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Sample records for function part ii

  1. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  2. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  3. Putting microbes to work: dairy fermentation, cell factories and bioactive peptides. Part II: bioactive peptide functions.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2007-04-01

    A variety of milk-derived biologically active peptides have been shown to exert both functional and physiological roles in vitro and in vivo, and because of this are of particular interest for food science and nutrition applications. Biological activities associated with such peptides include immunomodulatory, antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and opioid-like properties. Milk proteins are recognized as a primary source of bioactive peptides, which can be encrypted within the amino acid sequence of dairy proteins, requiring proteolysis for release and activation. Fermentation of milk proteins using the proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria is an attractive approach for generation of functional foods enriched in bioactive peptides given the low cost and positive nutritional image associated with fermented milk drinks and yoghurt. In Part II of this review, we focus on examples of milk-derived bioactive peptides and their associated health benefits, to illustrate the potential of this area for the design and improvement of future functional foods.

  4. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  5. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  6. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.

  7. Knowledge representation and qualitative simulation of salmon redd functioning. Part II: qualitative model of redds.

    PubMed

    Guerrin, F; Dumas, J

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes a qualitative model of the functioning of salmon redds (spawning areas of salmon) and its impact on mortality rates of early stages. For this, we use Qsim, a qualitative simulator, which appeared adequate for representing available qualitative knowledge of freshwater ecology experts (see Part I of this paper). Since the number of relevant variables was relatively large, it appeared necessary to decompose the model into two parts, corresponding to processes occurring at separate time-scales. A qualitative clock allows us to submit the simulation of salmon developmental stages to the calculation of accumulated daily temperatures (degree-days), according to the clock ticks and a water temperature regime set by the user. Therefore, this introduces some way of real-time dating and duration in a purely qualitative model. Simulating both sub-models, either separately or by means of alternate transitions, allows us to generate the evolutions of variables of interest, such as the mortality rates according to two factors (flow of oxygenated water and plugging of gravel interstices near the bed surface), under various scenarios.

  8. Fracture strength and elastic modulus as a function of porosity for hydroxyapatite and other brittle materials, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Case, Eldon D; Ren, Fei; Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Part I of this paper discussed the Weibull modulus m, versus porosity P behavior of brittle materials, including HA. While the Weibull modulus m deals with the scatter in fracture strength data, this paper (Part II) focuses on two additional key mechanical properties of porous materials, namely the average fracture strength f , and Young s modulus E, for P in the interval from P zero to P PG (the porosity of the unfired compacts). The f versus P data for HA from this study and the literature data for alumina, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and silicon nitride are describedwell by functions of , where = 1 P/PG = the degree of densification. A similar function of applies to the E versus P behavior of HA from this study and data from the literature for alumina, titanium and YSZ. All of the data analyzed in this study (Part II) are based on partially and fully sintered powder compacts (excluding green powder compacts), thus the f / 0 versus and E /E0 versus relationships may apply only to such specimens.

  9. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu E-mail: dvince@physik.uzh.ch

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ{sup 2} the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ∼ 0.015hMpc{sup −1}, 10% at k ∼ 0.05hMpc{sup −1} at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1} they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ{sup 4} term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1}. For μ{sup 6} and μ{sup 8} we find it has very little power for k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1}, shooting up by 2–3 orders of magnitude between k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} and k < 0.4hMpc{sup −1}. We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d P{sup ss}(k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of P{sup ss}(k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} at 6-th order, but breaks down

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2S levels and H2S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2S-induced therapeutic ‘suspended animation’, a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991749

  11. Circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution for scalar transmissibility functions. Part II: Probabilistic model and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-12-01

    In Part I of this study, some new theorems, corollaries and lemmas on circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution have been mathematically proved. This part II paper is dedicated to providing a rigorous treatment of statistical properties of raw scalar transmissibility functions at an arbitrary frequency line. On the basis of statistics of raw FFT coefficients and circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution, explicit closed-form probabilistic models are established for both multivariate and univariate scalar transmissibility functions. Also, remarks on the independence of transmissibility functions at different frequency lines and the shape of the probability density function (PDF) of univariate case are presented. The statistical structures of probabilistic models are concise, compact and easy-implemented with a low computational effort. They hold for general stationary vector processes, either Gaussian stochastic processes or non-Gaussian stochastic processes. The accuracy of proposed models is verified using numerical example as well as field test data of a high-rise building and a long-span cable-stayed bridge. This study yields new insights into the qualitative analysis of the uncertainty of scalar transmissibility functions, which paves the way for developing new statistical methodologies for modal analysis, model updating or damage detection using responses only without input information.

  12. Academic Functioning and Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents with Allergic Rhinitis--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second of a two-part series on allergic rhinitis (AR). Treatments for AR are now widely available in both prescription and over-the-counter form. The medication therapies include antihistamines, decongestants, leukotriene receptor antagonists, cromolyn sodium, and immunotherapy. Corticosteroids are also used via nasal…

  13. On fathering (the nature and functions of the father role). Part II: Conceptualization of fathering.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J

    1980-08-01

    The scientific study of fathering has been somewhat neglected, perhaps because the father role is hardly constant even within a particular culture and is subject to very great fluctuations indeed from culture to culture. In that respect the study of fathering is much more difficult than the study of mothering. Work often subsumed under the heading of "attachment theory" has shown that the mother-infant and mother-child relationships have some cross-cultural constancy and may even be described as a bio-social "given". Four methods of data collection are described and reviewed: studies of adults partially or fully deprived of adequate fathering during their childhoods; direct studies of father-infant and father-child interaction; "in-depth" psychoanalytic studies of individual psychopathology in relation to that individual's relationship to a father; and introspection and personal observation. Each of these four avenues of data collection offers certain advantages as well as certain disadvantages which are reviewed with examples from available literature. In studying the importance of the father role there is a tendency to study the importance of fathering to children, ignoring that fathering is clearly important to the psychological development and further growth of the father. That there is a psychopathology of the process of fatherhood seems obvious on reflection, and data bearing on that psychopathology are reviewed. The importance of fathering to infants and children can be reviewed according to the three areas of psychic activity: primary creativity, the basic fault, and the Oedipus conflict. In the area of primary creativity we can study the importance of fathering to infants in terms of fantasied fathers and part-time fathers, and the prenatal role of father as mother facilitator. In the area of the basic fault (two-person psychology) we can study the postnatal role of father as mother facilitator, the role of father as mother-surrogate, the pre-oedipal role

  14. Condylar restoration after early TMJ fractures and functional appliance therapy. Part II: Muscle evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl-Nieke, B; Fischbach, R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and to describe the condition of the lateral pterygoid muscle during and after functional appliance therapy in children who had sustained condylar fractures. The treatment group consisted of 19 patients with an average age of 13.4 years, who had sustained a unilateral fracture at an average age of 8.4 years and had been treated functionally for 6 to 8 months. Muscle condition was assessed through axial soft tissue description. The volume and density of the lateral pterygoid muscle were measured in both groups and were compared on the basis of sex, age and fracture type. 74% of the patients in the follow-up group showed muscle differences of more than 10% between the 2 sides. In 2/3 of these patients the lateral pterygoid of the fracture side was 13 to 69% smaller. The volumes of the contralateral pterygoid muscles in the 2 patient groups differed by 10% on the basis of sex. Both in the treatment group and in the follow-up group the volume difference between the healthy and fractured side was as high as 70% depending on localization and type of fracture. Deep fractures and fractures with complete dislocation of the condyle evoked the most serious reduction in muscle volume.

  15. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  16. Understanding Math - Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    This is the second remedial workbook-text in a two-part series written for deaf students at the secondary level. It covers fractions, geometry formulas, decimals and percents, and time. For the first workbook, see SE 015 827, and for the teacher's guide, see SE 015 829. (DT)

  17. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis-Part II: Cr, Si, Zn, Cu, and S.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Orangi, Jafar; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Trace elements play critical roles in angiogenesis events. The effects of nitrogen, iron, selenium, phosphorus, gold, and calcium were discussed in part I. In part II, we evaluated the effect of chromium, silicon, zinc, copper, and sulfur on different aspects of angiogenesis, with critical roles in healing and regeneration processes, and undeniable roles in tumor growth and cancer therapy. This review is the second of series that serves as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanism, and potential activity of these trace elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these trace elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between five different trace elements and their role in regulation of angiogenesis, and homeostasis of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors were assessed. Many studies have investigated the effects and importance of these elements in angiogenesis events. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on angiogenesis are observed for the evaluated elements. Chromium can promote angiogenesis in pathological manners. Silicon as silica nanoparticles is anti-angiogenic, while in calcium silicate extracts and bioactive silicate glasses promote angiogenesis. Zinc is an anti-angiogenic agent acting on important genes and growth factors. Copper and sulfur compositions have pro-angiogenic functions by activating pro-angiogenic growth factors and promoting endothelial cells migration, growth, and tube formation. Thus, utilization of these elements may provide a unique opportunity to modulate angiogenesis under various setting.

  18. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization.

    PubMed

    Glampedaki, Pelagia; Calvimontes, Alfredo; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marijn M C G

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate polyester wettability according to ambient conditions by imparting stimuli-responsiveness from the microgel to the textile itself. Microgels consisted of pH/thermo-responsive microparticles of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) either alone or complexed with the pH-responsive natural polysaccharide chitosan. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and topographical analysis were used for surface characterization. Wettability of polyester textiles was assessed by dynamic wetting, water vapor transfer, and moisture regain measurements. One of the main findings showed that the polyester surface was rendered pH-responsive, both in acidic and alkaline pH region, owing to the microgel incorporation. With a marked relaxation in their structure and an increase in their microporosity, the functionalized textiles exhibited higher water vapor transfer rates both at 20 and 40 °C, and 65% relative humidity compared with the reference polyester. Also, at 40 °C, i.e., above the microgel Lower Critical Solution Temperature, the functionalized polyester textiles had lower moisture regains than the reference. Finally, the type of the incorporated microgel affected significantly the polyester total absorption times, with an up to 300% increase in one case and an up to 80% decrease in another case. These findings are promising for the development of functional textile materials with possible applications in biotechnology, technical, and protective clothing.

  19. An Experimental Approach to the Functional Analysis of Text Building Behaviour. Part II. The Information Flow. No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    In contrast to the mass-related verbal flow description given in part I, this report focuses on the cooperative interaction of textual agents and objectives in the production of information flows. Perspective Text Analysis (PTA) is used with the purpose of establishing their physical and functional significance in a non-mass based description of…

  20. Sports Concussion Management: part II.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Thomas R; Cox, Conrad B; Bielak, Ken; Casmus, Robert; Laskowitz, Daniel; Nichols, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    Millions of concussions occur every year in the United States. The public interest in concussion has increased after a number of high-profile deaths in high school athletes from sports-related head trauma and in some professional athletes from chronic traumatic encephalopathy. One of the most active areas of research in sports medicine during the last decade has been the evaluation and management of concussion. In this second article of a two-part series, we provide an overview of the latest scientific advances in concussion research. This overview includes an update on the pathobiological changes that occur during concussion and the results of biomechanical studies. In addition, to aid the practicing clinician, we review the literature on proven and currently studied concussion risk factors, including a history of concussion, fatigue, and age. Genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers may provide risk-prediction capability, but at present the research remains inconclusive. Diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging are promising technologies that reveal more sophisticated data about the impact of concussion on the brain. We review the existing literature on the application of these neuroimaging modalities to sports concussion. An update from the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport, with highlights of new recommendations, and the presentation of the third edition of the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool to evaluate acute concussion, concludes our review.

  1. The assessment of function. Part II: clinical perspective of a javelin thrower with low back and groin pain

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Michael P; Manske, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of an individual’s functional ability can be complex. This assessment should also be individualized and adaptable to changes in functional status. In the first article of this series, we operationally defined function, discussed the construct of function, examined the evidence as it relates to assessment methods of various aspects of function, and explored the multi-dimensional nature of the concept of function. In this case report, we aim to demonstrate the utilization of a multi-dimensional assessment method (functional performance testing) as it relates to a high-level athlete presenting with pain in the low back and groin. It is our intent to demonstrate how the clinician should continually adapt their assessment dependent on the current functional abilities of the patients. PMID:23633887

  2. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  3. Aerosol Retrievals from Individual AVHRR Channels. Part II: Quality Control, Probability Distribution Functions, Information Content, and Consistency Checks of Retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Stowe, Larry

    2002-02-01

    This second part of a two-part study evaluates retrievals of aerosol optical depths, 1 and 2, in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels 1 and 2 centered at 1 = 0.63 and 2 = 0.83 m, and an effective Ångström exponent, , derived therefrom as = ln(1/2)/ln(1/2). The retrievals are made with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model from four NOAA-14 AVHRR datasets, collected between February 1998 and May 1999 in the latitudinal belt of 5°-25°S. A series of quality control (QC) checks applied to the retrievals to identify outliers are described. These remove a total of 1% of points, which presumably originate from channel misregistration, residual cloud in AVHRR cloud-screened pixels, and substantial deviations from the assumptions used in the retrieval model (e.g., bright coastal and high altitude inland waters). First, from examining histograms of the derived parameters it is found that and are accurately fit by lognormal and normal probability distribution functions (PDFs), respectively. Second, the scattergrams 1 versus 2 are analyzed to see if they form a coherent pattern. They do indeed converge at the origin, as expected, but frequently are outside of the expected domain in 1-2 space, defined by two straight lines corresponding to = 0 and = 2. This results in a low bias in , which tends to fill in an interval of [1, 1] rather than

  4. Structure function analysis of two-scale Scalar Ramps. Part II: Coherent structure scaling and surface renewal applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structure functions are used to study the dissipation and inertial range scales of turbulent energy, to parameterize remote turbulence measurements, and to characterize ramp features in the turbulent field. The ramp features are associated with turbulent coherent structures, which dominate energy a...

  5. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  6. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  7. Playing It Safe: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Niccolai, Frances R.

    1985-01-01

    Explains how to prevent outdoor sports injuries; discusses related litigation and specific cases involving playing field turf, tennis, skiing, and pools; and sets out facility design and maintenance considerations and recommendations. A sidebar provides information about injury insurance available to NCAA schools. Part I of this article appeared…

  8. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  9. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  10. Genetic and functional analysis of the bovine uterine microbiota. Part II: Purulent vaginal discharge versus healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, M L S; Lima, S; Higgins, C H; Machado, V S; Lima, F S; Bicalho, R C

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this study was to characterize, using metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing, the intrauterine microbial population and its predicted functional diversity within healthy cows and cows presenting purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Twenty Holstein dairy cows from a single farm were enrolled in the study at 25 to 35 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was diagnosed by retrieving and scoring vaginal discharge using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand). Intrauterine samples for metagenomic analysis were collected by the cytobrush technique from 8 cows diagnosed with PVD and 12 healthy cows. Pair-end sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Metagenomic sequences were analyzed using the MG-RAST server (metagenomic rapid annotations using subsystems technology; http://metagenomics.anl.gov/), and the STAMP software (http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/Software/STAMP) was used to study statistically significant differential abundance of taxonomic and functional features between the 2 metagenomes. Additionally, the total number of bacterial 16S rDNA copies was estimated by real-time PCR. Taxonomic analysis revealed that Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum in the uterine microbiota from cows with PVD, and Fusobacteria was almost completely absent in the healthy uterine microbiota. Moreover, species belonging to the genus Trueperella were present only in the uterine microbiota of PVD cows. The increased abundance of Fusobacteria and the unique presence of Trueperella in the PVD cows highlight the important role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of PVD. Genes encoding cytolethal distending toxin were exclusive to the microbiota of PVD cows. Similarly, genes associated with lipid A modification were present only in samples from PVD cows; such modification is associated with greater resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Conversely, genes encoding bacteriocins and ribosomally antibacterial peptide

  11. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  12. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    PubMed

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  13. Tubing extrusion made easier, Part II.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Mike

    2004-11-01

    An increased understanding of the primary elements will lead to greater control of the extrusion process. In the ongoing quest to produce tubing with consistent properties. Part II of this two-part article makes recommendations on best practice in barrel and screw design, compression ratios and dies.

  14. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  15. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…

  16. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    PubMed

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  17. Staircase and fractional part functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages - they have some basic uses in various programming tasks. In this paper, we view the staircase and fractional part functions as a classical example of non-continuous real functions. We introduce some of their basic properties, present some interesting constructions concerning them, and explore some intriguing interpretations of such functions. Throughout the paper, we use these functions in order to explain basic concepts in a first calculus course, such as domain of definition, discontinuity, and oddness of functions. We also explain in detail how, after researching the properties of such functions, one can draw their graph; this is a crucial part in the process of understanding their nature. In the paper, we present some subjects that the first-year student in the exact sciences may not encounter. We try to clarify those subjects and show that such ideas are important in the understanding of non-continuous functions, as a part of studying analysis in general.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... example fuel price and inflation indices based on the latest data appearing in the Energy...

  1. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alan BR; Chopra, Angeli; Clandinin, Michael Tom; Freeman, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology, in 2009 and 2010 there were many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part II we review six topics: absorption, short bowel syndrome, smooth muscle function and intestinal motility, tumors, diagnostic imaging, and cystic fibrosis. PMID:22807605

  2. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART II: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN REGULATORY FACTORS AND OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are defined as defects that affect the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). They are characterized by a heterogeneous array of clinical presentations due in part to a wide variety of factors required for proper function of the components of the OXPHOS system. There is no cure for these disorders owing our poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. To understand the mechanisms of human disease numerous mouse models have been developed in recent years. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to those factors affecting mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, translation as well to other proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control which affect mitochondrial OXPHOS function without been intrinsic components of the system. We discuss how these models have contributed to our understanding of mitochondrial diseases and their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25640959

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false II Appendix II to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix II to Part 261...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equations II-1 and II-2. This table contains annual fuel price indices for distillate oil, residual oil... i = MPB where: FPB i = Price of the proposed fuel (distillate oil, residual oil, or natural gas) in... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504...

  5. ahcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace part II: non-chiral correlation functions of the stress-tensor multiplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Sokatchev, Emery

    2017-03-01

    We study the multipoint super-correlation functions of the full non-chiral stress-tensor multiplet in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the Born approximation. We derive effective supergraph Feynman rules for them. Surprisingly, the Feynman rules for the non-chiral correlators are obtained from those for the chiral correlators by a simple Grassmann shift of the space-time variables. We rely on the formulation of the theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace elaborated in the twin paper arXiv:1601.06803. In this approach only the chiral half of the supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized by nonlinear and nonlocal transformations of the LHC superfields. However, at Born level only the simple linear part of the transformations is relevant. It corresponds to effectively working in the self-dual sector of the theory. Our method is also applicable to a wider class of supermultiplets like all the half-BPS operators and the Konishi multiplet.

  6. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... II-2. This table contains annual fuel price indices for distillate oil, residual oil, natural gas...=Price of the proposed fuel (distillate oil, residual oil, or natural gas) in year i. MPB=The current... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  12. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  13. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  14. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  15. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  16. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Ii to Part 268 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false I Appendixes I-II to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Appendixes I-II to Part 268...

  17. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  18. Talking about the Weather, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Allan A.

    1984-01-01

    This second part of a two-part article highlights some mathematics involved in the study of meteorology. Examples are given of the application of mathematics to the study of the atmosphere, with three problems discussed. (MNS)

  19. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  20. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.J.; Ludwigsen, A.P.; Kunz, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the second of a planned series which summarize efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory relating to phenomenology studies of back door coupling from several MHz to 10's of GHz. These studies are pertinent to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP and microwave coupling. Part I dealt with coupling through apertures into large free-standing cavities having, at most, one interior cable. An overview of the effort is given, and a summary of the effects observed in Part I. The main effort since Part I has been devoted to Facilities Development, development of an interior coupling decomposition model and coupling experiments. Projected future effort is discussed.

  1. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  2. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  3. Prescription pricing across Canada (Part II).

    PubMed

    Archer, F

    1984-09-01

    The first of a two part article entitled "Prescription Pricing Across Canada" appeared in the June issue of CPJ. The article was prompted by recent press reports of a prescription drug study commissioned by the Saskatchewan government, and the consequent attention-getting headlines. The first article dealt with the Western provinces. The second part discusses prescription pricing in Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and the Northwest Territories.

  4. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  5. The Metis Nation--Part Two II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorian, John

    1978-01-01

    This article deals with historical events involving the Metis people from the time Manitoba entered the Confederation to the conclusion of the 1885 battle at Fish Creek near Batoche, Saskatchewan. Part I is in the Summer, 1978 issue of the Northian. (Author/RTS)

  6. Cutting out the Middleman: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley; Crittenden, Chris

    1985-01-01

    The second part of the article published in "American School and University," December 1984 (EA 518 236), outlines specific steps administrators need to take to determine whether or not a direct purchase of natural gas is going to benefit their schools. (MLF)

  7. [Effects of anti-androgens on sexual function. Double-blind comparative studies on allylestrenol and chlormadinone acetate. Part II: Self-assessment questionnaire method].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Sato, Y; Suzuki, R; Tanda, H; Kato, S; Mori, K; Matsumoto, H; Maki, A; Kadono, M

    1990-02-01

    Allylestrenol (ALE) and chlormadinone acetate (CMA) were administered to patients with prostatomegaly by the double-blind method, and a self-assessment questionnaire method developed by the authors was used to study the influence of these two antiandrogens on their sexual function. Each test drug was orally administered to 58 patients, in a daily dosage of 50 mg for 12 consecutive weeks. The questionnaires consisted of 6 categories each consisting of 5 questions, or 30 questions in total. The 6 categories were "sexual desire," "erectile capacity" and "ejaculation," which relate to the sexual function, and "living environment (including the frequency of sex)," "dysuria" and "dummy (personality)." Each question was graded into 0-10 points, and each patient was requested to circle the number which best described his status. The scores were compiled and statistically analyzed. Many patients were senile. Evaluable answers were obtained for 99 (85.3%) of the 116 patients. Factor analysis based on the preadministration scores confirmed the contents of the questionnaires to be appropriate for the objectives of the present study. Multiple regression analysis revealed a high correlation between the self-assessment scores and objective data (nocturnal penile tumescence values; NPT values) when dropout cases due to a decrease in the sexual function and non-replying cases were excluded. The self-assessment questionnaire method was concluded to be as useful an objective test method as the NPT measurement for examining the sexual function. Aggravation of the "frequency of urination during night" was conspicuous in the CMA group, and there was a significant difference (p less than 0.05) in this parameter between the two groups. Except for this parameter, dysuria was improved in both administration groups, and there was no significant difference in the efficacy of the two drugs. Both drugs tended to suppress overall sexual function, but the suppression was less severe in the ALE

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  9. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  10. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  11. Peptide-directed self-assembly of functionalized polymeric nanoparticles. Part II: effects of nanoparticle composition on assembly behavior and multiple drug loading ability.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xu; Ding, Xiaochu; Moser, Trevor; Gao, Qi; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Heiden, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Peptide-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles were designed and self-assembled into continuous nanoparticle fibers and three-dimensional scaffolds via ionic complementary peptide interaction. Different nanoparticle compositions can be designed to be appropriate for each desired drug, so that the release of each drug is individually controlled and the simultaneous sustainable release of multiple drugs is achieved in a single scaffold. A self-assembled scaffold membrane was incubated with NIH3T3 fibroblast cells in a culture dish that demonstrated non-toxicity and non-inhibition on cell proliferation. This type of nanoparticle scaffold combines the advantages of peptide self-assembly and the versatility of polymeric nanoparticle controlled release systems for tissue engineering.

  12. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    PubMed

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  13. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  14. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and atopic dermatitis as risk factors for hand eczema in apprentice nurses: part II of a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Maaike J; Verberk, Maarten M; Campbell, Linda E; McLean, W H Irwin; Calkoen, Florentine; Bakker, Jan G; van Dijk, Frank J H; Bos, Jan D; Kezic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background/objectives Environmental exposure and personal susceptibility both contribute to the development of hand eczema. In this study, we investigated the effect of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG), atopic dermatitis and wet work exposure on the development of hand eczema in apprentice nurses. Methods Dutch apprentice nurses were genotyped for the four most common FLG mutations; atopic dermatitis and hand eczema history were assessed by questionnaire. Exposure and hand eczema during traineeships were assessed with diary cards. Results The prevalence of hand eczema during traineeships was higher among subjects with a history of hand eczema reported at inclusion. Hand washing during traineeships and at home increased the risk of hand eczema. After adjustment for the effects of exposure and FLG mutations, an odds ratio of 2.5 (90% confidence interval 1.7–3.7) was found for a history of atopic dermatitis. In this study, an increased risk of hand eczema conferred by FLG mutations could not be shown, but subjects with concomitant FLG mutations and atopic dermatitis showed the highest risk of hand eczema during traineeships. Conclusion A history of atopic dermatitis, a history of hand eczema and wet work exposure were the most important factors increasing the risk of hand eczema during traineeships. PMID:24102300

  15. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part II, Cancer Pain Populations

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F.; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life in cancer populations. Methods. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using the SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Results. Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were subsequently included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy is effective for treating pain compared to no treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD)  = −.20] and active (SMD = −0.55) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also found to be beneficial for treating fatigue (SMD = −1.06) and anxiety (SMD = −1.24). Conclusion. Based on the evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to an active comparator, for the treatment of pain, fatigue, and anxiety. No recommendations were suggested for massage therapy compared to no treatment or sham control based on the available literature to date. This review addresses massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option for cancer pain populations. PMID:27165967

  16. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion, Part II: Kinematic and dynamic modeling using theoretical Green's functions and comparison with the 1994 northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Liu, P.-C.; Fisk, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of methods for calculating synthetic time histories of ground motion for postulated earthquakes, kinematic source models have dominated to date because of their ease of application. Dynamic models, however, which incorporate a physical relationship between important faulting parameters of stress drop, slip, rupture velocity, and rise time, are becoming more accessible. This article compares a class of kinematic models based on the summation of a fractal distribution of subevent sizes with a dynamic model based on the slip-weakening friction law. Kinematic modeling is done for the frequency band 0.2 to 10.0. Hz, dynamic models are calculated from 0.2 to 2.0. Hz. The strong motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake is used to evaluate and compare the synthetic time histories. Source models are propagated to the far field by convolution with 1D and 3D theoretical Green’s functions. In addition, the kinematic model is used to evaluate the importance of propagation path effects: velocity structure, scattering, and nonlinearity. At present, the kinematic model gives a better broadband fit to the Northridge ground motion than the simple slip-weakening dynamic model. In general, the dynamic model overpredicts rise times and produces insufficient shorter-period energy. Within the context of the slip-weakening model, the Northridge ground motion requires a short slip-weakening distance, on the order of 0.15 m or less. A more complex dynamic model including rate weakening or one that allows shorter rise times near the hypocenter may fit the data better.

  17. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part II: HIV.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Anna; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV--zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy--a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of HIV blood concentration and often results in substantial recovery of impaired immunologic function. At present, there are over 20 drugs licensed and used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, and these drugs are divided into one of six classes. Investigational agents include GS-7340, the prodrug of tenofovir and BMS-663068--the first in a novel class of drugs that blocks the binding of the HIV gp120 to the CD4 receptor.

  18. Dynamic Forms. Part 1: Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan

    1993-01-01

    The formalism of dynamic forms is developed as a means for organizing and systematizing the design control systems. The formalism allows the designer to easily compute derivatives to various orders of large composite functions that occur in flight-control design. Such functions involve many function-of-a-function calls that may be nested to many levels. The component functions may be multiaxis, nonlinear, and they may include rotation transformations. A dynamic form is defined as a variable together with its time derivatives up to some fixed but arbitrary order. The variable may be a scalar, a vector, a matrix, a direction cosine matrix, Euler angles, or Euler parameters. Algorithms for standard elementary functions and operations of scalar dynamic forms are developed first. Then vector and matrix operations and transformations between parameterization of rotations are developed in the next level in the hierarchy. Commonly occurring algorithms in control-system design, including inversion of pure feedback systems, are developed in the third level. A large-angle, three-axis attitude servo and other examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed formalism. All algorithms were implemented in FORTRAN code. Practical experience shows that the proposed formalism may significantly improve the productivity of the design and coding process.

  19. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system.

  20. Bases of Radio Direction Finding, Part II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    FTD-ID(RS)T-2232-77 Part 2 of 2 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION BASES OF RADIO DIRECTION FINDING by I. S. Kukes, M. Ye. Starik -3- 0DAM Approved for...FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DI- FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION I VISION. j WP.AFB, OHIO. FTD- ID(RS)T-2232-77 Date22 Dec 1977 Table of Contents U.S. Board on...2939, Nt 8, LTI). 3. 11.2 WI ir-p x( o a~ B. B OcitowiwN -punpcKi:. si’Hovim’ paAisonve.1CI* MONil . PCJA.-.It3A. OTA. A9JI1041-1oTS, .1943. 11.3. C a R

  1. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  2. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  3. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article.

  4. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  5. Overactive bladder - 18 years - Part II.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell'Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Castano, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; Lopez, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics - pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy - started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning - as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder - 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  6. Wave Propagation in Polymers, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newlander, David C.; Charest, Jacques A.; Lilly, Martin D.; Eisler, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    Work reported in a previous study (Wave Propagations in Polymers, Part I, J.A. Charest, M.D. Lilly, 44th ARA Meeting Munich, Germany Sept. 17-20, 1993) discussed gas gun plane wave impact work and the measurements of stress wave profiles in Polycarbonate at around 2 kbars. The wave profiles were obtained using combined carbon and PVDF thin film stress gauges. The results showed amplitude attenuation and dispersion effects which were neither expected nor predictable from available hydrocode models. The data have been revisited using a modified material model and the PUFF74 computer code. These new wave profile calculations show remarkable agreement with the previous experiments in Polycarbonate. The model treats the material as viscoelastic-plastic using methods developed by Bade (Dynamic Response Model for PMMA, W. L. Bade, AVCO Systems Division, TR K500-74-WLB-204, Oct. 1, 1974). The measured and calculated results are quite different from those exhibited by PMMA at similar impact conditions. This work is expected to further our understanding of the processes that control wave propagation in highly-compressible and viscoelastic/viscoplastic media. It is also expected to provide clues on the effects of high strain rates on properties such as the modulus of elasticity, strength, and material loading behavior.

  7. DICOM: key concepts--part II.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these two installments of IT World was to give a general overview of DICOM and to take a look at different parts of the standard to get a sense of its main themes. We found that the standard provides a common reference for all developers but does not impose a single type of implementation. This allows for innovation. The standard is also built for flexibility, able to adapt to new modalities that have a need to communicate. The speedy acceptance of DICOM by the medical imaging industry is opening new possibilities for healthcare organizations to increase the quality while decreasing the cost of patient care. All of the DICOM networked supporting medical equipment as well as the organization's computer systems made by multiple original equipment manufacturers and located at one site or many sites can communicate by means of DICOM. This gives us the opportunity for medical images to be captured and communicated quicker. The result enables physicians to make diagnoses and treatment decisions sooner. It's all good stuff and even more reason why we should endeavor to understand the basics of DICOM. DICOM is here to stay!

  8. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  9. Interpreting the H II Region Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, M. S.; Clarke, C. J.

    1998-12-01

    We construct Monte Carlo simulations of the H II region luminosity function (H II LF), drawing ionizing stars from a constant stellar IMF, and the number of ionizing stars from a power-law distribution of constant slope. We find that observed variations in the form of the H II LF across the Hubble sequence can be explained by a trend in the maximum number of ionizing stars per nebula. In addition, variations in the form of the H II LF between arm and interarm populations of spiral galaxies can be explained by evolutionary effects. The H II LF can thus reveal features in the most recent (< 10 Myr) star formation history of the host galaxies.

  10. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1991-92. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report, which combined Part I and Part II of a benefit study, presents data from a survey of Ontario universities concerning fringe benefits offered in 1991-92. Part I is made up of a series of tables displaying the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution. The first five tables cover general aspects of benefits,…

  11. EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IN-RESIDENCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, PART I, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELICAN, ROBERT L.; PURCELL, FRANCIS P.

    THE TWO PARTS OF THIS DISCUSSION CONSIDER THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL PROGRAMS FOR VOCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TRAINING TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF THE LOW-INCOME SCHOOL DROPOUT. PART I REVIEWS THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RESIDENCY PROGRAMS IN SUCH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, CHURCHES, AND SUMMER CAMPS. PART II DEALS WITH THE…

  12. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill...

  13. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill...

  14. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  15. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  16. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  17. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  18. Ethical Research Practices: Collaborative Action Research, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…

  19. Part I: Microscopic description of liquid He II. Part II: Uniformly approximated WKB method as used for the calculation of phase shifts in heavy-ion collision problems

    SciTech Connect

    Suebka, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part I, the excitation spectrum of liquid He II is obtained using the two-body potential consists of a hardcore potential plus an outside attractive potential. The sum of two gaussian potential of Khanna and Das which is similar to the Lennard-Jones potential is chosen as the attractive potential. The t-matrix method due to Brueckner and Sawada is adopted with modifications to replace the interaction potential. The spectrum gives the phonon branch and the roton dip which resemble the excitation spectrum for liquid He II. The temperature dependence of the excitation spectrum enters into calculation through the zero-momentum state occupation number. A better approximation of thermodynamic functions is obtained by extending Landau's theory to the situation where the excitation is a function of temperature as well as of momentum. Our thermodynamic calculations also bear qualitative agreement with measurements on He II as expected.

  20. Structural and functional dynamics of plant photosystem II.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jan M; Chow, W S

    2002-01-01

    Given the unique problem of the extremely high potential of the oxidant P(+)(680) that is required to oxidize water to oxygen, the photoinactivation of photosystem II in vivo is inevitable, despite many photoprotective strategies. There is, however, a robustness of photosystem II, which depends partly on the highly dynamic compositional and structural heterogeneity of the cycle between functional and non-functional photosystem II complexes in response to light level. This coordinated regulation involves photon usage (energy utilization in photochemistry) and excess energy dissipation as heat, photoprotection by many molecular strategies, photoinactivation followed by photon damage and ultimately the D1 protein dynamics involved in the photosystem II repair cycle. Compelling, though indirect evidence suggests that the radical pair P(+)(680)Pheo(-) in functional PSII should be protected from oxygen. By analogy to the tentative oxygen channel of cytochrome c oxidase, oxygen may be liberated from the two water molecules bound to the catalytic site of the Mn cluster, via a specific pathway to the membrane surface. The function of the proposed oxygen pathway is to prevent O(2) from having direct access to P(+)(680)Pheo(-) and prevent the generation of singlet oxygen via the triplet-P(680) state in functional photosytem IIs. Only when the, as yet unidentified, potential trigger with a fateful first oxidative step destroys oxygen evolution, will the ensuing cascade of structural perturbations of photosystem II destroy the proposed oxygen, water and proton pathways. Then oxygen has direct access to P(+)(680)Pheo(-), singlet oxygen will be produced and may successively oxidize specific amino acids of the phosphorylated D1 protein of photosystem II dimers that are confined to appressed granal domains, thereby targeting D1 protein for eventual degradation and replacement in non-appressed thylakoid domains. PMID:12437881

  1. Directed evolution: new parts and optimized function.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Michael J; Arnold, Frances H

    2009-08-01

    Constructing novel biological systems that function in a robust and predictable manner requires better methods for discovering new functional molecules and for optimizing their assembly in novel biological contexts. By enabling functional diversification and optimization in the absence of detailed mechanistic understanding, directed evolution is a powerful complement to 'rational' engineering approaches. Aided by clever selection schemes, directed evolution has generated new parts for genetic circuits, cell-cell communication systems, and non-natural metabolic pathways in bacteria.

  2. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Part 257 A. Processes To Significantly Reduce Pathogens Aerobic digestion: The process is... of which temperatures average on a daily basis above 0 °C. Anaerobic digestion: The process is...: Liquid sludge is heated to temperatures of 180 °C for 30 minutes. Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion:...

  8. Probabilistic finite-state machines--part II.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enrique; Thollard, Frank; de la Higuera, Colin; Casacuberta, Francisco; Carrasco, Rafael C

    2005-07-01

    Probabilistic finite-state machines are used today in a variety of areas in pattern recognition or in fields to which pattern recognition is linked. In Part I of this paper, we surveyed these objects and studied their properties. In this Part II, we study the relations between probabilistic finite-state automata and other well-known devices that generate strings like hidden Markov models and n-grams and provide theorems, algorithms, and properties that represent a current state of the art of these objects.

  9. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  10. Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Martha R; Sage, Cindy

    2013-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures

  11. Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum Powder: Part II. Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2009-12-01

    The optimal processing parameters that are required to atomize amorphous Al were established on the basis of numerical simulations in part I of this study. In this part II, the characterization of cooling rate experienced by gas-atomized, Al-based amorphous powders was studied via experiments. An experimental investigation was implemented to validate the numerical predictions reported in part I of this study. The cooling rate experienced by the powders, for example, was experimentally determined on the basis of dendrite arm spacing correlations, and the results were compared with the numerical predictions. The experimental studies were completed using commercial Al 2024 as a baseline material and Al90Gd7Ni2Fe1 metallic glass (MG). The results showed that the cooling rate of droplets increases with decreasing particle size, with an increasing proportion of helium in the atomization gas and with increasing melt superheat. The experimental results reported in this article suggest good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations.

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

    2008-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:19506724

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  14. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  15. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  16. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  18. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1048 - Large Spark-ignition (SI) Composite Transient Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Large Spark-ignition (SI) Composite Transient Cycle II Appendix II to Part 1048 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 1048, App. II Appendix II to Part 1048—Large Spark-ignition (SI) Composite Transient Cycle...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance II Appendix II to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC...

  10. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  12. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    II: Effects of Multiple Doses Part !I: 2,4-T)initrotoiuene I Progres Report No. 3 oNovember 1978 by 3I Cheng-Chun Lee U Hirty V. Ellis, III Jo.,n J...Sciences Division November 1978 vii :. •I~~~~AMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS ... ... PHASE IIz Effects of Multiple Doses m . ............... PART...161 xi MAMOMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of Multiple Dones PART II: 2,4

  13. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040... Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Schedule F... Number: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040). Abstract: Schedule F, Part II and III (Form 1040)...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted...

  16. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  17. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... II to Part 1039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 1039, App. II Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  1. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  2. A pesticide emission model (PEM) Part II: model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, M. T.; Voldner, E.; Van Heyst, B. J.; McMillan, A. C.; Pattey, E.

    In the first part of the paper, the development of a numerical pesticide emission model (PEM) is described for predicting the volatilization of pesticides applied to agricultural soils and crops through soil incorporation, surface spraying, or in the furrow at the time of planting. In this paper the results of three steps toward the evaluation of PEM are reported. The evaluation involves: (i) verifying the numerical algorithms and computer code through comparison of PEM simulations with an available analytical solution of the advection/diffusion equation for semi-volatile solutes in soil; (ii) comparing hourly heat, moisture and emission fluxes of trifluralin and triallate modeled by PEM with fluxes measured using the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique; and (iii) comparison of the PEM predictions of persistence half-life for 29 pesticides with the ranges of persistence found in the literature. The overall conclusion from this limited evaluation study is that PEM is a useful model for estimating the volatilization rates of pesticides from agricultural soils and crops. The lack of reliable estimates of chemical and photochemical degradation rates of pesticide on foliage, however, introduces large uncertainties in the estimates from any model of the volatilization of pesticide that impacts the canopy.

  3. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  4. IPCC Working Group II: Impacts and Adaptation Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    The IPCC (as opposed to the UN Framework Convention) defines climate change as" any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity". The IPCC Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability) was charged with assessing the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of vulnerability to climate change, and, the negative and positive consequences for ecological systems, socio-economic sectors, and human health. The Working Group II report focused on the following issues for different sectors and regions (e.g. water, agriculture, biodiversity) and communities (coastal, island, etc.): · The role of adaptation in reducing vulnerability and impacts, · Assessment of adaptation capacity, options and constraints, and · Enhancing adaptation practice and operations. This presentation will address the following questions in the context of the results of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG II: · What are the barriers, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for impacts assessments? · How are decisions about adaptation being made, and what types of adaptation strategies are being undertaken? · What are good adaptation practices and how are they learned over time? Examples will be drawn from the freshwater resources, small islands and adaptation chapters to which the presenter contributed. Many lessons have been identified but few have been implemented or evaluated over time. Adaptation occurs in the context of multiple stresses. Adaptation will be important in coping with early impacts in the near-term and continue to be important as our climate changes, regardless of how that change is derived. It is important to note that unmitigated climate change could, in the long term, exceed the capacity of different natural, managed and human systems to adapt. The assessment leads to the following conclusions: · Adaptation to climate change is already taking place, but on a limited basis · Adaptation measures

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  8. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM.

  9. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  10. Simulation of Slag Freeze Layer Formation: Part II: Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Fernando J.; Irons, Gordon A.

    2011-08-01

    The experiments from Part I with CaCl2-H2O solidification in a differentially heated, square cavity were simulated in two dimensions using a control volume technique in a fixed grid. The test conditions and physical properties of the fluid resulted in Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers in the range of 50 and 2.1 × 108, respectively, and the solidification was observed to be planar with dispersed solid particles. In the mathematical model, temperature-dependent viscosity and density functions were employed. To suppress velocities in the solid phase, various models were tested, and a high effective viscosity was found most appropriate. The results compare well with the experiments in terms of solid layer growth, horizontal and vertical velocities, heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions. Hydrodynamic boundary layers on the solidified front and on the hot vertical wall tend to be nonsymmetric, as well on the top and bottom adiabatic walls. The high viscosity value imposed on the two-phase zone affects the velocity profile close to the solid front and modifies the heat transfer rate.

  11. Coping With the Problems of a Technological Age, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This is another report in a series of programs dealing with the problems of a technological age. It is assumed that teachers will use both parts of this report. Part I deals with the problems of technology and how it affects our lives. It also discusses the energy crisis created, in part, by technology and deals specifically with coal and…

  12. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1. This statement is to...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement Concerning Acceptance of Travel or Travel Expenses From a Foreign Government Item 1.This statement is to...

  17. Preparation and characterization of multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel for removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Ming-yu; Feng, Chang-gen; Zeng, Qing-xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel was prepared by surface grafting method and applied for the removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and elemental analysis, and it proved that the organic functional group, carboxyl group, was grafted successfully onto the silica gel surface. The effect of solution pH on removal efficiencies of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was investigated and it was found that with the exception of Zn (II), the removal efficiencies of the rest of metal ions increased with the increasing of pH in the solution, the maximum removal efficiency occurred at pH 6.0, whereas the maximum removal efficiency for Zn (II) was found to be at pH 7.0. Adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to Langmuir than Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was 47.07, 41.48, 30.80 and 39.96 mg/g, respectively. Competitive adsorption experiments demonstrated that the adsorbent material had excellent adsorption amount and high affinity for the Cu (II) in the binary systems. In addition, the column experiments were used to investigate stability and reusability of the adsorbent, the dynamic adsorption performance, and desorption of metal ions absorbed from the adsorbent. The results confirmed that the adsorbent presents good dynamic adsorption performance for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) and these metal ions adsorbed were easy to be desorbed from the adsorbent. The adsorption capacities of metal ions did not present an obvious decrease after five cycles of adsorption-desorption.

  18. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro–mechano–morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro–mechano–morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function

  19. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  20. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific "philosophy" of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with…

  1. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles Part II. Polymer Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This is part two in a series on classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Described is how large molecules can be assembled from subunits (the process of polymerization). Examples chosen include both linear and branched or cross-linked molecules. (RH)

  2. Predictors of performance on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Parts I and II*

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Angela R.; Harvey, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for success on Parts I and II of the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) written examinations. Methods Two validity studies were conducted to examine the criterion validity of Logan College assessments for Part I and II NBCE scores. Both studies consisted of a longitudinal design to examine the validity of entrance grade point average (GPA), in-program chiropractic course content GPA, and an institutional practice exam on Parts I and II of the NBCE. Results Analyses revealed that Part I GPA and practice exam scores combined accounted for 72% of the variance within Part I NBCE scores. Furthermore, every subtest of the Part I NBCE could be reliably predicted by course performance. In the 2nd study, Part I GPA, Part I NBCE score, and Part II GPA accounted for 75% of the variance within Part II NBCE scores. Conclusions Internal training and educational assessments (eg, course grades and practice exams) proved to be strong determinants of NBCE performance above and beyond initial levels of preparedness, thus validating the impact of the chiropractic curriculum on NBCE test achievement. PMID:24611459

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of... Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, App. B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part...

  4. Mental Retardation Grants; Part II, Research and Demonstration. Fiscal Year 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Part II of a two-part publication listing mental retardation grants awarded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in fiscal year 1968 (July 1, 1967, to June 30, 1968), the text includes grants awarded in the areas of research and demonstration. (Part I covers grants in training and construction.) Grants are arranged according to…

  5. Luminosity function of [O II] emission-line galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, KwangHo; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Ho, Shirley; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2015-11-01

    We examine the luminosity function (LF) of [O II] emission-line galaxies in the high-resolution cosmological simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). From the spectral energy distribution of each galaxy, we select a sub-sample of star-forming galaxies at 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 3.0 using the [O II] emission line luminosity L([O II]). We confirm that the specific star formation rate matches that in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We show that the [O II] LF at z = 1.0 from the MBII shows good agreement with the LFs from several surveys below L([O II]) = 1043.0 erg s-1 while the low redshifts (z ≤ 0.3) show an excess in the prediction of bright [O II] galaxies, but still displaying a good match with observations below L([O II]) = 1041.6 erg s-1. Based on the validity in reproducing the properties of [O II] galaxies at low redshift (z ≤ 1), we forecast the evolution of the [O II] LF at high redshift (z ≤ 3), which can be tested by upcoming surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. The slopes of the LFs at bright and faint ends range from -3 to -2 showing minima at z = 2. The slope of the bright end evolves approximately as (z + 1)-1 at z ≤ 2 while the faint end evolves as ˜3(z + 1)-1 at 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2. In addition, a similar analysis is applied for the evolution of [O III] LFs, which is to be explored in the forthcoming survey Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets. Finally, we show that the auto-correlation function of [O II] and [O III] emitting galaxies shows a rapid evolution from z = 2 to 1.

  6. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  7. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  8. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  9. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  11. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  12. The Need for Ocean Literacy in the Classroom: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedinger, Sarah; Cava, Francesca; Jewell, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As mentioned in Part I, certain classroom activities can help students learn about the ocean and empower them to make informed decisions about their impacts on the environment. One such activity focuses on harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this article, the authors include background information on HABs and then present two activities. Activity 1 is…

  13. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  14. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  15. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  16. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy.

  17. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That…

  18. Laboratory Animal Housing--Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert S.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, the use of laboratory animals for bio-medical research has shown marked increase. Economic and efficient housing is a necessity. This two part report established guidelines for design and selection of materials for conventional animal housing. Contents include--(1) production and breeding facilities, (2) quarantine facilities, (3)…

  19. Functional system design document for the Intelligent Inspection System (IIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    IIS (Intelligent Inspection System) is a Martin Marietta Energy Systems Quality Services division project to design and implement a new generation inspection workstation/machine system to be used on all new and upgraded inspection machines for the next several years. The initial implementation will be on upgraded YZ inspection machines. These machines now utilize the dual processor (PDP-ll/Allen Bradley combination) hardware and software. Portions of the hardware for these current systems are no longer available. Future implementations will include dual YZ, CMM and OMM systems, both upgrades and new. IIS project scope includes all of the inspection machine control hardware and software, all software to receive a part program, collect inspection data, analyze the data, output results, and the operator interface. Also included in the IIS scope are the operator interface and electronic data handling for the part programming interface and the shop floor interface.

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... Pressure and vacuum relief settings. XI. Warning Systems Related to Emission Controls. 1....

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix II to Part 1042 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine II Appendix II to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents II Appendix II to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR... Accounting Office at such reasonable times and places as may be mutually agreed upon by said...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a)...

  19. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  20. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Glick, Jaimie B; Kaur, Ravneet R; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  1. Wideband, low-frequency springless vibration energy harvesters: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendame, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Soliman, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    This paper concludes a two-part investigation of a novel architecture for vibration energy harvesting (VEH), the springless VEH. In this part, we study vertical springless electromagnetic VEHs where the direction of motion is aligned with the gravitational field. Experimental results show the existence of three topologies in the response of vertical springless VEHs; linear, single-impact, and double-impact. A model, encompassing all three topologies, was developed and validated by comparison to experimental results. We found that vertical springless VEHs demonstrate low frequency harvesting (<20 Hz), widebeand harvesting (bandwidths up to \\text{BW}=11.2 Hz), and an optimal output power of P  =  7.52 mW at a base acceleration of 0.6 g. While horizontal springless VEHs typically offer more output power, the single-impact regime of the vertical springless VEHs offers the simultaneous advantages of wider harvesting bandwidths at lower operating frequencies.

  2. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  3. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  4. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  5. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  6. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment.

  7. Cancer Chemotherapy: Past, Present, and Future—Part II

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer is of major concern today because of its high mortality. It is estimated that 66 million people in this country will eventually develop cancer; 1983 estimates were 855,000 new cases and 440,000 deaths from cancer. Because of limitations of surgery and radiation therapy in effecting a cure for cancer, chemotherapy has become increasingly important. The developments in the chemical control of cancer in man are encouraging. This two-part paper* covers the historical milestones in the development of the chemical and hormonal control of cancer, present successes with the use of polychemotherapy, and the hopeful trend in research. PMID:6492179

  8. Responsive Persistence Part II. Practices of Postmodern Therapists.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Olga; Dienhart, Anna; Turner, Jean

    2013-10-01

    This article, a companion to Part I of this series of articles, discusses how therapists informed by social constructionist and postmodern ideas enact persistence in their work with families. Transcripts and video-recordings of therapy interaction facilitated by selected major champions for three postmodern (collaborative) therapies: Michael White (narrative therapy), Harlene Anderson (collaborative language systems approach), and Bill O'Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy) were examined for persistence practices. The article offers a range of possible ways in which postmodern therapists may enact their influence in facilitating generative and helpful conversations with families and remain responsive to clients' preferences and understandings. Implications for family therapy practice, training, and supervision are discussed.

  9. Investigation of the Performance of Commercial Batteries; Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Arthur; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that involves determining, by coulometry, the energy output of different types and makes of 1.5-volt AA cells as a function of EMF and time. Involves measuring the volume of hydrogen gas collected at the cathode from the reduction of hydrogen ions in aqueous sulfuric acid by a current produced by the discharge of an AA battery.…

  10. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  11. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a desirable interface between this system and engineered nanomaterials was assessed in part I, which was published in the May 2013 issue of Nanomedicine. Unwanted pro- and anti-coagulant properties of nanoparticles represent significant concerns in the field of nanomedicine, and often hamper the development and transition into the clinic of many promising engineered nanocarriers. This part will focus on the undesirable effects of engineered nanomaterials on the blood coagulation system. We will discuss the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (e.g., size, charge and hydrophobicity) that determine their negative effects on the blood coagulation system in order to understand how manipulation of these properties can help to overcome unwanted side effects.

  12. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    PubMed

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions.

  13. Solar System: Surfing the Edge of Chaos Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Danforth, C. M.

    2008-05-01

    The orbital positions and masses of the Jovian planets are known only to a few parts in 107. At the 2006 DDA meeting in Halifax, I presented results, recently published in Nature Physics and MNRAS, which demonstrated the existence of both chaotic and near-regular orbits within the current observational error volume. In this talk, joint work with Chris Danforth of the University of Vermont, we present results demonstrating extremely rich structure of Lyapunov times within the uncertainty volume across many two-dimensional slices through initial-condition space. These slices include the Cartesian product of every pair of orbital semi-major axes ap, plus Cartesian products between ap and eccentricity ep for each Jovian planet p. Some of the observed structure is reminiscent of Guzzo's "Web of 3-body resonances", although it is not clear that 3-body resonances are the cause in this case since the structure extends several orders of magnitude below the scale at which Murray + Holman's 3-body resonance theory has been explored. Some of the structure is entirely unlike that seen in Guzzo's Web, and may require further theoretical development to understand. Finally, several "zoom-in” plots, reminiscent of those done for the Mandelbrot set, demonstrate that the structure continues down, at least, to scales of about one part in 109. In all cases, we verify the reliability of our integrations using convergence tests to demonstrate that the picture does not change even when the integration timestep is decreased significantly.

  14. Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part II--the 'red' granulomas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jane M; Barrett, Terry L

    2004-07-01

    A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. 'blue' granulomas vs. 'red' granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In the previously published first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and histologic features of the 'blue' collagenolytic granulomas were discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In this second half of the series, the 'red' collagenolytic granulomas are discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's Syndrome).

  15. Active flow control for a NACA-0012 Profile: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, H.; Makadem, M.; Ouchene, H.; Ferfouri, A.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control is applied to a NACA-0012 profile. The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel. Using a high-resolution visible-light camera and tomography, flow visualizations are carried out. LES finite-volume 3D code is used to complement the physical experiments. The symmetric wing is clipped into two parts, and those parts extend and retract along the chord according to the same sinusoidal law we optimized last year for the same profile but clipped at an angle of 60 deg, instead of the original 90 deg. The Reynolds number range is extended to 500,000, thus covering the flying regimes of micro-UAVs, UAVs, as well as small aircraft. When the nascent cavity is open and the attack angle is 30 deg, the drag coefficient is increased by 1,300%, as compared to the uncontrolled case. However, when the cavity is covered and Re <=105 , a relatively small frequency, f <= 30 Hz, is required for the drag coefficient to drop to negative values. At the maximum Reynolds number, thrust is generated but only at much higher frequencies, 12 <= f <= 16 kHz.

  16. Dynamic spreading of nanofluids on solids part II: modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kondiparty, Kirtiprakash; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh

    2012-11-27

    Recent studies on the spreading phenomena of liquid dispersions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) have revealed that the self-layering and two-dimensional structuring of nanoparticles in the three-phase contact region exert structural disjoining pressure, which drives the spreading of nanofluids by forming a continuous wedge film between the liquid (e.g., oil) and solid surface. Motivated by the practical applications of the phenomenon and experimental results reported in Part I of this two-part series, we thoroughly investigated the spreading dynamics of nanofluids against an oil drop on a solid surface. With the Laplace equation as a starting point, the spreading process is modeled by Navier-Stokes equations through the lubrication approach, which considers the structural disjoining pressure, gravity, and van der Waals force. The temporal interface profile and advancing inner contact line velocity of nanofluidic films are analyzed through varying the effective nanoparticle concentration, the outer contact angle, the effective nanoparticle size, and capillary pressure. It is found that a fast and spontaneous advance of the inner contact line movement can be obtained by increasing the nanoparticle concentration, decreasing the nanoparticle size, and/or decreasing the interfacial tension. Once the nanofluidic film is formed, the advancing inner contact line movement reaches a constant velocity, which is independent of the outer contact angle if the interfacial tension is held constant.

  17. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  18. Modified sprint interval training protocols. Part II. Psychological responses.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Logan K; Islam, Hashim; Dunn, Emily; Eys, Mark; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Hazell, Tom J

    2017-04-01

    Sprint-interval training (SIT) is a viable method to improve health and fitness. However, researchers have questioned the utility of SIT because of its strenuous nature. The current study aimed to determine if manipulating the sprint and recovery duration, while maintaining the 1:8 work to rest ratio, could uncover a more favourable SIT protocol. Nine healthy active males (age, 23.3 ± 3.0 years; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2); maximal oxygen consumption, 48.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in 3 experimental running SIT sessions: (i) 30:240 (4 × 30-s efforts, 240-s recovery), (ii) 15:120 (8 × 15-s efforts, 120-s recovery), (iii) 5:40 (24 × 5-s efforts, 40-s recovery), and (iv) a final behavioural choice follow-up session. Affect, intentions, task self-efficacy, enjoyment, and preference were evaluated. Midway through exercise, affect became more positive for 5:40 compared with 30:240 (p < 0.05) and postexercise affect was greater for both 5:40 (p = 0.014) and 15:120 (p = 0.015) compared with 30:240. Participants expressed greater intentions to perform 5:40 3 and 5 times/week compared with 15:120 and 30:240 (p < 0.05). Participants felt more confident in their ability to perform 5:40 (p = 0.001) and 15:120 (p = 0.008) compared with 30:240. The 5:40 session was also rated as more enjoyable than 15:120 (p = 0.025) and 30:240 (p = 0.026). All participants preferred the 5:40 protocol. These data suggest that shorter sprints with more repetitions are perceived as more enjoyable and lead to greater intentions to engage in SIT.

  19. Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.

  20. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: Part II: clinical and imaging considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Burns, SH; O’Connor, SM; Mior, SA

    1991-01-01

    In this, the second of a two part series, we continue to review the recent literature pertaining to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Caused by the compromise of the spinal canal resulting from the superimposition of spondylotic changes upon a congenitally narrowed canal, CSM has a predictable radiographic and clinical presentation. The clinical presentation frequently includes both upper and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Careful analysis of the plain film images usually reveals a spinal canal measuring 12 mm or less. Additional imaging modalities confirm the diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical and imaging characteristics underlying CSM and stresses the importance of including CSM in the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of neck and leg dysfunctions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  1. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George; Abel, David

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  2. Laboratory Information Management Systems--part II. Implementation.

    PubMed

    McDowall, R D; Pearce, J C; Murkitt, G S

    1988-01-01

    In this, the second of two articles on Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS), the stages of the acquisition of a system are discussed. First, the laboratory automation strategy is developed leading to the writing of the requirements specification sent to prospective suppliers. The next step, in conjunction with the chosen supplier, is to write the functional and systems specifications from which the LIMS will be tailored. Once installed the LIMS must be validated and in the event of hardware or software changes, should undergo partial or full re-validation. The education and training of users, and operational considerations are presented before concluding with possible developments of LIMS in the future.

  3. High Current Cathode Thermal Behavior, Part II: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodfellow, K. D.; Polk, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Cathode erosion is one of the life limiting mechanisms for several classes of electric thrusters. Since cathode erosion is strongly dependent on the cathode temperature, a quantitative understanding of the effects of cathode operation on the cathode temperature is required. The development of a cathode/plasma interaction model for determining the heat loads to the cathode as function of the various free stream plasma parameters is presented. This model is combined with a cathode thermal model in order to provide a complete and integrated picture of high current cathode operation.

  4. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1913 to 1982. Most of the references are from the 1960's and 1970's. (RH)

  5. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  6. MONGOLS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, PART II. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 37, PART 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUPEN, ROBERT A.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY DIRECTLY SUPPLEMENTS AND IS INTENDED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF "MONGOLS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, PART I." THE RANGE OF SUBJECT MATTER, HOWEVER, GOES FAR BEYOND THE SPECIFIC CONCERNS OF THE FIRST VOLUME, COVERING GENERAL AND SPECIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHIES, UNSIGNED REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, OFFICIAL HISTORIES,…

  7. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  8. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  9. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  10. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology--part II: vascular.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in the medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in the medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the science of medicine. In this second part of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to the pulmonary vasculature, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  11. The human vomeronasal organ. Part II: prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, TIMOTHY D.; BHATNAGAR, KUNWAR P.

    2000-01-01

    During the 20th century, the human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been controversial regarding its structure, function, and even identity. Despite reports that provide evidence for its presence throughout prenatal and postnatal ontogeny, some studies and numerous textbooks declare its absence in late fetal and postnatal humans. To that end, the present study was designed to establish firmly whether the human VNO is homologous with that of other mammals and whether it degenerates (partially or completely) or persists throughout prenatal development. Fifty human embryos and fetuses (33 d to 32 wk fertilisation age) and 2 neonates were examined by light microscopy. Four embryonic primates (mouse lemurs) were examined for a comparison of VNO embryogenesis. The presence or absence and structural characteristics of the VNO and supporting tissues are described. The first appearance of the VNO was in the form of bilateral epithelial thickenings of the nasal septum, the vomeronasal primordium. The primordia invaginated between 37 and 43 d of age and formed the tubular VNO. The tubular VNO was located dorsally at a variable distance from, but was always spatially separated from the paraseptal cartilages. The mouse lemurs examined in this study and other reports from the literature indicate that the human VNO resembles that of primates having functional VNOs until just after a tubular VNO is formed. Examination of the VNO and adjacent tissues suggested that the VNO may lose receptor cells and corresponding vomeronasal nerves and become a ciliated, pseudostratified epithelium between ∼ 12 and 14 wk of age. Our findings indicate the prenatal human VNO goes through 3 successive stages: early morphogenesis, transformation (of the epithelium), and growth. These observations indicated that (1) all embryonic humans develop a vomeronasal organ which is homologous with the VNOs of other mammals, but which has become displaced and highly variable in relative location during

  12. Neuroimaging studies of striatum in cognition part II: Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a gradual shift in the definition of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been established, from a classical akinetic-rigid movement disorder to a multi-system neurodegenerative disease. While the pathophysiology of PD is complex and goes much beyond the nigro-striatal degeneration, the striatum has been shown to be responsible for many cognitive functions. Patients with PD develop impairments in multiple cognitive domains and the PD model is probably the most extensively studied regarding striatum dysfunction and its influence on cognition. Up to 40% of PD patients present cognitive impairment even in the early stages of disease development. Thus, understanding the key patterns of striatum and connecting regions' influence on cognition will help develop more specific approaches to alleviate cognitive impairment and slow down its decline. This review focuses on the contribution of neuroimaging studies in understanding how striatum impairment affects cognition in PD. PMID:26500512

  13. Geometric constrained variational calculus. III: The second variation (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The problem of minimality for constrained variational calculus is analyzed within the class of piecewise differentiable extremaloids. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional based on a family of local gauge transformations of the original Lagrangian is proposed. The necessity of pursuing a local adaptation process, rather than the global one described in [1] is seen to depend on the value of certain scalar attributes of the extremaloid, here called the corners’ strengths. On this basis, both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for minimality are worked out. In the discussion, a crucial role is played by an analysis of the prolongability of the Jacobi fields across the corners. Eventually, in the appendix, an alternative approach to the concept of strength of a corner, more closely related to Pontryagin’s maximum principle, is presented.

  14. Communication restriction in adults who stutter: Part II.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amanda; Robb, Michael; van Dulm, Ondene; Ormond, Tika

    This article presents a follow-up study to Lee, van Dulm, Robb, and Ormond (2015). The aim was to explore communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS) using typical language measures and systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analyses. The article compared the pre- and post-treatment performance of AWS in language productivity and complexity, transitivity, modality, appraisal, and theme. Ten-minute conversational samples were obtained from 20 AWS before and after participation in intensive stuttering treatment. Transcripts were analysed for quantity and complexity of verbal output, and frequency of transitivity, modality, appraisal and theme resources. Between pre- and post-treatment, the following differences were observed: (1) a significant increase in frequency of modal operators, and trends approaching significance for (2) increased language complexity (3) increased language expressing appraisal. These changes suggest increased flexibility of language use in AWS following treatment, particularly towards interpersonal engagement. The value of SFL to this area of research is discussed.

  15. [Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part II].

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

    2012-08-01

    In contrast to the male orgasm, female orgasm is characterized by high variability and diversity, not only in the general population, but also during the life. Women experience sexual pleasure on many levels: physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual. Sexual functioning of women and men is determined by many factors. A strong correlation between the state of subjective arousal and genital response (erection) is typical for men. In the case of women important role played: emotions, cognitive interpretation of the situation, age, self-esteem and previous sexual experiences. Among women experience orgasm during intercourse or masturbation is not a goal in itself. Modern approach to the phenomenon of orgasm and sexual education of women, make absence of orgasm as a failure. It becomes a source of low self-esteem, less self-confidence or sense of lack of attractiveness.

  16. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  17. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Joshua A; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  18. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Joshua A.; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  19. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  20. FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, S.; Barth, A.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Beckert, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present progressive work that is based on our recently developed rapid control prototyping system (RCP), designed for the implementation of high-performance adaptive optical control algorithms using a continuous de-formable mirror (DM). The RCP system, presented in 2014, is resorting to a Xilinx Kintex-7 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), placed on a self-developed PCIe card, and installed on a high-performance computer that runs a hard real-time Linux operating system. For this purpose, algorithms for the efficient evaluation of data from a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) on an FPGA have been developed. The corresponding analog input and output cards are designed for exploiting the maximum possible performance while not being constrained to a specific DM and control algorithm due to the RCP approach. In this second part of our contribution, we focus on recent results that we achieved with this novel experimental setup. By presenting results which are far superior to the former ones, we further justify the deployment of the RCP system and its required time and resources. We conducted various experiments for revealing the effective performance, i.e. the maximum manageable complexity in the controller design that may be achieved in real-time without performance losses. A detailed analysis of the hidden latencies is carried out, showing that these latencies have been drastically reduced. In addition, a series of concepts relating the evaluation of the wavefront as well as designing and synthesizing a wavefront are thoroughly investigated with the goal to overcome some of the prevalent limitations. Furthermore, principal results regarding the closed-loop performance of the low-speed dynamics of the integrated heater in a DM concept are illustrated in detail; to be combined with the piezo-electric high-speed actuators in the next step

  1. The intra-uterine device. Part II: technical problems.

    PubMed

    Alexander, I

    1980-10-01

    In discussing the technical problems associated with the IUD, focus is on the basic insertion technique, the technique to use with the various IUDs (Copper 7, Lippes Loop, Copper T models, the Saf-T-coil, and the multiload 250), the timing of the insertion, and removal of the IUD. Bimanual examination of the pelvis must be performed before an IUD is inserted. Prior to starting the insertion, the patient should be given an explanation of what is to be done. As patients are unfamiliar with the appearance of most of the instruments, it is advisable to keep them from view. Having visualized the cervix and fixed the blades of the Cusco speculum in the open position, the cervix can be seized with a single toothed tenaculum or 7 inch Allis forceps. It is generally necessary to steady the cervix with a forcep as it straightens out the canal and uterine flexion. Sounding the uterine cavity will reveal its length and confirm any angulation. On occasion it is impossible to sound the cavity because the internal os is too tight or the endocervical canal has a pinhole external os. Force should be avoided. High fundal placement without perforating the uterus is the objective when inserting any IUD, and this is particularly important with the copper IUDs which depend on a close association of their copper elements to the endometrium. Generally, it is easier to insert a coil towards the end of the period when the cervix is partly dilated and any bleeding that occurs is masked. Insertion following abortion is commonly performed, and encouraging results have been achieved with insertions immediately postpartum. Removal can be done at any time.

  2. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    PubMed Central

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  3. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  4. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR WASTE TANKS - PART II

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    As part of an ongoing study to evaluate the discontinuity in the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm, a study was conducted this year to assess the minimum concentrations below 1 molar nitrate, see Figure 1. Current controls on the tank farm solution chemistry are in place to prevent the initiation and propagation of pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the primary steel waste tanks. The controls are based upon a series of experiments performed with simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks, namely ASTM A537 carbon steel (A537). During FY09, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the risk associated with reducing the minimum molar nitrite concentration required to confidently inhibit pitting in dilute solutions (i.e., less than 1 molar nitrate). The experimental results and conclusions herein provide a statistical basis to quantify the probability of pitting for the tank wall exposed to various solutions with dilute concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Understanding the probability for pitting will allow the facility to make tank-specific risk-based decisions for chemistry control. Based on previous electrochemical testing, a statistical test matrix was developed to refine and solidify the application of the statistical mixture/amount model to corrosion of A537 steel. A mixture/amount model was identified based on statistical analysis of recent and historically collected electrochemical data. This model provides a more complex relationship between the nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the probability of pitting than is represented by the model underlying the current chemistry control program, and its use may provide a technical basis for the utilization of less nitrite to inhibit pitting at concentrations below 1 molar nitrate. FY09 results fit within the mixture/amount model, and further refine the nitrate regime in which the model is applicable. The combination of visual observations and cyclic

  5. A comprehensive newborn exam: part II. Skin, trunk, extremities, neurologic.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mary L

    2014-09-01

    Skin findings are common during the newborn examination. Although these findings are often benign, it is important to visualize the entire skin surface to distinguish these findings and appropriately reassure parents. The chest should be observed for symmetric movement, pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, prominent xiphoid, or breast tissue. The infant should be as relaxed as possible so that the physician can more easily detect any abdominal masses, which are often renal in origin. A single umbilical artery may be associated with another congenital abnormality, especially renal anomalies, and intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity. Signs of ambiguous genitalia include clitoromegaly and fused labia in girls, and bilateral undescended testes, a micropenis, or a bifid scrotum in boys. Sacral dimples do not warrant further evaluation if they are less than 0.5 cm in diameter, are located within 2.5 cm of the anal verge, and are not associated with cutaneous markers; dimples that do not fit these criteria require ultrasonography to evaluate for spinal dysraphism. Brachial plexus injuries are most common in newborns who are large for gestational age, and physical therapy may be required to achieve normal function. Patients with abnormal findings on Ortolani and Barlow maneuvers should be evaluated further for hip dysplasia. It is also important to assess newborns for tone and confirm the presence of normal primitive reflexes.

  6. The problem with pleasure: part II. The research.

    PubMed

    Migdow, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how adult survivors of chronic abuse and neglect define pleasure, the disruption of pleasure, and the repair of the capacity for pleasure in the context of the therapeutic relationship. Using narrative methodology, I interviewed 15 clinical pairs of patients and their therapists separately. Thematic analysis revealed 8 findings. All patients reported the capacity to experience pleasure throughout life prior to therapy. Subjects defined pleasure as a variety of positive affects that fell into 2 categories: pleasure in activities and interests and pleasure in relationships. All patients reported a history of traumatic disruption of pleasure in childhood. Patients reported a history of internalizing and reenacting their own disruption of pleasure. Narratives of the patients were consistent with the narratives told by the therapists. In many clinical pairs, both parties spoke positively of an important therapeutic event when the therapist stepped out of his or her usual treatment frame. Safety, consistency, reliability, predictability, and compassionate caring were spoken of throughout the sample as elements that created a pleasurable and therapeutically reparative relationship. Patients spoke repeatedly of the importance of "finding a self" to the experience of pleasure. Pleasure enhanced the ability to find a self, and finding a self enhanced patients' capacity for pleasure. This study invites further research to investigate the function of pleasure in the process of therapeutic repair for chronically traumatized populations.

  7. Implementing a predictive modeling program, part II: Use of motivational interviewing in a predictive modeling program.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Jean; Admire, Kaye S

    2005-01-01

    This is the second article of a two-part series about issues encountered in implementing a predictive modeling program. Part I looked at how to effectively implement a program and discussed helpful hints and lessons learned for case managers who are required to change their approach to patients. In Part II, we discuss the readiness to change model, examine the spirit of motivational interviewing and related techniques, and explore how motivational interviewing is different from more traditional interviewing and assessment methods.

  8. Guidelines for clinical engineering programs--Part I: guidelines for electrical isolation; Part II: performance evaluation of clinical engineering programs.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, M

    1980-01-01

    This series presents guidelines for: electrically isolated inputs and outputs; measuring the performance of hospital biomedical engineering programs; evaluating the risk of electric shock in hospitals; and for isolated power in anesthetizing locations. In Part I, specific recommendations are given for the use of insulated approach, battery-powered monitors in surgery, and for isolation requirements for devices connected to cardiac leads. In Part II, checklists are provided for the self-evaluation of an in-house, biomedical engineering staff. Parts III and IV, in future issues of this Journal, will include discussion of the theoretical electrical hazard potential in reference to the use of isolated power systems. The question of whether isolated power should be required in all anesthetizing locations will be discussed in Part IV.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  10. Functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) II--modus operandi.

    PubMed

    Vardimon, A D; Stutzmann, J J; Graber, T M; Voss, L R; Petrovic, A G

    1989-05-01

    A new functional appliance (FA) to correct Class II dentoskeletal malocclusions is introduced. The functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) II uses upper and lower attracting magnetic means (Nd2Fe14B) to constrain the lower jaw in an advanced sagittal posture. In vitro, a special gauge transducer measured the magnetic attractive path and forces. In vivo, 13 prepubertal female Macaca fascicularis monkeys received facial implants and were treated for 4 months with the following appliances: conventional FA (four subjects), FOMA II (five subjects), a combined FOMA II + FA (two subjects), and sham (control) appliance (two subjects). The in vitro results showed the following: vertico-sagitally displaced upper and lower magnets attracted ultimately along an oblique line with a terminal horizonal slide to become fully superimposed; the functional performance improved when the magnetic interface acted as a magnetic inclined plane; and the magnetic force was able to guide and constrain the mandible toward the constructive protrusive closure position (CPCP) (1.2 mm, F = 570 gm) from levels below the habitual rest position (3 mm, F = 219 gm) and the electromyographic (EMG) relaxed position (8.5 mm, F = 45 gm). The in vivo results demonstrated the following: functional performance increased in FOMA II (22%) and in the combined FOMA II + FA (28%) over the conventional FA; mandibular length increased significantly in the treated animals (means = 2.83 +/- 0.70 mm) over the control animals (means = 0.43 +/- 0.08 mm); incisor proclination was lower in magnetic appliances (means = 4.57 +/- 1.76 degrees) than in the conventional FA (means = 8.75 +/- 1.85 degrees); mandibular elongation and condylar posterior inclination resulted from posterosuperior endochondral growth (increased cell proliferation and/or hyperplasia of functional chondroblasts) and by bony remodeling of the condylar neck (apposition posterior border, resorption anterior border), respectively; virtually no

  11. State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future.

  12. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1993-94, Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Senior Administrative Officers--Universities of Ontario, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1993-94. Part I covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes,…

  13. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey 1994-96. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions [and] Part II: Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents data from a survey of Ontario (Canada) universities concerning employment benefits offered in 1994-96. Part 1 covers benefits other than pensions. Tables display the information on particular benefits institution-by-institution including: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes, life and…

  14. The Didactics of Biology. A Selected Bibliography for 1979. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Antonin, Ed.; Lipertova, Pavla, Ed.

    Selected articles on various aspects of biology teaching published in 1979 have been annotated in this two-part bibliography. Entries from 18 journals representing 11 different countries are presented according to a topic area classification scheme listed in the table of contents. Countries represented include: Australia; Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia;…

  15. Research and Development: A Complex Relationship Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John Douglas Edward

    Part 1 of this document describes the background, format, and early groundwork that went into the development of a test sponsored entirely by private enterprise. The discipline imposed by a financial bottom line imposes special pressures but also offers new opportunities. This private enterprise model is a multi-constructional process where…

  16. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  17. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill of material (to accompany layout drawing shown on figure 1) 3 Material to be included with the operating... wires shall not be used for grounding except in conjunction with diode(s) or equivalent. The...

  18. Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathard, Helen L.

    2001-01-01

    Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)

  19. Structural and functional characteristics of plant proteinase inhibitor-II (PI-II) family.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shazia; Aziz, Ejaz; Akhtar, Wasim; Ilyas, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2017-02-09

    Plant proteinase inhibitor-II (PI-II) proteins are one of the promising defensive proteins that helped the plants to resist against different kinds of unfavorable conditions. Different roles for PI-II have been suggested such as regulation of endogenous proteases, modulation of plant growth and developmental processes and mediating stress responses. The basic knowledge on genetic and molecular diversity of these proteins has provided significant insight into their gene structure and evolutionary relationships in various members of this family. Phylogenetic comparisons of these family genes in different plants suggested that the high rate of retention of gene duplication and inhibitory domain multiplication may have resulted in the expansion and functional diversification of these proteins. Currently, a large number of transgenic plants expressing PI-II genes are being developed for enhancing the defensive capabilities against insects, bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Much emphasis is yet to be given to exploit this ever expanding repertoire of genes for improving abiotic stress resistance in transgenic crops. This review presents an overview about the current knowledge on PI-II family genes, their multifunctional role in plant defense and physiology with their potential applications in biotechnology.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of a Tetramethyl Furanone Functionalized Diiminedioxime, A Potential Ligand for 64Cu Radiopharmaceuticals, and its Copper(II) and Nickel(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Salma; Staples, Richard J.; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    As part of our on-going effort to develop 64Cu-based radiopharmaceuticals for PET (positron emission tomography) imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer, we prepared a tetramethylfuranone-functionalized diiminedioxime ligand, TMFPreH (TMFPreH = 4-[3-(4-Hydroxyimino-2,2,5,5-dimethyl-dihydro-furan-3-ylideneamino)-propylimino]-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-dihydro-furan-3-one oxime) and its Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes. When the copper(II) complex was prepared from Cu(ClO4)2 in ethanol, it was isolated as a Cu(II)-bridged dimer, but when it was prepared from Cu(OAc)2 and heated in acetone, an unusual example of an acetone adduct of the ligand is formed by reduction of one of the imine double bonds by the solvent. The Ni(II) complex is square pyramidal with the perchlorate counterion at the apex. PMID:20161333

  1. Models and the dynamics of theory-building in physics. Part II-Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emch, Gérard G.

    In Part I, it was argued that models are best explained by considering the strategies from which they issue. A distinction was proposed between two classes of modeling that contribute to theory-building: H-modeling and L-modeling. Case studies are presented in this Part II to illustrate the characteristic features of these modeling strategies; examples are drawn from classical statistical mechanics and quantum physics.

  2. Structural/Functional Role of Chloride in Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Rivalta, Ivan; Amin, Muhamed; Luber, Sandra; Vassiliev, Serguei; Pokhrel, Ravi; Umena, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo; Bruce, Doug; Brudvig, Gary W.; Gunner, M. R.; Batista, Victor S.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride binding in photosystem II (PSII) is essential for photosynthetic water oxidation. However, the functional roles of chloride and possible binding sites, during oxygen evolution, remain controversial. This paper examines the functions of chloride based on its binding site revealed in the X-ray crystal structure of PSII at 1.9 Å resolution. We find that chloride depletion induces formation of a salt-bridge between D2-K317 and D1-D61 that could suppress proton transfer to the lumen. PMID:21678923

  3. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  4. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  5. Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part II: Integration.

    PubMed

    Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.

  6. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  7. Biology--Chemistry--Physics, Students' Guide, A Three-Year Sequence, Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Arthur; And Others

    Parts I and II of the students' guide to the three-year integrated biology, chemistry, and physics course being prepared by the Portland Project Committee are contained in this guide. A committee reviewed and selected material developed by the national course improvement groups--Physical Science Study Committee, Chemical Bond Approach, Chemical…

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Pristine and Doped Graphene Nanosheets and Graphene Nanoribbons: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muley, Sarang V.; Ravindra, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    In Part II of this study, approaches to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) of graphene nanosheets and nanoribbons is discussed. The presence of vacancies in graphene is found to increase the ZT of zigzag graphene nanoribbons significantly. Graphene can be a promising material with much better thermoelectric performance than conventional thermoelectrics.

  9. An Analysis of a Finite Element Method for Convection-Diffusion Problems. Part II. A Posteriori Error Estimates and Adaptivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    AN ANALYSIS OF A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR CONVECTION- DIFFUSION PROBLEMS PART II: A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES AND ADAPTIVITY by W. G. Szymczak Y 6a...PERIOD COVERED AN ANALYSIS OF A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR final life of the contract CONVECTION- DIFFUSION PROBLEM S. Part II: A POSTERIORI ERROR ...Element Method for Convection- Diffusion Problems. Part II: A Posteriori Error Estimates and Adaptivity W. G. Szvmczak and I. Babu~ka# Laboratory for

  10. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  11. The Basket Method for Selecting Balanced Samples. Part II. Applications to Price Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    AD-AI12 949 CLEMSON UNIV SC OEPT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES F/B 12/1 THE BASKET METHOD FOR SELECTING BALANCED SAMPLES. PART 11. APPL-ETC(U) DEC SI K T...1111󈧝 1.4 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHARTNN’( 4~ THE BASKET METHOD FOR SELECTING BALANCED SAMPLES - PART II: APPLICATIONS TO PRICE ESTIMATION * K...for Selecting Balanced Samples Part I: Applications to Price Estimation AB9TRACT The "Basket Method" of sampling, a tool designed to achieve

  12. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-08-15

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  13. Part I, FAB evaluation & application trials AFUE measurements: Part II, Integrated heating system (IHS) development

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.; Fisher, L.

    1996-07-01

    An oil burner/boiler efficiency test stand has been set up in the BNL oil heat laboratory which can measure the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of burner/boiler combinations in accordance with ASHRAE and DOE standards. Measurements include both steady state efficiencies and heat-up and cool-down characteristics so that cycling effects can be included in an estimate of seasonal average performance. In addition to AFUE measurements, the direct conversion of fuel energy content to enthalpy increase in the boiler water is monitored. The system is largely automated, with most control functions under computer control and data taken electronically and permanently recorded on disks for future reference. To date, a retention-head burner and a fan atomized burner (FAB) have been tested in a steel boiler, the latter operating at two different fuel flow rates. The results are presented below, and verify that the very tight construction of the FAB`s fan results in a significant decrease in off-cycle sensible heat losses. Tests were also performed on a center-flue water heater fired with a conventional retention-head burner and with an FAB. The tests conformed to DOE standard procedures for hot water heaters, and the results are discussed below.

  14. Value of cephalic part of lateral crus in functional rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sazgar, Amir A; Amali, Amin; Peyvasty, Mina Najarzad

    2016-12-01

    Reshaping of the nasal tip is the most difficult part of rhinoplasty. Over the years, there have been many advances in the field of rhinoplasty, including tip plasty. The goal of these continuous refinements in existing procedures has been to improve both aesthetic and functional outcomes. The cephalic part of the lateral crus of the lower lateral cartilage is what mainly contributes to nasal tip deformity. Various surgical techniques have been reported that used the cephalic part of lateral crus to refine the nasal tip and preserve alar integrity and nasal breathing function. In this review article, we have attempted to show the evolution of these methods while focusing on development of approaches that are basic for "modern rhinoplasty" and presenting our personal preferences. We have also endeavored to categorize these methods and clarify some misconceptions and inaccuracies in their descriptions.

  15. Thiol-functionalized polysilsesquioxane as efficient adsorbent for adsorption of Hg(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Yuzhong Qu, Rongjun; Liu, Xiguang; Mu, Lei; Bu, Baihui; Sun, Yuting; Chen, Hou; Meng, Yangfeng; Meng, Lina; Cheng, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • PMPSQ was promising adsorbent for the removal of Hg(II) and Mn(II). • The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. • The adsorption isotherms can be described by the monolayer Langmuir model. • The adsorption was controlled by film diffusion and chemical ion-exchange mechanism. - Abstract: Thiol-functionalized polysilsesquioxane was synthesized and used for the adsorption of Hg(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solution. Results showed that the optimal pH was about 6 and 5 for Hg(II) and Mn(II), respectively. Adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption equilibriums were established within 100 min and followed pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption isotherms revealed that the adsorption capacities increased with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption was found to be well described by the monolayer Langmuir isotherm model and took place by chemical ion-exchange mechanism. The thermodynamic properties indicated the adsorption processes were spontaneous and endothermic nature. Selectively adsorption showed that PMPSQ can selectively adsorb Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of the coexistent ions Mn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). Based on the results, it is concluded that PMPSQ had comparable high adsorption efficiency and could be potentially used for the removal of Hg(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solution.

  16. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Partricia; Sharp, J; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2013-01-01

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  2. The structure and interpretation of cosmology: Part II. The concept of creation in inflation and quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Gordon

    The purpose of the paper, of which this is part II, is to review, clarify, and critically analyse modern mathematical cosmology. The emphasis is upon mathematical objects and structures, rather than numerical computations. Part II provides a critical analysis of inflationary cosmology and quantum cosmology, with particular attention to the claims made that these theories can explain the creation of the universe.

  3. Functional form of the imaginary part of the atomic polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    The dynamic atomic polarizability describes the response of the atom to incoming electromagnetic radiation. The functional form of the imaginary part of the polarizability for small driving frequencies ω has been a matter of long-standing discussion, with both a linear dependence and an ω3 dependence being presented as candidate formulas. The imaginary part of the polarizability enters the expressions of a number of fundamental physical processes which involve the thermal dissipation of energy, such as blackbody friction, and non-contact friction. Here, we solve the long-standing problem by calculating the imaginary part of the polarizability in both the length ("d·E") as well as the velocity-gauge ("p·A") form of the dipole interaction, verify the gauge invariance, and find general expressions applicable to atomic theory; the ω3 form is obtained in both gauges. The seagull term in the velocity gauge is found to be crucial in establishing gauge invariance.

  4. Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process. Phase II. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    RD-A154 613 RECRUITMENT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM AND ACCESSION i/7 CONTINGENCY PLANNING PROCE..(U) ECONOMIC RESEARCH LAB INC RESTON YA L GOLDBERG ET AL...11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process Phase II, Part 1 Final Report...GROUP Early Warning System, Forecasting, Manpower Planning LV &V WA&Vm 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block ny.1ber

  5. A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error. Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity Franklin P. Tamborello, II...00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and...07370024.2011.601692 Tamborello, F. P., & Trafton, J. G. (2013). A long-term competitive process model of a common procedural error. In Proceedings of the 35th

  6. Bite force and its association with stability following Class II/1 functional appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the value of pre-treatment maximal molar bite force as a predictive variable in determining post-treatment changes and stability following functional appliance treatment in Class II malocclusion children. Twenty-eight Class II malocclusion children having undergone functional appliance treatment were followed for at least 1 year post-treatment. Maximal molar bite force measurements, lateral cephalograms, and study casts were taken before treatment, after treatment, and after post-treatment follow-up. Relationships between pre-treatment maximal molar bite force and dental or cephalometric changes post-treatment were examined. Patients were divided into stable and unstable groups, based on dental sagittal changes (overjet and molar relationship), and differences between the two groups of patients determined. Post-treatment changes varied widely. Thirteen children showed dentoalveolar sagittal relapse, namely a shift in molars towards a Class II relationship and an increase in overjet, while 15 did not. The unstable group demonstrated a lower pre-treatment maximal molar bite force, as well as a more obtuse gonial angle, than the stable group. The gonial angle was found to be negatively correlated to maximal molar bite force and may thus be a cephalometric indicator partly reflecting the functional condition of the masticatory muscles. Children with a lower pre-treatment maximal molar bite force were more prone to dentoalveolar sagittal relapse following functional appliance treatment.

  7. DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM, AND HELIUM DESORPTION FROM AGED TITANIUM TRITIDES. PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2006-08-17

    Six new samples of tritium-aged bulk titanium have been examined by thermal desorption and isotope exchange chemistry. The discovery of a lower temperature hydrogen desorption state in these materials, previously reported, has been confirmed in one of the new samples. The helium release of the samples shows the more severe effects obtained from longer aging periods, i.e. higher initial He/M ratios. Several of the more aged samples were spontaneously releasing helium. Part I discussed the new results on the new lower temperature hydrogen desorption state found in one more extensively studied sample. Part II will discuss the hydrogen/helium release behavior of the remaining samples.

  8. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  9. Paleotectonic investigations of the Mississippian System in the United States: Parts I and II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Lawrence C.; Connor, Carol Waite; Others,

    1979-01-01

    This professional paper is the fifth in a series of paleotectonic studies each covering a geologic system in the conterminous United States. Part I provides a region-by-region discussion of data concerning the Mississippian System and an explanation and documentation for the maps and sections contained in part III. Part II of the paper provides a summary of the Mississippian System, presents interregional interpretations permitted by this study, and includes sections on notable features of the system. The maps contained in the separate case as part III may be divided into two groups: (1) a sequence of factual or basic maps that shows, with a minimum of interpretation, the Mississippian System as it occurs today, and (2) interpretive maps that attempt a reasonable reconstruction of the original extent of the system, its tectonics, environment, and geography.

  10. Can focusing on UPDRS Part II make assessments of Parkinson disease progression more efficient?

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Harrison et al. have attempted to validate Part II of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II) as a medication-independent measure of disease progression. The authors collected cross-sectional data from a cohort of 888 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, and they found a robust association between UPDRS II scores and disease duration. Other variables considered were the patients' levodopa status, age at disease onset, and scores on UPDRS I, II and III. The results suggest that a single UPDRS II measurement might be a good indicator of progression at a given time point, irrespective of the current disease-related circumstances. This concept is attractive in its simplicity and patient-centeredness. However, this evidence came from a single-center, retrospective study, the statistical model was constructed using a nonvalidated surrogate as an independent variable, and no external replication was conducted. Until further confirmation, therefore, Harrison et al.'s proposal can only be considered to be a working hypothesis.

  11. Validity of NBME Parts I and II for the Selection of Residents: The Case of Orthopaedic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Susan M.

    The predictive validity of scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I and Part II examinations for the selection of residents in orthopaedic surgery was investigated. Use of NBME scores has been criticized because of the time lag between taking Part I and entering residency and because Part I content is not directly linked to…

  12. Amino-functionalized core-shell magnetic mesoporous composite microspheres for Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulin; Liang, Song; Wang, Juntao; Yu, Shuili; Wang, Yilong

    2013-04-01

    Amino-functionalized Fe3O4@mesoporous SiO2 core-shell composite microspheres NH2-MS in created in multiple synthesis steps have been investigated for Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. The microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, zeta potential measurements and vibrating sample magnetometer. Batch adsorption tests indicated that NH2-MS exhibited higher adsorption affinity toward Pb(II) and Cd(II) than MS did. The Langmuir model could fit the adsorption isotherm very well with maximum adsorption capacity of 128.21 and 51.81 mg/g for Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively, implying that adsorption processes involved monolayer adsorption. Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorption could be well described by the pseudo second-order kinetics model, and was found to be strongly dependent on pH and humic acid. The Pb(II)- and Cd(II)-loaded microspheres were effectively desorbed using 0.01 mol/L HCl or EDTA solution. NH2-MS have promise for use as adsorbents in the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in wastewater treatment processes.

  13. Knowledge representation and qualitative simulation of salmon redd functioning. Part I: qualitative modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Guerrin, F; Dumas, J

    2001-02-01

    This work aims at representing empirical knowledge of freshwater ecologists on the functioning of salmon redds (spawning areas of salmon) and its impact on mortality of early stages. For this, we use Qsim, a qualitative simulator. In this first part, we provide unfamiliar readers with the underlying qualitative differential equation (QDE) ontology of Qsim: representing quantities, qualitative variables, qualitative constraints, QDE structure. Based on a very simple example taken of the salmon redd application, we show how informal biological knowledge may be represented and simulated using an approach that was first intended to analyze qualitatively ordinary differential equations systems. A companion paper (Part II) gives the full description and simulation of the salmon redd qualitative model. This work was part of a project aimed at assessing the impact of the environment on salmon populations dynamics by the use of models of processes acting at different levels: catchment, river, and redds. Only the latter level is dealt with in this paper.

  14. Distinct and redundant roles of the non-muscle myosin II isoforms and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aibing; Ma, Xuefei; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S

    2011-10-01

    We propose that the in vivo functions of NM II (non-muscle myosin II) can be divided between those that depend on the N-terminal globular motor domain and those less dependent on motor activity but more dependent on the C-terminal domain. The former, being more dependent on the kinetic properties of NM II to translocate actin filaments, are less amenable to substitution by different NM II isoforms, whereas the in vivo functions of the latter, which involve the structural properties of NM II to cross-link actin filaments, are more amenable to substitution. In light of this hypothesis, we examine the ability of NM II-A, as well as a motor-compromised form of NM II-B, to replace NM II-B and rescue neuroepithelial cell-cell adhesion defects and hydrocephalus in the brain of NM II-B-depleted mice. We also examine the ability of NM II-B as well as chimaeric forms of NM II (II-A head and II-B tail and vice versa) to substitute for NM II-A in cell-cell adhesions in II-A-ablated mice. However, we also show that certain functions, such as neuronal cell migration in the developing brain and vascularization of the mouse embryo and placenta, specifically require NM II-B and II-A respectively.

  15. Kangaroo IGF-II is structurally and functionally similar to the human [Ser29]-IGF-II variant.

    PubMed

    Yandell, C A; Francis, G L; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z

    1999-06-01

    Kangaroo IGF-II has been purified from western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) serum and characterised in a number of in vitro assays. In addition, the complete cDNA sequence of mature IGF-II has been obtained by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of the kangaroo IGF-II cDNA sequence with known IGF-II sequences from other species revealed that it is very similar to the human variant, [Ser29]-hIGF-II. Both the variant and kangaroo IGF-II contain an insert of nine nucleotides that encode the amino acids Leu-Pro-Gly at the junction of the B and C domains of the mature protein. The deduced kangaroo IGF-II protein sequence also contains three other amino acid changes that are not observed in human IGF-II. These amino acid differences share similarities with the changes described in many of the IGF-IIs reported for non-mammalian species. Characterisation of human IGF-II, kangaroo IGF-II, chicken IGF-II and [Ser29]-hIGF-II in a number of in vitro assays revealed that all four proteins are functionally very similar. No significant differences were observed in the ability of the IGF-IIs to bind to the bovine IGF-II/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor or to stimulate protein synthesis in rat L6 myoblasts. However, differences were observed in their abilities to bind to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) present in human serum. Kangaroo, chicken and [Ser29]-hIGF-II had lower apparent affinities for human IGFBPs than did human IGF-II. Thus, it appears that the major circulating form of IGF-II in the kangaroo and a minor form of IGF-II found in human serum are structurally and functionally very similar. This suggests that the splice site that generates both the variant and major form of human IGF-II must have evolved after the divergence of marsupials from placental mammals.

  16. Power and power-to-flow reactivity transfer functions in EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor II) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D. )

    1989-11-01

    Reactivity transfer functions are important in determining the reactivity history during a power transient. Overall nodal transfer functions have been calculated for different subassembly types in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Steady-state calculations for temperature changes and, hence, reactivities for power changes have been separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent terms. Axial nodal transfer functions separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent components are reported in this paper for a typical EBR-II fuel pin. This provides an improved understanding of the time dependence of these components in transient situations.

  17. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  19. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  20. Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads—Part II: Unknown Parameters and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-03-01

    This two-part paper considers the coordination of a population of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) with unknown parameters to achieve group objectives. The problem involves designing the bidding and market clearing strategy to motivate self-interested users to realize efficient energy allocation subject to a peak power constraint. The companion paper (Part I) formulates the problem and proposes a load coordination framework using the mechanism design approach. To address the unknown parameters, Part II of this paper presents a joint state and parameter estimation framework based on the expectation maximization algorithm. The overall framework is then validated using real-world weather data and price data, and is compared with other approaches in terms of aggregated power response. Simulation results indicate that our coordination framework can effectively improve the efficiency of the power grid operations and reduce power congestion at key times.

  1. Compassionate care: enhancing physician-patient communication and education in dermatology: Part II: Patient education.

    PubMed

    Hong, Judith; Nguyen, Tien V; Prose, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    Patient education is a fundamental part of caring for patients. A practice gap exists, where patients want more information, while health care providers are limited by time constraints or difficulty helping patients understand or remember. To provide patient-centered care, it is important to assess the needs and goals, health beliefs, and health literacy of each patient. This allows health care providers to individualize education for patients. The use of techniques, such as gaining attention, providing clear and memorable explanations, and assessing understanding through "teach-back," can improve patient education. Verbal education during the office visit is considered the criterion standard. However, handouts, visual aids, audiovisual media, and Internet websites are examples of teaching aids that can be used as an adjunct to verbal instruction. Part II of this 2-part series on patient-physician interaction reviews the importance and need for patient education along with specific guidelines and techniques that can be used.

  2. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; ...

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less

  3. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  4. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-05-29

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion.

  5. Structure/Function/Dynamics of Photosystem II Plastoquinone Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lambreva, Maya D.; Russo, Daniela; Polticelli, Fabio; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Zobnina, Veranika; Campi, Gaetano; Rea, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) continuously attracts the attention of researchers aiming to unravel the riddle of its functioning and efficiency fundamental for all life on Earth. Besides, an increasing number of biotechnological applications have been envisaged exploiting and mimicking the unique properties of this macromolecular pigment-protein complex. The PSII organization and working principles have inspired the design of electrochemical water splitting schemes and charge separating triads in energy storage systems as well as biochips and sensors for environmental, agricultural and industrial screening of toxic compounds. An intriguing opportunity is the development of sensor devices, exploiting native or manipulated PSII complexes or ad hoc synthesized polypeptides mimicking the PSII reaction centre proteins as bio-sensing elements. This review offers a concise overview of the recent improvements in the understanding of structure and function of PSII donor side, with focus on the interactions of the plastoquinone cofactors with the surrounding environment and operational features. Furthermore, studies focused on photosynthetic proteins structure/function/dynamics and computational analyses aimed at rational design of high-quality bio-recognition elements in biosensor devices are discussed. PMID:24678671

  6. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M.; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  7. PREFACE: Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reyer

    2009-03-01

    This Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series forms Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. Part II contains the papers of short oral and poster presentations. In addition, it provides general information about the LT25 conference, such as a Report from the Organizers, an Activity Report to the IUPAP of the C5 Chairs, an overview of Committees, Sponsors and Exhibitors, and some Conference Statistics. Part I of the Proceedings of LT25 is a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. It contains the majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London Prize Lectures, the IUPAP Young Scientist Award Lectures, the Plenary and Half Plenary and Public Lectures, and the Historical Lectures presented at the conference excursion to Leiden. The JPCM LT25 special issue is available for free for a period of one year from publication (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter). To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series, every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The Editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and with the reviewing of the 900 papers appearing in Parts I and II of these Proceedings. In particular, we like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, and Fons de Waele. Guest Editors Peter Kes and Reijer Jochemsen Leiden University, The Netherlands Conference logo

  8. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  9. Part I - Viscous evolution of point vortex equilibria Part II - Effects of body elasticity on stability of fish motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu

    2011-12-01

    Vortex dynamics and solid-fluid interactions are two of the most important and most studied topics in fluid dynamics for their relevance to a wide range of applications from geophysical flows to locomotion in moving fluids. In this work, we investigate two problems in two parts: Part I studies the viscous evolution of point vortex equilibria; Part II studies the effects of body elasticity on the passive stability of submerged bodies. In Part I, we describe the viscous evolution of point vortex configurations that, in the absence of viscosity, are in a state of fixed or relative equilibrium. In particular, we examine four cases, three of them correspond to relative equilibria in the inviscid point vortex model and one corresponds to a fixed equilibrium. Our goal is to elucidate the dominant transient dynamical features of the flow. A multi-Gaussian "core growing" type of model is typically used in high fidelity numerical simulations, but we propose to implement it as a low-order model for the flow field. We show that all four configurations immediately begin to rotate unsteadily. We then examine in detail the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the structures as they evolve, and for each case show the sequence of topological bifurcations that occur both in a fixed reference frame, and in an appropriately chosen rotating reference frame. Comparisons between the cases help to reveal different features of the viscous evolution for short and intermediate time scales of vortex structures. We examine the dynamical evolution of passive particles in the viscously evolving flows and interpret it in relation to the evolving streamline patterns. Although the low-order multi-Gaussian model does not exactly coincide with the Navier-Stokes solution, the two results show remarkable resemblances in many aspects. In Part II, we examine the effects of body geometry and elasticity on the passive stability of motion in a perfect fluid. Our main motivation is to understand the

  10. MHC structure and function – antigen presentation. Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Anna Carla; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The setting for the occurrence of an immune response is that of the need to cope with a vast array of different antigens from both pathogenic and non-pathogenic sources. When the first barriers against infection and innate defense fail, adaptive immune response enters the stage for recognition of the antigens by means of extremely variable molecules, namely immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. The latter recognize the antigen exposed on cell surfaces, in the form of peptides presented by the HLA molecule. The first part of this review details the central role played by these molecules, establishing the close connection existing between their structure and their antigen presenting function. PMID:25807245

  11. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  12. REINFORCEMENT IN CLASSROOM LEARNING. PART II, STUDIES OF REINFORCEMENT IN SIMULATED CLASSROOM SITUATIONS. PART III, IDENTIFICATION OF REINFORCERS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRAVERS, ROBERT M.W.; AND OTHERS

    REINFORCEMENT CONCEPTS DERIVED LARGELY FROM RESEARCH OF SUBHUMAN SUBJECTS WERE TESTED FOR APPLICABILITY TO HUMAN-LEARNING SITUATIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE THAT OCCUR IN SCHOOLS. A SERIES OF EXPLORATORY STUDIES CONDUCTED IS DESCRIBED IN PART II OF THIS REPORT. IN PART III, TWO EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE REINFORCING VALUE OF DIFFERENT STIMULI…

  13. Human Performance Review of the Retail Repair Parts Supply System. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    R L KEESEE. B B CAMDEN, R M POWERS UNCLASSIFIED 1NEL-TM- 3 -80-VOL-I NL 11111112.211L Hill ’ IIII 1 1 1 -11IL25=14 44 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CH*T...NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANVARDS-2963- Technical Memorandum 3 -80 - HUMAN PERFORMANCE REVIEW OF THE RETAIL REPAIR PARTS SUPPLY SYSTEM VOLUME II 1 FINAL...forandum 3 -80 HUMAN PERFORMANCEJEVIEW OF THE XETAIL lP7AIR( f P RTS SUPPLY SYST M f ., " 1 .. UM UoL ._ (L XINAL UPT.!7 ’F J6 j+77 Richard S.j Camden

  14. PA impairment due to HIV infection. Part II: Building a professional support network. Forum.

    PubMed

    Behar, M; Bogstad, J R; Gage, L; James, D A; Mott, J S

    1989-11-01

    Several members of the AAPA's Lesbian and Gay Physician Assistants Caucus who participated in the roundtable PAs and HIV-Antibody Testing: The Need for Guidelines When the Practitioner Is at Risk (1989;13[5]:146-158) met with members of the 12-Step/Caduceus Caucus to begin developing a cooperative effort to assist PAs who test positive for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus, and to explore other HIV-associated impairment issues. Part II focuses on concerns of the provider who is HIV-antibody positive as well as ways PA groups can cooperate to raise the profession's conciousness further and recommend guidelines and policy.

  15. A framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis--part II: validation and application.

    PubMed

    Venrooij, Joost; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Mark; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Max; van der Helm, Frans C T; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) is a complex phenomenon, that has been studied for several decades. However, there is little consensus on how to approach the BDFT problem in terms of definitions, nomenclature, and mathematical descriptions. In this paper, the framework for BDFT analysis, as presented in Part I of this dual publication, is validated and applied. The goal of this framework is twofold. First of all, it provides some common ground between the seemingly large range of different approaches existing in BDFT literature. Secondly, the framework itself allows for gaining new insights into BDFT phenomena. Using recently obtained measurement data, parts of the framework that were not already addressed elsewhere, are validated. As an example of a practical application of the framework, it will be demonstrated how the effects of control device dynamics on BDFT can be understood and accurately predicted. Other ways of employing the framework are illustrated by interpreting the results of three selected studies from the literature using the BDFT framework. The presentation of the BDFT framework is divided into two parts. This paper, Part II, addresses the validation and application of the framework. Part I, which is also published in this journal issue, addresses the theoretical foundations of the framework. The work is presented in two separate papers to allow for a detailed discussion of both the framework's theoretical background and its validation.

  16. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  17. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part II: SONAR data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremliovsky, M.; Kadtke, J.

    1996-06-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a numerical method for nonlinear signal detection and classification which made use of techniques borrowed from dynamical systems theory. Here in Part II of the paper, we will describe an example of data analysis using this method, for data consisting of open ocean acoustic (SONAR) recordings of marine mammal transients, supplied from NUWC sources. The purpose here is two-fold: first to give a more operational description of the technique and provide rules-of-thumb for parameter choices; and second to discuss some new issues raised by the analysis of non-ideal (real-world) data sets. The particular data set considered here is quite non-stationary, relatively noisy, is not clearly localized in the background, and as such provides a difficult challenge for most detection/classification schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

  19. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part II: SONAR data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremliovsky, Michael; Kadtke, James

    1996-06-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a numerical method for nonlinear signal detection and classification which made use of techniques borrowed from dynamical systems theory. Here in Part II of the paper, we will describe an example of data analysis using this method, for data consisting of open ocean acoustic (SONAR) recordings of marine mammal transients, supplied from NUWC sources. The purpose here is two-fold: first to give a more operational description of the technique and provide rules-of-thumb for parameter choices; and second to discuss some new issues raised by the analysis of non-ideal (real-world) data sets. The particular data set considered here is quite non-stationary, relatively noisy, is not clearly localized in the background, and as such provides a difficult challenge for most detection/classification schemes.

  20. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  1. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part II: specific underlying renal conditions.

    PubMed

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The obstetric outcome in women with kidney disease has improved in recent years due to continuous progress in obstetrics and neonatology, as well as better medical management of hypertension and renal disease. However, every pregnancy in these women remains a high-risk pregnancy. When considering the interaction between renal disease and pregnancy, maternal outcomes are related to the initial level of renal dysfunction more than to the specific underlying disease. With regards to fetal outcomes, though, a distinction may exist between renal dysfunction resulting from primary renal disease and that in which renal involvement is part of a systemic disease. In part II of this review, some specific causes of renal failure affecting pregnancy are considered.

  2. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  3. Part I. Inviscid, Swirling Flows and Vortex Breakdown. Part II. a Numerical Investigation of the Lundgren Turbulence Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntine, James Douglas

    Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time -independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters (both pipe inlet conditions and geometry) does a (unique) solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A "quasi-cylindrical" simplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. "Criticality" or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi -cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between "failure" of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a "critical" flow state. Other criteria for predicting the onset of vortex breakdown are considered in the context of the model employed, particularly those of Brown & Lopez and Spall, Gatski & Grosch. Part II. Lundgren (1982) developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin & Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the

  4. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  5. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  6. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  7. Wetlands & Wildlife: Alaska Wildlife Curriculum Teacher Information Manual, Parts I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marilyn; And Others

    This document consists of a teacher manual and a set of information cards. The teacher manual is designed to educate Alaskan students about the important functions of Alaska's wetlands and about the fish and wildlife that live there. Part I of the manual explores Alaska's wetland habitats, the plants and animals that live there, and the…

  8. Sex Differences in Item Functioning in the Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II Vocabulary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Gotch, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-II (CIBS-II) is a diagnostic battery intended for children in grades 1st through 6th. The aim of this study was to test for item invariance, or differential item functioning (DIF), of the CIBS-II across sex in the standardization sample through the use of item response theory DIF detection…

  9. An Evaluative Survey Report on ESEA Title II: Fiscal Years 1966-1968. Part I, Analysis and Interpretation. Part II, Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report provides benchmark data on the effects that the provision of school library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials under Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) has had on education in the nation's public and private elementary and secondary schools. The passage of Title II of ESEA set the stage…

  10. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM: post-synthesis functionalization of a Cd(ii)-MOF as a triphase transfer catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Liu, Qi-Kui; Hu, Yu-Hong; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-05-19

    A robust and porous Cd(ii)-MOF based on a bent imidazole-bridged ligand was synthesized and post-synthetically functionalized with linear alkyl chains to afford imidazolium salt (IM)-type triphase transfer catalysts for organic transformations. The imidazolium salt decorated Cd(ii)-MOF-IM exhibits typical solid phase transfer catalytic behavior for the azidation and thiolation of bromoalkane between aqueous/organic phases. Moreover, they can be easily recovered and reused under the PTC conditions. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM herein created a versatile family of solid phase transfer catalysts for promoting a broad scope of reactions carried out in a biphasic mixture of two immiscible solvents.

  11. Iminodiacetic acid functionalized cation exchange resin for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Misra, R K; Jain, S K; Khatri, P K

    2011-01-30

    Iminodiacetic acid functionality has been introduced on styrene-divinyl benzene co-polymeric beads and characterized by FT-IR in order to develop weak acid based cation exchange resin. This resin was evaluated for the removal of different heavy metal ions namely Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions. The results showed greater affinity of resin towards Cr(VI) for which 99.7% removal achieved in optimal conditions following the order Ni(II)>Pb(II)>Cd(II) with 65%, 59% and 28% removal. Experiments were also directed towards kinetic studies of adsorption and found to follow first order reversible kinetic model with the overall rate constants 0.3250, 0.2393, 0.4290 and 0.2968 for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal respectively. Detailed studies of Cr(VI) removal has been carried out to see the effect of pH, resin dose and metal ion concentration on adsorption and concluded that complexation enhanced the chromium removal efficacy of resin drastically, which is strongly pH dependent. The findings were also supported by the comparison of FT-IR spectra of neat resin with the chromium-adsorbed resin.

  12. A model of neurovascular coupling and the BOLD response PART II.

    PubMed

    Mathias, E J; Plank, M J; David, T

    2017-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes a signalling mechanism of neurovascular coupling with a model of a pyramidal neuron and its corresponding fMRI BOLD response. In the first part of two papers (Part I) we described the integration of the neurovascular coupling unit extended to include a complex neuron model, which includes the important Na/K ATPase pump, with a model that provides a BOLD signal taking its input from the cerebral blood flow and the metabolic rate of oxygen consumption. We showed that this produced a viable signal in terms of initial dip, positive and negative BOLD signals. In this paper (PART II) our model predicts the variations of the BOLD response due to variations in neuronal activity and indicates that the BOLD signal could be used as an initial biomarker for neuronal dysfunction or variations in the perfusion of blood to the cerebral tissue. We have compared the simulated hypoxic BOLD response to experimental BOLD signals observed in the hippocampus during hypoxia showing good agreement. This approach of combined quantitative modelling of neurovascular coupling response and its BOLD response will enable more specific assessment of a brain region.

  13. Electron diffraction based analysis of phase fractions and texture in nanocrystalline thin films, part II: implementation.

    PubMed

    Lábár, János L

    2009-02-01

    This series of articles describes a method that performs (semi)quantitative phase analysis for nanocrystalline transmission electron microscope samples from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Volume fractions of phases and their textures are obtained separately in the method. First, the two-dimensional SAED pattern is converted into an X-ray diffraction-like one-dimensional distribution. Volume fractions of the nanocrystalline components are determined by fitting the spectral components, calculated for the previously identified phases with a priori known structures. Blackman correction is also applied to take into account dynamic effects for medium grain sizes. Peak shapes and experimental parameters (camera length, etc.) are refined during the fitting iterations. Parameter space is explored with the help of the Downhill-SIMPLEX algorithm. Part I presented the principles, while Part II now elaborates current implementation, and Part III will demonstrate its usage by examples. The method is implemented in a computer program that runs under the Windows operating system on IBM PC compatible machines.

  14. On the heat flux vector for flowing granular materials--part II: derivation and special cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2006-09-10

    Heat transfer plays a major role in the processing of many particulate materials. The heat flux vector is commonly modelled by the Fourier's law of heat conduction and for complex materials such as non-linear fluids, porous media, or granular materials, the coefficient of thermal conductivity is generalized by assuming that it would depend on a host of material and kinematical parameters such as temperature, shear rate, porosity or concentration, etc. In Part I, we will give a brief review of the basic equations of thermodynamics and heat transfer to indicate the importance of the modelling of the heat flux vector. We will also discuss the concept of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in granular and porous media. In Part II, we propose and subsequently derive a properly frame-invariant constitutive relationship for the heat flux vector for a (single phase) flowing granular medium. Standard methods in continuum mechanics such as representation theorems and homogenization techniques are used. It is shown that the heat flux vector in addition to being proportional to the temperature gradient (the Fourier's law), could also depend on the gradient of density (or volume fraction), and D (the symmetric part of the velocity gradient) in an appropriate manner. The emphasis in this paper is on the idea that for complex non-linear materials it is the heat flux vector which should be studied; obtaining or proposing generalized form of the thermal conductivity is not always appropriate or sufficient.

  15. Collision of a vortex ring on granular material. Part II. Erosion of the granular layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junya; Masuda, Naoya; Ito, Boku; Furuya, Takayoshi; Sano, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    In our previous paper (part I), an experimental result was presented on the normal impact of a vortex ring on the granular layer (glass beads of diameter 0.10 mm), which was placed at a specified distance from the outlet of the vortex ring generator. The Reynolds number of the vortex ring ranged from 1000 to 6000, whereas the traveling distance ranged from 2 to 13 times of the diameter of the vortex ring generator nozzle. In part I, the deformation of the vortex ring impacting on the granular layer and the development of the secondary vortex ring were focused. In this paper (part II), the erosion of the granular surface by the vortex ring is described. Various patterns were found depending on the Reynolds number of the vortex ring and the traveling distance. Two patterns, one (grooves) which has radial striations from the central depressed region to the outer edge of the rim and the other (dimples) which is characterized by isolated small depressions around the outer edge of the rim, are examined in detail. The formation processes of these patterns are elucidated in terms of the deformation of the vortex ring.

  16. Surgical Ventricular Restoration: An Operation to Reverse Remodeling - Clinical Application (Part II)

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Ganesh; Ali, Imtiaz S.

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the article dealt with the basic science behind the evolution of ventricular restoration procedures and the rationale for the use of novel surgical techniques. The second part describes the preoperative workup of patients in advanced heart failure, the core information required to determine the surgical approach and the essential principles and techniques of ventricular restoration. It then examines the effects of ventricular restorative procedures on pump function and clinical outcomes, the results of the worldwide experience with ventricular restoration and concludes with more recent advances in this field. PMID:21037852

  17. Sorption modelling on illite. Part II: Actinide sorption and linear free energy relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.

    2009-02-01

    Sorption edge data for Ni(II), Co(II), Eu(III) and Sn(IV) [Bradbury M. H. and Baeyens B. (2009) Sorption modelling on illite. Part I: titration measurements and sorption of Ni(II), Co(II), Eu(III) and Sn(IV), Part I] on purified Na-Illite du Puy are available from some previous work, and some new measurements for Am(III), Th(IV), Pa(V) and U(VI) are presented here. All of these sorption edge measurements have been modelled with a 2 site protolysis non-electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model for which the site types, site capacities and protolysis constants were fixed [Bradbury M. H. and Baeyens B. (2009), Part I]. In addition, two further data sets for the sorption of Am(III) and Np(V) on Illite du Puy, obtained from the literature, were also modelled in this work. Thus, surface complexation constants for the strong sites in the 2SPNE SC/CE sorption model for nine metals with valence states from II to VI have been obtained. A linear relationship between the logarithm of strong site metal binding constants, SK x-1, and the logarithm of the corresponding aqueous hydrolysis stability constant, OHK x, extending over nearly 35 orders of magnitude is established here for illite for these nine metals. Such correlations are often termed linear free energy relationships (LFER), and although they are quite common in aqueous phase chemistry, they are much less so in surface chemistry, especially over this large range. The LFER for illite could be described by the equation: logSK=7.9±0.4+(0.83±0.02)logOHKx where, " x" is an integer. A similar relationship has been previously obtained for montmorillonite, thus LFERs relating to the sorption on two of the most important clay minerals present in natural systems have been established. Such an LFER approach is an extremely useful tool for estimating surface complexation constants for metals in a chemically consistent manner. It provides a means of obtaining sorption values for

  18. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  19. Sexuality and Personal Relationships for People with an Intellectual Disability. Part II: Staff and Family Carer Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, D. S.; McGuire, B. E.; Healy, E.; Carley, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent ideological shifts in service provision promote appropriate sexual expression for people with an intellectual disability (ID), although there is little evidence that such advances in ideology are matched by current service provision. Part II of the current two-part study assessed the attitudes of staff and family carers to the…

  20. Learning Climate in Schools: Part II. Teacher Views of the Learning and Organizational Climate in Schools. Evaluation Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Carolyn

    Part I of the Learning Climate in Schools evaluation brief looked at violence and disruptive behavior in the North Carolina public schools from several perspectives, including that of teachers expressed in an annual survey. Part II examines teacher perceptions of learning and organizational climates using another set of teacher responses to the…

  1. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part II. Effects of Information and Skills Training on Health-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a model that was used as a framework for reviewing studies of psychoeducational interventions intended to influence illness- and treatment-related behaviors and attitudes in pediatric cancer patients. In Part II, we distinguish between interventions that attempt to influence patients' behaviors just by…

  2. Third-space fluid shift in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: Part II: nursing assessment.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karen; Redden, Maurine

    2002-08-01

    Third-space fluid shift is the mobilisation of body fluid to a non-contributory space rendering it unavailable to the circulatory system. It is a recurrent clinical phenomenon requiring swift identification to minimise deleterious effects. Nurses experience difficulties however in its early identification, diagnosis and subsequent treatment because of the lack of consensual and consistent information regarding third-spacing. This article, part II, building on the previous article, explores the clinical validly and reliability of signs and symptoms of both phases of third-space fluid shift. In addition it reinforces the use multiple patient assessment cues if nurses are to differentiate between, and accurately respond to, the various causes of both hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia. It assists nurses to increase their knowledge and uderstanding of third-space fluid shift in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

  3. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    PubMed

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  4. Imaginary Part of Action, Future Functioning as Hidden Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, H. B.

    2011-03-01

    Beginning with a review the logically first stages in the project of Random Dynamics, hoping for all laws nature being emergent, we also review what can be considered a consequence of Random Dynamics, a model—by myself and Masao Ninomiya—, which in principle predicts the initial conditions in such a way as to minimize a certain functional of the history of the Universe through both past and future. This functional is indeed the imaginary part of the action, which exists (only) in our model of complex action. The main point of the present is to suggest this complex action model to be also helpfull in solving some problems for quantum mechanics. Especially as our model almost makes it possible in principle to calculate the full history of the universe, it even makes it in principle calculable, which one among several measurement results in a quantum experiment will actually be realized! Our "complex action model" thus is a special case of superdeterminism—in Bells way—and does not have true causality, but rather even in some cases true backward causation. In fact we claim in our model that the SSC(Superconducting Supercollider) were stopped by the US Congress due to the backward causation from the big amounts of Higgs particles, which it would have produced, if it had been allowed to run. The noumenon ("das Ding an sich") in our model is the Feyman path integrand or better some fundamental quantities determined from second order effects of the latter integrand. The quantum mechanics interpretation here is strongly similar to the much criticized "transactional interpretation" by John Cramer (Rev. Mod. Phys. 58:647-688, 1986), but we might respond to some of the criticism.

  5. Circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution for scalar transmissibility functions. Part I: Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in signal processing and structural dynamics have spurred the adoption of transmissibility functions in academia and industry alike. Due to the inherent randomness of measurement and variability of environmental conditions, uncertainty impacts its applications. This study is focused on statistical inference for raw scalar transmissibility functions modeled as complex ratio random variables. The goal is achieved through companion papers. This paper (Part I) is dedicated to dealing with a formal mathematical proof. New theorems on multivariate circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution are proved on the basis of principle of probabilistic transformation of continuous random vectors. The closed-form distributional formulas for multivariate ratios of correlated circularly-symmetric complex normal random variables are analytically derived. Afterwards, several properties are deduced as corollaries and lemmas to the new theorems. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is utilized to verify the accuracy of some representative cases. This work lays the mathematical groundwork to find probabilistic models for raw scalar transmissibility functions, which are to be expounded in detail in Part II of this study.

  6. Pd(II)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalizations Directed by Distal Weakly Coordinating Functional Groups

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wan, Li; Zhang, Guofu; Leow, Dasheng; Spangler, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Ortho-C(sp2)–H olefination and acetoxylation of broadly useful synthetic building blocks phenylacetyl Weinreb amides, esters, and ketones are developed without installing an additional directing group. The interplay between the distal weak coordination and the ligand-acceleration is crucial for these reactions to proceed under mild conditions. The tolerance of longer distance between the target C–H bonds and the directing functional groups also allows for the functionalizations of more distal C–H bonds in hydrocinnamoyl ketones, Weinreb amides and biphenyl Weinreb amides. Mechanistically, the coordination of these carbonyl groups and the bisdentate amino acid ligand with Pd(II) centers provides further evidence for our early hypothesis that the carbonyl groups of the potassium carboxylate is responsible for the directed C–H activation of carboxylic acids. PMID:25768039

  7. Axon extension in the fast and slow lanes: substratum-dependent engagement of myosin II functions.

    PubMed

    Ketschek, Andrea R; Jones, Steven L; Gallo, Gianluca

    2007-09-01

    Axon extension involves the coordinated regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Actin filaments drive protrusion of filopodia and lamellipodia while microtubules invade the growth cone, thereby providing structural support for the nascent axon. Furthermore, in order for axons to extend the growth cone must attach to the substratum. Previous work indicates that myosin II activity inhibits the advance of microtubules into the periphery of growth cones, and myosin II has also been implicated in mediating integrin-dependent cell attachment. However, it is not clear how the functions of myosin II in regulating substratum attachment and microtubule advance are integrated during axon extension. We report that inhibition of myosin II function decreases the rate of axon extension on laminin, but surprisingly promotes extension rate on polylysine. The differential effects of myosin II inhibition on axon extension rate are attributable to myosin II having the primary function of mediating substratum attachment on laminin, but not on polylysine. Conversely, on polylysine the primary function of myosin II is to inhibit microtubule advance into growth cones. Thus, the substratum determines the role of myosin II in axon extension by controlling the functions of myosin II that contribute to extension.

  8. Geomagnetic Field Variations as Determined from Bulgarian Archaeomagnetic Data. Part II: The Last 8000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, Mary; Jordanova, Neli; Karloukovski, Vassil

    The knowledge about past secular variations of the geomagnetic field is achieved on the basis of archaeomagnetic researches of which the Bulgarian studies form an extended data set. In Part I (Kovacheva and Toshkov, 1994), the methodology used in the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory was described and the secular variation curves for the last 2000 years were shown. In Part II (this paper), the basic characteristics of the prehistoric materials used in the archaeomagnetic studies are emphasised, particularly in the context of the rock magnetic studies used in connection with palaeointensity determinations. The results of magnetic anisotropy studies of the prehistoric ovens and other fired structures are summarised, including the anisotropy correction of the palaeointensity results for prehistoric materials, different from bricks and pottery. Curves of the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field during the last 8000 years in Bulgaria are given. The available directional and intensity values have been used to calculate the variation curve of the virtual dipole moment (VDM) for the last 8000 years based on different time interval averages. The path of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) positions is discussed.

  9. Interactions between DNA and gemini surfactant: impact on gene therapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Taksim; Kamel, Amany O; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery, provides distinct treatment modalities for the inherited and acquired diseases, relies upon the encapsulation of a gene of interest, which is then ideally delivered to the target cells. Variations in the chemical structure of gemini surfactants and subsequent physicochemical characteristics of the gemini-based lipoplexes and their impact on efficient gene transfection were assessed in part I, which was published in first March 2016 issue of Nanomedicine (1103). In order to design an efficient vector using gemini surfactants, the interaction of the surfactant with DNA and other components of the delivery system must be characterized, and more critically, well understood. Such studies will help to understand how nonviral transfection complexes, in general, overcome various cellular barriers. The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer studies, atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, small-angle x-ray scattering, are extensively used to evaluate the interaction behavior of gemini surfactants with DNA and other vector components. Part II of this review focuses on the use of these unique techniques to understand their interaction with DNA.

  10. Diagnosing DSM-IV--Part II: Eysenck (1986) and the essentialist fallacy.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, J C

    1997-07-01

    In Part I (Wakefield, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 633-649) of this two-article series, I used the harmful dysfunction analysis of the concept of disorder (Wakefield, 1992a, American Psychologist, 47, 373-388) to 'diagnose' a problem with DSM-IV. I argued that DSM-IV diagnostic criteria often violate the 'dysfunction' requirement by invalidity classifying harms not caused by dysfunctions as disorders. In Part II, I examine Eysenck's (Eysenck, 1986, Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV) argument that DSM commits a 'categorical fallacy' and should be replaced by dimensional diagnoses based on Eysenckian personality traits. I argue that Eysenck's proposed diagnostic criteria violate the 'harm' requirement by invalidly classifying symptomless conditions as disorders. Eysenck commits an 'essentialist fallacy'; he misconstrues 'disorder' as an essentialist theoretical concept when in fact it is a hybrid theoretical-practical or 'cause-effect' concept. He thus ignores the harmful effects essential to disorder that are captured in DSM's symptom-based categories.

  11. Elastodynamic analysis of a gear pump. Part II: Meshing phenomena and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.; Rivola, A.

    2010-10-01

    A non-linear lumped kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps is presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machines. Two main sources of noise and vibration can be considered: pressure and gear meshing. Fluid pressure distribution on gears, which is time-varying, is computed and included as a resultant external force and torque acting on the gears. Parametric excitations due to time-varying meshing stiffness, the tooth profile errors (obtained by a metrological analysis), the backlash effects between meshing teeth, the lubricant squeeze and the possibility of tooth contact on both lines of action were also included. Finally, the torsional stiffness and damping of the driving shaft and the non-linear behaviour of the hydrodynamic journal bearings were also taken into account. Model validation was carried out on the basis of experimental data concerning case accelerations and force reactions. The model can be used in order to analyse the pump dynamic behaviour and to identify the effects of modifications in design and operation parameters, in terms of vibration and dynamic forces. Part I is devoted to the calculation of the gear eccentricity in the steady-state condition as result of the balancing between mean pressure loads, mean meshing force and bearing reactions, while in Part II the meshing phenomena are fully explained and the main simulation results are presented.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppressants in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Part II.

    PubMed

    McCune, Jeannine S; Bemer, Meagan J; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2016-05-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article (Part II), we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. Several studies demonstrate that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared with MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include '-omics'-based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics as well as proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses.

  13. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  14. Fracture prediction for the proximal femur using finite element models: Part II--Nonlinear analysis.

    PubMed

    Lotz, J C; Cheal, E J; Hayes, W C

    1991-11-01

    In Part I we reported the results of linear finite element models of the proximal femur generated using geometric and constitutive data collected with quantitative computed tomography. These models demonstrated excellent agreement with in vitro studies when used to predict ultimate failure loads. In Part II, we report our extension of those finite element models to include nonlinear behavior of the trabecular and cortical bone. A highly nonlinear material law, originally designed for representing concrete, was used for trabecular bone, while a bilinear material law was used for cortical bone. We found excellent agreement between the model predictions and in vitro fracture data for both the onset of bone yielding and bone fracture. For bone yielding, the model predictions were within 2 percent for a load which simulated one-legged stance and 1 percent for a load which simulated a fall. For bone fracture, the model predictions were within 1 percent and 17 percent, respectively. The models also demonstrated different fracture mechanisms for the two different loading configurations. For one-legged stance, failure within the primary compressive trabeculae at the subcapital region occurred first, leading to load transfer and, ultimately, failure of the surrounding cortical shell. However, for a fall, failure of the cortical and trabecular bone occurred simultaneously within the intertrochanteric region. These results support our previous findings that the strength of the subcapital region is primarily due to trabecular bone whereas the strength of the intertrochanteric region is primarily due to cortical bone.

  15. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  16. Population-based public health interventions: innovations in practice, teaching, and management. Part II.

    PubMed

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing (PHN). The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/PHN practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based PHN practice and direction for improving population health.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  20. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Howard, Armando M.; Kelley, Maxwell

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  1. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  2. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  3. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  4. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death.

  5. Part I. Student success in intensive versus traditional introductory chemistry courses. Part II. Synthesis of salts of the weakly coordinating trisphat anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Mildred V.

    Part I. Intensive courses have been shown to be associated with equal or greater student success than traditional-length courses in a wide variety of disciplines and education levels. Student records from intensive and traditional-length introductory general chemistry courses were analyzed to determine the effects, of the course format, the level of academic experience, life experience (age), GPA, academic major and gender on student success in the course. Pretest scores, GPA and ACT composite scores were used as measures of academic ability and prior knowledge; t-tests comparing the means of these variables were used to establish that the populations were comparable prior to the course. Final exam scores, total course points and pretest-posttest differences were used as measures of student success; t-tests were used to determine if differences existed between the populations. ANCOVA analyses revealed that student GPA, pretest scores and course format were the only variables tested that were significant in accounting for the variance of the academic success measures. In general, the results indicate that students achieved greater academic success in the intensive-format course, regardless of the level of academic experience, life experience, academic major or gender. Part II. Weakly coordinating anions have many important applications, one of which is to function as co-catalysts in the polymerization of olefins by zirconocene. The structure of tris(tetrachlorobenzenedialato) phosphate(V) or "trisphat" anion suggests that it might be an outstanding example of a weakly coordinating anion. Trisphat acid was synthesized and immediately used to prepare the stable tributylammonium trisphat, which was further reacted to produce trisphat salts of Group I metal cations in high yields. Results of the 35Cl NQR analysis of these trisphat salts indicate only very weak coordination between the metal cations and the chlorine atoms of the trisphat anion.

  6. Intracellular localization of a group II chaperonin indicates a membrane-related function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Paavola, Chad D.; McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Jahnke, Linda; Lavin, Colleen; Embaye, Tsegereda; Henze, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Chaperonins are protein complexes that are believed to function as part of a protein folding system in the cytoplasm of the cell. We observed, however, that the group II chaperonins known as rosettasomes in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, are not cytoplasmic but membrane associated. This association was observed in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C by using immunofluorescence microscopy and in thick sections of rapidly frozen cells grown at 76 degrees C by using immunogold electron microscopy. We observed that increased abundance of rosettasomes after heat shock correlated with decreased membrane permeability at lethal temperature (92 degrees C). This change in permeability was not seen in cells heat-shocked in the presence of the amino acid analogue azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, indicating functional protein synthesis influences permeability. Azetidine experiments also indicated that observed heat-induced changes in lipid composition in S. shibatae could not account for changes in membrane permeability. Rosettasomes purified from cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C bind to liposomes made from either the bipolar tetraether lipids of Sulfolobus or a variety of artificial lipid mixtures. The presence of rosettasomes did not significantly change the transition temperature of liposomes, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry, or the proton permeability of liposomes, as indicated by pyranine fluorescence. We propose that these group II chaperonins function as a structural element in the natural membrane based on their intracellular location, the correlation between their functional abundance and membrane permeability, and their potential distribution on the membrane surface.

  7. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 461 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV With Trifluoromethylsulfonamide Derivatives and Their Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Giovanna; Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing a free amino group with triflic anhydride afforded compounds possessing trifluoromethanesulfonamido moieties in their molecule. The Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of these new sulfonamides were prepared and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). The new derivatives showed good inhibitory activity against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), i.e., CA I, II and IV. PMID:18475762

  8. Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata biosorbent: Preparation, characterization and sorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II) pollutants from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Pereira, Fabiano Vargas

    2016-11-01

    Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata (NFAD) biosorbent has been synthesized using a simple and novel method. NFAD was characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis technique (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR), particle size dispersion, zeta potential, elemental analysis (CHNS/O analyzer), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ability of NFAD as biosorbent was evaluated for the removal of Pb (II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The particle distribution of NFAD was found to be monomodal while SEM revealed the surface to be heterogeneous. The adsorption capacity of NFAD toward Pb (II) ions was 54.417 mg/g while that of Cu (II) ions was found to be 9.349 mg/g. The adsorption of these metals was found to be monolayer, second-order-kinetic, and controlled by both intra-particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The results of this study were compared better than some reported biosorbents in the literature. The current study has revealed NFAD to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Pb (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous solution.

  9. Fracture strength and elastic modulus as a function of porosity for hydroxyapatite and other brittle materials Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Case, Eldon D; Ren, Fei; Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Porous brittle materials are used as filters, catalyst supports, solid oxide fuel cells and biomedical materials. However the literature on the Weibull modulus, m, versus volume fraction porosity, P, is extremely limited despite the importance of m as a gauge of mechanical reliability. In Part I of this study, m is determined for 441 sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) specimens fractured in biaxial flexure for 0.08 P 0.62. In this study, we analyze a combined data set collected from the literature that represents work from a total of 17 different research groups (including the present authors), eight different materials and more than 1560 oxide and non-oxide specimens, the m versus P plot is Ushaped with a wide band of m values for P < 0.1 (Region I) and P > 0.55 (Region III), and a narrower band of m values in the intermediate porosity region of 0.1 < P < 0.55 (Region II). The limited range of m ( 4 < m < 11) in Region II has important implications since Region II includes the P range for the majority of the applications of porous brittle materials. Part II of this study focuses on the P dependence of the mean fracture strength,< f >, and the Young s modulus E for the HA specimens tested in Part I along with literature data for other brittle materials. Both < f > and E are power law functions of the degree of densification, , where = 1 P/PG and PG is the green (unfired) porosity.

  10. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  11. Cell surface expression and function of an HLA class II molecule with class I domain configuration

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules were expressed with extracellular polypeptide domains reorganized to form heavy (H) and light (L) chains (alpha 1-beta 1-beta 2 and alpha 2) analogous to class I. Accurate protein folding and dimerization is demonstrated by the ability of this 3+1-DR1 construct to bind class II- restricted peptides and stimulate CD4+ T cells. Cell surface expression of a functional class II molecule consisting of H and L chains supports the validity of current class II models and affirms the evolutionary relatedness of class I/II. MHC functions that differ between class I/II may be influenced by domain configuration, and the use of domain- shifted constructs will allow examination of this possibility. PMID:8340763

  12. The Local [C ii] 158 μm Emission Line Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Yan, Lin; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Capak, Peter; Faisst, Andreas; Masters, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, the local [C ii] 158 μm emission line luminosity function measured using a sample of more than 500 galaxies from the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. [C ii] luminosities are measured from the Herschel PACS observations of the Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey and estimated for the rest of the sample based on the far-infrared (far-IR) luminosity and color. The sample covers 91.3% of the sky and is complete at S60 μm > 5.24 Jy. We calculate the completeness as a function of [C ii] line luminosity and distance, based on the far-IR color and flux densities. The [C ii] luminosity function is constrained in the range ∼107–9 L⊙ from both the 1/Vmax and a maximum likelihood methods. The shape of our derived [C ii] emission line luminosity function agrees well with the IR luminosity function. For the CO(1-0) and [C ii] luminosity functions to agree, we propose a varying ratio of [C ii]/CO(1-0) as a function of CO luminosity, with larger ratios for fainter CO luminosities. Limited [C ii] high-redshift observations as well as estimates based on the IR and UV luminosity functions are suggestive of an evolution in the [C ii] luminosity function similar to the evolution trend of the cosmic star formation rate density. Deep surveys using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with full capability will be able to confirm this prediction.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix II.... Compression ratio. 2. Type of air aspiration (natural, Roots-blown, supercharged, turbocharged). 3. Valves... bottom-dead center). II. Intake Air System. 1. Roots blower/supercharger/turbocharger calibration....

  14. Awake surgery between art and science. Part II: language and cognitive mapping

    PubMed Central

    Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Casartelli, Marilena; Monti, Alessia; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    Summary Direct cortical and subcortical stimulation has been claimed to be the gold standard for exploring brain function. In this field, efforts are now being made to move from intraoperative naming-assisted surgical resection towards the use of other language and cognitive tasks. However, before relying on new protocols and new techniques, we need a multi-staged system of evidence (low and high) relating to each step of functional mapping and its clinical validity. In this article we examine the possibilities and limits of brain mapping with the aid of a visual object naming task and various other tasks used to date. The methodological aspects of intraoperative brain mapping, as well as the clinical and operative settings, were discussed in Part I of this review. PMID:24139658

  15. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma.

  16. Correlative anatomy for the electrophysiologist, part II: cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, coronary venous system.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Habib, Ammar; Kapa, Suraj; Bisco, Susan E; Venkatachalam, K L; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac Ganglia, Phrenic Nerve, Coronary Venous System. There is an increasing need for invasive electrophysiologists to appreciate the exact anatomy of the epicardial space and the coronary veins. The location of the epicardial fat, the complementary relationship with the main cardiac veins, and the location of sensitive structures (arteries, phrenic nerve, esophagus) have become required knowledge for electrophysiologists, and accessing the epicardial space with this thorough knowledge of the pericardial sinuses and recesses is essential to allow radiographic correlation during catheter manipulation. In this review, we briefly describe the anatomy of the pericardial space and then discuss the specific correlation for the invasive electrophysiologist, highlighting epicardial access, catheter navigation, and avoidance of collateral injury, with specific attention to the important recesses of the pericardial space, their regional anatomy, and radiographic correlation when navigating catheters to these locations. We also discuss the anatomy of the main cardiac veins in the context of catheter mapping and ablation of the epicardial substrate through the venous system and without subxiphoid pericardial access. In part II of this series we discuss the detailed regional anatomy of the cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, and coronary venous system.

  17. Structural interfaces in linear elasticity. Part II: Effective properties and neutrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, K.; Bigoni, D.; Drugan, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The model of structural interfaces developed in Part I of this paper allows us to analytically attack and solve different problems of stress concentration and composites. In particular, (i) new formulae are given for effective properties of composite materials containing dilute suspensions of (randomly oriented) reinforced elliptical voids or inclusions; (ii) a new definition is proposed for inclusion neutrality (to account for the fact that the matrix is always 'overstressed', and thus non-neutral in a classical sense, at the contacts with the interfacial structure), which is shown to provide interesting stress optimality conditions. More generally, it is shown that the incorporation of an interfacial structure at the contact between two elastic solids exhibits properties that cannot be obtained using the more conventional approach of the zero-thickness, linear interface. For instance: contrary to the zero-thickness interface, both bulk and shear effective moduli can be optimized for a structural interface; effective properties higher that those possible with a perfect interface can be attained with a structural interface; and neutrality holds with a structural interface for a substantially broader range of parameters than for a zero-thickness interface.

  18. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  19. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H.; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided. PMID:27041908

  20. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    PubMed

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  1. Prenatal cocaine exposure impairs cognitive function of progeny via insulin growth factor II epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Hou, Jing; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Zhu, Ruiming; Bu, Qian; Gu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Du, Changman; Fu, Dengqi; Kong, Jueying; Luo, Li; Long, Hailei; Li, Hongyu; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    Studies have showed that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCOC) can impair cognitive function and social behavior of the offspring; however, the mechanism underlying such effect is poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor II (Igf-II), an imprinted gene, has a critical role in memory consolidation and enhancement. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulation of hippocampal Igf-II may attribute to the cognitive deficits of PCOC offspring. We used Morris water maze and open-field task to test the cognitive function in PCOC offspring. The epigenetic alteration involved in hippocampal Igf-II expression deficit in PCOC offspring was studied by determining Igf-II methylation status, DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) expressions and L-methionine level. Moreover, IGF-II rescue experiments were performed and the downstream signalings were investigated in PCOC offspring. In behavioral tests, we observed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety in PCOC offspring; moreover, hippocampal IGF-II mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased. Hippocampal methylation of cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides in differentially methylated region (DMR) 2 of Igf-II was elevated in PCOC offspring, which may be driven by the upregulation of L-methionine and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1. Importantly, intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant IGF-II reactivated the repressed calcium calmodulin kinase II α (CaMKIIα) and reversed cognitive deficits in PCOC offspring. Collectively, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure during pregnancy impairs cognitive function of offspring through epigenetic modification of Igf-II gene. Enhancing IGF-II signaling may represent a novel therapeutical strategy for cocaine-induced cognitive impairment.

  2. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  3. Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6-FESOM. Part II: climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackow, T.; Goessling, H. F.; Jung, T.; Sidorenko, D.; Semmler, T.; Barbi, D.; Handorf, D.

    2016-06-01

    This study forms part II of two papers describing ECHAM6-FESOM, a newly established global climate model with a unique multi-resolution sea ice-ocean component. While part I deals with the model description and the mean climate state, here we examine the internal climate variability of the model under constant present-day (1990) conditions. We (1) assess the internal variations in the model in terms of objective variability performance indices, (2) analyze variations in global mean surface temperature and put them in context to variations in the observed record, with particular emphasis on the recent warming slowdown, (3) analyze and validate the most common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns, (4) diagnose the potential predictability of various climate indices, and (5) put the multi-resolution approach to the test by comparing two setups that differ only in oceanic resolution in the equatorial belt, where one ocean mesh keeps the coarse ~1° resolution applied in the adjacent open-ocean regions and the other mesh is gradually refined to ~0.25°. Objective variability performance indices show that, in the considered setups, ECHAM6-FESOM performs overall favourably compared to five well-established climate models. Internal variations of the global mean surface temperature in the model are consistent with observed fluctuations and suggest that the recent warming slowdown can be explained as a once-in-one-hundred-years event caused by internal climate variability; periods of strong cooling in the model (`hiatus' analogs) are mainly associated with ENSO-related variability and to a lesser degree also to PDO shifts, with the AMO playing a minor role. Common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns are simulated largely consistent with their real counterparts. Typical deficits also found in other models at similar resolutions remain, in particular too weak non-seasonal variability of SSTs over large parts of the ocean and episodic periods of almost absent

  4. Basic Services for Children: A Continuing Search for Learning Priorities. A Dossier for Initiating a Dialogue--Part II, 1978. Experiments and Innovations in Education No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Both parts I and II of the dossier are collections of selected activities directed toward the deprived young in a developing world. This book, part II, departs from its predecessor in that it takes a more global view of education services to both children and adults in developing countries. Part A discusses the philosophy and scope of the dossier.…

  5. Consolidation of Military Pay and Personnel Functions (Copper). Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    Inclusi Log In 3815 Sign 3815 To T.S ToPage 11-15-A12 1 1 -1-AlICOPPER From Pago 11-15-All Log 11TL In UTL Control Log From Page 11-15-AIO Today’s saing...SIDPERS JUMPS BT Input BT Input BT (or unit SID uput) 210 211 212 To Page II 15-C17 To Page 11-15-Cll To Pago 11-15-C2 *A ’miwni SJ block" Is a block...possibility for traffic con- gestion ; equipment inadequacies and location problems; lighting, safety, and telephone problems, and problems such as the

  6. Frameworks for programming biological function through RNA parts and devices

    PubMed Central

    Win, Maung Nyan; Liang, Joe C.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the long-term goals of synthetic biology is to reliably engineer biological systems that perform human-defined functions. Currently, researchers face several scientific and technical challenges in designing and building biological systems, one of which is associated with our limited ability to access, transmit, and control molecular information through the design of functional biomolecules exhibiting novel properties. The fields of RNA biology and nucleic acid engineering, along with the tremendous interdisciplinary growth of synthetic biology, are fueling advances in the emerging field of RNA programming in living systems. Researchers are designing functional RNA molecules that exhibit increasingly complex functions and integrating these molecules into cellular circuits to program higher-level biological functions. The continued integration and growth of RNA design and synthetic biology presents exciting potential to transform how we interact with and program biology. PMID:19318211

  7. Reduction of mercury(II) by tropical river humic substances (Rio Negro)-Part II. Influence of structural features (molecular size, aromaticity, phenolic groups, organically bound sulfur).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Julio Cesar; Sargentini, Ezio; Zara, Luiz Fabricio; Rosa, André Henrique; Dos Santos, Ademir; Burba, Peter

    2003-12-04

    The influence of structural features of tropical river humic substances (HS) on their capability to reduce mercury(II) in aqueous solutions was studied. The HS investigated were conventionally isolated from Rio Negro water-Amazonas State/Brazil by means of the collector XAD 8. In addition, the isolated HS were on-line fractionated by tangential-flow multistage ultrafiltration (nominal molecular-weight cut-offs: 100, 50, 30, 10, 5 kDa) and characterized by potentiometry and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The reduction of Hg(II) ions to elemental Hg by size-fractions of Rio Negro HS was assessed by cold-vapor AAS (CVAAS). UV/VIS spectrometry revealed that the fractions of high molecular-size (F(1)>100 kDa and F(2): 50-100 kDa) have a higher aromaticity compared to the fractions of small molecular-size (F(5): 5-10 kDa, F(6): <5 kDa). In contrast, the potentiometric study showed different concentration of functional groups in the studied HS fractions. The reduction of Hg(II) by aquatic HS fractions at pH 5 proceeded in two steps (I, II) of slow first order kinetics (t(1/2) of I: 160 min, t(1/2) of II: 300 min) weakly influenced by the molecular-size, in contrast to the differing degree of Hg(II) reduction (F(5)>F(2)>F(1)>F(3)>F(4)>F(6)). Accordingly, Hg(II) ions were preferably reduced by HS molecules having a relatively high ratio of phenolic/carboxylic groups and a small concentration of sulfur. From these results a complex 'competition' between reduction and complexation of mercury(II) by aquatic HS occurring in tropical rivers such as the Rio Negro can be suggested.

  8. Training psychotherapists in attributes of "mind" from Zen and psychoanalytic perspectives, Part II: Attention, here and now, nonattachment, and compassion.

    PubMed

    Twemlow, S W

    2001-01-01

    Part II of this paper enumerates four additional attributes of mind derived from Zen that could enrich the training of a psychotherapist. These include: training and modulation of the therapist's attention, the centrality of the concept of "here and now," what it is and is not, and the natural unpressured emergence of compassion as a manifestation of the therapist's nature.

  9. Functional consequences of structural differences in stingray sensory systems. Part I: mechanosensory lateral line canals.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K; Kajiura, Stephen M; Gordon, Malcolm S

    2009-10-01

    Short range hydrodynamic and electrosensory signals are important during final stages of prey capture in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), and may be particularly useful for dorso-ventrally flattened batoids with mouths hidden from their eyes. In stingrays, both the lateral line canal and electrosensory systems are highly modified and complex with significant differences on ventral surfaces that relate to feeding ecology. This study tests functional hypotheses based on quantified differences in sensory system morphology of three stingray species, Urobatis halleri, Myliobatis californica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea. Part I investigates the mechanosensory lateral line canal system whereas part II focuses on the electrosensory system. Stingray lateral line canals include both pored and non-pored sections and differ in branching complexity and distribution. A greater proportion of pored canals and high pore numbers were predicted to correspond to increased response to water flow. Behavioral experiments were performed to compare responses of stingrays to weak water jets mimicking signals produced by potential prey at velocities of 10-20 cm s(-1). Bat rays, M. californica, have the most complex and broadly distributed pored canal network and demonstrated both the highest response rate and greater response intensity to water jet signals. Results suggest that U. halleri and P. violacea may rely on additional sensory input, including tactile and visual cues, respectively, to initiate stronger feeding responses. These results suggest that stingray lateral line canal morphology can indicate detection capabilities through responsiveness to weak water jets.

  10. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Models for Change in Quantitative Variables, Part II Scholastic Models. Part II, Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael T.

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. Stochastic models for the sociological analysis of change and the change process in quantitative variables are presented. The author lays groundwork for the statistical treatment of simple stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and discusses some of the continuities of…

  11. Enhanced removal of Hg(II) from acidic aqueous solution using thiol-functionalized biomass.

    PubMed

    Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Qingzhu; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Yunyan

    2010-01-01

    Spent grain, the low-cost and abundant biomass produced in the brewing industry, was functionalized with thiol groups to be used as an adsorbent for Hg(II) removal from acidic aqueous solution. The adsorbents were characterized by the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption onto the thiol-functionalized spent grain (TFSG) was 2.0. The equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG from acidic aqueous solution were investigated. From the Langmuir isotherm model the maximum adsorption capacity of TFSG for Hg(II) was found to be 221.73 mg g(-1), which was higher than that of most various adsorbents reported in literature. Moreover, the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  12. An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part II: Liquid freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Ilicak, Mehmet; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Drange, Helge; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Bailey, David A.; Bentsen, Mats; Biastoch, Arne; Bozec, Alexandra; Böning, Claus; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Curry, Beth; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Jahn, Alexandra; Jung, Thomas; Large, William G.; Lee, Craig; Lique, Camille; Lu, Jianhua; Masina, Simona; Nurser, A. J. George; Rabe, Benjamin; Roth, Christina; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spence, Paul; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Xuezhu; Yeager, Steve G.

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean simulated in 14 global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II) is analyzed in this study. The focus is on the Arctic liquid freshwater (FW) sources and freshwater content (FWC). The models agree on the interannual variability of liquid FW transport at the gateways where the ocean volume transport determines the FW transport variability. The variation of liquid FWC is induced by both the surface FW flux (associated with sea ice production) and lateral liquid FW transport, which are in phase when averaged on decadal time scales. The liquid FWC shows an increase starting from the mid-1990s, caused by the reduction of both sea ice formation and liquid FW export, with the former being more significant in most of the models. The mean state of the FW budget is less consistently simulated than the temporal variability. The model ensemble means of liquid FW transport through the Arctic gateways compare well with observations. On average, the models have too high mean FWC, weaker upward trends of FWC in the recent decade than the observation, and low consistency in the temporal variation of FWC spatial distribution, which needs to be further explored for the purpose of model development.

  13. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Bailey, David; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Jung, Thomas; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; George Nurser, A. J.; Pirani, Anna; y Mélia, David Salas; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Simulation characteristics from eighteen global ocean-sea-ice coupled models are presented with a focus on the mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and other related fields in the North Atlantic. These experiments use inter-annually varying atmospheric forcing data sets for the 60-year period from 1948 to 2007 and are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The protocol for conducting such CORE-II experiments is summarized. Despite using the same atmospheric forcing, the solutions show significant differences. As most models also differ from available observations, biases in the Labrador Sea region in upper-ocean potential temperature and salinity distributions, mixed layer depths, and sea-ice cover are identified as contributors to differences in AMOC. These differences in the solutions do not suggest an obvious grouping of the models based on their ocean model lineage, their vertical coordinate representations, or surface salinity restoring strengths. Thus, the solution differences among the models are attributed primarily to use of different subgrid scale parameterizations and parameter choices as well as to differences in vertical and horizontal grid resolutions in the ocean models. Use of a wide variety of sea-ice models with diverse snow and sea-ice albedo treatments also contributes to these differences. Based on the diagnostics considered, the majority of the models appear suitable for use in studies involving the North Atlantic, but some models require dedicated development effort.

  14. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton-irradiation on lymphocyte blastogenesis and hematological variables: part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Smith, Anna L.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate functional characteristics of leukocytes and circulating blood cell parameters after whole-body proton irradiation at varying doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR and HDR, respectively). C57BL/6 mice (n=51) were irradiated and euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for assay. Significant radiation dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in splenocyte responses to T and B cell mitogens when compared to sham-irradiated controls (P<0.001). Spontaneous blastogenesis, also significantly dose-dependent, was increased in both blood and spleen (P<0.001). Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit were decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), whereas thrombocyte numbers were only slightly affected. Comparison of proton- and gamma-irradiated groups (both receiving 3 Gy at HDR) showed a higher level of spontaneous blastogenesis in blood leukocytes and a lower splenocyte response to concanavalin A following proton irradiation (P<0.05). There were no dose rate effects. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the measurements in blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of proton radiation and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor. A difference, however, was found between protons and gamma-rays in the degree of change induced in some of the measurements.

  15. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part II: potential clinical application of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Gregory K; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Gillespie, George Yancey; Markert, James M; Waters, Alicia M; Chen, Chun-Yu; Denton, Nicholas L; Haworth, Kellie B; Hutzen, Brian; Leddon, Jennifer L; Streby, Keri A; Wang, Pin-Yi; Cripe, Timothy P

    Oncolytic engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) possess many biologic and functional attributes that support their use in clinical trials in children with solid tumors. Tumor cells, in an effort to escape regulatory mechanisms that would impair their growth and progression, have removed many mechanisms that would have protected them from virus infection and eventual virus-mediated destruction. Viruses engineered to exploit this weakness, like mutant HSV, can be safely employed as tumor cell killers, since normal cells retain these antiviral strategies. Many preclinical studies and early phase trials in adults demonstrated that oncolytic HSV can be safely used and are highly effective in killing tumor cells that comprise pediatric malignancies, without generating the toxic side effects of nondiscriminatory chemotherapy or radiation therapy. A variety of engineered viruses have been developed and tested in numerous preclinical models of pediatric cancers and initial trials in patients are underway. In Part II of this review series, we examine the preclinical evidence to support the further advancement of oncolytic HSV in the pediatric population. We discuss clinical advances made to date in this emerging era of oncolytic virotherapy.

  16. Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Review and Oversight. Part I: Background and First Year Results. Part II: Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report reviews the establishment and early performance of the comprehensive manpower system established by the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). The report is divided into two major sections. Part 1 examines the background and first year results of the CETA program. The legislative and programmatic antecedents to CETA are…

  17. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  18. School Reform through Instructional Support: The Pennsylvania Initiative. Part I: The Instructional Support Team (IST) [and] Part II: Instructional Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovaleski, Joseph F.; Tucker, James A.; Duffy, Daniel J., Jr.; Lowery, Paul E.; Gickling, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    The document features two articles on school reform in Pennsylvania. Part one discusses the Instruction Support Team (IST) (Kovaleski, Tucker, and Duffy). The IST process is an intensive building-based pre-referral intervention program to assist elementary students experiencing difficulty in the classroom. The IST is a working group of teachers…

  19. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  20. The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps and The Akron Story Part II: Europe on $15 a Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, John D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two articles combined here describe aspects of the Akron, Ohio Public Schools' summer foreign language immersion camps for both students and teachers. The first article, "The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps" (John D. Durden and Sandra K. Strauber), outlines the structure of the camps, in which students live in simulated…

  1. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  2. Harmonization of strategies for the validation of quantitative analytical procedures. A SFSTP proposal--part II.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Ph; Nguyen-Huu, J-J; Boulanger, B; Chapuzet, E; Chiap, P; Cohen, N; Compagnon, P-A; Dewé, W; Feinberg, M; Lallier, M; Laurentie, M; Mercier, N; Muzard, G; Nivet, C; Valat, L; Rozet, E

    2007-09-21

    As reported in a previous paper, the main objective of the new commission of the Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques (SFSTP) was the harmonisation of approaches for the validation of quantitative analytical procedures. In a series of meetings, members of this Commission have first tried to review the objectives of analytical methods and the objectives of validation methods and to recommend the use of two-sided beta-expectation tolerance intervals for total error of validation samples (accuracy profile) in the acceptance/rejection of analytical method in validation phase. In the context of the harmonization, the other objectives were: (i) to propose a consensus on the norms usually recognized, while widely incorporating the ISO terminology; (ii) to recommend to validate the analytical procedure accordingly to the way it will be used in routine; (iii) to elaborate a rational, practical and statistically reliable strategy to assure the quality of the analytical results generated. This strategy has been formalised in a guide and the three latter objectives made by the Commission are summarised in the present paper which is the second part of summary report of the SFSTP commission. The SFSTP guide has been produced to help analysts to validate their analytical methods. It is the result of a consensus between professionals having expertise in analytical and/or statistical fields. The suggestions presented in this paper should therefore help the analyst to design and perform the minimum number validation experiments needed to obtain all the required information to establish and demonstrate the reliability of its analytical procedure.

  3. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    PubMed

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  4. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part II.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J R

    1995-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, in the December 1994 issue of the journal, the author discussed the manufacturing theories of Peter Drucker in terms of their applicability for the health care field. He concluded that Drucker's four principles and practices of manufacturing--statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach--do have application to the health care system. Clinical guidelines, a variation on the Drucker theory, are a specific example of the manufacturing process in health. The performance to date of some guidelines and their implications for the health care reform debate are discussed in Part II of the article.

  5. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  6. 50 CFR 452.07 - Separation of functions and ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation of functions and ex parte... SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATION BY THE SECRETARY § 452.07 Separation of functions and ex parte communications. (a) Separation of functions. (1) The Administrative Law Judge and...

  7. 50 CFR 452.07 - Separation of functions and ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation of functions and ex parte... SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATION BY THE SECRETARY § 452.07 Separation of functions and ex parte communications. (a) Separation of functions. (1) The Administrative Law Judge and...

  8. 50 CFR 452.07 - Separation of functions and ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of functions and ex parte... SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATION BY THE SECRETARY § 452.07 Separation of functions and ex parte communications. (a) Separation of functions. (1) The Administrative Law Judge and...

  9. Operation Everest II: Preservation of Cardiac Function at Extreme Altitude,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    environmental control. The exercise intensity was measured in terms of both physical work and oxygen uptake. Oxygen uptakes at submaximal work loads were...at high altitude could depress cardiac function and decrease exercise capacity. If so, impaired cardiac function should occur with the extreme...chronic hypoxemia of the 40-day simulated climb of Mt. Everest (8840m, PB 240 mmHg, PIO 2 43 mmHg). In the five subjects having resting and exercise

  10. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  11. Quality control for digital mammography: Part II recommendations from the ACRIN DMIST trial

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, Martin J.; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.

    2006-03-15

    The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), conducted under the auspices of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of digital versus screen-film mammography in a screening population [E. Pisano et al., ACRIN 6652--Digital vs. Screen-Film Mammography, ACRIN (2001)]. Part I of this work described the Quality Control program developed to ensure consistency and optimal operation of the digital equipment. For many of the tests, there were no failures during the 24 months imaging was performed in DMIST. When systems failed, they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. In this part, the utility and effectiveness of those tests are considered. This suggests that after verification of proper operation, routine extensive testing would be of minimal value. A recommended set of tests is presented including additional and improved tests, which we believe meet the intent and spirit of the Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations to ensure that full-field digital mammography systems are functioning correctly, and consistently producing mammograms of excellent image quality.

  12. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  13. Sensor Technology Comparison Method and Case Study, Part II Time Domain Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Collins, D.; Maechler, B.; Mayo, F.

    2008-12-01

    This study compares an accelerometer with geophone impulse response, then with deconvolution, to differentiate sensors' performance in the time domain. Part I (ref. 3) of this analysis covered frequency domain comparison only. Digital synthesis, which can closely resemble the whole geophysical data processing steps, provided further quantifying evidence of performance differentiators by statistical measures in terms of system time delay, correlation, and coherence. From a synthesized Ricker wavelet, the simulation revealed salient features of the two types of sensors. It discusses the interaction of noise level and deconvolution processing. There are a number of ways to evaluate sensor performance with mathematics. Traditionally, researchers used sensor transfer function for this purpose. One of the shortcomings of transfer function approach is that both amplitude and phase response are discussed separately but the impact in real world, time domain, takes into consideration both aspects. In frequency domain, it is difficult to establish an absolute scale (normalize in mathematical sense) for the total difference. Therefore it is logical to discuss the issues in time domain directly. Impulse response reveals hardware in time domain, instead of frequency domain as transfer function and reveals the intrinsic features of each sensor, making it easier to analyze and understand. Seismic wavelet interval in survey is normally in the range of 10s to 100s milliseconds and reflection wavelet is shorter. This requires a very quick sensor with rise/fall time less than ms without overshot/undershot. Therefore, the sensor's temporal resolution needs to be improved by deconvolution which makes the total filter as a δ(t), delta function. In this research, we propose to adopt other tools such as lagged maximum correlation in time domain and coherence function in spectrum (coherence discussion is omitted for part III). Lagged maximum correlation method is a statistical process

  14. The adsorption properties of Pb(II) and Cd(II) on functionalized graphene prepared by electrolysis method.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaojiao; Lü, Lili; Li, Hongwei; Luo, Fang

    2010-11-15

    The functionalized graphene (GNS(PF6)) was fabricated by simple and fast method of electrolysis with potassium hexafluorophosphate solution as electrolyte under the static potential of 15 V. The characterization results of transmission electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that graphite rod was completely exfoliated to graphene layer containing 30 wt.% PF(6)- with the average thickness ca. 1.0 nm. Our sample of GNS(PF6) was developed for the removal of Pb(II) or Cd(II) ions from water, and the determined adsorption capacities are 406.6 mg/g (pH=5.1) for Pb(II) and 73.42 mg/g (pH=6.2) for Cd(II), which is much higher than that by our previous sample of GNS(C8P) and carbon nanotube. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 40 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models.

  15. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume II, Part II: The Klamath Indians of southwestern Oregon: dictionary of the Klamath language

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gatschet, Albert Samuel; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    The present Dictionary, divided in two parts, contains the lexical portion of an Oregonian language never before reduced to writing. In view of the numerous obstacles and difficulties encountered in the preparation of such a work, a few hints upon its origin and tendencies will be of service in directing the studies of those who wish to acquire a more intimate knowledge of this energetic and well developed western language.

  16. Female pelvic congenital malformations. Part II: sexuality, reproductive outcomes and psychological impact.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Rosa M; De Gennaro, Mario; Tubaro, Andrea; Koelbl, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    The second part of this review deals with the quality of life of patients with congenital pelvic malformations, focusing on the sexuality, reproductive outcomes and overall psychological impact of the women affected. The presence of deformed pelvic anatomy, congenital or iatrogenic, and therefore of altered urinary, anal or sexual functions, are not only a physical limitation but seriously compromise psychological health from childhood. These difficulties jeopardise the thorny path from childhood to adult life through adolescence, and if neglected, could be responsible for seriously impairing quality of life in adulthood, in terms of mental health and psychosocial functions. If, in the 1970s, the main objective was to save the lives of newborns/infants, nowadays the therapy concept looks beyond that, focusing on quality of life and aiming to establish a satisfactory sexual life, allow the possibility of becoming a parent and enable the successful psychosocial integration of the patient. Ensuring urinary and fecal continence as well as the possibility of normal sexual activity, are the basis for allowing a normal psychological growth during adolescence, which leads to a satisfactory life later on.

  17. The joints of the evolving foot. Part II. The intrinsic joints.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O J

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the functional morphology of the intrinsic joints of the foot, with particular reference to the primates, and an attempt is made to define the key human derived features. In the human subtalar joint the compromise axis has become reoriented into a very elevated position and more nearly in line with the functional foot axis than it is in subhuman primates. This provides for torque of the talus, and so the supported body weight, about the axis, during the stance phase of gait. In the subhuman primates the very oblique subtalar axis is important in inverting the foot into a grasping attitude. In subhuman primates the transverse tarsal joint complex plays an important role in supination of the forefoot, which complements inversion at the subtalar joint complex in achieving the ideal grasping position. This movement is only rendered possible by a helical action at the subtalar joint complex. In man the calcaneocuboid joint has been remodelled so as to bring the lamina pedis into a close-packed position during the latter part of the stance phase of gait. The joints between the cuneiforms and the cuboids, and the associated tarsometatarsal joints show significant modifications in man. PMID:7429971

  18. Function of redox-active tyrosine in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2006-06-01

    Water oxidation at photosystem II Mn-cluster is mediated by the redox-active tyrosine Y(Z). We calculated the redox potential (E(m)) of Y(Z) and its symmetrical counterpart Y(D), by solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The calculated E(m)(Y( )/Y(-)) were +926 mV/+694 mV for Y(Z)/Y(D) with the Mn-cluster in S2 state. Together with the asymmetric position of the Mn-cluster relative to Y(Z/D), differences in H-bond network between Y(Z) (Y(Z)/D1-His(190)/D1-Asn(298)) and Y(D) (Y(D)/D2-His(189)/D2-Arg(294)/CP47-Glu(364)) are crucial for E(m)(Y(Z/D)). When D1-His(190) is protonated, corresponding to a thermally activated state, the calculated E(m)(Y(Z)) was +1216 mV, which is as high as the E(m) for P(D1/D2). We observed deprotonation at CP43-Arg(357) upon S-state transition, which may suggest its involvement in the proton exit pathway. E(m)(Y(D)) was affected by formation of P(D2)(+) (but not P(D1)(+)) and sensitive to the protonation state of D2-Arg(180). This points to an electrostatic link between Y(D) and P(D2).

  19. QSO clustering - II. The correlation function of IRAS seyfert galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Shanks, T.

    1994-12-01

    We investigate the clustering properties of 192 Seyfert galaxies from the IRAS all-sky survey. Using the spatial correlation function, we detect evidence of Seyfert clustering at the 2σ confidence level at < 10 h^-1^ Mpc separations, and at the 3{SIGMA} level at < 20 h^-1^ Mpc separations. Comparison of the QSO correlation function amplitude at high redshifts, z = 1.4, with that of Seyferts below 10 h^-1^ comoving Mpc leads us to reject the stable model of AGN clustering evolution at the 4σ level, whereas a comoving model where QSOs randomly sample the galaxy distribution is more consistent. The main uncertainty here now lies in the statistical error on the amplitude of the clustering in the faint QSO surveys at z = 1.4. The Seyfert-QDOT cross-correlation function is measured to be approximately a factor of 2 higher than the QDOT galaxy autocorrelation function, suggesting an enhanced environment for Seyferts with respect to IRAS galaxies, but it is not clear whether this is also the case with respect to optical galaxies. We conclude that the comoving model is probably favoured overall, at least on the r < 10 h^-1^ Mpc scales investigated here, but it is not yet possible to rule out intermediate models: for example, an enhanced-environment, stable model with ξ(r)=(r/3)^-1.8^ at z = 1.4, which is statistically consistent with the faint QSO data.

  20. A comprehensive review with potential significance during skull base and neck operations, Part II: glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves and cervical spinal nerves 1-4.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Chern, Joshua J; Rizk, Elias B; Loukas, Marios; Miller, Joseph H; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the possible neural interconnections found between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves may prove useful to surgeons who operate on the skull base and upper neck regions in order to avoid inadvertent traction or transection. We review the literature regarding the anatomy, function, and clinical implications of the complex neural networks formed by interconnections between the lower cranial and upper cervical nerves. A review of germane anatomic and clinical literature was performed. The review is organized into two parts. Part I discusses the anastomoses between the trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves or their branches and other nerve trunks or branches in the vicinity. Part II deals with the anastomoses between the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves and their branches or between these nerves and the first four cervical spinal nerves; the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these neural plexuses is also briefly reviewed. Part II is presented in this article. Extensive and variable neural anastomoses exist between the lower cranial nerves and between the upper cervical nerves in such a way that these nerves with their extra-axial communications can be collectively considered a plexus.

  1. Design of composite inhibitors targeting glutamate carboxypeptidase II: the importance of effector functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Novakova, Zora; Cerny, Jiri; Choy, Cindy J.; Nedrow, Jessie; Choi, Joeseph K.; Lubkowski, Jacek; Berkman, Clifford E.; Barinka, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors targeting human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) typically consist of a P1’ glutamate-derived binding module, which warrants the high-affinity and specificity, linked to an effector function that is positioned within the entrance funnel of the enzyme. Here we present a comprehensive structural and computational study aimed at dissecting the importance of the effector function for GCPII binding and affinity. To this end we determined crystal structures of human GCPII in complex with a series of phosphoramidate-based inhibitors harboring effector functions of diverse physicochemical characteristics. Our data shows that higher binding affinities of phosphoramidates, when compared to matching phosphonates, are linked to the presence of additional hydrogen bonds between Glu424 and Gly518 of the enzyme and the amide group of the phosphoramidate. While the positioning of the P1’ glutamate-derived module within the S1’ pocket of GCPII is invariant, interaction interfaces between effector functions and residues lining the entrance funnel are highly varied, with the positively charged arginine patch defined by Arg463, Arg534, Arg536, being the only ‘hot-spot’ common to several studied complexes. This variability stems in part from the fact that the effector/GCPII interfaces generally encompass isolated areas of non-polar residues within the entrance funnel and resulting van der Waals contacts lack the directionality typical for hydrogen-bonding interactions. Presented data unravel a complexity of binding modes of inhibitors within non-prime site(s) of GCPII and can be exploited for the design of novel GCPII-specific compounds. PMID:26460595

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  3. MHC structure and function − antigen presentation. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Anna Carla; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The second part of this review deals with the molecules and processes involved in the processing and presentation of the antigenic fragments to the T-cell receptor. Though the nature of the antigens presented varies, the most significant class of antigens is proteins, processed within the cell to be then recognized in the form of peptides, a mechanism that confers an extraordinary degree of precision to this mode of immune response. The efficiency and accuracy of this system is also the result of the myriad of mechanisms involved in the processing of proteins and production of peptides, in addition to the capture and recycling of alternative sources aiming to generate further diversity in the presentation to T-cells. PMID:25807243

  4. I. Fission probabilities, fission barriers, and shell effects. II. Particle structure functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kexing

    1999-11-01

    In Part I, fission excitation functions of osmium isotopes 185,186,187,189 Os produced in 3He + 182,183,184,186W reactions, and of polonium isotopes 209,210,211,212Po produced in 3He/4He + 206,207,208Pb reactions, were measured with high precision. These excitation functions have been analyzed in detail based upon the transition state formalism. The fission barriers, and shell effects for the corresponding nuclei are extracted from the detailed analyses. A novel approach has been developed to determine upper limits of the transient time of the fission process. The upper limits are constrained by the fission probabilities of neighboring isotopes. The upper limits for the transient time set with this new method are 15 × 10-21 sec and 25 × 10-21 sec for Os and Po compound nuclei, respectively. In Part II, we report on a search for evidence of the optical modulations in the energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. The optical modulations are expected to arise from the α- particle interaction with the rest of the nucleus as the particle prepares to exit. Some evidence for the modulations has been observed in the alpha spectra measured in the 3He-induced reactions, 3He + natAg in particular. The identification of the modulations involves a technique that substracts the bulk statistical background from the measured alpha spectra, in order for the modulations to become visible in the residuals. Due to insufficient knowledge of the background spectra, however, the presented evidence should only be regarded as preliminary and tentative.

  5. I. Fission Probabilities, Fission Barriers, and Shell Effects. II. Particle Structure Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Kexing

    1999-05-01

    In Part I, fission excitation functions of osmium isotopes 185,186, 187, 189 Os produced in 3He +182,183, 184, 186W reactions, and of polonium isotopes 209,210, 211, 212Po produced in 3He/4He + 206, 207, 208Pb reactions, were measured with high precision. These excitation functions have been analyzed in detail based upon the transition state formalism. The fission barriers, and shell effects for the corresponding nuclei are extracted from the detailed analyses. A novel approach has been developed to determine upper limits of the transient time of the fission process. The upper limits are constrained by the fission probabilities of neighboring isotopes. The upper limits for the transient time set with this new method are 15x 10–21 sec and 25x 10–21 sec for 0s and Po compound nuclei, respectively. In Part II, we report on a search for evidence of the optical modulations in the energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. The optical modulations are expected to arise from the ~-particle interaction with the rest of the nucleus as the particle prepares to exit. Some evidence for the modulations has been observed in the alpha spectra measured in the 3He-induced reactions, 3He + natAg in particular. The identification of the modulations involves a technique that subtracts the bulk statistical background from the measured alpha spectra, in order for the modulations to become visible in the residuals. Due to insufficient knowledge of the background spectra, however, the presented evidence should only be regarded as preliminary and tentative.

  6. Detecting Controller Malfunctions in Electromagnetic Environments. Part 1; Modeling and Estimation of Nominal System Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Bernice

    1999-01-01

    A strategy for detecting control law calculation errors in critical flight control computers during laboratory validation testing is presented. This paper addresses Part I of the detection strategy which involves the use of modeling of the aircraft control laws and the design of Kalman filters to predict the correct control commands. Part II of the strategy which involves the use of the predicted control commands to detect control command errors is presented in the companion paper.

  7. Immunophilins and their function in photosystem II assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Luan

    2012-11-27

    In the past funding period, the following lines of experiments have been conducted: to identify the partner proteins for FKBP20-2; to identify the mechanism of CYP38 function; studies on other FKBPs in the thylakoid lumen; to identify the partner proteins for FKBP20-2 using yeast two hybrid and transgenic lines expressing HA-FKBP20-2; to identify the partner protein of CYP38; studies on other FKBPs in the chloroplast.

  8. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  9. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    PubMed

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  10. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  11. The upper cenozoic evolution of the Duero and Ebro fluvial systems (N-Spain): part I. paleogeography; part II. geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Lack of age dates in the terrigenous Cenozoic sediments of the Duero and the Ebro sedimentary basins has complicated tecto-stratic correlation across the two basins. We tentatively synthesize a range of existing studies and new data to construct a rough general paleogeography throughout Upper Cenozoic times. The more extensive erosion of the Ebro has been previously attributed to the earlier moment of opening. We tentatively analyse lithostratic data to conclude that the lower knick-point and different lithologies have also contributed to the deeper erosion in the Ebro Basin. We conclude from lithostratic data and field evidence that the W half of the Rioja was part of the Duero in earlier times and that the escarpment retreated westward through the Rioja in four subsequent episodes of erosion. The tilt of the NW Duero is a consequence of isostatic rebound to this erosion.

  12. Part I. Inviscid, swirling flows and vortex breakdown. Part II. A numerical investigation of the Lundgren turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Buntine, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time-independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters does a solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A {open_quotes}quasi-cylindrical{close_quotes} amplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. {open_quotes}Criticality{close_quotes} or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi-cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between {open_quotes}failure{close_quotes} of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes} flow state. Lundgren developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k{sup {minus}5/3} behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin & Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the model numerically. The first part considers how the flow description compares with numerical simulations using the Navier-Stokes equations.

  13. Coarse graining the distribution function of cold dark matter - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    We study analytically the coarse- and fine-grained distribution function (DF) established by the self-similar infall of collisionless matter. We find this function explicitly for isotropic and spherically symmetric systems in terms of cosmological initial conditions. The coarse-grained function is structureless and steady but the familiar phase-space sheet substructure is recovered in the fine-grained limit. By breaking the self-similarity of the halo infall we are able to argue for a central density flattening. In addition there will be an edge steepening. The best-fitting analytic density function is likely to be provided by a high-order polytrope fit smoothly to an outer power law of index -3 for isolated systems. There may be a transition to a -4 power law in the outer regions of tidally truncated systems. As we find that the central flattening is progressive in time, dynamically young systems such as galaxy clusters may well possess a Navarro, Frenk and White type density profile, while primordial dwarf galaxies, for example, are expected to have cores. This progressive flattening is expected to end either in the non-singular isothermal sphere, or in the non-singular metastable polytropic cores; as the DFs associated with each of these arise naturally in the bulk halo during the infall. We suggest, based on previous studies of the evolution of de-stabilized polytropes, that a collisionless system may pass through a family of polytropes of increasing order, finally approaching the limit of the non-singular isothermal sphere, if the `violent' collective relaxation is frequently re-excited by `merger' events. Thus central dominant (cD) galaxies, and indeed all bright galaxies that have grown in this fashion, should be in polytropic states. Our results suggest that no physics beyond that of wave-particle scattering is necessary to explain the nature of dark matter density profiles. However, this may be assisted by the scattering of particles from the centre of the

  14. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  15. Concordant localization of functional urotensin II and urotensin II-related peptide binding sites in the rat brain: Atypical occurrence close to the fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Bucharles, Christine; Bizet, Patrice; Arthaud, Sébastien; Arabo, Arnaud; Leprince, Jérôme; Lefranc, Benjamin; Cartier, Dorthe; Anouar, Youssef; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    Urotensin II (UII) and Urotensin II-related peptide (URP) are structurally related paralog peptides that exert peripheral and central effects. UII binding sites have been partly described in brain, and those of URP have never been reported. We exhaustively compared [(125)I]-UII and -URP binding site distributions in the adult rat brain, and found that they fully overlapped at the regional level. We observed UII/URP binding sites in structures lining ventricles, comprising the sphenoid nucleus and cell rafts scattered on a line joining the fourth ventricle and its lateral recess. After injection of UII and URP in the lateral ventricle, we observed c-Fos-positive cell nuclei in areas close to the fourth ventricle, indicating that these receptors are functional. Different c-Fos-containing cell populations were activated. They were all positive for vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), excluding the possibility of an ependymal nature. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that UII and URP binding sites are totally overlapping and that these sites were functional in regions bordering the fourth ventricle. These data support a role for UII/URP at the interface between brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid.

  16. Modification of humic acid by ether functional group as biosorbent to Au(III) adsorption in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanti, Ika; Winata, Wahyu Fajar; Sudiono, Sri; Triyono

    2017-03-01

    Modification of humic acid on the phenolic functional group with dimethylsulfate (DMS) for adsorption Au(III) in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) have been conducted. Ash content was analyzed and characterized by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR). Determination of Au(III) adsorption in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) was conducted by Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The isolated humic acid has 19.8% ash content and after purification has 0.6% ash content, etherified humic acid (EHAs) has 1.4% ash content. Adsorption percentage of Au(III) in the presence of Sn(II) and Ni(II) by EHAs decreased until 4.936% and 41.782% respectively. The addition of Sn(II) and Ni(II) as competitors of Au(III) in the Au(III) adsorption by using EHAs, were affect the percentage of Au(III) adsorption.

  17. Ultrasound assessment of selected peripheral nerves pathologies. Part II: Entrapment neuropathies of the lower limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Similarly to entrapment neuropathies of upper extremities, the ultrasound constitutes a valuable supplementation of diagnostic examinations performed in patients with suspicions of nerve entrapment syndromes of the lower limb. For many years, it was claimed that such pathologies were rare. This probably resulted from the lack of proper diagnostic tools (including high frequency ultrasound transducers) as well as the lack of sufficient knowledge in this area. In relation to the above, the symptoms of compression neuropathies were frequently interpreted as a manifestation of pathologies of the lumbar part of the spine or a other orthopedic disease (degenerative or overuse one). Consequently, many patients were treated ineffectively for many months and even, years which led to irreparable neurological changes and changes in the motor organ. Apart from a clinical examination, the diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies of lower limb is currently based on imaging tests (ultrasound, magnetic resonance) as well as functional assessments (electromyography). Magnetic resonance imaging is characterized by a relatively low resolution (as compared to ultrasound) which results in limited possibilities of morphological evaluation of the visualized pathology. Electromyography allows for the assessment of nerve function, but does not precisely determine the type and degree of change. This article presents examples of the most common entrapment neuropathies of the lower limb concerning the following nerves: sciatic, femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, fibular and its branches, tibial and its branches as well as sural. The pathomorphological basis of the neuropathies as well as corresponding ultrasound images are presented in this paper. Attention has been drawn to echogenicity, degree of vascularization and bundle presentation of the trunk of a pathological peripheral nerve. PMID:26673938

  18. Tin(II)-functionalization of the archetypal {P8W48} polyoxotungstate.

    PubMed

    Izarova, N V; Klaß, L; de Oliveira, P; Mbomekalle, I-M; Peters, V; Haarmann, F; Kögerler, P

    2015-11-28

    The synthesis of [K(4.5) ⊂ (ClSn(II))8P8W48O184](17.5-), featuring Sn(II) ions in trigonal-pyramidal SnO2Cl environment coordinating to the two inner rims of the wheel-shaped {P8W48}-type polyoxotungstate(vi) archetype, showcases how high chloride ligand concentrations as well as the control of the polyanion solubility via electrolytes and evaporation rates are essential to prevent numerous competing reactions that can hamper the Sn(ii) functionalization of polyoxometalates.

  19. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  20. Iron(II)-catalyzed intramolecular aminohydroxylation of olefins with functionalized hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guan-Sai; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Yuan, Yong-An; Xu, Hao

    2013-03-06

    A diastereoselective aminohydroxylation of olefins with a functionalized hydroxylamine is catalyzed by new iron(II) complexes. This efficient intramolecular process readily affords synthetically useful amino alcohols with excellent selectivity (dr up to > 20:1). Asymmetric catalysis with chiral iron(II) complexes and preliminary mechanistic studies reveal an iron nitrenoid is a possible intermediate that can undergo either aminohydroxylation or aziridination, and the selectivity can be controlled by careful selection of counteranion/ligand combinations.

  1. Structure and functional analysis of the IGF-II/IGF2R interaction

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James; Delaine, Carlie; Zaccheo, Oliver J; Siebold, Christian; Gilbert, Robert J; van Boxel, Gijs; Denley, Adam; Wallace, John C; Hassan, A Bassim; Forbes, Briony E; Jones, E Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development and normal growth require exquisite control of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). In mammals the extracellular region of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor has gained an IGF-II-binding function and is termed type II IGF receptor (IGF2R). IGF2R sequesters IGF-II; imbalances occur in cancers and IGF2R is implicated in tumour suppression. We report crystal structures of IGF2R domains 11–12, 11–12–13–14 and domains 11–12–13/IGF-II complex. A distinctive juxtaposition of these domains provides the IGF-II-binding unit, with domain 11 directly interacting with IGF-II and domain 13 modulating binding site flexibility. Our complex shows that Phe19 and Leu53 of IGF-II lock into a hydrophobic pocket unique to domain 11 of mammalian IGF2Rs. Mutagenesis analyses confirm this IGF-II ‘binding-hotspot', revealing that IGF-binding proteins and IGF2R have converged on the same high-affinity site. PMID:18046459

  2. Involvement of l(-)-rhamnose in sea urchin gastrulation. Part II: α-l-Rhamnosidase.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Aleksanyan, Heghush; Metzenberg, Stan; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    The sea urchin embryo is recognized as a model system to reveal developmental mechanisms involved in human health and disease. In Part I of this series, six carbohydrates were tested for their effects on gastrulation in embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Only l-rhamnose caused dramatic increases in the numbers of unattached archenterons and exogastrulated archenterons in living, swimming embryos. It was found that at 30 h post-fertilization the l-rhamnose had an unusual inverse dose-dependent effect, with low concentrations (1-3 mM) interfering with development and higher concentrations (30 mM) having little to no effect on normal development. In this study, embryos were examined for inhibition of archenteron development after treatment with α-l-rhamnosidase, an endoglycosidase that removes terminal l-rhamnose sugars from glycans. It was observed that the enzyme had profound effects on gastrulation, an effect that could be suppressed by addition of l-rhamnose as a competitive inhibitor. The involvement of l-rhamnose-containing glycans in sea urchin gastrulation was unexpected, since there are no characterized biosynthetic pathways for rhamnose utilization in animals. It is possible there exists a novel l-rhamnose-containing glycan in sea urchins, or that the enzyme and sugar interfere with the function of rhamnose-binding lectins, which are components of the innate immune system in many vertebrate and invertebrate species.

  3. Fractals in the neurosciences, Part II: clinical applications and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Esteban, Francisco J; Grizzi, Fabio; Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Martín-Landrove, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    It has been ascertained that the human brain is a complex system studied at multiple scales, from neurons and microcircuits to macronetworks. The brain is characterized by a hierarchical organization that gives rise to its highly topological and functional complexity. Over the last decades, fractal geometry has been shown as a universal tool for the analysis and quantification of the geometric complexity of natural objects, including the brain. The fractal dimension has been identified as a quantitative parameter for the evaluation of the roughness of neural structures, the estimation of time series, and the description of patterns, thus able to discriminate different states of the brain in its entire physiopathological spectrum. Fractal-based computational analyses have been applied to the neurosciences, particularly in the field of clinical neurosciences including neuroimaging and neuroradiology, neurology and neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology, and neuro-oncology and neuropathology. After a review of the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences in part I of this series, here, we review the main applications of fractals to the clinical neurosciences for a holistic approach towards a fractal geometry model of the brain.

  4. Physiologic aspects of aging: impact on cancer management and decision making, part II.

    PubMed

    Sehl, Mary; Sawhney, Rishi; Naeim, Arash

    2005-01-01

    In this second article of our two-part review, we focus on age-associated physiologic changes involving the nervous, endocrine, hematologic, immune, and musculoskeletal systems, with close attention to the interconnected nature of these systems. There is a well-known connection between the neuroendocrine and immune systems via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and via interaction by means of cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. These changes may lead to a loss of integration and resiliency with age, thus decreasing the ability of the elderly patient with cancer to adapt to stressful circumstances. Prominent changes include decline in memory and cognition, and increased susceptibility to peripheral neuropathy. Hematologic and immune changes like reduced bone marrow reserve and increased susceptibility to infections have far reaching implications for cancer care in the elderly. Gradual decline in hormone levels, and changes in muscle and body composition, can lead to functional decline and frailty. Use of the clinical interventions suggested in this article, along with an appreciation of the interplay of these age-related physiologic changes and their consequences, allows oncology professionals to customize therapy and minimize side effects in the geriatric oncology patient.

  5. The molecular potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of methyl fluoride. Part II.

    PubMed

    Manson, Steven A; Law, Mark M; Atkinson, Ian A; Thomson, Grant A

    2006-06-28

    New analytical bending and stretching, ground electronic state, potential energy surfaces for CH(3)F are reported. The surfaces are expressed in bond-length, bond-angle internal coordinates. The four-dimensional stretching surface is an accurate, least squares fit to over 2000 symmetrically unique ab initio points calculated at the CCSD(T) level. Similarly, the five-dimensional bending surface is a fit to over 1200 symmetrically unique ab initio points. This is an important first stage towards a full nine-dimensional potential energy surface for the prototype CH(3)F molecule. Using these surfaces, highly excited stretching and (separately) bending vibrational energy levels of CH(3)F are calculated variationally using a finite basis representation method. The method uses the exact vibrational kinetic energy operator derived for XY(3)Z systems by Manson and Law (preceding paper, Part I, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, DOI: 10.1039/b603106d). We use the full C(3v) symmetry and the computer codes are designed to use an arbitrary potential energy function. Ultimately, these results will be used to design a compact basis for fully coupled stretch-bend calculations of the vibrational energy levels of the CH(3)F system.

  6. An efficient model for three-dimensional surface wave simulations. Part II: Generation and absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clamond, Didier; Fructus, Dorian; Grue, John; Kristiansen, Øyvind

    2005-05-01

    Water wave generation procedures and efficient numerical beaches are crucial components of a fully non-linear numerical tank for water wave simulations. Linear formulae for pneumatic wave makers are optimized for efficient fully non-linear wave generation in three dimensions. Analytical integration of the (linear) applied free surface pressure provides formulae valid for all times of the simulation. The purely non-linear part of the wave making procedure becomes integrated in the fully non-linear formulation. Novel numerical beaches are introduced, damping the (scaled) tangential velocity at the free surface. More specifically, an additional term is introduced in the Bernoulli equation at the free surface, namely ∇-1·(γ∇ϕ˜), where γ is a non-zero (smooth) function in regions where damping is required and zero in the wave propagation domain, ∇ϕ˜ is the scaled tangential velocity at the free surface, and ∇ -1 the inverse horizontal gradient operator. The new term results in a modified dynamic free surface condition which is integrated in time in the fully non-linear formulation. Extensive numerical tests show that the energy of the outgoing waves is completely absorbed by the new damper. Neither wave reflection nor emission are observed. A steep solitary wave is completely absorbed at the numerical beach. Damping of waves due to advancing pressure distributions are efficient as well. The implementation of the absorber in any existing numerical tank is rather trivial.

  7. An Ansatz Regarding Relativistic Space Travel Part II-Propulsion Realities

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, Paul A

    2008-01-21

    Travel to the stars can involve a perilous journey in an unfriendly space-time continuum that can include singularities, nonlinear events, gravity as a function of both position and vehicle velocity, and extra dimensional effects discussed in Part I. Such a device may possibly use field propulsion technology. Although several field propulsion schemes exist, a proposed candidate is based upon using an electromagnetic drive that uses a rotating magnetic field superimposed on the spacecraft's stationary or static electric field. This is comparable to a Searl generator and the field interaction would generate an electromagnetic vortex to create nonlinear gravitational effects possibly due to an inverse Gertsenshtein relationship to push against the intrinsic gravitational field of a planet. Moreover, changing alignment of the magnetic field axis with the electric field will induce a margin of lateral controllability. Issues such as assessing this combined effect of using both electric and magnetic fields are discussed. Finally, the need for experimental data is stressed to validate these otherwise very speculative theoretical notions.

  8. An Ansatz Regarding Relativistic Space Travel Part II-Propulsion Realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Travel to the stars can involve a perilous journey in an unfriendly space-time continuum that can include singularities, nonlinear events, gravity as a function of both position and vehicle velocity, and extra dimensional effects discussed in Part I. Such a device may possibly use field propulsion technology. Although several field propulsion schemes exist, a proposed candidate is based upon using an electromagnetic drive that uses a rotating magnetic field superimposed on the spacecraft's stationary or static electric field. This is comparable to a Searl generator and the field interaction would generate an electromagnetic vortex to create nonlinear gravitational effects possibly due to an inverse Gertsenshtein relationship to push against the intrinsic gravitational field of a planet. Moreover, changing alignment of the magnetic field axis with the electric field will induce a margin of lateral controllability. Issues such as assessing this combined effect of using both electric and magnetic fields are discussed. Finally, the need for experimental data is stressed to validate these otherwise very speculative theoretical notions.

  9. An Interactive Activation Model of the Effect of Context in Perception. Part II. Report No. 8003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L.

    This report is the second in a two-part series introducing an interactive activation model of context effects in perception. In the first part, a model for the perception of letters in words and other contexts was described and applied to a number of experiments. This second part applies the same model to a number of new experiments designed to…

  10. Mixed Layer Depth in the Aegean, Marmara, Black and Azov Seas: Part II: Relation to the Sonic Layer Depth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    r.com/ locate / jmarsysMixed layer depth in the Aegean, Marmara, Black and Azov Seas : Part II: Relation to the sonic layer depth Robert W. Helber a...index terms: The Aegean Sea The Black Sea The Azov Sea Keywords: Sound transmission Mixed layer depth Climatologyt analysis of the seasonal evolution of...the sonic layer depth (SLD) relative to the mixed layer depth (MLD) for the Aegean, Marmara, Black, and Azov Seas . SLD identifies the acoustic ducting

  11. Dynamic regime marginal structural mean models for estimation of optimal dynamic treatment regimes, Part II: proofs of results.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Liliana; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Robins, James M

    2010-03-03

    In this companion article to "Dynamic Regime Marginal Structural Mean Models for Estimation of Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes, Part I: Main Content" [Orellana, Rotnitzky and Robins (2010), IJB, Vol. 6, Iss. 2, Art. 7] we present (i) proofs of the claims in that paper, (ii) a proposal for the computation of a confidence set for the optimal index when this lies in a finite set, and (iii) an example to aid the interpretation of the positivity assumption.

  12. Dynamic Regime Marginal Structural Mean Models for Estimation of Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes, Part II: Proofs of Results*

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Liliana; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Robins, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In this companion article to “Dynamic Regime Marginal Structural Mean Models for Estimation of Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes, Part I: Main Content” [Orellana, Rotnitzky and Robins (2010), IJB, Vol. 6, Iss. 2, Art. 7] we present (i) proofs of the claims in that paper, (ii) a proposal for the computation of a confidence set for the optimal index when this lies in a finite set, and (iii) an example to aid the interpretation of the positivity assumption. PMID:20405047

  13. Structure–function studies of the RNA polymerase II elongation complex

    SciTech Connect

    Brueckner, Florian; Armache, Karim-Jean; Cheung, Alan; Damsma, Gerke E.; Kettenberger, Hubert; Lehmann, Elisabeth; Sydow, Jasmin; Cramer, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    X-ray crystallographic and complementary functional studies have contributed significantly to the current understanding of gene transcription. Here, recent structure–function studies on various aspects of the elongation phase of transcription are summarized. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is the eukaryotic enzyme that is responsible for transcribing all protein-coding genes into messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA-transcription cycle can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation and termination. During elongation, Pol II moves along a DNA template and synthesizes a complementary RNA chain in a processive manner. X-ray structural analysis has proved to be a potent tool for elucidating the mechanism of Pol II elongation. Crystallographic snapshots of different functional states of the Pol II elongation complex (EC) have elucidated mechanistic details of nucleotide addition and Pol II translocation. Further structural studies in combination with in vitro transcription experiments led to a mechanistic understanding of various additional features of the EC, including its inhibition by the fungal toxin α-amanitin, the tunability of the active site by the elongation factor TFIIS, the recognition of DNA lesions and the use of RNA as a template.

  14. Advanced control strategies for HVAC&R systems—An overview: Part II: Soft and fusion control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-04-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for HVAC&R is presented. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and the fusion or hybrid of hard and soft control techniques. Part I focused on hardcontrol strategies; Part II focuses on soft and fusion control and some future directions in HVA&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omissions of other works is purely unintentional.

  15. 18 CFR Table 1 to Part 301 - Functionalization and Escalation Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functionalization and Escalation Codes 1 Table 1 to Part 301 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY..., Table 1 Table 1 to Part 301—Functionalization and Escalation Codes ER15SE09.000 ER15SE09.001...

  16. 21 CFR 10.55 - Separation of functions; ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of functions; ex parte communications... Separation of functions; ex parte communications. (a) This section applies to any matter subject by statute... evidentiary public hearing or a hearing before a Public Board of Inquiry, the following separation...

  17. LUMINOUS SATELLITES. II. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, AND COSMIC EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Treu, T.; Auger, M. W.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Busha, Michael T.

    2012-06-20

    We infer the normalization and the radial and angular distributions of the number density of satellites of massive galaxies (log{sub 10}[M*{sub h}/M{sub Sun }] > 10.5) between redshifts 0.1 and 0.8 as a function of host stellar mass, redshift, morphology, and satellite luminosity. Exploiting the depth and resolution of the COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope images, we detect satellites up to 8 mag fainter than the host galaxies and as close as 0.3 (1.4) arcsec (kpc). Describing the number density profile of satellite galaxies to be a projected power law such that P(R){proportional_to}R{sup {gamma}{sub p}}, we find {gamma}{sub p} = -1.1 {+-} 0.3. We find no dependency of {gamma}{sub p} on host stellar mass, redshift, morphology, or satellite luminosity. Satellites of early-type hosts have angular distributions that are more flattened than the host light profile and are aligned with its major axis. No significant average alignment is detected for satellites of late-type hosts. The number of satellites within a fixed magnitude contrast from a host galaxy is dependent on its stellar mass, with more massive galaxies hosting significantly more satellites. Furthermore, high-mass late-type hosts have significantly fewer satellites than early-type galaxies of the same stellar mass, possibly indicating that they reside in more massive halos. No significant evolution in the number of satellites per host is detected. The cumulative luminosity function of satellites is qualitatively in good agreement with that predicted using SubHalo Abundance Matching techniques. However, there are significant residual discrepancies in the absolute normalization, suggesting that properties other than the host galaxy luminosity or stellar mass determine the number of satellites.

  18. Evaluation of Pump Pulsation in Respirable Size-Selective Sampling: Part II. Changes in Sampling Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  19. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  20. Part I. Metabolites of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium; Part II. Regioselective deuteriations of deoxyribose and incorporation into deoxynucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium is the fungus responsible for several outbreaks of neurotoxicoses among cattle in Tennessee beginning in 1979. Verrucosidin isolated from samples of P. verrucosum var. cyclopium was later shown to be a powerful neurotoxin capable of paralyzing its victims and was also said to cause tremoring in some cases. Part I of this dissertation describes the re-investigation of metabolites of P. verrucosum var. cyclopium and tremorgenicity of verrucosidin. Verrucosidin has been shown in this study to be non-tremorgenic. This research also describes development of efficient synthetic methods for incorporation of deuterium into the deoxyribose moiety of deoxyribonucleosides. Deuteriated deoxynucleosides are presently being considered for synthesis of deuteriated sequences of DNA to be utilized in {sup 1}H NMR studies of solution conformation and dynamics, as well as interactions with proteins, drugs, metals and carcinogens. A route for synthesizing 2-deoxy-D-ribose from D-ribonic-acid-{gamma}-lactone incorporating deuterium at the C-1, C-2 or C-5 positions is presented.

  1. Collisions of Small Drops in a Turbulent Flow. Part II: Effects of Flow Accelerations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, M. B.; Khain, A. P.

    2004-08-01

    The effects of Lagrangian acceleration on collision efficiency and collision kernels of small cloud droplets in a turbulent flow are investigated using the results of the recent laboratory experiments by La Porta et al., conducted under high Reλ flow of pronounced intermittency. The effect of Lagrangian accelerations on drop collisions has been found to be significant, namely, for drop pairs, containing a drop collector exceeding 10 μm in radius, collision efficiency, and collision kernels increase by up to 25% and 40%, respectively, at dissipation rates of 200 cm2 s-3 typical of weak cumulus clouds. In well-developed deep cumulus clouds, the increase attains the factor of 2.5 and 5, respectively, at typical dissipation rates of 1000 cm2 s-3. The effect of Lagrangian accelerations is mainly caused by the increase in the collision efficiency that is highly sensitive even to weak variations of interdrop relative velocity. The increase in the swept volume is responsible only for a fraction of the overall increase in the collision kernel.The effect of intermittency of a turbulent flow manifests itself in two aspects: (i) an increase in variance of Lagrangian accelerations with an increase in Reλ, and (ii) the formation of a specific shape of the probability distribution function (PDF) characterized by a sharp maximum and elongated tail. The increase in variance of Lagrangian accelerations leads to an increase in the collision rate between droplets. The effect of the PDF shape on the collision rate is studied by comparing the magnitudes of collision efficiencies (and kernels) obtained in case of the non-Gaussian PDF with those obtained using the Gaussian PDF of the same acceleration variation. The utilization of the Gaussian PDF leads to a slight (about 10% 15%) overestimation of the values of the collision efficiency and collision kernel. Thus, the effect of intermittency on drop collisions related to high values of PDF flatness has been found to be insignificant

  2. The wind and thermally driven circulation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Part II: the Baroclinic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Bergamasco, Andrea

    1991-04-01

    Compared with other interesting parts of the World Ocean, little is known of the eastern Mediterranean and major issues of the Mediterranean circulation are still unsolved. Among them, the most crucial one is: what is the dominant driving mechanism of the eastern Mediterranean general circulation: (1) the wind stress; (2) the thermohaline surface fluxes; (3) the inflow forcing at the Sicily Straits? What is the relative importance of these three forcing functions? Is it the same in the different sub-basins comprising the eastern Mediterranean? What modelling factors are important for the simulation of the seasonal cycle and is the general circulation overall dominated by the annual mean or seasonal signal? To answer the above questions we have carried out an extensive and thorough series of numerical experiments using a multilevel model of the circulation, suitable for coarse-resolution studies but endowed with active thermodynamics and allowing for realistic geometry (coastlines, islands, bottom relief). The model is used in a three-level version as the minimum one capable of simulating the vertical superposition of different water masses observed in the eastern Mediterranean. The climatological monthly averages of wind-stress, thermal and evaporative fluxes and inflow at Sicily are used to drive the model. In Part I of the present study it was shown that the seasonal cycle present in the wind-stress curl induces a strongly seasonal barotropic circulation comprising the entire eastern Mediterranean. This seasonal gyre reverses from being cyclonic in winter to anticyclonic in summer. The inclusion of baroclinicity, however, profoundly modifies the purely wind-driven, barotropic circulation, eliminating the strong seasonality and the winter-to-summer reversal. The first important result is that the general circulation pattern now consists of a succession of sub-basin-scale gyres, with a seasonal modulation emphasizing the cyclonic centres in winter and the

  3. Land-Grant College Education 1910 to 1920. Part II: The Liberal Arts and Sciences Including Miscellaneous Subjects and Activities. Bulletin, 1924, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Walton C., Ed.

    1925-01-01

    This survey of land-grant college education is divided into five sections, published separately as follows: Part I: History and Educational Objectives of Land-Grant College Education; Part II: The Liberal Arts and Sciences and Miscellaneous Subjects in Land-Grant Colleges; Part III: Agricultural Education in Land-Grant Colleges; Part IV:…

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  5. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  6. Gauge-independent Wigner functions. II. Inclusion of radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanainen, J.; Varró, S.; Serimaa, O. T.

    1987-04-01

    We investigate the effects of quantized radiation reaction fields on the motion of a charged particle using the gauge-independent Wigner operator (GIWO) and gauge-independent Wigner function (GIWF) introduced earlier [Phys. Rev. A 33, 2913 (1986)]. To complement the equation of motion of the GIWO, the Heisenberg equations of motion of the quantized electromagnetic fields are solved within the Markov approximation. After considering the operator orderings and orders of magnitude of the radiation reaction terms, we eliminate the quantum fields from the evolution equation of the GIWO, and obtain for the GIWF a closed equation containing relaxation terms. As an example of the formalism we derive a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) for the GIWF of a particle in a constant magnetic field. To the order ħ 0 the classical radiation damping ensues, and the first quantum correction proportional to ħ emerges as diffusion. The diffusion operator turns out to be indefinite and the FPE consequently defies our attempts at a complete analysis, but we demonstrate that at least the coherent states constructed from the Landau levels exhibit a manifestly physical time evolution under the FPE. We point out that the GIWF calculated with quantized electromagnetic fields is divergent even if the fields are in the vacuum state, and suggest that the GIWF should be associated with the particle state by ignoring the quantized fields altogether.

  7. Further considerations on the evaluation of potential reduced-risk tobacco products. Part II: Re-assessment of a heuristic using the CPS-II database.

    PubMed

    Murrelle, Lenn; Coggins, Christopher R E; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard A; Lee, Peter N; Zedler, Barbara K; Heidbreder, Christian

    2010-06-01

    In a previous analysis (see Part I) we proposed a heuristic for assessing the efficacy of potential reduced-risk tobacco products (PRRPs) on lung cancer (LC) rates, using smoking cessation data published in a report from the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) as a basis for sample size estimates. In this study, an additional analysis was performed using cessation data from the much larger Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which also provides data on different durations of cessation. Statistical methods were used to assess whether smokers switching to a PRRP would reduce their risk of LC. Furthermore, non-inferiority tests compared the LC risk in switchers to that in smokers who had quit smoking. The present work shows that similar sample size estimates were obtained whether the analysis was based on the IWHS or the CPS-II data sets, suggesting that the heuristic may be generally applicable to prospective real-life studies to evaluate PRRPs. Non-inferiority testing of switchers compared with quitters required approximately 10-fold more subjects than did superiority testing of switchers compared with smokers. Altogether, these estimates indicate that it is feasible, in terms of study duration and sample size, to clinically assess the LC risk-reducing potential of a PRRP.

  8. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (lignocellulosic biomass) part II: carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-12

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(2) and other products such as biocomposite materials(6). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin(5) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation(5). Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose(7). The protocol for

  9. Comprehensive Compositional Analysis of Plant Cell Walls (Lignocellulosic biomass) Part II: Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Cliff E.; Martin, Tina M.; Pauly, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation2 and other products such as biocomposite materials6. Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet4. It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin5 and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation5. Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant4. Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose7. The protocol for analyzing the

  10. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  11. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  12. Airflow analyses using thermal imaging in Arizona's Meteor Crater as part of METCRAX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzielanek, A. Martina; Vogt, Roland; Cermak, Jan; Maric, Mateja; Feigenwinter, Iris; Whiteman, C. David; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Krauß, Matthias G.; Bernhofer, Christian; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In October 2013 the second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) took place at the Barringer Meteorite Crater (aka Meteor Crater) in north central Arizona, USA. Downslope-windstorm-type flows (DWF), the main research objective of METCRAX II, were measured by a comprehensive set of meteorological sensors deployed in and around the crater. During two weeks of METCRAX II five infrared (IR) time lapse cameras (VarioCAM® hr research & VarioCAM® High Definition, InfraTec) were installed at various locations on the crater rim to record high-resolution images of the surface temperatures within the crater from different viewpoints. Changes of surface temperature are indicative of air temperature changes induced by flow dynamics inside the crater, including the DWF. By correlating thermal IR surface temperature data with meteorological sensor data during intensive observational periods the applicability of the IR method of representing flow dynamics can be assessed. We present evaluation results and draw conclusions relative to the application of this method for observing air flow dynamics in the crater. In addition we show the potential of the IR method for METCRAX II in 1) visualizing airflow processes to improve understanding of these flows, and 2) analyzing cold-air flows and cold-air pooling.

  13. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XV, UNDERSTANDING DC GENERATOR PRINCIPLES (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE SPECIAL GENERATOR CIRCUITS, GENERATOR TESTING, AND GENERATOR POLARITY. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "DC GENERATORS II--GENERATOR…

  15. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design.

  16. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; Hamza, Reham Z; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-25

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and (1)H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M(2+)-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]⋅nH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram+ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and 1H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M2+-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram - ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram + ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  19. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  20. Identification and pharmacological characterization of native, functional human urotensin-II receptors in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Stephen A; Naselsky, Diane; Ao, Zhaohui; Disa, Jyoti; Herold, Christopher L; Lynch, Frank; Aiyar, Nambi V

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to identify endogenous, native mammalian urotensin-II (U-II) receptors (UT), a diverse range of human, primate and rodent cell lines (49 in total) were screened for the presence of detectable [125I]hU-II binding sites. UT mRNA (Northern blot, PCR) and protein (immunocytochemistry) were evident in human skeletal muscle tissue and cells. [125I]hU-II bound to a homogenous population of high-affinity, saturable (Kd 67.0±11.8 pM, Bmax 9687±843 sites cell−1) receptors in the skeletal muscle (rhabdomyosarcoma) cell line SJRH30. Radiolabel was characteristically slow to dissociate (⩽15% dissociation 90 min). A lower density of high-affinity U-II binding sites was also evident in the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671 (1667±165 sites cell−1, Kd 74±8 pM). Consistent with the profile recorded in human recombinant UT-HEK293 cells, [125I]hU-II binding to SJRH30 cells was selectively displaced by both mammalian and fish U-II isopeptides (Kis 0.5±0.1–1.2±0.3 nM) and related analogues (hU-II[4-11]>[Cys5,10]Acm hU-II; Kis 0.4±0.1 and 864±193 nM, respectively). U-II receptor activation was functionally coupled to phospholipase C-mediated [Ca2+]i mobilization (EC50 6.9±2.2 nM) in SJRH30 cells. The present study is the first to identify the presence of ‘endogenous' U-II receptors in SJRH30 and TE671 cells. SJRH30 cells, in particular, might prove to be of utility for (a) investigating the pharmacological properties of hU-II and related small molecule antagonists at native human UT and (b) delineating the role of this neuropeptide in the (patho)physiological regulation of mammalian neuromuscular function. PMID:15210573

  1. A novel fluorescent array for mercury (II) ion in aqueous solution with functionalized cadmium selenide nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinlong; Gao, YingChun; Xu, ZhiBing; Wu, GenHua; Chen, YouCun; Zhu, ChangQing

    2006-09-01

    Mono-disperse CdSe nanoclusters have been prepared facilely and functionalized with l-cysteine through two steps by using safe and low cost substances. They are water-soluble and biocompatible. Especially these functionalized quantum dots can be stably soluble in water more than for 30 days, and the intensity of fluorescence and absorbance was decreased less than 15% of fresh prepared CdSe colloids. These functionalized CdSe QDs exhibited strong specific affinity for mercury (II) through QDs interface functional groups. Based on the quenching of fluorescence signals of functionalized CdSe QDs at 530 nm and no obvious wavelength shift or no new emission band in present of Hg (II) at pH 7.75 of phosphate buffer solution, a simple, rapid and specific array for Hg (II) was proposed. In comparison with conventional organic fluorophores, these nanoparticles are brighter, more stable against photobleaching, and do not suffer from blinking. Under optimum conditions, the response of linearly proportional to the concentration of Hg (II) between 0 and 2.0 x10(-6) mol L(-1), and the limit of detection is 6.0 x 10(-9) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation of six replicate measurements is 1.8% for 1.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) Hg (II). The mechanism of reaction is also discussed. The proposed method was successfully applied for Hg (II) detection in four real samples with a satisfactory result that was obtained by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS).

  2. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  3. Affirmatives and Negatives of Space-Career Prospects-Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bole-Becker, Luanne C.

    1990-01-01

    The second part of a two-part series on careers in the space program discusses the academic credentials and experience required for various career paths within the space industry. NASA-sponsored cooperative training and research programs for undergraduate and graduate students are listed and discussed. (TE)

  4. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 2. NOTES AND GLOSSARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    "PART 2" OF THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES CONTAINS THE GRAMMATICAL NOTES AND INDIVIDUAL ARABIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES FOR THE ESSAYS INCLUDED IN "PART 1." PREFACING EACH GLOSSARY IS A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON THE AUTHOR OF THE ESSAY. ALL WORDS OF THE FIRST TEN SELECTIONS ARE GLOSSED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST 200 ITEMS IN…

  5. The Lesson of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Part II: The Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1985-01-01

    Part I (SE 537 587) briefly reviewed the scientific discoveries underlying the atomic bomb and its technological development. This part examines the implications of these events for science education. Areas considered include the nuclear arms race, nuclear winter, the Strategic Defense Initiative, and others. (DH)

  6. Matter from Outside Our Solar System -- New Insights, Part II. Experimental Measurements and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wefel, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The second of two parts (part 1 in v20 n4, p222, Apr 1982) focuses on experimental techniques used to study cosmic-ray isotopic composition, experimental results, and comparison between cosmic-ray source matter and solar-system material. Several models for nucleosynthesis and evolution of cosmic-source matter are also discussed. (Author/JN)

  7. ORIENTATION CLASSES FOR IN-MIGRANT TRANSIENT CHILDREN. A FIRST REPORT, PART II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PONDER, EDDIE G.; AND OTHERS

    A 3-YEAR STUDY OF THE ORIENTATION OF IMMIGRANT TRANSIENT CHILDREN WAS INITIATED IN SEPTEMBER, 1960. PART ONE GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT FOR THE SCHOOL YEAR 1961-61. IT REVIEWS THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ORIENTATION CLASSES, THE INSERVICE PROGRAM, COMMUNITY ORIENTATION, AND REPORTS OF SPECIAL SERVICES GIVEN TO THE PROJECT CLASSES. PART TWO…

  8. Intermediate Mathematics, Student's Text, Part II, Unit No. 18. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG intermediate mathematics text for high school students. The aim of the text is to focus attention on mathematical ideas which are appropriate for study by college-capable students in the eleventh grade. Chapter topics include number systems, an introduction to coordinate geometry in the plane, the function…

  9. Elementary Metric Curriculum - Project T.I.M.E. (Timely Implementation of Metric Education). Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community School District 18, Brooklyn, NY.

    This is the second part of a two-part teacher's manual for an ISS-based elementary school course in the metric system. Behavioral objectives and student activities are included. Topics include: (1) capacity; (2) calculation of volume and surface area of cylinders and cones; (3) mass; (4) temperature; and (5) metric conversions. (BB)

  10. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Research and Evaluation Plans; Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    In the second of a two-part document (part I is under EM 010 475), the Westinghouse Learning Corporation provides further details on the research to be carried out in the experimental leadership course instituted at the United States Naval Academy (the final report appears under EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484). Further details are…

  11. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  12. REMOTE SENSING TOOLS ASSIST IN ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS PART II - DIGITAL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is part two of a two-part discussion, in which we will provide an overview of the use of GIS and GPS in environmental analysis and enforcement.

    GIS describes a system that manages, analyzes and displays geographic information. Environmental applications include anal...

  13. Basic Metrics--Part I, II and III. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Joan

    Individualized classroom activities for use in learning centers to teach junior and senior high school students about the metric system are provided. The activities are organized into three sequential parts, each of which takes from four to six hours to complete. There is a teacher's guide and a student booklet for each part. The teachers' guides…

  14. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

  15. Combustion chemistry and flame structure of furan group biofuels using molecular-beam mass spectrometry and gas chromatography - Part II: 2-Methylfuran.

    PubMed

    Tran, Luc-Sy; Togbé, Casimir; Liu, Dong; Felsmann, Daniel; Oßwald, Patrick; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Sirjean, Baptiste; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-03-01

    This is Part II of a series of three papers which jointly address the combustion chemistry of furan and its alkylated derivatives 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) under premixed low-pressure flame conditions. Some of them are considered to be promising biofuels. With furan as a common basis studied in Part I of this series, the present paper addresses two laminar premixed low-pressure (20 and 40 mbar) flat argon-diluted (50%) flames of MF which were studied with electron-ionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry (EI-MBMS) and gas chromatography (GC) for equivalence ratios φ=1.0 and 1.7, identical conditions to those for the previously reported furan flames. Mole fractions of reactants, products as well as stable and reactive intermediates were measured as a function of the distance above the burner. Kinetic modeling was performed using a comprehensive reaction mechanism for all three fuels given in Part I and described in the three parts of this series. A comparison of the experimental results and the simulation shows reasonable agreement, as also seen for the furan flames in Part I before. This set of experiments is thus considered to be a valuable additional basis for the validation of the model. The main reaction pathways of MF consumption have been derived from reaction flow analyses, and differences to furan combustion chemistry under the same conditions are discussed.

  16. Enhanced removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions by SDS-functionalized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Salihi, Elif Çalışkan; Wang, Jiabin; Coleman, Daniel J L; Šiller, Lidija

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, a one-pot and easy-to-handle method at room temperature without additional chemicals for the modification of graphene oxide (GO) with surfactant is found. Removal of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions by GO and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) modified graphene oxide (SDS-GO) was studied spectrophotometrically at room temperature as a function of time, initial concentration and pH. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was increased dramatically (from 20.19 to 55.16 mg/g found by Langmuir model) due to the functionalization of the surface by SDS. The driving force of the adsorption of Ni(II) ions is electrostatic attraction and Ni(II) ions adsorbed on the GO surface chemically besides ion exchange.

  17. Enhanced removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions by SDS-functionalized graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Salihi, Elif Çalışkan; Wang, Jiabin; Coleman, Daniel J. L.; Šiller, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, a one-pot and easy-to-handle method at room temperature without additional chemicals for the modification of graphene oxide (GO) with surfactant is found. Removal of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions by GO and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) modified graphene oxide (SDS-GO) was studied spectrophotometrically at room temperature as a function of time, initial concentration and pH. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was increased dramatically (from 20.19 to 55.16 mg/g found by Langmuir model) due to the functionalization of the surface by SDS. The driving force of the adsorption of Ni(II) ions is electrostatic attraction and Ni(II) ions adsorbed on the GO surface chemically besides ion exchange. PMID:27365545

  18. Thermohaline Circulation Stability: A Box Model Study. Part II: Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of a coupled version of an interhemispheric three-box model of thermohaline circulation (THC) is presented. This study follows a similarly structured analysis of an uncoupled version of the same model presented in Part I of this paper. The model consists of a northern high-latitude box, a tropical box, and a southern high-latitude box, which can be thought of as corresponding to the northern, tropical, and southern Atlantic Ocean, respectively. This paper examines how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings representing global warming conditions.Since a coupled model is used, a direct representation of the radiative forcing is possible because the main atmospheric physical processes responsible for freshwater and heat fluxes are formulated separately. Each perturbation to the initial equilibrium is characterized by the total radiative forcing realized, by the rate of increase, and by the north-south asymmetry. Although only weakly asymmetric or symmetric radiative forcings are representative of physically reasonable conditions, general asymmetric forcings are considered in order to get a more complete picture of the mathematical properties of the system. The choice of suitably defined metrics makes it possible to determine the boundary dividing the set of radiative forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria where the THC is reversed. This paper also considers different choices for the atmospheric transport parameterizations and for the ratio between the high-latitude and tropical radiative forcing. It is generally found that fast forcings are more effective than slow forcings in disrupting the present THC pattern, forcings that are stronger in the northern box are also more effective in destabilizing the system, and very slow forcings do not destabilize the system whatever their asymmetry

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Danish leafy crops. Part I: PAH in kale and beets relate to point sources of PAH. Part II: a survey of PAH in commercial grown fresh and deep-frozen kale

    SciTech Connect

    Vahl, M.; Beck, J.; Stoebet, M.

    1982-01-01

    Part I discusses the investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) has been to demonstrate the possible pollution of leafy vegetables from expected PAH-emmissions, and to compare with similar investigations in Scandinavia. Part II is a survey has been to establish levels of PAH to which consumers are normally exposed from intake of fruits and above ground parts of vegetables.

  20. 48 CFR 15.204-3 - Part II-Contract Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 15.204-3 Part II—Contract Clauses. Section I, Contract clauses. The contracting officer...