799

  7. Mutations of EXOSC3/Rrp40p associated with neurological diseases impact ribosomal RNA processing functions of the exosome in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Abby; Gabunilas, Jason; Jen, Joanna C; Chanfreau, Guillaume F

    2017-04-01

    The RNA exosome is a conserved multiprotein complex that achieves a large number of processive and degradative functions in eukaryotic cells. Recently, mutations have been mapped to the gene encoding one of the subunits of the exosome, EXOSC3 (yeast Rrp40p), which results in pontocerebellar hypoplasia with motor neuron degeneration in human patients. However, the molecular impact of these mutations in the pathology of these diseases is not well understood. To investigate the molecular consequences of mutations in EXOSC3 that lead to neurological diseases, we analyzed the effect of three of the mutations that affect conserved residues of EXOSC3/Rrp40p (G31A, G191C, and W238R; G8A, G148C, and W195R, respectively, in human and yeast) in S. cerevisiae We show that the severity of the phenotypes of these mutations in yeast correlate with that of the disease in human patients, with the W195R mutant showing the strongest growth and RNA processing phenotypes. Furthermore, we show that these mutations affect more severely pre-ribosomal RNA processing functions of the exosome rather than other nuclear processing or surveillance functions. These results suggest that delayed or defective pre-rRNA processing might be the primary defect responsible for the pathologies detected in patients with mutations affecting EXOSC3 function in residues conserved throughout eukaryotes. © 2017 Gillespie et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Mutations of EXOSC3/Rrp40p associated with neurological diseases impact ribosomal RNA processing functions of the exosome in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Abby; Gabunilas, Jason; Jen, Joanna C.; Chanfreau, Guillaume F.

    2017-01-01

    The RNA exosome is a conserved multiprotein complex that achieves a large number of processive and degradative functions in eukaryotic cells. Recently, mutations have been mapped to the gene encoding one of the subunits of the exosome, EXOSC3 (yeast Rrp40p), which results in pontocerebellar hypoplasia with motor neuron degeneration in human patients. However, the molecular impact of these mutations in the pathology of these diseases is not well understood. To investigate the molecular consequences of mutations in EXOSC3 that lead to neurological diseases, we analyzed the effect of three of the mutations that affect conserved residues of EXOSC3/Rrp40p (G31A, G191C, and W238R; G8A, G148C, and W195R, respectively, in human and yeast) in S. cerevisiae. We show that the severity of the phenotypes of these mutations in yeast correlate with that of the disease in human patients, with the W195R mutant showing the strongest growth and RNA processing phenotypes. Furthermore, we show that these mutations affect more severely pre-ribosomal RNA processing functions of the exosome rather than other nuclear processing or surveillance functions. These results suggest that delayed or defective pre-rRNA processing might be the primary defect responsible for the pathologies detected in patients with mutations affecting EXOSC3 function in residues conserved throughout eukaryotes. PMID:28053271

  9. Thermography in Neurologic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Vilaça-Alves, José; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado

    2015-01-01

    One kind of medical images that has been developed in the last decades is thermal images. These images are assessed by infrared cameras and have shown an exponential development in recent years. In this sense, the aim of this study was to describe possibilities of thermography usage in the neurologic practice. It was performed a systematic review in Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters), set in all databases which used two combination of keywords as “topic”: “thermography” and “neurology”; and “thermography” and “neurologic”. The chronological period was defined from 2000 to 2014 (the least 15 years). Among the studies included in this review, only seven were with experimental design. It is few to bring thermography as a daily tool in clinical practice. However, these studies have suggested good results. The studies of review and an analyzed patent showed that the authors consider the thermography as a diagnostic tool and they recommend its usage. It can be concluded that thermography is already used as a diagnostic and monitoring tool of patients with neuropathies, particularly in complex regional pain syndrome, and stroke. And yet, this tool has great potential for future research about its application in diagnosis of other diseases of neurological origin. PMID:26191090

  10. Ultrasound assessment of fetal cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Crispi, Fàtima; Valenzuela‐Alcaraz, Brenda; Cruz‐Lemini, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fetal heart evaluation with US is feasible and reproducible, although challenging due to the smallness of the heart, the high heart rate and limited access to the fetus. However, some cardiac parameters have already shown a strong correlation with outcomes and may soon be incorporated into clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Cardiac function assessment has proven utility in the differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathies or prediction of perinatal mortality in congenital heart disease. In addition, some cardiac parameters with high sensitivity such as MPI or annular peak velocities have shown promising results in monitoring and predicting outcome in intrauterine growth restriction or congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Conclusion: Cardiac function can be adequately evaluated in most fetuses when appropriate expertise, equipment and time are available. Fetal cardiac function assessment is a promising tool that may soon be incorporated into clinical practice to diagnose, monitor or predict outcome in some fetal conditions. Thus, more research is warranted to further define specific protocols for each fetal condition that may affect cardiac function. PMID:28191192

  11. Skeletal dysplasias due to filamin A mutations result from a gain-of-function mechanism distinct from allelic neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alice R; Sawyer, Gregory M; Robertson, Stephen P; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J

    2009-12-15

    Filamin A (FLNA) crosslinks F-actin and binds proteins consistent with roles integrating cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. FLNA missense mutations are associated with the otopalatodigital syndrome (OPD) spectrum of skeletal disorders, clustering in discrete domains. One cluster is found in the second calponin homology domain of the FLNA actin-binding domain (ABD), implicating this region as essential for mediating correct function. Here we show that OPD (FLNA E254K) fibroblast lysates have equivalent concentrations of FLNA compared with controls and that recombinant FLNA E254K ABD has increased in vitro F-actin binding (K(d) 13 microm) compared with wild type (WT; K(d) 48 microm). These observations are consistent with a gain-of-function mechanism for OPD. We have determined the crystal structures of the WT and E254K FLNA ABDs at 2.3 A resolution, revealing that they adopt similar closed conformations. The E254K mutation removes a conserved salt bridge but does not disrupt the ABD structure. The solution structures are also equivalent as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy, but differential scanning fluorimetry denaturation showed reduced stability (decreased T(m) of 5.6 degrees C) for E254K relative to WT. Ex vivo characterization of E254K OPD patient fibroblasts revealed they have similar motility and adhesion as control cells, implying that many core functions mediated by FLNA are unaffected, consistent with OPD only affecting specific tissues despite FLNA being widely expressed. These data provide the first biochemical evidence for a gain-of-function mechanism for the OPD disorders, and mechanistically distinguishes them from the loss-of-function phenotypes that manifest as disorders of neuronal migration.

  12. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  13. Methods for assessing mitochondrial function in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christopher G R; Kane, Daniel A; Lanza, Ian R; Neufer, P Darrell

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes.

  14. [Assessment of cognitive functions in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Capron, J

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of cognitive functions can be performed using two approaches: a quantitative one, based on screening tools; a qualitative one, based on the examination of specific cognitive functions. The quantitative approach offers a pragmatic process: to screen rapidly for a cognitive dysfunction that may require assistance or treatments. We will present three screening tools and their diagnostic value: the clock test, the Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. They help select patients who require a more detailed examination to precisely diagnose their cognitive dysfunction. We propose a way to perform a detailed cognitive examination at the bedside, including the examination of alertness, attention, memory, language, frontal functions, praxis and hemi-neglect. This simple examination indicates the location of the cerebral lesion and sometimes suggests the underlying disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. The effect of exercise on motor performance tasks used in the neurological assessment of sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J; McCrory, P R; Gray, A; Maruthayanar, S; Singh, P; Ranhotigammage, P; Van der Salm, R

    2008-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is assessed using both cognitive and motor performance tasks. There is limited understanding of how exercise affects these measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on three selected measures of motor performance. A repeated measures design was used to compare baseline motor performance scores with post-exercise scores with an exercise intervention modelled on the physiological demands of a team sport. 30 physically active subjects performed timed motor performance tasks: Finger-to-Nose (FTN), Tandem Gait (TG) and Single Leg Stance (SLS). The tasks were administered twice pre-exercise and twice post-exercise. FTN, TG and SLS demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC values >0.8). 15 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise caused a significant improvement in FTN (T2 = 2.66 (SD 0.38), T3 = 2.49 (0.32); p<0.001) and TG (T2 = 13.08 (2.84), T3 = 12.23 (2.22); p = 0.001), but not in SLS (T2 = 5.94 (4.99), T3 = 5.91 (5.54); p = 0.507). Improvement in the performance of motor tasks after exercise has implications for the immediate assessment of sports-related concussion, given that measures of motor performance are utilised in concussion assessment instruments.

  16. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  17. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  18. Symptomatic spinal metastasis: A systematic literature review of the preoperative prognostic factors for survival, neurological, functional and quality of life in surgically treated patients and methodological recommendations for prognostic studies

    PubMed Central

    Nater, Anick; Martin, Allan R.; Sahgal, Arjun; Choi, David

    2017-01-01

    Purpose While several clinical prediction rules (CPRs) of survival exist for patients with symptomatic spinal metastasis (SSM), these have variable prognostic ability and there is no recognized CPR for health related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a critical appraisal of the literature to identify key preoperative prognostic factors of clinical outcomes in patients with SSM who were treated surgically. The results of this study could be used to modify existing or develop new CPRs. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched (1990–2015), without language restriction, to identify studies that performed multivariate analysis of preoperative predictors of survival, neurological, functional and HRQoL outcomes in surgical patients with SSM. Individual studies were assessed for class of evidence. The strength of the overall body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE for each predictor. Results Among 4,818 unique citations, 17 were included; all were in English, rated Class III and focused on survival, revealing a total of 46 predictors. The strength of the overall body of evidence was very low for 39 and low for 7 predictors. Due to considerable heterogeneity in patient samples and prognostic factors investigated as well as several methodological issues, our results had a moderately high risk of bias and were difficult to interpret. Conclusions The quality of evidence for predictors of survival was, at best, low. We failed to identify studies that evaluated preoperative prognostic factors for neurological, functional, or HRQoL outcomes in surgical patients with SSM. We formulated methodological recommendations for prognostic studies to promote acquiring high-quality evidence to better estimate predictor effect sizes to improve patient education, surgical decision-making and development of CPRs. PMID:28225772

  19. Long-term physical activity and neurologic function after harvesting of the radial artery as T-graft or free graft in coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Karsten; Lichtenberg, Artur; Tomaszek, Sandra; Hagl, Christian; Khaladj, Nawid; Klima, Uwe; Haverich, Axel

    2005-09-01

    Radial artery grafts in coronary revascularization are frequently used, either as a T-graft or as a free radial graft such as a saphenous venous graft. Besides the neurologic function of the hand after radial artery harvesting, which is questioned especially in the long-term perspective, no data on patients' lifestyle are available in this special cohort. Therefore we focused on both the patients' neurologic function as well as level of physical activity, along with their body mass index and smoking habits in this prospective, long-term study. Two hundred eleven patients (187 males; 64 +/- 8 years; mean Canadian coronary scale, 2.4 +/- 0.7; ejection fraction, 59 +/- 15%) were enrolled and scheduled for elective radial artery harvesting in an open conventional technique. Follow-up of 26 +/- 5 months (range, 13 to 37 months) was performed by a direct telephone interview with patients, which was 100% complete. The majority of radial arteries were used in the T-graft technique (73.9%), 24.2% were used as a free graft, and 1.4% as a jump graft. One hundred sixty-five patients (78.2%) did not complain of any neurologic deficit at all. Numbness was distributed among the thumb (5.2%), the wrist (4.3%), and the incision site (3.3%). Hyposensitivity was predominantly at the wrist, followed by the thumb. Pain was distributed at the wrist (1.9%) and the thumb (1.5%). Aggravated sense of cold at the donor hand was evident in 11 patients (5.2%). No patient was compromised in their daily activities, such as piano playing or writing. Subjective well being improved in 147 patients (69.7%), was unchanged in 39 patients (18.5%), and was worse in 11 patients (5.3%) after radial artery harvesting. The mean Canadian coronary scale class improved significantly (1.3 +/- 0.6; p < 0.05). There were patients (44.5%) who performed no sports activity after the procedure and patients (11.8%) who performed sports every day of the week. There were patients (80.1%) who did not participate in heart

  20. The Neurological Examination in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Peter

    1974-01-01

    The family practitioner has the first opportunity and responsibility of making a diagnosis. Since a large portion of his work is concerned with neurological problems, he should be able to do a complete neurological examination. This examination should include evaluation of the gait, mental function, cranial nerves, motor system and sensory system. With practice, a routine neurological examination can be done rapidly and accurately. PMID:20469138

  1. Assessing uncertainty in dynamic functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kudela, Maria; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-04-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) - the study of the statistical association between time series from anatomically distinct regions (Friston, 1994, 2011) - has become one of the primary areas of research in the field surrounding resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Although for many years researchers have implicitly assumed that FC was stationary across time in rs-fMRI, it has recently become increasingly clear that this is not the case and the ability to assess dynamic changes in FC is critical for better understanding of the inner workings of the human brain (Hutchison et al., 2013; Chang and Glover, 2010). Currently, the most common strategy for estimating these dynamic changes is to use the sliding-window technique. However, its greatest shortcoming is the inherent variation present in the estimate, even for null data, which is easily confused with true time-varying changes in connectivity (Lindquist et al., 2014). This can have serious consequences as even spurious fluctuations caused by noise can easily be confused with an important signal. For these reasons, assessment of uncertainty in the sliding-window correlation estimates is of critical importance. Here we propose a new approach that combines the multivariate linear process bootstrap (MLPB) method and a sliding-window technique to assess the uncertainty in a dynamic FC estimate by providing its confidence bands. Both numerical results and an application to rs-fMRI study are presented, showing the efficacy of the proposed method.

  2. [Assessment of endothelial function in autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Y; Bellien, J; Armengol, G; Gomez, E; Richard, V; Lévesque, H; Joannidès, R

    2014-08-01

    Numerous autoimmune-inflammatory rheumatic diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis or other types of vasculopathy leading to an increase in cardiovascular disease incidence. In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial dysfunction is an important early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, contributing to plaque initiation and progression. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by a shift of the actions of the endothelium toward reduced vasodilation, a proinflammatory and a proadhesive state, and prothrombic properties. Therefore, assessment of endothelial dysfunction targets this vascular phenotype using several biological markers as indicators of endothelial dysfunction. Measurements of soluble adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin), pro-thrombotic factors (thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and inflammatory cytokines are most often performed. Regarding the functional assessment of the endothelium, the flow-mediated dilatation of conduit arteries is a non-invasive method widely used in pathophysiological and interventional studies. In this review, we will briefly review the most relevant information upon endothelial dysfunction mechanisms and explorations. We will summarize the similarities and differences in the biological and functional assessments of the endothelium in different autoimmune diseases.

  3. [Service portfolio in neurology].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M D

    2003-12-01

    The specialist health assistance service book (SB) is the development of a clinical health product directed to the general population. The main objectives are: the offer of a clinical health product or to look for new offers, the evaluation or accreditation of neurological departments, the management of neurological departments, the SB presentation to main skateholder (patients, doctors, managers) and finally to inform patients of the neurological products through health resources map, that allowed them to use it. The SB includes emergency, inpatient and outpatient neurological services, and also specific diagnostic and treatment neurological procedures. In a few departments there will be also clinical units directed to specific neurological diseases or processes. It is important to develop the neurological SB in every department because it can satisfy the patients needs, and allow us to adapt quickly to our changing health reality.

  4. Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DONG; ZHANG, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post-transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post-transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post-injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon-like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with

  5. Surface Electromyographic Assessment of Swallowing Function

    PubMed Central

    Poorjavad, Marziyeh; Talebian, Saeed; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Soleymani, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of surface electromyographic (sEMG) variables during swallowing determines the potential usefulness of these measures in swallowing assessment and treatment. This study aimed to establish the reliability of the sEMG measures of the swallowing function of muscles during different swallowing conditions in healthy young and old volunteers. Two groups of volunteers (24 older adults, 10 younger adults) participated in this cross-sectional study during 2014. The activity of masseter, submental, and infrahyoid groups were measured using sEMG during three repetitions of different swallowing tasks. Both the relative and absolute reliability (characterized respectively by ICC, SEM%, and SRD%) were calculated for the sEMG indices of muscle activity during swallowing events. Statistical analyses were performed by the SPSS 19.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software packages. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. The relative reliability calculations showed significant agreements between repetitions for the mean and peak amplitude and the average of median frequency (MDF) of the studied muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. However, the duration and particularly the time to peak of muscle activity showed significant agreements during fewer swallowing conditions. Excluding MDF, we found high SEM% and SRD% for the studied measures (particularly timing measures) of muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. The reliability of sEMG measures was influenced by the age and swallowing types. Our findings suggest that the MDF of muscle function during almost all studied swallowing types can be a reliable measure for the sEMG assessment of swallowing function in both younger and older adults. PMID:28360446

  6. Surface Electromyographic Assessment of Swallowing Function.

    PubMed

    Poorjavad, Marziyeh; Talebian, Saeed; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Soleymani, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    The reliability of surface electromyographic (sEMG) variables during swallowing determines the potential usefulness of these measures in swallowing assessment and treatment. This study aimed to establish the reliability of the sEMG measures of the swallowing function of muscles during different swallowing conditions in healthy young and old volunteers. Two groups of volunteers (24 older adults, 10 younger adults) participated in this cross-sectional study during 2014. The activity of masseter, submental, and infrahyoid groups were measured using sEMG during three repetitions of different swallowing tasks. Both the relative and absolute reliability (characterized respectively by ICC, SEM%, and SRD%) were calculated for the sEMG indices of muscle activity during swallowing events. Statistical analyses were performed by the SPSS 19.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software packages. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. The relative reliability calculations showed significant agreements between repetitions for the mean and peak amplitude and the average of median frequency (MDF) of the studied muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. However, the duration and particularly the time to peak of muscle activity showed significant agreements during fewer swallowing conditions. Excluding MDF, we found high SEM% and SRD% for the studied measures (particularly timing measures) of muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. The reliability of sEMG measures was influenced by the age and swallowing types. Our findings suggest that the MDF of muscle function during almost all studied swallowing types can be a reliable measure for the sEMG assessment of swallowing function in both younger and older adults.

  7. Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of spasticity (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D M; Gracies, J-M; Graham, H K; Miyasaki, J M; Naumann, M; Russman, B; Simpson, L L; So, Y

    2008-05-06

    To perform an evidence-based review of the safety and efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in the treatment of adult and childhood spasticity. A literature search was performed including MEDLINE and Current Contents for therapeutic articles relevant to BoNT and spasticity. Authors reviewed, abstracted, and classified articles based on American Academy of Neurology criteria (Class I-IV). The highest quality literature available for the respective indications was as follows: adult spasticity (14 Class I studies); spastic equinus and adductor spasticity in pediatric cerebral palsy (six Class I studies). Botulinum neurotoxin should be offered as a treatment option for the treatment of spasticity in adults and children (Level A).

  8. Microvesicles from brain-extract—treated mesenchymal stem cells improve neurological functions in a rat model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Eiru; Choi, Seong-Mi; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Insuk; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was reported to improve functional outcomes in a rat model of ischemic stroke, and subsequent studies suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MVs) can replace the beneficial effects of MSCs. Here, we evaluated three different MSC-derived MVs, including MVs from untreated MSCs (MSC-MVs), MVs from MSCs treated with normal rat brain extract (NBE-MSC-MVs), and MVs from MSCs treated with stroke-injured rat brain extract (SBE-MSC-MVs), and tested their effects on ischemic brain injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. NBE-MSC-MVs and SBE-MSC-MVs had significantly greater efficacy than MSC-MVs for ameliorating ischemic brain injury with improved functional recovery. We found similar profiles of key signalling proteins in NBE-MSC-MVs and SBE-MSC-MVs, which account for their similar therapeutic efficacies. Immunohistochemical analyses suggest that brain-extract—treated MSC-MVs reduce inflammation, enhance angiogenesis, and increase endogenous neurogenesis in the rat brain. We performed mass spectrometry proteomic analyses and found that the total proteomes of brain-extract—treated MSC-MVs are highly enriched for known vesicular proteins. Notably, MSC-MV proteins upregulated by brain extracts tend to be modular for tissue repair pathways. We suggest that MSC-MV proteins stimulated by the brain microenvironment are paracrine effectors that enhance MSC therapy for stroke injury. PMID:27609711

  9. Deja vu in neurology.

    PubMed

    Wild, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The significance of deja vu is widely recognised in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, and enquiry about deja vu is frequently made in the clinical assessment of patients with possible epilepsy. Deja vu has also been associated with several psychiatric disorders. The historical context of current understanding of deja vu is discussed. The literature reveals deja vu to be a common phenomenon consistent with normality. Several authors have suggested the existence of a "pathological" form of deja vu that differs, qualitatively or quantitatively, from "non-pathological" deja vu. The features of deja vu suggesting neurological or psychiatric pathology are discussed. Several neuroanatomical and psychological models of the deja vu experience are highlighted, implicating the perceptual, mnemonic and affective regions of the lateral temporal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the genesis of deja vu. A possible genetic basis for a neurochemical model of deja vu is discussed. Clinical approaches to the patient presenting with possible deja vu are proposed.

  10. Endoscopic evaluation of neurological dysphagic patients.

    PubMed

    Coscarelli, S; Verrecchia, L; Coscarelli, A

    2007-12-01

    Dysphagia is a frequent finding in neurological patients and is a symptom related to the severity of the clinical picture. The swallowing impairments, in these patients, increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, that leads to death, in at least 6% of patients, within the first year. Therefore, evaluation of the swallowing status is essential in patients with dysphagia and videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) is the method of choice. It cannot be performed in all patients on account of the complexity of the procedure and since they must be brought to the Radiology Unit. In the 1980, a new bedside method was introduced, namely: fiber-optic endoscopic study of swallow (FESS) which is easy, low-cost, well-tolerated and repeatable. We use this bedside technique to assess swallowing function in patients with dysphagia admitted to acute care units, neurological and internal medicine units. The evaluation aims to indicate the safer nutritional method (oral intake, feeding tube or percutaneous gastrostomy) and, consequently, reducing the risk of aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization. We found that more than 50% of the dysphagic patients present cerebrovascular injuries and in 2% of the population, the first diagnostic hypothesis of Myasthenia Gravis can be made with the FESS technique. In 60%, we indicate a change in nutritional method: in 20% we indicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). With these indications, none of those patients had aspiration pneumonia. Our protocol for the bedside fiberoptic study of neurological patients with dysphagia has demonstrated its efectiveness by eliminating the incidence of aspiration pneumonia.

  11. A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L; Rushing, Nicole C; Sawyer, Kathryn; Joiner, Thomas; Selby, Edward A; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H; Steffens, David C

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. At regular intervals over a four-year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. They were also assessed on magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.

  12. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gong-biao; Niu, Fu-wen; Zhang, Ying-chun; Du, Lin; Liang, Zhi-yuan; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Ting-zhen; Nie, Zhi-kui; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28123427

  13. Establishing the NeuroRecovery Network: multisite rehabilitation centers that provide activity-based therapies and assessments for neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Harkema, Susan J; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Behrman, Andrea L; Bratta, Amy; Sisto, Sue Ann; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2012-09-01

    The mission of the NeuroRecovery Network (NRN) is to provide support for the implementation of specialized centers at rehabilitation sites in the United States. Currently, there are 7 NRN centers that provide standardized activity-based interventions designed from scientific and clinical evidence for recovery of mobility, posture, standing, and walking and improvements in health and quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury. Extensive outcome measures evaluating function, health, and quality of life are used to determine the efficacy of the program. NRN members consist of scientists, clinicians, and administrators who collaborate to achieve the goals and objectives of the network within an organizational structure by designing and implementing a clinical model that provides consistent interventions and evaluations and a general education and training program. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Imbalanced Learning for Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of several imbalanced learning techniques applied to operator functional state assessment where the data is highly imbalanced, i.e., some function states (majority classes) have much more training samples than other states (minority classes). Conventional machine learning techniques usually tend to classify all data samples into majority classes and perform poorly for minority classes. In this study, we implemented five imbalanced learning techniques, including random undersampling, random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), borderline-SMOTE and adaptive synthetic sampling (ADASYN) to solve this problem. Experimental results on a benchmark driving lest dataset show thai accuracies for minority classes could be improved dramatically with a cost of slight performance degradations for majority classes,

  15. Impact of Toll-Like Receptor 2 Deficiency on Survival and Neurological Function after Cardiac Arrest: A Murine Model of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Bergt, Stefan; Güter, Anne; Grub, Andrea; Wagner, Nana-Maria; Beltschany, Claudia; Langner, Sönke; Wree, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Steve; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Vollmar, Brigitte; Roesner, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with poor survival rate and neurofunctional outcome. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in conditions of sterile inflammation such as reperfusion injury. Recent data demonstrated beneficial effects of the administration of TLR2-blocking antibodies in ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study we investigated the role of TLR2 for survival and neurofunctional outcome after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Female TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to CA for eight min induced by intravenous injection of potassium chloride and CPR by external chest compression. Upon the beginning of CPR, n = 15 WT mice received 5 µg/g T2.5 TLR2 inhibiting antibody intravenously while n = 30 TLR2-/- and n = 31 WT controls were subjected to injection of normal saline. Survival and neurological outcome were evaluated during a 28-day follow up period. Basic neurological function, balance, coordination and overall motor function as well as spatial learning and memory were investigated, respectively. In a separate set of experiments, six mice per group were analysed for cytokine and corticosterone serum levels eight hours after CA/CPR. Results TLR2 deficiency and treatment with a TLR2 blocking antibody were associated with increased survival (77% and 80% vs. 51% of WT control; both P < 0.05). Neurofunctional performance was less compromised in TLR2-/- and antibody treated mice. Compared to WT and antibody treated mice, TLR2-/- mice exhibited reduced IL-6 (both P < 0.05) but not IL-1β levels and increased corticosterone plasma concentrations (both P < 0.05). Conclusion Deficiency or functional blockade of TLR2 is associated with increased survival and improved neurofunctional outcome in a mouse model of CA/CPR. Thus, TLR2 inhibition could provide a novel therapeutic approach for reducing mortality and morbidity after cardiac arrest and

  16. Physical function assessment tools in pediatric rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Lakshmi Nandini; Peterson, Margaret GE; Harrison, Melanie J; Onel, Karen B; Lehman, Thomas JA

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric rheumatic diseases with predominant musculoskeletal involvement such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile dermatomyositis(JDM) can cause considerable physical functional impairment and significantly affect the children's quality of life (QOL). Physical function, QOL, health-related QOL (HRQOL) and health status are personal constructs used as outcomes to estimate the impact of these diseases and often used as proxies for each other. The chronic, fluctuating nature of these diseases differs within and between patients, and complicates the measurement of these outcomes. In children, their growing needs and expectations, limited use of age-specific questionnaires, and the use of proxy respondents further influences this evaluation. This article will briefly review the different constructs inclusive of and related to physical function, and the scales used for measuring them. An understanding of these instruments will enable assessment of functional outcome in clinical studies of children with rheumatic diseases, measure the impact of the disease and treatments on their lives, and guide us in formulating appropriate interventions. PMID:18533038

  17. Wnt1 neuroprotection translates into improved neurological function during oxidant stress and cerebral ischemia through AKT1 and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although essential for the development of the nervous system, Wnt1 also has been associated with neurodegenerative disease and cognitive loss during periods of oxidative stress. Here we show that endogenous expression of Wnt1 is suppressed during oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Loss of endogenous Wnt1 signaling directly correlates with neuronal demise and increased functional deficit, illustrating that endogenous neuronal Wnt1 offers a vital level of intrinsic cellular protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Wnt1 or application of exogenous Wnt1 recombinant protein is necessary to preserve neurological function and rescue neurons from apoptotic membrane phosphatidylserine externalization and genomic DNA degradation, since blockade of Wnt1 signaling with a Wnt1 antibody or dickkopf related protein 1 abrogates neuronal protection by Wnt1. Wnt1 ultimately relies upon the activation of Akt1, the modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability, and the release of cytochrome c to control the apoptotic cascade, since inhibition of Wnt1 signaling, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, or Akt1 activity abrogates the ability of Wnt1 to block these apoptotic components. Our work identifies Wnt1 and its downstream signaling as cellular targets with high clinical potential for novel treatment strategies for multiple disorders precipitated by oxidative stress.

  18. Ornithine and Homocitrulline Impair Mitochondrial Function, Decrease Antioxidant Defenses and Induce Cell Death in Menadione-Stressed Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Potential Mechanisms of Neurological Dysfunction in HHH Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Ângela; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Souza, Débora Guerini; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is caused by deficiency of ornithine translocase leading to predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia. Although affected patients commonly present neurological dysfunction manifested by cognitive deficit, spastic paraplegia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, stroke-like episodes, hypotonia and ataxia, its pathogenesis is still poorly known. Although astrocytes are necessary for neuronal protection. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of Orn and Hcit on cell viability (propidium iodide incorporation), mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide-MTT-reduction and mitochondrial membrane potential-ΔΨm), antioxidant defenses (GSH) and pro-inflammatory response (NFkB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in unstimulated and menadione-stressed cortical astrocytes that were previously shown to be susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. We first observed that Orn decreased MTT reduction, whereas both amino acids decreased GSH levels, without altering cell viability and the pro-inflammatory factors in unstimulated astrocytes. Furthermore, Orn and Hcit decreased cell viability and ΔΨm in menadione-treated astrocytes. The present data indicate that the major compounds accumulating in HHH syndrome impair mitochondrial function and reduce cell viability and the antioxidant defenses in cultured astrocytes especially when stressed by menadione. It is presumed that these mechanisms may be involved in the neuropathology of this disease.

  19. Neurological risk profile in organic erectile impotence.

    PubMed Central

    Kunesch, E; Reiners, K; Müller-Mattheis, V; Strohmeyer, T; Ackermann, R; Freund, H J

    1992-01-01

    Thirty men who presented with erectile impotence to the urological department underwent a thorough urological, angiological, and neurological examination with complementary neurophysiological tests of somatosensory and sympathetic and parasympathetic function. Most had vascular and neurological abnormalities. Clinical findings and electrophysiological tests for autonomic dysfunction had the highest yield of abnormal results. Nerve conduction studies and pudendal nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were far less informative. The lack of correlation between vascular and general neurological abnormalities emphasises that patients must be screened for both vascular and neurological dysfunction to prevent unrewarding vascular operation in impotent men. PMID:1316429

  20. APE1/Ref-1 facilitates recovery of gray and white matter and neurological function after mild stroke injury.

    PubMed

    Stetler, R Anne; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K; Weng, Zhongfang; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Pu, Hongjian; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Hassan, Sulaiman; Ferguson, Carolyn; Homanics, Gregg E; Cao, Guodong; Bennett, Michael V L; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-21

    A major hallmark of oxidative DNA damage after stroke is the induction of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and strand breaks. To mitigate cell loss after oxidative DNA damage, ischemic cells rapidly engage the base excision-repair proteins, such as the AP site-repairing enzyme AP endonuclease-1 (APE1), also named redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). Although forced overexpression of APE1 is known to protect against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration, there is no concrete evidence demonstrating a role for endogenous APE1 in the long-term recovery of gray and white matter following ischemic injury. To address this gap, we generated, to our knowledge, the first APE1 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line under control of tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase. Using a well-established model of transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI), we show that induced deletion of APE1 dramatically enlarged infarct volume and impaired the recovery of sensorimotor and cognitive deficits. APE1 cKO markedly increased postischemic neuronal and oligodendrocyte degeneration, demonstrating that endogenous APE1 preserves both gray and white matter after tFCI. Because white matter repair is instrumental in behavioral recovery after stroke, we also examined the impact of APE1 cKO on demyelination and axonal conduction and discovered that APE1 cKO aggravated myelin loss and impaired neuronal communication following tFCI. Furthermore, APE1 cKO increased AP sites and activated the prodeath signaling proteins, PUMA and PARP1, after tFCI in topographically distinct manners. Our findings provide evidence that endogenous APE1 protects against ischemic infarction in both gray and white matter and facilitates the functional recovery of the central nervous system after mild stroke injury.

  1. APE1/Ref-1 facilitates recovery of gray and white matter and neurological function after mild stroke injury

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, R. Anne; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Weng, Zhongfang; Zhang, Lili; Pu, Hongjian; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Hassan, Sulaiman; Ferguson, Carolyn; Homanics, Gregg E.; Cao, Guodong; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of oxidative DNA damage after stroke is the induction of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and strand breaks. To mitigate cell loss after oxidative DNA damage, ischemic cells rapidly engage the base excision-repair proteins, such as the AP site-repairing enzyme AP endonuclease-1 (APE1), also named redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). Although forced overexpression of APE1 is known to protect against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration, there is no concrete evidence demonstrating a role for endogenous APE1 in the long-term recovery of gray and white matter following ischemic injury. To address this gap, we generated, to our knowledge, the first APE1 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line under control of tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase. Using a well-established model of transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI), we show that induced deletion of APE1 dramatically enlarged infarct volume and impaired the recovery of sensorimotor and cognitive deficits. APE1 cKO markedly increased postischemic neuronal and oligodendrocyte degeneration, demonstrating that endogenous APE1 preserves both gray and white matter after tFCI. Because white matter repair is instrumental in behavioral recovery after stroke, we also examined the impact of APE1 cKO on demyelination and axonal conduction and discovered that APE1 cKO aggravated myelin loss and impaired neuronal communication following tFCI. Furthermore, APE1 cKO increased AP sites and activated the prodeath signaling proteins, PUMA and PARP1, after tFCI in topographically distinct manners. Our findings provide evidence that endogenous APE1 protects against ischemic infarction in both gray and white matter and facilitates the functional recovery of the central nervous system after mild stroke injury. PMID:27274063

  2. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders†

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Nicolas A.; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. Aims To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. Method We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Results Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. Conclusions From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. PMID:26045351

  3. Visual Function Assessment in Medical Imaging Research.

    PubMed

    Lança, Carla; Thompson, John D; Lança, Luis; Hogg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Medical image perception research relies on visual data to study the diagnostic relationship between observers and medical images. A consistent method to assess visual function for participants in medical imaging research has not been developed and represents a significant gap in existing research. Three visual assessment factors appropriate to observer studies were identified: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereopsis. A test was designed for each, and 30 radiography observers (mean age 31.6 years) participated in each test. Mean binocular visual acuity for distance was 20/14 for all observers. The difference between observers who did and did not use corrective lenses was not statistically significant (P = .12). All subjects had a normal value for near visual acuity and stereoacuity. Contrast sensitivity was better than population norms. All observers had normal visual function and could participate in medical imaging visual analysis studies. Protocols of evaluation and populations norms are provided. Further studies are necessary to understand fully the relationship between visual performance on tests and diagnostic accuracy in practice.

  4. Collagen/heparin sulfate scaffolds fabricated by a 3D bioprinter improved mechanical properties and neurological function after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Zhao, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ren-Kun; Lu, Gang; Zhao, Chang-Yu; Fu, Feng; Sun, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Sai; Tu, Yue; Li, Xiao-Hong

    2017-01-25

    mechanical properties of collagen and provide continuous guidance channels for axons, which would improve the neurological function after SCI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2017.

  5. ECT IN NEUROLOGICAL COUNDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Girish, K.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Janakiramaiah, N.

    2002-01-01

    It is a myth that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) produces greater side effects and worsens the neurological condition when used in neurologically ill patients. With the advancement and sophistication in ECT practice standards and modification procedures, it can be safely administered either to treat selected neurological conditions or the co-morbid psychiatric illnesses without additional risks. However ECT should be administered only after thorough evaluation of risks and benefits in such individuals. PMID:21206577

  6. The Preoperative Neurological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Probasco, John; Sahin, Bogachan; Tran, Tung; Chung, Tae Hwan; Rosenthal, Liana Shapiro; Mari, Zoltan; Levy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases are prevalent in the general population, and the neurohospitalist has an important role to play in the preoperative planning for patients with and at risk for developing neurological disease. The neurohospitalist can provide patients and their families as well as anesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitalists, and other providers guidance in particular to the patient’s neurological disease and those he or she is at risk for. Here we present considerations and guidance for the neurohospitalist providing preoperative consultation for the neurological patient with or at risk of disturbances of consciousness, cerebrovascular and carotid disease, epilepsy, neuromuscular disease, and Parkinson disease. PMID:24198903

  7. Muro-Neuro-Urodynamics; a Review of the Functional Assessment of Mouse Lower Urinary Tract Function

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroki; Pickering, Anthony E.; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Kanai, Anthony J.; Fry, Christopher H.; Drake, Marcus J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mouse urodynamic tests are fundamental to understanding normal lower urinary tract (LUT) function. These experiments also contribute to our understanding of neurological dysfunction, pathophysiological processes, and potential mechanisms of therapy. Objectives: Systematic assessment of published evidence on urodynamics, advantages and limitations of different urodynamic measurements in mice, and consideration of potential implications for the clinical field. Methods: A search using specific search-terms for urodynamic studies and mice was conducted on PubMed (from inception to 1 July 2016). Results: We identified 55 studies examining or describing mouse neuro-urodynamics. We summarize reported features of mouse urodynamic function deriving from frequency-volume chart (FVC) measurements, voiding spot assays, filling cystometry, and pressure-flow studies. Similarly, an influence of the diurnal cycle on voiding is observed in mice and should be considered when interpreting rodent urodynamic studies, especially FVC measurements and voiding spot assays. Anaesthesia, restraint conditions, or filling rate influence mouse neuro-urodynamics. Mouse cystometric studies have observed intravesical pressure oscillations that accompany urine flow, attributed to high frequency opening and closing of the urethra. This characterization is not seen in other species, except rats. In contrast to human clinical urodynamics, the terminology of these examinations has not been standardized although many rodent urodynamic studies have been described. Conclusion: Mice have many anatomical and physiological similarities to humans and they are generally cost effective, and allow investigation of the effects of aging because of their short lifespan. There are some differences between mouse and human urodynamics. These must be considered when interpreting LUT function in mice, and translational value of murine disease models. PMID:28220079

  8. Evidence-based guideline: intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Patwa, H S; Chaudhry, V; Katzberg, H; Rae-Grant, A D; So, Y T

    2012-03-27

    To assess the evidence for the efficacy of IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) to treat neuromuscular disorders. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-2009). Selected articles were rated according to the American Academy of Neurology's therapeutic classification of evidence scheme; recommendations were based on the evidence level. IVIg is as efficacious as plasmapheresis and should be offered for treating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults (Level A). IVIg is effective and should be offered in the long-term treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Level A). IVIg is probably effective and should be considered for treating moderate to severe myasthenia gravis and multifocal motor neuropathy (Level B). IVIg is possibly effective and may be considered for treating nonresponsive dermatomyositis in adults and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (Level C). Evidence is insufficient to support or refute use of IVIg in the treatment of immunoglobulin M paraprotein-associated neuropathy, inclusion body myositis, polymyositis, diabetic radiculoplexoneuropathy, or Miller Fisher syndrome, or in the routine treatment of postpolio syndrome or in children with GBS (Level U). IVIg combined with plasmapheresis should not be considered for treating GBS (Level B). More data are needed regarding IVIg efficacy as compared with other treatments/treatment combinations. Most studies concluded IVIg-related serious adverse effects were rare. Given the variable nature of these diseases, individualized treatments depending on patient need and physician judgment are important.

  9. Foetal cardiac function: assessing new technologies.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of foetal cardiac function is more challenging than in the adult, in whom emerging technologies are tested. The postnatal cardio-respiratory interaction is replaced by the cardio-placental circulation and impedance of the brain, and distal vascular beds play an important role in modulating flow to enable its redistribution in the foetal body. Prenatal specialists, comprising obstetricians and cardiologists, have tested a variety of traditional methodologies, as well as non-Doppler offline ultrasound methods in the foetus. This article reviews the development of techniques, outlines their use, and draws attention to pitfalls in adapting technologies validated in the adult heart to the small, fast beating, remote, and largely ungated foetal heart.

  10. Neuroanatomical foundations of naming impairments across different neurologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The ability to name objects or abstract entities is an essential feature of speech and language, being commonly considered a central component of normal neurologic function. For this reason, the bedside testing of naming performance is part of the neurologic examination, especially since naming impairments can signify the early onset of a progressive disease or the occurrence of a more established problem. Modern neuroscience research suggests that naming relies on specific and distributed networks that operate in concert to support various processing stages, spanning from object recognition to spoken words. Likewise, studies evaluating the types of naming impairments in patients with neurologic conditions have contributed to the understanding of acquired forms of naming impairments and the underlying stages during normal language processing. In this article, we review the neurobiological mechanisms supporting naming, with a focus on the clinical application of these concepts. We provide an overview of the stages of cognitive processing that are hypothesized to support naming. For each stage, we explore the evidence revealing its neural basis, drawing parallels to clinical syndromes that commonly disrupt each stage. We review the patterns of naming impairment across various neurologic conditions, including classic language disorders, such as poststroke aphasia or primary progressive aphasia, as well as other diseases where language impairments may be subtle but helpful for the appropriate diagnosis. In this context, we provide a structured and practical guide for the bedside naming assessments rooted in modern neuroscience, aimed at supporting the evaluation and diagnosis of neurologic conditions that affect language. PMID:26115732

  11. Neurological Complications of Endocrine Disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karen S; Grunwald, Tal; De Luca, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs. The central nervous system of a developing child is particularly sensitive to endocrine disorders. A variety of neurological manifestations have been described as features of several endocrine diseases in childhood. Their knowledge may contribute to an early diagnosis of a particular endocrine condition, especially when more typical features are not present yet. In this article, we discuss specific neurological manifestations found in various endocrine disorders in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional toxicogenomic assessment of triclosan in human ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Thousands of chemicals for which limited toxicological data are available are used and then detected in humans and the environment. Rapid and cost-effective approaches for assessing the toxicological properties of chemicals are needed. We used CRISPR-Cas9 functional genomic screening to identify potential molecular mechanism of a widely used antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) in HepG2 cells. Resistant genes (whose knockout gives potential resistance) at IC50 (50% Inhibition concentration of cell viability) were significantly enriched in adherens junction pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and PPAR signaling pathway, suggesting a potential molecular mechanism in TCS induced cytotoxicity. Evaluation of top-ranked resistant genes, FTO (encoding an mRNA demethylase) and MAP2K3 (a MAP kinase kinase family gene), revealed that their loss conferred resistance to TCS. In contrast, sensitive genes (whose knockout enhances potential sensitivity) at IC10 and IC20 were specifically enriched in pathways involved with immune responses, which was concordant with the transcriptomic profiling of TCS at concentrations functional genomic screening offers an alternative approach for chem

  13. Assessing the reproducibility of discriminant function analyses

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Rose L.; Albert, Arianne Y.K.; Renaut, Sebastien; Rennison, Diana J.; Bock, Dan G.

    2015-01-01

    Data are the foundation of empirical research, yet all too often the datasets underlying published papers are unavailable, incorrect, or poorly curated. This is a serious issue, because future researchers are then unable to validate published results or reuse data to explore new ideas and hypotheses. Even if data files are securely stored and accessible, they must also be accompanied by accurate labels and identifiers. To assess how often problems with metadata or data curation affect the reproducibility of published results, we attempted to reproduce Discriminant Function Analyses (DFAs) from the field of organismal biology. DFA is a commonly used statistical analysis that has changed little since its inception almost eight decades ago, and therefore provides an opportunity to test reproducibility among datasets of varying ages. Out of 100 papers we initially surveyed, fourteen were excluded because they did not present the common types of quantitative result from their DFA or gave insufficient details of their DFA. Of the remaining 86 datasets, there were 15 cases for which we were unable to confidently relate the dataset we received to the one used in the published analysis. The reasons ranged from incomprehensible or absent variable labels, the DFA being performed on an unspecified subset of the data, or the dataset we received being incomplete. We focused on reproducing three common summary statistics from DFAs: the percent variance explained, the percentage correctly assigned and the largest discriminant function coefficient. The reproducibility of the first two was fairly high (20 of 26, and 44 of 60 datasets, respectively), whereas our success rate with the discriminant function coefficients was lower (15 of 26 datasets). When considering all three summary statistics, we were able to completely reproduce 46 (65%) of 71 datasets. While our results show that a majority of studies are reproducible, they highlight the fact that many studies still are not the

  14. The neurology in Shakespeare.

    PubMed

    Fogan, L

    1989-08-01

    William Shakespeare's 37 plays and poetry contain many references of interest for almost all of the medical specialties. To support that the Bard could be considered a Renaissance neurologist, the following important neurological phenomena have been selected from his repertoire for discussion: tremors, paralysis and stroke, sleep disturbances, epilepsy, dementia, encephalopathies, and the neurology of syphilis.

  15. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  16. Neurology and orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Houlden, Henry; Charlton, Paul; Singh, Dishan

    2007-01-01

    Neurology encompasses all aspects of medicine and surgery, but is closer to orthopaedic surgery than many other specialities. Both neurological deficits and bone disorders lead to locomotor system abnormalities, joint complications and limb problems. The main neurological conditions that require the attention of an orthopaedic surgeon are disorders that affect the lower motor neurones. The most common disorders in this group include neuromuscular disorders and traumatic peripheral nerve lesions. Upper motor neurone disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke are also frequently seen and discussed, as are chronic conditions such as poliomyelitis. The management of these neurological problems is often coordinated in the neurology clinic, and this group, probably more than any other, requires a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:17308288

  17. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077