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Sample records for function recovery method

  1. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

  2. Super-resolution method using sparse regularization for point-spread function recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngolè Mboula, F. M.; Starck, J.-L.; Ronayette, S.; Okumura, K.; Amiaux, J.

    2015-03-01

    In large-scale spatial surveys, such as the forthcoming ESA Euclid mission, images may be undersampled due to the optical sensors sizes. Therefore, one may consider using a super-resolution (SR) method to recover aliased frequencies, prior to further analysis. This is particularly relevant for point-source images, which provide direct measurements of the instrument point-spread function (PSF). We introduce SParse Recovery of InsTrumental rEsponse (SPRITE), which is an SR algorithm using a sparse analysis prior. We show that such a prior provides significant improvements over existing methods, especially on low signal-to-noise ratio PSFs.

  3. Partial volume correction using structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-06-01

    We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [(18)F]DOPA utilization rates (ki(cer)). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test-retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [(18)F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the ki(cer) was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected ki(cer) was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model.

  4. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5

  5. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  6. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  7. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  8. [The recovery of cognitive functions in the patients with organic brain disorders as a component of combined rehabilitation with the use of the method of bioacoustic correction].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, K V; Gritsyshina, M A; Nefedova, G É

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to follow up dynamics of the recovery of cognitive functions after comprehensive medical rehabilitation of the patients with organic brain disorders using a bioacoutsic correction technique. A peculiar feature of this method is it allows for involuntary self-regulation of the functional state of the central nervous system and therefore can be used to treat patients experiencing cognitive problems. It was shown that the application of the method of bioacoustic correction promotes restoration of cognitive functions, reduces anxiety, and normalizes parameters of electroencephalograms. PMID:22993949

  9. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  10. Recovery in schizophrenia: focus on neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Goland, Etel; Storozhakova, Yaina A

    2012-09-01

    Recovery encompasses symptom remission and functional elements such as cognition, social functioning and quality of life. Personal recovery is also important in illness management to help the person stay on track with treatment and focus on activities unrelated to taking medication that maintain mental health. In the present study we aimed to identify neurocognitive functioning in two clinically stable groups of patients with personal recovery and non-recovered patients. The results showered generalized cognitive deficits in both groups while the non-recovery group was more impaired in verbal and visual memory, acoustic and tactile gnosis and neurodynamics and executing functioning. Interestingly the recovery group demonstrated lack of programming of actions and sufficient error monitoring and self-correction whereas the non-recovery group was significantly more impaired in all executive domains. The obtained results could be beneficial in identifying a target for psychosocial treatments and specifically cognitive remediation for patients with schizophrenia to facilitate the process of recovery. PMID:22945216

  11. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  12. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  13. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  14. Method for monitoring slow dynamics recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Kristian C. E.; Hedberg, Claes M.

    2012-11-01

    Slow Dynamics is a specific material property, which for example is connected to the degree of damage. It is therefore of importance to be able to attain proper measurements of it. Usually it has been monitored by acoustic resonance methods which have very high sensitivity as such. However, because the acoustic wave is acting both as conditioner and as probe, the measurement is affecting the result which leads to a mixing of the fast nonlinear response to the excitation and the slow dynamics material recovery. In this article a method is introduced which, for the first time, removes the fast dynamics from the process and allows the behavior of the slow dynamics to be monitored by itself. The new method has the ability to measure at the shortest possible recovery times, and at very small conditioning strains. For the lowest strains the sound speed increases with strain, while at higher strains a linear decreasing dependence is observed. This is the first method and test that has been able to monitor the true material state recovery process.

  15. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  16. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  17. Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research.

    PubMed

    Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C

    2010-09-01

    In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease.

  18. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  19. 20 CFR 340.11 - Waiver of methods of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver of methods of recovery. 340.11 Section 340.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.11 Waiver of methods of recovery. The Board may waive any right...

  20. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2009-05-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

  1. Hybrid Recovery-less Method Soft Switching Boost Chopper Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Toda, Hirotaka; Kawashima, Takahiro; Yoshida, Toshiyuki

    The conventional recovery-less boost type converter cannot achieve the soft switching operation in case of the turn off transition. In this paper, the novel hybrid recovery-less boost type converter, which can achieve the soft switching turn off transition, is proposed. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid recovery-less boost type converter has the switch function between the conventional recovery-less mode and the proposed soft switching mode. In general, the efficiency in the soft switching converter is less than the hard switching in case of the lower output power condition. However, using the switch function of the proposed boost type converter, the hybrid recovery-less boost type converter can achieve the high efficiency performance in the whole output power area in spite of the soft switching operation. The proposed hybrid recovery-less boost type converter is evaluated and discussed from experimental point of view.

  2. Oil recovery method utilizing an alkylarylpoxyalkylene sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.

    1984-08-14

    An alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate alone or combined with a water soluble petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process.

  3. Assessing autonomic function by analysis of heart rate recovery from exercise in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Pierpont, Gordon L; Voth, Eric J

    2004-07-01

    Although delayed recovery of heart rate (HR) after exercise indicates poor prognosis, the relative role of parasympathetic reactivation versus sympathetic withdrawal in controlling exercise HR recovery remains controversial. Quantifying HR recovery is difficult because the rate of recovery varies with exercise level. This study develops a model of HR recovery applicable to multiple exercise levels simultaneously. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt method for nonlinear models, HR curves for 11 healthy volunteers recovering from 4 different levels of exercise were fit to equations incorporating 1 first-order time constant for parasympathetic reactivation and 1 for sympathetic withdrawal. Results provided time constants for parasympathetic reactivation of 44 +/- 37 seconds and for sympathetic withdrawal of 65 +/- 56 seconds. The model fit the HR recovery curves very closely, explaining 99.7 +/- 0.1% of the variance in the data. In conclusion, this study presents a unique method for quantitatively testing theories on the relative roles of sympathetic withdrawal and parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise. It provides indexes of dynamic sympathetic and parasympathetic functions, with the parasympathetic system having a faster response time. It supports theories of coordinated interaction of parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal during exercise recovery and does not support using simple measures of exercise HR recovery as indexes of vagal function alone.

  4. Recovery of cognitive functions following nonprogressive brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B A

    1998-04-01

    It has recently become clear that the adult human brain is capable of more plasticity than previously thought. Investigations into the natural history of change following brain injury demonstrate that partial recovery of function can and does occur. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that intervention through re-training or provision of compensatory memory aids can result in improved cognitive functioning.

  5. Recovery of motor function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2012-04-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribute to motor disability after stroke and, based on this information, possible interventional approaches to motor stroke disability. New information now points to the involvement of non-primary motor areas and their interaction with the primary motor cortex as areas of interest. The emergence of this new information is likely to impact new efforts to develop more effective neurorehabilitative interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that may be relevant to other neurological disorders such as amblyopia.

  6. Recovery of sexual function in abstinent alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Van Thiel, D H; Gavaler, J S; Sanghvi, A

    1983-04-01

    Sixty chronically alcoholic men who were impotent and known to have abstained from alcohol were followed prospectively to determine (a) the frequency of spontaneous recovery of normal sexual functioning, (b) indicators of spontaneous recovery, and (c) the response of those who did not achieve a spontaneous recovery to agents known to interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Twenty-five percent of the men studied experienced a spontaneous recovery. Indicators of a spontaneous recovery were absence of testicular atrophy and normal gonadotropin responses to luteinizing hormone releasing factor or clomiphene, or both. Interestingly, the severity of the biochemical or histologic liver disease at admission to study did not have value in predicting endocrine responses or recovery of sexual functioning with continued abstinence. Those not recovering spontaneously were treated sequentially with clomiphene, human chorionic gonadotropin, and an oral exogenous androgen, fluoxymesterone. Only the androgen produced acceptable results and then only at unusually high doses, suggesting some degree of androgen insensitivity in such men.

  7. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  8. Functional recovery in aging mice after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Xu, Yan; Persky, Rebecca; Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2011-11-01

    Aging is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for use in young animals, or are designed for rats. Mice are increasingly utilized in stroke models but well validated behavioral tests designed for rats are not necessarily reproducible in mice. We examined a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate functional recovery in an aging murine model of stroke. We found that the vertical pole, hanging wire and open field can accurately assess acute behavioral impairments after stroke in both young and aging male mice, but animals recover rapidly on these tasks. The corner test can accurately and repeatedly differentiate stroke from sham animals up to 30 days post stroke and can be performed reliably in aging mice. Aging male mice had significantly worse behavioral impairment compared to young male mice in the first two weeks after stroke but eventually recovered to the same degree as young mice. In contrast, chronic infarct size, as measured by ipsilateral cerebral atrophy, was significantly lower in aging male mice compared to young male mice. Reactive gliosis, formation of glial scar, and an enhanced innate immune response was seen in the aging brain and may contribute to the delayed behavioral recovery seen in the aging animals.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

    Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis

  10. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  11. Evaluation of recovery methods to detect coliforms in water.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, G K; Jezeski, J J; McFeters, G A; Stuart, D G

    1977-03-01

    Various recovery methods used to detect coliforms in water were evaluated by applying the membrane filter chamber technique. The membrane filter chambers, containing pure-culture suspensions of Escherichia coli or natural suspensions of raw sewage, were immersed in the stream environment. Samples were withdrawn from the chamber at regular time intervals and enumerated by several detection methods. In general, multiple-tube fermentation techniques gave better recovery than plating or membrane filtration procedures. The least efficient method of recovery resulted when using membrane filtration procedures, especially as the exposure period of the organisms to the stream environment increased. A 2-h enrichment on a rich, nonselective medium before exposure to selective media improved the recovery of fecal coliforms with membrane filtration techniques. Substantially enhanced recoveries of E. coli from pure-culture suspensions and of fecal coliforms from raw-sewage suspensions were observed when compared with recoveries obtained by direct primary exposure to selective media. Such an enrichment period appears to provide a nontoxic environment for the gradual adjustment and repair of injured cells.

  12. Psychosocial Treatments to Promote Functional Recovery in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Robert S.; Glynn, Shirley M.; Horan, William P.; Marder, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    A number of psychosocial treatments are available for persons with schizophrenia that include social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and social cognition training. These treatments are reviewed and discussed in terms of how they address key components of functional recovery such as symptom stability, independent living, work functioning, and social functioning. We also review findings on the interaction between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments and discuss future directions in pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Overall, these treatments provide a range of promising approaches to helping patients achieve better outcomes far beyond symptom stabilization. PMID:19176470

  13. METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF CESIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Rimshaw, S.J.

    1960-02-16

    A method is given for recovering Cs/sup 137/ from radioactive waste solutions together with extraneous impurities. Ammonium alum is precipitated in the waste solution. The alum, which carries the cesium, is separated from the supernatant liquid and then dissolved in water. The resulting aqueous solution is then provided with a source of hydroxyl ions, which precipitates aluminum as the hydroxide, and the aluminum hydroxide is separated from the resulting liquid. This liquid, which contains anionic impurities together with ammonium and cesium, is passed through an anion exchange resin bed which removes the anionic impurities. The ammonium in the effluent is removed by destructive distiilation, leaving a substantiaily pure cesium salt in the effluent.

  14. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  15. How to Measure Recovery? Revisiting Concepts and Methods for Stroke Studies.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Marc; Detante, Olivier; Favre, Isabelle; Touzé, Emmanuel; Jaillard, Assia

    2016-10-01

    In clinical trials, assessing efficacy is based on validated scales, and the primary endpoint is usually based on a single scale. The aim of the review is to revisit the concepts and methods to design and analyze studies focused on restoration, recovery and or compensation. These studies are becoming more frequent with the development of restorative medicine. After discussing the definitions of recovery, we address the concept of recovery as the regain of lost capabilities, when the patient reaches a new equilibrium. Recovery is a dynamic process which assessment includes information from initial and final status, their difference, the difference between the final status of the patient and normality, and the speed of restoration. Finally, recovery can be assessed either for a specific function (focal restoration) or for a more global restoration. A single scale is not able to assess all the facets of a skill or a function, therefore complementary information should be collected and analyzed simultaneously to be tested in a single analysis. We are suggesting that recovery should be considered as a latent variable and therefore cannot be measured in pure form. We are also suggesting to customize the data collection and analysis according to the characteristics of the subjects, the mechanisms of action and consequences of the intervention. Moreover, recovery trials should benefit from latent variable analysis methods. Structural equation modeling is likely the best candidate for this approach applicable in pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:27498680

  16. How to Measure Recovery? Revisiting Concepts and Methods for Stroke Studies.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Marc; Detante, Olivier; Favre, Isabelle; Touzé, Emmanuel; Jaillard, Assia

    2016-10-01

    In clinical trials, assessing efficacy is based on validated scales, and the primary endpoint is usually based on a single scale. The aim of the review is to revisit the concepts and methods to design and analyze studies focused on restoration, recovery and or compensation. These studies are becoming more frequent with the development of restorative medicine. After discussing the definitions of recovery, we address the concept of recovery as the regain of lost capabilities, when the patient reaches a new equilibrium. Recovery is a dynamic process which assessment includes information from initial and final status, their difference, the difference between the final status of the patient and normality, and the speed of restoration. Finally, recovery can be assessed either for a specific function (focal restoration) or for a more global restoration. A single scale is not able to assess all the facets of a skill or a function, therefore complementary information should be collected and analyzed simultaneously to be tested in a single analysis. We are suggesting that recovery should be considered as a latent variable and therefore cannot be measured in pure form. We are also suggesting to customize the data collection and analysis according to the characteristics of the subjects, the mechanisms of action and consequences of the intervention. Moreover, recovery trials should benefit from latent variable analysis methods. Structural equation modeling is likely the best candidate for this approach applicable in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  17. A combined method of silver recovery from zinc cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Otrozhdenova, L.A.; Malinovskaya, N.D.; Maksimov, I.I.; Khodov, N.D.; Kuznetzov, O.K.

    1995-12-31

    While processing zinc cakes with application of Weltz-technology silver remains unrecovered and goes into clinker. In order to prevent it the elaboration of effective silver recovery methods from zinc cakes before their weltzing becomes necessary. A combined method of zinc cakes treatment with leaching and flotation in a closed water circuit has been worked out. The technological scheme envisages the use of sulphgydril collectors in combination and comprises a series of consecutive operations: leaching, filtration, precipitation (cementing) and flotation. Total silver recovery is approximately 94%. The technology elaborated has been realized in a project by which the construction of a new shop is under way now.

  18. Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

  19. Functional recovery of callosal axons following demyelination: a critical window.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D K; Mangiardi, M; Xia, X; López-Valdés, H E; Tiwari-Woodruff, S K

    2009-12-29

    Axonal dysfunction as a result of persistent demyelination has been increasingly appreciated as a cause of functional deficit in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the ultimate causes of ongoing axonal dysfunction and find effective measures to prevent axon loss. Our findings related to functional deficit and functional recovery of axons from a demyelinating insult are important preliminary steps towards understanding this issue. Cuprizone diet for 3-6 wks triggered extensive corpus callosum (CC) demyelination, reduced axon conduction, and resulted in loss of axon structural integrity including nodes of Ranvier. Replacing cuprizone diet with normal diet led to regeneration of myelin, but did not fully reverse the conduction and structural deficits. A shorter 1.5 wk cuprizone diet also caused demyelination of the CC, with minimal loss of axon structure and nodal organization. Switching to normal diet led to remyelination and restored callosal axon conduction to normal levels. Our findings suggest the existence of a critical window of time for remyelination, beyond which demyelinated axons become damaged beyond the point of repair and permanent functional loss follows. Moreover, initiating remyelination early within the critical period, before prolonged demyelination-induced axon damage ensues, will improve functional axon recovery and inhibit disease progression. PMID:19800949

  20. The optimal recovery of a function from an inaccurate information on its k-plane transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagramyan, Tigran

    2016-06-01

    We consider the optimal recovery of the β th degree of the Laplacian value on a function from the information on its k-plane transform, measured with an error. We present the error of the optimal recovery and the set of optimal methods on classes with the bounded α th degree of the Laplacian, where 0≤slant β \\lt α . As a consequence, we give one inequality for the norms of the degree of the Laplace operator and the k-plane transform. Particular cases include new inversion methods and inequalities for the classical Radon and x-ray transforms.

  1. Sensorimotor integration for functional recovery and the Bobath approach.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Panturin, Elia

    2011-04-01

    Bobath therapy is used to treat patients with neurological disorders. Bobath practitioners use hands-on approaches to elicit and reestablish typical movement patterns through therapist-controlled sensorimotor experiences within the context of task accomplishment. One aspect of Bobath practice, the recovery of sensorimotor function, is reviewed within the framework of current motor control theories. We focus on the role of sensory information in movement production, the relationship between posture and movement and concepts related to motor recovery and compensation with respect to this therapeutic approach. We suggest that a major barrier to the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of the Bobath concept is the lack of a unified framework for both experimental identification and treatment of neurological motor deficits. More conclusive analysis of therapeutic effectiveness requires the development of specific outcomes that measure movement quality. PMID:21628730

  2. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  3. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  4. Esthetic and functional recovery of extensively decayed posterior teeth through conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Sheila Daiane; Jales, Talita Santos; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; de Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Botelho, Adriana Maria; Tavano, Karine Taís Aguiar

    2013-01-01

    The case exemplifies the combination of two important principles in dentistry: 1) the maintenance of pulp vitality by the partial excavation of the contaminated dentin followed by the application of a biomaterial; and 2) esthetic and functional recovery based on biological restoration. Tooth vitality was confirmed two months after pulp treatment and restoration was accomplished with a fragment of a tooth extracted from another individual. This method is easy to perform and offers esthetic, functional, emotional and social benefits to the patient.

  5. Ouabain Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dvela-Levitt, Moran; Ami, Hagit Cohen-Ben; Rosen, Haim; Shohami, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cardiac steroid ouabain binds to Na+, K+-ATPase and inhibits its activity. Administration of the compound to animals and humans causes an increase in the force of contraction of heart muscle and stabilizes heart rate. In addition, this steroid promotes the growth of cardiac, vascular, and neuronal cells both in vitro and in vivo. We studied the effects of ouabain on mouse recovery following closed head injury (CHI), a model for traumatic brain injury. We show that chronic (three times a week), but not acute, intraperitoneal administration of a low dose (1 μg/kg) of ouabain significantly improves mouse recovery and functional outcome. The improvement in mouse performance was accompanied by a decrease in lesion size, estimated 43 d following the trauma. In addition, mice that underwent CHI and were treated with ouabain showed an increase in the number of proliferating cells in the subventricular zone and in the area surrounding the site of injury. Determination of the identity of the proliferating cells in the area surrounding the trauma showed that whereas there was no change in the proliferation of endothelial cells or astrocytes, neuronal cell proliferation almost doubled in the ouabain-treated mice in comparison with that of the vehicle animals. These results point to a neuroprotective effects of low doses of ouabain and imply its involvement in brain recovery and neuronal regeneration. This suggests that ouabain and maybe other cardiac steroids may be used for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. PMID:25007121

  6. Stress Recovery and Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, Rivânia H.; Romero, Juan S.; Menandro, Fernando C. M.

    2008-02-01

    A macroelement recovery technique for the strain field of a functionally graded material (FGM), based on the residual dynamic equilibrium equation for elasticity, is proposed. The derivatives are recovered by solving a local variational problem, using the superconvergence points. The basic idea is to utilize post-processing to achieve a more accurate approximation of the stresses while considering the dynamic nature of the problem. The development includes dynamic modeling of FGM and can be applied to direct and inverse problems. A numerical simulation is presented to better demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  7. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  8. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  9. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy. PMID:27583794

  10. White and gray matter contributions to executive function recovery after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wanting; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between regional white and gray matter volume loss and performance on executive functions (EFs) in patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI). Methods: We studied 164 pTBI patients and 43 healthy controls from the Vietnam Head Injury Study. We acquired CT scans for pTBI patients and divided them according to lesion localization (left and right prefrontal cortex [PFC]). We administered EF tests (Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Twenty Questions) and used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) and group-based correlational and multiple regression analyses to examine the relative influence of gray and white matter lesions on EF recovery. Results: The VLSM analysis revealed that white and gray white matter lesions were associated with impaired EFs. In the left PFC lesion group, damage to the PFC gray matter, anterior corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were most correlated with functional recovery. Verbal Fluency, which involves a broad fronto-temporo-parietal network, was best predicted by SLF lesion volume. Trail Making and Twenty Questions, which is associated with more focal left frontal damage, was better predicted by PFC lesions. Conclusions: Our results indicated that white matter volume loss can be a superior predictor of recovery and a crucial factor driving clinical outcome in functions involving a broad network such as Verbal Fluency. White matter damage may place additional burden on recovery by deteriorating signal transmission between cortical areas within a functional network. PMID:25746558

  11. Comparison of surface sampling methods for virus recovery from fomites.

    PubMed

    Julian, Timothy R; Tamayo, Francisco J; Leckie, James O; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-10-01

    The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies.

  12. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  13. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  14. Invasive Cortical Stimulation to Promote Recovery of Function After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Plow, Ela B.; Carey, James R.; Nudo, Randolph J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Residual motor deficits frequently linger after stroke. Search for newer effective strategies to promote functional recovery is ongoing. Brain stimulation, as a means of directing adaptive plasticity, is appealing. Animal studies and Phase I and II trials in humans have indicated safety, feasibility, and efficacy of combining rehabilitation and concurrent invasive cortical stimulation. However, a recent Phase III trial showed no advantage of the combination. We critically review results of various trials and discuss the factors that contributed to the distinctive result. Summary of Review Regarding cortical stimulation, it is important to determine the (1) location of peri-infarct representations by integrating multiple neuroanatomical and physiological techniques; (2) role of other mechanisms of stroke recovery; (3) viability of peri-infarct tissue and descending pathways; (4) lesion geometry to ensure no alteration/displacement of current density; and (5) applicability of lessons generated from noninvasive brain stimulation studies in humans. In terms of combining stimulation with rehabilitation, we should understand (1) the principle of homeostatic plasticity; (2) the effect of ongoing cortical activity and phases of learning; and (3) that subject-specific intervention may be necessary. Conclusions Future cortical stimulation trials should consider the factors that may have contributed to the peculiar results of the Phase III trial and address those in future study designs. PMID:19359643

  15. A review of microbial injury and recovery methods in food.

    PubMed

    Wu, V C H

    2008-09-01

    The existence of injured microorganisms in food and their recovery during culturing procedures is critical. Microbial injury is characterized by the capability of a microorganism to return to normalcy during a resuscitation process in which the damaged essential components are repaired. Injury of microorganisms can be induced by sublethal heat, freezing, freeze-drying, drying, irradiation, high hydrostatic pressure, aerosolization, dyes, sodium azide, salts, heavy metals, antibiotics, essential oils, sanitizing compounds, and other chemicals or natural antimicrobial compounds. Injured microorganisms present a potential threat in food safety since they may repair themselves under suitable conditions. Detection of injured microorganisms can be important to practical interpretations of data in food microbiology. This review provides an overview of microbial injury in food and discusses the development of recovery methods for detecting injured foodborne microorganisms.

  16. Differences and similarities between functional and personal recovery in an Asian population: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Davidson, Larry; Chung, Ka-fai; Ng, King Lam; Yu, Chong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study gathers empirical data to test whether two forms of recovery are related: (1) the traditional outcome-based notion of recovery from a mental illness, which is called "functional recovery," and (2) the more recent, consumer-based concept of recovery in mental illness, which is called "personal recovery." A total of 150 Chinese outpatients were recruited, 75 with bipolar disorder and 75 with schizophrenia, as determined by structured clinical interview. Participants were reported to be in clinical remission for at least the previous 6 months by treating psychiatrists. Personal recovery was measured with the Stages of Recovery Scale, and functional recovery was measured with residential and employment status. In addition to clinical and demographic data, self-report measures included functioning (confirmed through chart review) and a survey of the participant's assessment of the importance of various elements of recovery. Personal recovery was significantly correlated with functional recovery; small effect size suggested that the two domains are far from identical. The strength of this correlation was stronger for participants with schizophrenia than for those with bipolar disorder. A cluster analysis also suggested that residential and employment statuses, along with personal recovery scores, were useful in differentiating participants. Patients were more likely to reach better recovery outcomes if they were female, married, had higher family income, and perceived social roles as less important to their recovery. Consistent with the consumer literature, personal recovery is related but still distinct from functional recovery. Personal recovery has more to do with life circumstances than with functioning status alone.

  17. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  18. Chlorpheniramine impairs functional recovery in Carassius auratus after telencephalic ablation.

    PubMed

    Garção, D C; Canto-de-Souza, L; Romaguera, F; Mattioli, R

    2009-04-01

    We determined the effect of an H1 receptor antagonist on the functional recovery of Carassius auratus submitted to telencephalic ablation. Five days after surgery the fish underwent a spatial-choice learning paradigm test. The fish, weighing 6-12 g, were divided into four groups: telencephalic ablation (A) or sham lesion (S) and saline (SAL) or chlorpheniramine (CPA, ip, 16 mg/kg). For eight consecutive days each animal was trained individually in sessions separated by 24 h (alternate days). Training trials (T1-T8) consisted of finding the food in one of the feeders, which were randomly blocked for each subject. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of SAL or CPA 10 min after the training trials. The time spent by the animals in each group to find the food (latency) was analyzed separately at T1 and T8 by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test. At T1 the latencies (mean +/- SEM) of the A-SAL (586.3 +/- 13.6) and A-CPA (600 +/- 0) groups were significantly longer than those of the S-SAL (226.14 +/- 61.15) and S-CPA (356.33 +/- 68.8) groups. At T8, the latencies of the A-CPA group (510.11 +/- 62.2) remained higher than those of the other groups, all of which showed significantly shorter latencies (A-SAL = 301.91 +/- 78.32; S-CPA = 191.58 +/- 73.03; S-SAL = 90.28 +/- 41) compared with T1. These results support evidence that training can lead to functional recovery of spatial-choice learning in telencephalonless fish and also that the antagonist of the H1 receptor impairs it.

  19. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  20. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  1. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  2. Functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats using polypyrrole/iodine implants and treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Mejia, Laura; Morales, Juan; Cruz, Guillermo J; Olayo, María-Guadalupe; Olayo, Roberto; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Ríos, Camilo; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Torres, Stephanie; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Fabela-Sánchez, Omar; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda

    2015-07-01

    transplant after a traumatic spinal cord injury by contusion in rats. The relevance of the present results is that polypyrrole/iodine implants were synthesized by plasma instead by conventional chemical or electrochemical methods. Synthesis by plasma modifies physicochemical properties of polypyrrole/iodine implants, which can be responsible of the histological response and functional results. Furthermore, no additional molecules or trophic factors or cells were added to the implant for obtain such results. Even more, when the implant was used together with physical rehabilitation, better functional recovery was obtained than that observed when these strategies were used by separately. PMID:26169188

  3. Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Vinit, Stéphane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury. PMID:19651247

  4. Stimulus electrodiagnosis and motor and functional evaluations during ulnar nerve recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luciane F. R. M.; Oliveira, Nuno M. L.; Pelet, Danyelle C. S.; Cunha, Agnes F. S.; Grecco, Marco A. S.; Souza, Luciane A. P. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distal ulnar nerve injury leads to impairment of hand function due to motor and sensorial changes. Stimulus electrodiagnosis (SE) is a method of assessing and monitoring the development of this type of injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic parameters to evaluate ulnar nerve recovery and to correlate these parameters (Rheobase, Chronaxie, and Accommodation) with motor function evaluations. METHOD: A prospective cohort study of ten patients submitted to ulnar neurorrhaphy and evaluated using electrodiagnosis and motor assessment at two moments of neural recovery. A functional evaluation using the DASH questionnaire (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) was conducted at the end to establish the functional status of the upper limb. RESULTS: There was significant reduction only in the Chronaxie values in relation to time of injury and side (with and without lesion), as well as significant correlation of Chronaxie with the motor domain score. CONCLUSION: Chronaxie was the most sensitive SE parameter for detecting differences in neuromuscular responses during the ulnar nerve recovery process and it was the only parameter correlated with the motor assessment. PMID:26786072

  5. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  6. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  7. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  8. Functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas in eloquent brain: hypothesis of brain compensation

    PubMed Central

    Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Denvil, D; Sichez, N; Gatignol, P; Lopes, M; Mitchell, M; Sichez, J; Van Effenterre, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To describe functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas (LGG) in eloquent brain areas, and discuss the mechanisms of compensation. Methods: Seventy-seven right-handed patients without deficit were operated on for a LGG invading primary and/or secondary sensorimotor and/or language areas, as shown anatomically by pre-operative MRI and intraoperatively by electrical brain stimulation and cortico-subcortical mapping. Results: Tumours involved 31 supplementary motor areas, 28 insulas, 8 primary somatosensory areas, 4 primary motor areas, 4 Broca's areas, and 2 left temporal language areas. All patients had immediate post-operative deficits. Recovery occurred within 3 months in all except four cases (definitive morbidity: 5%). Ninety-two percent of the lesions were either totally or extensively resected on post-operative MRI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that spatio-temporal functional re-organisation is possible in peritumoural brain, and that the process is dynamic. The recruitment of compensatory areas with long term perilesional functional reshaping would explain why: before surgery, there is no clinical deficit despite the tumour growth in eloquent regions; immediately after surgery, the occurrence of a deficit, which could be due to the resection of invaded areas participating (but not essential) to the function; and why three months after surgery, almost complete recovery had occurred. This brain plasticity, which decreases the long term risk of surgical morbidity, may be used to extend the limits of surgery in eloquent areas. PMID:12810776

  9. Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.

    PubMed

    Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; das Neves, Lais Mara Siqueira; Mazzer, Nilton; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830 nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000 g whose load was applied for 10 min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p < 0.05). On the 14th day the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) also presented better results when compared with sham, however, on the 21st day, no inter-group difference was found (p > 0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery. PMID:24426674

  10. Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.

    PubMed

    Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; das Neves, Lais Mara Siqueira; Mazzer, Nilton; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830 nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000 g whose load was applied for 10 min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p < 0.05). On the 14th day the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) also presented better results when compared with sham, however, on the 21st day, no inter-group difference was found (p > 0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery.

  11. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Wayland, Jr., James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  12. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  13. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  14. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery. PMID:27625488

  15. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery.

  16. Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery

    DOEpatents

    Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q.; Baldwin, Jr., David E.

    1978-01-01

    Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

  17. Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Minsley, B.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Morgan, F.D.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity {approx}500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution.

  18. Recovery methods of the dragonfly from irregular initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfi, James; Leonardo, Anthony; Wang, Jane

    We release dragonflies from a magnetic tether in a wide range of initial orientations, which results in them utilizing multiple methods to regain their typical flight orientation. Special focus is placed on dropping them while upside down, as the recovery method used is a purely rolling motion. Filming this stereotypical motion with a trio of high speed cameras at 4000 fps, we capture detailed body and wing kinematics data to determine how the dragonfly generates this motion. By replaying the flights within a computer simulation, we can isolate the significant changes to wing kinematics, and find that it is an asymmetry in the wing pitch which generates the roll. Further investigation demonstrates that this choice is highly dependent upon the state of the dragonfly, and as such our results indicate the dragonfly both tracks its current state, and changes its mid-flight control mechanisms accordingly.

  19. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Shen, Zhao-Liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-Mei

    2016-06-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14-42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function. PMID:27482228

  20. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-ming; Shen, Zhao-liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-mei

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14–42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function. PMID:27482228

  1. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Shen, Zhao-Liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-Mei

    2016-06-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14-42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function.

  2. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  3. 20 CFR 340.4 - Methods of recovery of amounts recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of recovery of amounts recoverable. 340.4 Section 340.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.4 Methods of recovery of amounts recoverable. An...

  4. Plasticity of Intact Rubral Projections Mediates Spontaneous Recovery of Function after Corticospinal Tract Injury

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Chad S.; Fink, Kathren L.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Axons in the adult CNS fail to regenerate after injury, and therefore recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited. Although full recovery is rare, a modest degree of spontaneous recovery is observed consistently in a broad range of clinical and nonclinical situations. To define the mechanisms mediating spontaneous recovery of function after incomplete SCI, we created bilaterally complete medullary corticospinal tract lesions in adult mice, eliminating a crucial pathway for voluntary skilled movement. Anatomic and pharmacogenetic tools were used to identify the pathways driving spontaneous functional recovery in wild-type and plasticity-sensitized mice lacking Nogo receptor 1. We found that plasticity-sensitized mice recovered 50% of normal skilled locomotor function within 5 weeks of lesion. This significant, yet incomplete, spontaneous recovery was accompanied by extensive sprouting of intact rubrofugal and rubrospinal projections with the emergence of a de novo circuit between the red nucleus and the nucleus raphe magnus. Transient silencing of this rubro–raphe circuit in vivo via activation of the inhibitory DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs) receptor hM4di abrogated spontaneous functional recovery. These data highlight the pivotal role of uninjured motor circuit plasticity in supporting functional recovery after trauma, and support a focus of experimental strategies on enhancing intact circuit rearrangement to promote functional recovery after SCI. PMID:25632122

  5. Impact of Obesity on Early Erectile Function Recovery after Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Studies are limited regarding the impact of obesity on early erectile functional outcomes after robotic radical prostatectomy. Our goal was to determine this impact using patient-reported validated questionnaires. Methods: International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-6) scores were prospectively collected with institutional review board approval, for patients who underwent robotic radical prostatectomy with bilateral nerve sparing from February 2007 to October 2009. The data were categorized into nonobese and obese groups and subsequently into 2 subgroups based on risk for postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Low risk is preoperative IIEF-6 ≥19 and high risk is IIEF-6 <19. The groups and subgroups were compared using chi-square analysis. Results: Of 190 consecutive patients, 67 were excluded for preoperative severe erectile dysfunction (IIEF-6 <7), or lack of IIEF-6 scores, or both. There were 69 nonobese patients of which 88% were potent preoperatively and 20% regained potency at 12 months postoperatively. Of 54 obese patients, 85% were potent preoperatively and 25% at 12 months. There was no difference in erectile function recovery rates between the groups (P=0.755). In both groups, patients with low risk of postoperative erectile dysfunction had statistically similar postoperative mean IIEF-6 scores at 6 and 12 months (P=0.580 and P=0.389, respectively), and no difference in erectile function recovery rates existed at 12 months (P=0.735). Conclusion: Obesity has no major contribution to the rate of early erectile function recovery after robotic radical prostatectomy. Preoperative erectile function remains the determining factor in postradical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. PMID:21902939

  6. Functional Recovery Measures for Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Review for Clinical Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. Method: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. Results: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use in the SCI population. Likewise, the FIM applies mainly when measuring burden of care, which is not necessarily a reflection of functional recovery. The QIF is useful for measuring functional recovery but only in a subpopulation of people with SCI, and substantial validity data are still required. The SCIM is the only functional recovery outcome measure designed specifically for SCI. Conclusions: The multinational work group recommends that the latest version of the SCIM (SCIM III) continue to be refined and validated and subsequently implemented worldwide as the primary functional recovery outcome measure for SCI. The QIF may continue to be developed and validated for use as a supplemental tool for the nonambulatory tetraplegic population. PMID:18581660

  7. Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Results Macular detachment was present for 2–32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity)(p = 0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10−4 and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034). Conclusion Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. Meeting presentation ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. Trial registration: trialregister.nl NTR839 PMID:24927502

  8. Recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using offsets method over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odera, Patroba Achola; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important applications of a geoid model is a recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights (normally obtained from GNSS). The application of the geoid model for recovering orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights is normally achieved by fitting the geoid model to a local vertical datum. The fitting procedure is usually accomplished by least squares collocation (LSC), using planar or spherical covariance functions. This procedure warps the gravimetric geoid model onto the local vertical datum, hence the local geoid model derived by this procedure, though convenient for local applications, it is not an equipotential surface. We propose offsets method for practical orthometric height recovery from a geoid model. The proposed procedure is more realistic because it does not constrain the local geoid to be coincident to the local vertical datum. We compare the performance of plannar fitting and offsets methods over Japan using a cross-validation procedure. Results show that offsets method performs better than the normally used planar fitting in the recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using a geoid model. The standard deviations of the differences between established and converted orthometric heights at randomly selected GPS/levelling test points over Japan are ±4 and ±3 cm for planar fitting and offsets methods, respectively. The offsets method is therefore more appropriate for converting ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights than the planar fitting in the area of study.

  9. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  10. Brain plasticity as a basis for recovery of function in humans.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P

    1990-01-01

    One of the factors leading to the virtual neglect of the long-term potential for functional recovery following brain damage was the eclipse of plasticity concepts during the 100 years following Broca's 1861 publication on location of function. However, in the last 30 years evidence has been accumulating that demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and thus recovery potential is a subject of practical as well as theoretical interest. "Unmasking" of relatively inactive pathways, the taking over of functional representation by undamaged brain tissue, and neuronal group selection are among the mechanisms that are being explored. Human models of recovery of function include hemispherectomy patients that have regained bilateral function, facial paralysis patients who recover function (with appropriate rehabilitation) after VII-XII cranial nerve anastomosis, and patients with muscle transpositions to re-establish lost motor functions. The role of early and late rehabilitation, with attention to psychosocial and environmental factors, appears to be critical for recovery. PMID:2395525

  11. Insertion trauma and recovery of function after cochlear implantation: Evidence from objective functional measures.

    PubMed

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Hughes, Aaron P; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-12-01

    Partial loss and subsequent recovery of cochlear implant function in the first few weeks following cochlear implant surgery has been observed in previous studies using psychophysical detection thresholds. In the current study, we explored this putative manifestation of insertion trauma using objective functional measures: electrically-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude-growth functions (ECAP amplitude as a function of stimulus level). In guinea pigs implanted in a hearing ear with good post-implant hearing and good spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival, consistent patterns of ECAP functions were observed. The slopes of ECAP growth functions were moderately steep on the day of implant insertion, decreased to low levels over the first few days after implantation and then increased slowly over several weeks to reach a relatively stable level. In parallel, ECAP thresholds increased over time after implantation and then recovered, although more quickly, to a relatively stable low level as did thresholds for eliciting a facial twitch. Similar results were obtained in animals deafened but treated with an adenovirus with a neurotrophin gene insert that resulted in good SGN preservation. In contrast, in animals implanted in deaf ears that had relatively poor SGN survival, ECAP slopes reached low levels within a few days after implantation and remained low. These results are consistent with the idea that steep ECAP growth functions require a healthy population of auditory nerve fibers and that cochlear implant insertion trauma can temporarily impair the function of a healthy SGN population.

  12. Insertion trauma and recovery of function after cochlear implantation: Evidence from objective functional measures.

    PubMed

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Hughes, Aaron P; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-12-01

    Partial loss and subsequent recovery of cochlear implant function in the first few weeks following cochlear implant surgery has been observed in previous studies using psychophysical detection thresholds. In the current study, we explored this putative manifestation of insertion trauma using objective functional measures: electrically-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude-growth functions (ECAP amplitude as a function of stimulus level). In guinea pigs implanted in a hearing ear with good post-implant hearing and good spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival, consistent patterns of ECAP functions were observed. The slopes of ECAP growth functions were moderately steep on the day of implant insertion, decreased to low levels over the first few days after implantation and then increased slowly over several weeks to reach a relatively stable level. In parallel, ECAP thresholds increased over time after implantation and then recovered, although more quickly, to a relatively stable low level as did thresholds for eliciting a facial twitch. Similar results were obtained in animals deafened but treated with an adenovirus with a neurotrophin gene insert that resulted in good SGN preservation. In contrast, in animals implanted in deaf ears that had relatively poor SGN survival, ECAP slopes reached low levels within a few days after implantation and remained low. These results are consistent with the idea that steep ECAP growth functions require a healthy population of auditory nerve fibers and that cochlear implant insertion trauma can temporarily impair the function of a healthy SGN population. PMID:26209185

  13. Structural and functional reorganization of propriospinal connections promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Filli, Linard; Schwab, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Axonal regeneration and fiber regrowth is limited in the adult central nervous system, but research over the last decades has revealed a high intrinsic capacity of brain and spinal cord circuits to adapt and reorganize after smaller injuries or denervation. Short-distance fiber growth and synaptic rewiring was found in cortex, brain stem and spinal cord and could be associated with restoration of sensorimotor functions that were impaired by the injury. Such processes of structural plasticity were initially observed in the corticospinal system following spinal cord injury or stroke, but recent studies showed an equally high potential for structural and functional reorganization in reticulospinal, rubrospinal or propriospinal projections. Here we review the lesion-induced plastic changes in the propriospinal pathways, and we argue that they represent a key mechanism triggering sensorimotor recovery upon incomplete spinal cord injury. The formation or strengthening of spinal detour pathways bypassing supraspinal commands around the lesion site to the denervated spinal cord were identified as prominent neural substrate inducing substantial motor recovery in different species from mice to primates. Indications for the existence of propriospinal bypasses were also found in humans after cortical stroke. It is mandatory for current research to dissect the biological mechanisms underlying spinal circuit remodeling and to investigate how these processes can be stimulated in an optimal way by therapeutic interventions (e.g., fiber-growth enhancing interventions, rehabilitation). This knowledge will clear the way for the development of novel strategies targeting the remarkable plastic potential of propriospinal circuits to maximize functional recovery after spinal cord injury. PMID:26170799

  14. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions. PMID:20157419

  15. Impairment and recovery of left motor function in patients with right hemiplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Marque, P; Felez, A; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B; Roques, C F; Chollet, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the motor function of the left, supposedly unaffected, limbs of patients with an acute right vascular hemiplegia. METHODS: Fifteen patients with an acute vascular right hemiplegia and 16 matched healthy controls were studied. Motor function of the left limbs of each patient was evaluated on days 20 and 90 after their stroke using four validated tools (hand dynamometer, isokinetic dynamometer, finger tapping, and nine hole peg test). RESULTS: There was a significant impairment of motor function of the left limbs of patients at day 20 compared with controls. The impairment had recovered almost completely at day 90 after the stroke. CONCLUSION: These results show the bilateral cerebral representation of the human motor system and suggest the participation of ipsilateral motor pathways in recovery after a stroke. PMID:9010404

  16. Contralateral cortical role on functional recovery in a rat model of hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The role of the contralateral cerebral cortical plasticity in functional recovery after cerebral infarction is controversial. To clarify this role, we made a second contralateral cortical infarction after recovery from the first cerebral infarction. To produce the first infarction, Wistar rats were intravenously injected with Rose Bengal to the sensorimotor area of the right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex under green-light irradiation. Two weeks after the first hemiplegia, a secondary infarction was induced in the left cerebral cortex. Functional recovery was evaluated in a beam-walking test. Hemiplegia observed 1 day after both the first and second infarctions was given a score of 1. At 14 days after the first infarction, the average recovery score (± standard error) was 6.8 ± 0.1. In contrast, functional recovery was slower after the second infarction, reaching an average score of only 3.5 ± 0.5 after 14 days. Therefore, recovery after the contralateral secondary infarction was slower than that from the first, and received a lower recovery score compared to the recovery after the first infarction. These results suggest that the undamaged contralateral cortex plays an important role in motor recovery after hemiplegia caused by cerebral infarction. PMID:26609285

  17. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  18. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  19. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

  20. Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Chitti, Ramana M.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Khan, Raja B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

  1. Esthetic-functional recovery of permanent posterior tooth using autogenous biological restoration.

    PubMed

    Botelho, A M; Tavano, K T A; Correa-Faria, P; Morato, L N S; Viana, M R

    2012-01-01

    Occlusal morphology and difficult access for cleaning permanent molars result in the buildup of bacterial plaque and the development of caries. One method known as biological restoration was carried out. This technique known as biological restoration, has as main restorative material a fragment obtained from a duly donated extracted human tooth. This case report describes the restoration of an extensively decayed molar through the bonding of a fragment obtained from a third molar extracted from the patient himself. Biological restoration is a low-cost option that offers satisfactory aesthetic, morphological and functional results.The morphological/functional reestablishment of posterior teeth can be obtained through biological restoration, which allows the recovery of properties inherent to the dental structure, offers satisfactory aesthetic results and low cost.

  2. Summability methods for hermite functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.; Moore, Dennis W.

    1986-02-01

    Many problems in equatorial oceanography can be analytically solved via series of Hermite functions, but unfortunately these expansions converge very poorly. In this note, we describe two simple tricks for accurately evaluating such series. The first, due to Moore, is to apply numerical weighting factors to the last four terms in the series. This is a special case of a more powerful technique known as the 'Euler-Abel' method which is almost as easy to apply. Our numerical examples show that both methods are very effective. The Euler-Abel method gives an error which decreases exponentially fast as N, the number of terms retained in the truncated series, increases. Moore's method only reduced the error by a factor of 0(1/ N2) in comparison to the original series, but this is more than enough for most practical purposes, and this trick is simpler and distributes the error more uniformly in latitude than the Euler-Abel transformation. A conservative rule-of-thumb is that both methods give errors too small to observe on a graph on the range |γ| ⩽ ( 1/3)(2N+1) 1/2 where N is the number of terms in the Hermite series.

  3. Oil recovery method using unique salinity for oil recovery surfactant system

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsmann, G.R.; Hedges, J.H.

    1981-05-05

    A series of surfactant systems is prepared at varying electrolyte concentrations, each system being mixed with oil to be displaced or its equivalent and allowed to equilibrate to determine the salinity at which the microemulsion phase has approximately equal volumes of oil and water; thereafter additional series of such surfactant systems are prepared utilizing different cosurfactants; thereafter the resulting surfactant systems are used at their optimal salinity (I.E., the salinity at which approximately equal volumes of oil and water are taken up into the microemulsion phase) to recover oil from test cores and the resulting oil recovery plotted versus the salinity to give the unique salinity at which maximum oil recovery is obtained for the particular oil-surfactant combination.

  4. Effect of three different between-inning recovery methods on baseball pitching performance.

    PubMed

    Warren, Courtney D; Brown, Lee E; Landers, Merrill R; Stahura, Kurt A

    2011-03-01

    A decrease in blood hydrogen ions (H) may allow for the recovery of a muscle, which should allow for greater performance in subsequent activity. The purpose of this study was to determine which of 3 forms of recovery were the most effective after an inning of pitching in baseball. Three different measurements were used to determine which recovery method was most effective; the difference in blood lactate (BLa) levels was used as a biological measurement, average pitching speed was the physiological measurement, and the psychological measurement was done on how the pitchers perceived their pitching and recovery. The recovery methods that were used were passive recovery (PR), active recovery (AR), and electromuscular stimulation (EMS). Seven college men aged 21 (±2 years) who were National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II college baseball pitchers were assessed during game play simulations. Blood lactate levels decreased significantly from the premeasurement to the postmeasurement with the EMS recovery method (p < 0.0005); however, BLa did not change for PR (p = 0.017) or AR (p = 0.134). Perceived recovery was also found to be best in the EMS and PR conditions. These findings suggest that EMS is an effective recovery method between innings of pitching.

  5. Endotoxin and gender modify lung function recovery after occupational organic dust exposure: a 30 year study

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Linda; Zhang, Feng-ying; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Mehta, Amar J.; Shi, Jing; Su, Li; Brown, Dan; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to determine the trajectory of lung function change after exposure cessation to occupational organic dust exposure, and to identify factors that modify improvement. METHODS The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of 447 cotton workers exposed to endotoxin-containing dust and 472 silk workers exposed to non-endotoxin-containing dust. Spirometry was performed at 5 year intervals. Air sampling was performed to estimate individual cumulative exposures. The effect of work cessation on FEV1 was modeled using generalized additive mixed effects models to identify the trajectory of FEV1 recovery. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms were used to identify modifiers of FEV1 recovery. Loss to follow-up was accounted for with inverse probability of censoring weights. RESULTS 74.2% of the original cohort still alive participated in 2011. Generalized additive mixed models identified a non-linear improvement in FEV1 for all workers after exposure cessation, with no plateau noted 25 years after retirement. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms identified prior endotoxin exposure (p=0.01) and male gender (p=0.002) as risk factors for impaired FEV1 improvement after exposure cessation. After adjusting for gender, smoking delayed the onset of FEV1 gain but did not affect the overall magnitude of change. CONCLUSIONS Lung function improvement after cessation of exposure to organic dust is sustained. Endotoxin exposure and male gender are risk factors for less FEV1 improvement. PMID:25666844

  6. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  7. Some alternate methods of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, D.B.; Singh, R.

    1982-07-01

    Only random information is available on the subject of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants. This study includes an attempt to collect this information and bring it up to date. The equipment discussed includes classic turbines, reversed pump turbines, integrated hydroturbines and work exchangers, including integrated pump and power recovery units. A short description of each type of equipment is given, followed by advantages and disadvantages, including their state of development. Plants that are or will be using them are enumerated, as are some development possibilities.

  8. Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Darling, Warren G; Helle, Nicole; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Rotella, Diane L; Hynes, Stephanie M; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Morecraft, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance.

  9. Oil recovery method utilizing a dicyclopentadience derived ethoxysulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; Gipson, R.M.; Naylor, C.G.

    1984-01-17

    A dicyclopentadiene derived ethoxysulfonate alone or combined with a petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity and/or high temperature environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process.

  10. Oil recovery method utilizing a dicyclopentadiene derived ethoxysulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; Gipson, R.M.; Naylor, C.G.

    1984-01-17

    A dicyclopentadiene derived ethoxysulfonate alone or combined with a petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity and/or high temperature environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process. 10 claims.

  11. The use of recovery methods post-exercise.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Ekblom, Bjorn

    2005-06-01

    Competitive soccer engages many of the body's systems to a major extent. The musculoskeletal, nervous, immune and metabolic systems are stressed to a point where recovery strategies post-exercise become influential in preparing for the next match. Intense activity at a 7-day training camp causes participants to experience lowered concentrations of non-killer cells and T-helper cells. Two consecutive games in 24 h produce disturbances in the testosterone-cortisol ratio. When competitive schedules are congested, the recovery process should be optimized for performance capabilities to be restored to normal as soon as possible. There is evidence that glycogen stores are reduced near to depletion at the end of a soccer game and that a diet high in carbohydrates can aid recovery. Water alone is not the best means of restoring body fluids, since carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks display better intestinal absorption and reduce urine output. Some relief from muscle soreness may be achieved by means of a warm-down. Deep-water running regimens can replace conventional physical training in the days after competition. Massage, cryotherapy and alternative therapies have not been shown to be consistently effective. It is concluded that optimizing recovery post-exercise depends on a combination of factors that incorporate a consideration of individual differences and lifestyle factors. The procedures to facilitate recovery processes should start immediately the game or training finishes. Match administrators and tournament planners should consider the stressful consequences for players in periods of congested fixtures and alleviate the physiological strain as far as possible by allowing 72 h between competitive games. This frequency of competition is unlikely to be sustainable in the long term.

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  13. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities.

  14. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  15. Functionalization of micromodels with kaolinite for investigation of low salinity oil-recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2015-08-21

    Sandstone formations are ubiquitous in both aquifers and petroleum reservoirs, of which clay is a major constituent. The release of clay particles from pore surfaces as a result of reduced injection fluid salinity can greatly modify the recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface formations by shifting the wettability properties of the rock. In this paper we demonstrate a microfluidic approach whereby kaolinite is deposited into a two-dimensional microfluidic network (micromodel) to enable direct pore-scale, real-time visualization of fluid-solid interactions with representative pore-geometry and realistic surface interactions between the reservoir fluids and the formation rock. Structural characterization of deposited kaolinite particles agrees well with natural modes of occurrence in Berea sandstones; hence, the clay deposition method developed in this work is validated. Specifically, more than 90% of the deposited clay particles formed pore-lining structures and the remainder formed pore bridging structures. Further, regions of highly concentrated clay deposition likely leading to so-called Dalmatian wetting properties were found throughout the micromodel. Two post-deposition treatments are described whereby clay is adhered to the silicon surface reversibly and irreversibly resulting in microfluidic systems that are amenable to studies on (i) the fundamental mechanisms governing the increased oil recovery during low salinity waterfloods and (ii) the effect of a mixed-wet surface on oil recovery, respectively. The reversibly functionalized platform is used to determine the conditions at which stably adhered clay particles detach. Specifically, injection brine salinity below 6000 ppm of NaCl induced kaolinite particle release from the silicon surface. Furthermore, when applied to an aged system with crude oil, the low salinity waterflood recovered an additional 14% of the original oil in place compared to waterflooding with the formation brine.

  16. Functionalization of micromodels with kaolinite for investigation of low salinity oil-recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2015-08-21

    Sandstone formations are ubiquitous in both aquifers and petroleum reservoirs, of which clay is a major constituent. The release of clay particles from pore surfaces as a result of reduced injection fluid salinity can greatly modify the recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface formations by shifting the wettability properties of the rock. In this paper we demonstrate a microfluidic approach whereby kaolinite is deposited into a two-dimensional microfluidic network (micromodel) to enable direct pore-scale, real-time visualization of fluid-solid interactions with representative pore-geometry and realistic surface interactions between the reservoir fluids and the formation rock. Structural characterization of deposited kaolinite particles agrees well with natural modes of occurrence in Berea sandstones; hence, the clay deposition method developed in this work is validated. Specifically, more than 90% of the deposited clay particles formed pore-lining structures and the remainder formed pore bridging structures. Further, regions of highly concentrated clay deposition likely leading to so-called Dalmatian wetting properties were found throughout the micromodel. Two post-deposition treatments are described whereby clay is adhered to the silicon surface reversibly and irreversibly resulting in microfluidic systems that are amenable to studies on (i) the fundamental mechanisms governing the increased oil recovery during low salinity waterfloods and (ii) the effect of a mixed-wet surface on oil recovery, respectively. The reversibly functionalized platform is used to determine the conditions at which stably adhered clay particles detach. Specifically, injection brine salinity below 6000 ppm of NaCl induced kaolinite particle release from the silicon surface. Furthermore, when applied to an aged system with crude oil, the low salinity waterflood recovered an additional 14% of the original oil in place compared to waterflooding with the formation brine. PMID:26151880

  17. Congenital Cataract: Progress in Surgical Treatment and Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyue; Xiao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Congenital cataract is a common cause of childhood low vision or blindness worldwide. Early surgery should be performed in sensitive vision development period to avoid vision deprivation in cases of strabismus and nystagmus development. Postoperative recovery of visual function is of great significance for these patients and should include proper postoperative aphakia correction by the application of a contact lens and secondary implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). Patients should receive amblyopic training after surgery to improve their postoperative visual acuity. Although recent advances in surgery techniques and materials have brought better postoperative visual acuity and less complications, a few postoperative complications can still hamper vision condition and vision development, including posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma. Surgery in early infancy are risk factors for these two complications. Life-long follow-up is essential for these patients. Further study will continue to address the surgery timing issue and methods that prevent postoperative complications. PMID:26390798

  18. Mutual connectivity analysis (MCA) using generalized radial basis function neural networks for nonlinear functional connectivity network recovery in resting-state functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the applicability of a computational framework, called mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), for directed functional connectivity analysis in both synthetic and resting-state functional MRI data. This framework comprises of first evaluating non-linear cross-predictability between every pair of time series prior to recovering the underlying network structure using community detection algorithms. We obtain the non-linear cross-prediction score between time series using Generalized Radial Basis Functions (GRBF) neural networks. These cross-prediction scores characterize the underlying functionally connected networks within the resting brain, which can be extracted using non-metric clustering approaches, such as the Louvain method. We first test our approach on synthetic models with known directional influence and network structure. Our method is able to capture the directional relationships between time series (with an area under the ROC curve = 0.92 +/- 0.037) as well as the underlying network structure (Rand index = 0.87 +/- 0.063) with high accuracy. Furthermore, we test this method for network recovery on resting-state fMRI data, where results are compared to the motor cortex network recovered from a motor stimulation sequence, resulting in a strong agreement between the two (Dice coefficient = 0.45). We conclude that our MCA approach is effective in analyzing non-linear directed functional connectivity and in revealing underlying functional network structure in complex systems.

  19. Surface functionalized nanostructured ceramic sorbents for the effective collection and recovery of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Pittman, Jonathan W; Warner, Marvin G; Nell, Kara M; Clubb, Donald C; Gill, Gary A; Addleman, R Shane

    2016-07-28

    The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a nearly limitless fuel supply for nuclear energy. We evaluated the use of functionalized nanostructured sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Extraction of trace minerals from seawater and brines is challenging due to the high ionic strength of seawater, low mineral concentrations, and fouling of surfaces over time. We demonstrate that rationally assembled sorbent materials that integrate high affinity surface chemistry and high surface area nanostructures into an application relevant micro/macro structure enables collection performance that far exceeds typical sorbent materials. High surface area nanostructured silica with surface chemistries composed of phosphonic acid, phosphonates, 3,4 hydroxypyridinone, and EDTA showed superior performance for uranium collection. A few phosphorous-based commercial resins, specifically Diphonix and Ln Resin, also performed well. We demonstrate an effective and environmentally benign method of stripping the uranium from the high affinity sorbents using inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions. The cyclic use of preferred sorbents and acidic reconditioning of materials was shown to improve performance. Composite thin films composed of the nanostructured sorbents and a porous polymer binder are shown to have excellent kinetics and good capacity while providing an effective processing configuration for trace mineral recovery from solutions. Initial work using the composite thin films shows significant improvements in processing capacity over the previously reported sorbent materials. PMID:27184739

  20. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and recovery of kidney graft function after transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a marker for acute kidney injury. We studied whether serum NGAL predicts delayed graft function (DGF) and recovery of kidney function after transplantation. Methods Serum NGAL was analyzed using commercial ELISA and point-of-care (POC) (Triage®, Biosite) methods. Serum samples were collected from 176 consecutive, deceased-donor kidney recipients just before transplant surgery and on day 1 and 14 after transplantation. The first 132 samples were analyzed with both methods and the remaining samples with the POC method. Results The correlation between the ELISA and POC methods was 0.89, p < 0.0001 and hence the POC method was used for the remaining analyses. DGF was seen in 66/176 patients. Day 1 sNGAL was significantly higher in DGF (588 ng/ml, SD 189.6) compared to early graft function (355 ng/ml, SD 166.2, p < 0.0001) and this difference persisted on day 14. Day 1 sNGAL predicted DGF with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.853 (CI 0.792-0.914, p < 0.0001). At the optimal cutoff level of 423 ng/ml the sensitivity was 87% and the specificity 77%. In a multivariate analysis, day 1 sNGAL emerged as an independent predictor of DGF. The sNGAL also predicted DGF lasting longer than 14 days with an AUC of 0.825 (CI 0.751-0.899, p < 0.0001). At the optimal cutoff level of 486 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 75%. Conclusion Serum NGAL predicts clinically significant DGF and is useful in the care of kidney transplant recipients. PMID:25066815

  1. The administration of intermittent parathyroid hormone affects functional recovery from trochanteric fractured neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, T. J. S.; Fox, R.; Harding, K.; Halliday, R.; Barnfield, S.; Willett, K.; Lamb, S.; Yau, C.; Javaid, M. K.; Gray, A. C.; Young, J.; Taylor, H.; Shah, K.; Greenwood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We wished to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of parathyroid hormone (PTH) supplements to aid healing of trochanteric fractures of the hip, by an open label prospective feasibility and pilot study with a nested qualitative sub study. This aimed to inform the design of a future powered study comparing the functional recovery after trochanteric hip fracture in patients undergoing standard care, versus those who undergo administration of subcutaneous injection of PTH for six weeks. Patients and Methods We undertook a pilot study comparing the functional recovery after trochanteric hip fracture in patients 60 years or older, admitted with a trochanteric hip fracture, and potentially eligible to be randomised to either standard care or the administration of subcutaneous PTH for six weeks. Our desired outcomes were functional testing and measures to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the study. Results A total of 724 patients were screened, of whom 143 (20%) were eligible for recruitment. Of these, 123 were approached and 29 (4%) elected to take part. However, seven patients did not complete the study. Compliance with the injections was 11 out of 15 (73%) showing the intervention to be acceptable and feasible in this patient population. Take home message: Only 4% of patients who met the inclusion criteria were both eligible and willing to consent to a study involving injections of PTH, so delivering this study on a large scale would carry challenges in recruitment and retention. Methodological and sample size planning would have to take this into account. PTH administration to patients to enhance fracture healing should still be considered experimental. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:840–5. PMID:27235530

  2. 3 CFR - Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American... 15, 2009 Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act......

  3. Cryptosporidium and giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623.

    PubMed

    DiGiorgio, Carol L; Gonzalez, David A; Huitt, Christopher C

    2002-12-01

    Relatively few studies have examined recoveries from source waters by using Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 with organism spike doses that are environmentally realistic and at turbidity levels commonly found in surface waters. In this study, we evaluated the filtration capacities and recovery efficiencies of the Gelman Envirochek (standard filter) and the Gelman Envirochek high-volume (HV) sampling capsules under environmental conditions. We also examined the performance of method 1623 under ambient conditions with matrix spike experiments using 10 organisms/liter. Under turbid conditions, the HV capsule filtered approximately twice the volume filtered by the standard filter, but neither could filter 10 liters without clogging. In low-turbidity waters, oocyst, but not cyst, recoveries were significantly higher when the HV capsule was used. In turbid waters, organism recoveries were lower than those in nonturbid waters and were not significantly different for the different filters. When the HV capsule was used, Cryptosporidium recoveries ranged from 36 to 75%, and Giardia recoveries ranged from 0.5 to 53%. For both organisms, recoveries varied significantly by site. Turbidity could explain variation in Giardia recoveries (r(2) = 0.80) but not variation in Cryptosporidium recoveries (r(2) = 0.16). The inconsistent recoveries across sites suggested that the background matrix of the ambient water affected recovery by method 1623. A control sample collected at the height of the winter rainy season detected one organism, highlighting the difficulty of using this method to accurately measure pathogen abundance under natural conditions. Our findings support the use of the HV filter under field conditions but suggest that designing a cost-effective and statistically valid monitoring program to evaluate sources and loads of protozoan pathogens may be difficult.

  4. Optimization of flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) for perfusion functional MRI of rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Fatima A; Lee, Eugene L Q; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI provides a noninvasive method to image perfusion, and has been applied to map neural activation in the brain. Although pulsed labeling methods have been widely used in humans, continuous ASL with a dedicated neck labeling coil is still the preferred method in rodent brain functional MRI (fMRI) to maximize the sensitivity and allow multislice acquisition. However, the additional hardware is not readily available and hence its application is limited. In this study, flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) pulsed ASL was optimized for fMRI of rat brain. A practical challenge of FAIR is the suboptimal global inversion by the transmit coil of limited dimensions, which results in low effective labeling. By using a large volume transmit coil and proper positioning to optimize the body coverage, the perfusion signal was increased by 38.3% compared with positioning the brain at the isocenter. An additional 53.3% gain in signal was achieved using optimized repetition and inversion times compared with a long TR. Under electrical stimulation to the forepaws, a perfusion activation signal change of 63.7 ± 6.3% can be reliably detected in the primary somatosensory cortices using single slice or multislice echo planar imaging at 9.4 T. This demonstrates the potential of using pulsed ASL for multislice perfusion fMRI in functional and pharmacological applications in rat brain.

  5. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D.; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A.; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long

  6. Steam foam drive method for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, A.; Friedmann, F.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of oil from a petroleum reservoir by improving steam sweep efficiency during steam-flooding, wherein a foaming agent is added to divert steam to unswept zones and the reservoir is penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production. It comprises injecting steam and a surfactant solution comprising the foaming agent into an injection well, while concurrently and separately injecting an additional amount of liquid water into the injection well to generate a foam and thereby increase the pressure at the injection well; and recovering oil from a production well.

  7. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOEpatents

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  8. Exercise enhanced functional recovery and expression of GDNF after photochemically induced cerebral infarction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Exercise has been considered to affect the functional recovery from central nervous damage. Neurotrophic factors have various effects on brain damage. However, the effects of exercise for expression of GDNF on functional recovery with brain damage are not well known. We investigated the difference in functional recovery between non-exercise and beam-walking exercise groups, and the expression of GDNF in both groups after photochemical infarction. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 64) were used. Animals were divided into two groups: non-exercise (N = 35), and beam-walking exercise (N = 29). All rats underwent surgical photochemical infarction. The rats of the beam-walking group were trained every day to walk on a narrow beam after a one-day recovery period and those of the non-exercise group were left to follow a natural course. Animals were evaluated for hind limb function every day using a beam-walking task with an elevated narrow beam. The number of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the lesion was counted 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the infarction. Functional recovery of the beam-walking exercise group was significantly earlier than that of the non-exercise group. At 3 days after infarction, the number of GDNF-positive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the infarction was significantly increased in the beam-walking exercise group compared with that in the non-exercise group. In the exercise group, motor function was remarkably recovered with the increased expression of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells. Our results suggested that a rehabilitative approach increased the expression of GDNF and facilitated functional recovery from cerebral infarction. PMID:26600736

  9. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  10. Methods of making functionalized nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Gur, Ilan; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Liu, Haitao

    2012-01-10

    A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

  11. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  12. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10−3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  13. The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the study of brain development, injury, and recovery in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hüppi, Petra S

    2010-02-01

    Development of brain functions and the structural-functional correlates of brain injury remain difficult to evaluate in the young infant. Thus, new noninvasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed. This review describes the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for studying localization of brain function in the developing brain when standard clinical investigations are not available or conclusive. This promising neuroimaging technique has been successfully used in healthy newborns and in newborns with brain injury using different paradigms, including passive visual, somato-sensorial, and auditory stimulation. We summarize the major findings of previous fMRI studies in young infants, describe ongoing methodological challenges, and propose exciting future developments in using resting-state protocols and functional connectivity techniques to assist in evaluating early life brain function and its recovery from injury.

  14. Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. )

    1991-09-01

    To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

  15. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  16. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  17. Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds.

  18. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  19. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  20. GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

  1. Functional Recovery following Critical Illness in Children: the “Wee-cover” Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Karen; Al-Harbi, Samah; Siu, Katie; Wong, Katie; Cheng, Ji; Baird, Burke; Pogorzelski, David; Timmons, Brian; Gorter, Jan-Willem; Thabane, Lehana; Khetani, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of conducting a longitudinal prospective study to evaluate functional recovery and predictors of impaired functional recovery in critically ill children. Design Prospective pilot study. Setting Single center Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, Canada. Patients Children aged 12 months to 17 years, with at least one organ dysfunction, limited mobility or bed-rest during the first 48 hours of PICU admission, and a minimum 48 hour PICU length of stay, were eligible. Patients transferred from a neonatal intensive care unit prior to ever being discharged home, already mobilizing well or at baseline functional status at time of screening, with an English language barrier, and prior enrollment into this study were excluded. Measurements The primary outcome was feasibility, as defined by the ability to screen, enroll eligible patients, and execute the study procedures and measurements on participants. Secondary outcomes included functional status at baseline, 3 and 6 months, PICU morbidity and mortality. Functional status was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY). Main results Thirty-three patients were enrolled between October 2012 and April 2013. Consent rate was 85%, follow-up rates 93% at 3 months, and 71% at 6 months. We were able to execute the study procedures and measurements, demonstrating feasibility of conducting a future longitudinal study. Functional status deteriorated following critical illness. Recovery appears to be influenced by baseline health or functional status, and severity of illness. Conclusion Longitudinal research is needed to understand how children recover after a critical illness. Our results suggest factors that may influence the recovery trajectory, and were used to inform the methodology, outcomes of interest, and appropriate sample size of a

  2. Prognostic value of FMRI in recovery of hand function in subcortical stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Loubinoux, Isabelle; Dechaumont-Palacin, S; Castel-Lacanal, E; De Boissezon, X; Marque, Philippe; Pariente, Jérémie; Albucher, Jean-François; Berry, Isabelle; Chollet, François

    2007-12-01

    The first objective of the study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal was correlated with motor performance at different stages of poststroke recovery. The second objective was to assess the existence of prognostic factors for recovery in early functional MR images. Eight right-handed patients with pure motor deficit secondary to a first lacunar infarct localized on the pyramidal tract were included. This study concerned moderately impaired patients and recovery of handgrip strength and finger-tapping speed. The fMRI task was a calibrated flexion-extension movement. Ten healthy subjects served as a control group. The intensity of the activation in the "classical" motor network (ipsilesional S1M1, ipsilesional ventral premotor cortex [BA 6], contralesional cerebellum) 20 days after stroke was indicative of the performance (positive correlation). The cluster in M1 was posterior and circumscribed to BA 4p. No area was associated with bad performance (negative correlation). No correlation was found 4 and 12 months after stroke. Prognosis factors were evidenced. The higher early the activation in the ipsilesional M1 (BA 4p), S1, and insula, the better the recovery 1 year after stroke. Although the lesions partly deefferented the primary motor cortex, patients who activated the posterior primary motor cortex early had a better recovery of hand function. This suggests that there is benefit in increasing ipsilesional M1 activity shortly after stroke as a rehabilitative approach in mildly impaired patients. PMID:17389628

  3. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  4. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  5. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A; Bishop, Logan D C; Kelly, Kevin F; Landes, Christy F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  6. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A; Bishop, Logan D C; Kelly, Kevin F; Landes, Christy F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  7. Sleeping functional group drives coral-reef recovery.

    PubMed

    Bellwood, David R; Hughes, Terry P; Hoey, Andrew S

    2006-12-19

    The world's coral reefs are in decline, with many exhibiting a phase shift from coral to macroalgal dominance . This change is often associated with habitat loss and overharvesting of herbivorous fishes, particularly parrotfishes and surgeonfishes . The challenge is to reverse this decline and enhance the resilience of coral-reef ecosystems . We demonstrate, by using a large-scale experimentally induced phase shift, that the rapid reversal from a macroalgal-dominated to a coral- and epilithic algal-dominated state was not a result of herbivory by parrotfishes or surgeonfishes. Surprisingly, phase-shift reversal was primarily driven by a single batfish species (Platax pinnatus), a fish previously regarded as an invertebrate feeder. The 43 herbivorous fishes in the local fauna played only a minor role, suggesting that biodiversity may not offer the protection we hoped for in complex ecosystems. Our findings highlight the dangers faced by coral reefs and other threatened complex ecosystems: Species or functional groups that prevent phase shifts may not be able to reverse phase shifts once they occur. Nevertheless, reversal is possible. The critical issue is to identify and protect those groups that underpin the resilience and regeneration of complex ecosystems.

  8. Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

    2014-08-21

    Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

  9. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  10. Membrane filter method for recovery of fecal coliforms in chlorinated sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Lin, S D

    1976-10-01

    The standard one-step M-FC broth-membrane-filter procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from chlorinated sewage effluents is much less effective than the multiple-tube (most-probable-number) technique. A two-step membrane-filter method, using a pre-enrichment technique with phenol red lactose broth and incubation at 35 degrees C for 4 h, followether 18+/-2 h, enhanced fecal coliform recovery from chlorinated effluents. The results of 126 comparisons using chlorinated effluents from five wastewater plants showed that fecal coliform recovery by using the two-step membrane-filter method is comparable to that using the multiple-tube procedure.

  11. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  12. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives.

  13. Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group. PMID:22970366

  14. The recovery of ovarian function during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, M M; Sayed, G H; Ghaneimah, S A

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of breast-feeding was daily recorded and the serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL), FSH, LH, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (prog) were measured at weekly intervals in 26 breast-feeding mothers from the time of delivery and up to the resumption of regular ovulation or to the end of the first postpartum year. Twelve postpartum non-breast-feeding women were similarly studied as controls. An algorithm was used to characterize ovulatory events into three types: the first, with evidence highly suggestive of normal ovulation (EHSO), the second, with evidence of probable ovulation (EPO) and the third with evidence indicating questionable ovulation or deficient corpus luteum function (QO/DCT). Pregnancy preceded the first menstruation in one woman in each of the breast-feeding and control groups. Of the 19 breast-feeding women who started to menstruate during the first postpartum year, five had EHSO, one had EPO, 5 had EQO/DCL and 7 had anovulatory (AO) menstruation. The corresponding figures in the 11 controls were 6, 2, 3 and 0. Pregnancy occurred before a second menstruation in one woman in both the study group and the controls. In 18 breast-feeding women observed, the second menstruation was preceded by EHSO in 7, by EPO in 3, by EQO/DCL in one and AO in 7. In 10 controls the corresponding figures were 7, 3, 0 and 0. Out of a total of 79 menstruations observed during breast-feeding the incidence of AO was 30% and of QO/DCL was 15%. In actively breast-feeding mothers, hyperprolactinemia persisted for more than 1 yr. However, menstruation and ovulation occasionally occurred before the drop of PRL to concentrations seen during the normal menstrual cycle. In the majority of women, low E2 levels were present during lactational amenorrhea, but with occasional spikes in some. A few women maintained somewhat high values of E2 for several weeks before the resumption of menstruation. The implications of these hormonal findings to the attempts to improve on the

  15. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  16. Functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury: Role of neurotrophin and glutamatergic signaling in phrenic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Luther C; Gransee, Heather M; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2016-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts descending neural drive to phrenic motoneurons causing diaphragm muscle (DIAm) paralysis. Recent studies using a well-established model of SCI, unilateral spinal hemisection of the C2 segment of the cervical spinal cord (SH), provide novel information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of functional recovery after SCI. Over time post-SH, gradual recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral DIAm activity occurs. Recovery of ipsilateral DIAm electromyogram (EMG) activity following SH is enhanced by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool. Delivery of exogenous BDNF either via intrathecal infusion or via mesenchymal stem cells engineered to release BDNF similarly enhance recovery. Conversely, recovery after SH is blunted by quenching endogenous BDNF with the fusion-protein TrkB-Fc in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool or by selective inhibition of TrkB kinase activity using a chemical-genetic approach in TrkB(F616A) mice. Furthermore, the importance of BDNF signaling via TrkB receptors at phrenic motoneurons is highlighted by the blunting of recovery by siRNA-mediated downregulation of TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons and by the enhancement of recovery evident following virally-induced increases in TrkB expression specifically in phrenic motoneurons. BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates synaptic plasticity in various neuronal systems, including glutamatergic pathways. Glutamatergic neurotransmission constitutes the main inspiratory-related, excitatory drive to motoneurons, and following SH, spontaneous neuroplasticity is associated with increased expression of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in phrenic motoneurons. Evidence for the role of BDNF/TrkB and glutamatergic signaling in recovery of DIAm activity following cervical SCI is reviewed.

  17. Functional Recovery of AQP2 Recessive Mutations Through Hetero-Oligomerization with Wild-Type Counterpart.

    PubMed

    El Tarazi, Abdulah; Lussier, Yoann; Da Cal, Sandra; Bissonnette, Pierre; Bichet, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a homotetrameric water channel responsible for the final water reuptake in the kidney. Mutations in the protein induce nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which challenges the water balance by producing large urinary volumes. Although recessive AQP2 mutations are believed to generate non-functional and monomeric proteins, the literature identifies several mild mutations which suggest the existence of mixed wt/mut tetramers likely to carry function in heterozygotes. Using Xenopus oocytes, we tested this hypothesis and found that mild mutants (V24A, D150E) can associate with wt-AQP2 in mixed heteromers, providing clear functional gain in the process (62 ± 17% and 63 ± 17% increases, respectively), conversely to the strong monomeric R187C mutant which fails to associate with wt-AQP2. In kidney cells, both V24A and D150E display restored targeting while R187C remains in intracellular stores. Using a collection of mutations to expand recovery analyses, we demonstrate that inter-unit contacts are central to this recovery process. These results not only present the ground data for the functional recovery of recessive AQP2 mutants through heteromerization, which prompt to revisit the accepted NDI model, but more importantly describe a general recovery process that could impact on all multimeric systems where recessive mutations are found. PMID:27641679

  18. A meta‐analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Ezard, Thomas H. G.; Martin, Philip A.; Newton, Adrian C.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old‐growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta‐analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old‐growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional‐group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old‐growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old‐growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old‐growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non‐saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old‐growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  19. Recruitment of Polysynaptic Connections Underlies Functional Recovery of a Neural Circuit after Lesion.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Tamvacakis, Arianna N; Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion. The strength of a spared inhibitory synapse within the CPG from Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) to Ventral Swim Interneuron B (VSI) determines the level of impairment caused by the lesion, which varies among individuals. In addition to this direct synaptic connection, there are polysynaptic connections from C2 and Dorsal Swim Interneurons to VSI that provide indirect excitatory drive but play only minor roles under normal conditions. After disconnecting the pedal commissure (Pedal Nerve 6), the recruitment of polysynaptic excitation became a major source of the excitatory drive to VSI. Moreover, the amount of polysynaptic recruitment, which changed over time, differed among individuals and correlated with the degree of recovery of the swim motor pattern. Thus, functional recovery was mediated by an increase in the magnitude of polysynaptic excitatory drive, compensating for the loss of direct excitation. Since the degree of susceptibility to injury corresponds to existing individual variation in the C2 to VSI synapse, the recovery relied upon the extent to which the network reorganized to incorporate additional synapses. PMID:27570828

  20. Functional Recovery of AQP2 Recessive Mutations Through Hetero-Oligomerization with Wild-Type Counterpart

    PubMed Central

    El Tarazi, Abdulah; Lussier, Yoann; Da Cal, Sandra; Bissonnette, Pierre; Bichet, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a homotetrameric water channel responsible for the final water reuptake in the kidney. Mutations in the protein induce nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which challenges the water balance by producing large urinary volumes. Although recessive AQP2 mutations are believed to generate non-functional and monomeric proteins, the literature identifies several mild mutations which suggest the existence of mixed wt/mut tetramers likely to carry function in heterozygotes. Using Xenopus oocytes, we tested this hypothesis and found that mild mutants (V24A, D150E) can associate with wt-AQP2 in mixed heteromers, providing clear functional gain in the process (62 ± 17% and 63 ± 17% increases, respectively), conversely to the strong monomeric R187C mutant which fails to associate with wt-AQP2. In kidney cells, both V24A and D150E display restored targeting while R187C remains in intracellular stores. Using a collection of mutations to expand recovery analyses, we demonstrate that inter-unit contacts are central to this recovery process. These results not only present the ground data for the functional recovery of recessive AQP2 mutants through heteromerization, which prompt to revisit the accepted NDI model, but more importantly describe a general recovery process that could impact on all multimeric systems where recessive mutations are found. PMID:27641679

  1. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  2. Recruitment of Polysynaptic Connections Underlies Functional Recovery of a Neural Circuit after Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion. The strength of a spared inhibitory synapse within the CPG from Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) to Ventral Swim Interneuron B (VSI) determines the level of impairment caused by the lesion, which varies among individuals. In addition to this direct synaptic connection, there are polysynaptic connections from C2 and Dorsal Swim Interneurons to VSI that provide indirect excitatory drive but play only minor roles under normal conditions. After disconnecting the pedal commissure (Pedal Nerve 6), the recruitment of polysynaptic excitation became a major source of the excitatory drive to VSI. Moreover, the amount of polysynaptic recruitment, which changed over time, differed among individuals and correlated with the degree of recovery of the swim motor pattern. Thus, functional recovery was mediated by an increase in the magnitude of polysynaptic excitatory drive, compensating for the loss of direct excitation. Since the degree of susceptibility to injury corresponds to existing individual variation in the C2 to VSI synapse, the recovery relied upon the extent to which the network reorganized to incorporate additional synapses. PMID:27570828

  3. Tetramethylpyrazine accelerates the function recovery of traumatic spinal cord in rat model by attenuating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Zhong; Huang, Jiang-Hu; Xiao, Zhi-Man; Li, Jun-Hao; Li, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Hong-Bin

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, we explored the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (chuanxiong), on a rat model of contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). The contusion SCI model was induced in rats by a modified Allen's weight-drop method with a severity of 5 g × 50 mm impacting on the T10 segment. In the TMP treatment group, rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with TMP (200mg/kg), every 24h for 5 days, starting half an hour after contusion SCI. The control group was treated with saline. Compared with the control group, the TMP group significantly ameliorated the recovery of hindlimb function of rats. TMP treatment significantly reduced the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, nuclear factor κappa B, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 and neutrophil infiltration. On the other hand, TMP enhanced the expression of inhibitor κappa B and anti-inflammation cytokine interleukin-10. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TMP inhibits the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord contusion in rats which may improve the rats' hindlimb function. PMID:23140983

  4. Recovery of Olfactory Function in Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction Patients after Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Pang, Zhihui; Yu, Hongmeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA) in postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) patients who were refractory to standardized treatment and to compare the results with the impact observed in an observation group. Methods. Fifty patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with PVOD and were refractory to standardized treatment were included: 25 were treated with TCA and 25 patients were simply observed. A subjective olfactory test was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The effects of TCA were compared with the results obtained in the observation group. Results. Improved olfactory function was observed in eleven patients treated with TCA compared with four patients in the observation group. This study revealed significantly improved olfactory function outcomes in patients who underwent acupuncture compared with the observation group. No significant differences in olfaction recovery were found according to age, gender, or duration of disease between the two groups; however, hyposmic patients recovered at a higher rate than anosmic patients. Conclusion. TCA may aid the treatment of PVOD patients who are refractory to drugs or other therapies. PMID:27034689

  5. Finite element methods for enhanced oil recovery Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.F.

    1985-02-01

    A general, finite element procedure for reservoir simulation is presented. This effort is directed toward improving the numerical behavior of standard upstream, or upwind, finite difference techniques, without significantly increasing the computational costs. Two methods from previous authors' work are modified and developed: upwind finite elements and the Petrov-Galerkin method. These techniques are applied in a one- and two-dimensional, surfactant/ polymer simulator. The paper sets forth the mathematical formulation and several details concerning the implementation. The results indicate that the PetrovGalerkin method does significantly reduce numericaldiffusion errors, while it retains the stability of the first-order, upwind methods. It is also relatively simple to implement. Both the upwind, and PetrovGalerkin, finite element methods demonstrate little sensitivity to grid orientation.

  6. Recovery improvement of graphene-based gas sensors functionalized with nanoscale heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Suk; So, Hye-Mi; Bang, Gyeong-Sook; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Jeong-O.; Won Ahn, Chi

    2012-09-01

    We report a development of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based gas sensors with a practical recovery by facile functionalization with tin dioxide nanoclusters. Upon the introduction of UV illumination to this nanostructure, the reaction on surfaces of tin dioxide nanoclusters was activated and thereby the nanoscale heterojunction barriers between the rGO sheet and the nanoclusters were developed. This lowered the conductance to quickly recover, which was intensified as the cluster density has reached to the percolation threshold. However, after the formation of the cluster percolating network, the sensor response has totally changed into a deterioration of the sensitivity as well as the recovery.

  7. An alternative method for the recovery of lithium from spodumene

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, L.F.; El - Naggar, M.M.A.A.

    1984-12-01

    Two important processes applied presently for the extraction of lithium from spodumene, the acid method and the lime method, are described in this paper. The less common method of chlorination roasting is also discussed. The behavior of tachydrite and spodumene, individually, during heating is investigated by differential thermal analysis. It was observed that tachydrite gradually loses its water of crystallization, becoming anhydrous at 573 K. Spodumene, on the other hand, is stable, showing a mass loss of 0.3 pct. around 693 K. At the reaction temperatures used in this study, the mixture can then be regarded as a mixture of spodumene plus MgO and CaCl/sub 2/.

  8. EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

  9. Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  10. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  11. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  12. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or “à la carte” VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

  13. Episomal Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery of Transected Murine Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Cardona, Esteban; Chuang, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs) on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model. Episomal iPSCs refer to iPSCs that are generated via Oct3/4-Klf4-Sox2 plasmid reprogramming instead of the conventional viral insertion techniques. It represents a relatively safer form of iPSC production without permanent transgene integration which may raise questions regarding risks of genomic mutation. A minimal number of EiPSCs were added directly to the transected nerve. Functional recovery of the EiPSC group was significantly improved compared to the negative control group when assessed via serial five-toe spread measurement and gait analysis of ankle angles. EiPSC promotion of nerve regeneration was also evident on stereographic analysis of axon density, myelin thickness, and axonal cross-sectional surface area. Most importantly, the results observed in EiPSCs are similar to that of the embryonic stem cell group. A roughly ten-fold increase in neurotrophin-3 levels was seen in EiPSCs which could have contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery. No abnormal masses or adverse effects were noted with EiPSC administration after one year of follow-up. We have hence shown that functional recovery of the transected peripheral nerve can be improved with the use of EiPSC therapy, which holds promise for the future of nerve regeneration. PMID:27736950

  14. Role of the Contralesional Hemisphere in Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1) reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1) plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1) may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth, and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined. PMID:26528236

  15. E2F4 Promotes Neuronal Regeneration and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Hayakawa, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mammals exhibit poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), whereas non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit significant spontaneous recovery after SCI. The mechanisms underlying this difference have not been fully elucidated; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that genes related to cell cycle were significantly enriched in the genes specifically dysregulated in zebrafish SCI. Most of the cell cycle-related genes dysregulated in zebrafish SCI were down-regulated, possibly through activation of e2f4. Using a larval zebrafish model of SCI, we demonstrated that the recovery of locomotive function and neuronal regeneration after SCI were significantly inhibited in zebrafish treated with an E2F4 inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of e2f4 after SCI may be responsible, at least in part, for the significant recovery in zebrafish. This provides novel insight into the lack of recovery after SCI in mammals and informs potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27242526

  16. Fluoxetine treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Manuela; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bonanno, Giambattista; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe condition leading to enduring motor deficits. When lesions are incomplete, promoting spinal cord plasticity might be a useful strategy to elicit functional recovery. Here we investigated whether long-term fluoxetine administration in the drinking water, a treatment recently demonstrated to optimize brain plasticity in several pathological conditions, promotes motor recovery in rats that received a C4 dorsal funiculus crush. We show that fluoxetine administration markedly improved motor functions compared to controls in several behavioral paradigms. The improved functional effects correlated positively with significant sprouting of intact corticospinal fibers and a modulation of the excitation/inhibition balance. Our results suggest a potential application of fluoxetine treatment as a non invasive therapeutic strategy for SCI-associated neuropathologies. PMID:23860568

  17. Therapeutic Validity and Effectiveness of Preoperative Exercise on Functional Recovery after Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E.; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C.; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. Methods (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ≥6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Results Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: −1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], −2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: −0.15; 95%-CI, −0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD −0.07; 95%-CI, −0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Conclusion Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the

  18. Efficacy of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii).

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Al-Holy, Murad M; Al-Haddaq, Mohammed S; Olaimat, Amin N; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Al Ta'ani, Mahmoud K; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic pathogens for all age groups, and are of particular concern when it comes to infants. Prior to contaminating food, the organism may be exposed to a variety of stresses, leading to a generation of sublethally injured cells that may not be detected by selective media unless a protracted recovery period is included in the isolation procedure. This study evaluated the efficacy of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of Cronobacter cells that had been exposed to various stress conditions. Five strains of C. sakazakii and C. muytjensii were exposed to starvation, heat, cold, acid, alkaline, chlorine, or ethanol, with or without further exposure to desiccation stress. The recovery of the stressed cells was determined on tryptone soy agar (TSA; nonselective control medium), violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA; selective agar), Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI; selective agar), and TAL media (viz., VRBGA overlaid with TSA, and DFI overlaid with TSA). Regardless of stress type, there were no significant differences among the recoveries of stressed desiccated Cronobacter spp. cultures on TSA, DFI+TSA, and VRBGA+TSA, but there was significantly less recovery on VRBGA. The recovery of prestressed desiccated Cronobacter spp. on DFI+TSA was similar to that on TSA, whereas the recovery on VRBGA+TSA was lower. DFI+TSA performed better than VRBGA+TSA did in differentiating Cronobacter spp. within mixed bacterial cultures. The results of this study suggest the use of the TAL method DFI+TSA as an improved method for the direct recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp.

  19. Adaptive recovery of motion blur point spread function from differently exposed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albu, Felix; Florea, Corneliu; Drîmbarean, Alexandru; Zamfir, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Motion due to digital camera movement during the image capture process is a major factor that degrades the quality of images and many methods for camera motion removal have been developed. Central to all techniques is the correct recovery of what is known as the Point Spread Function (PSF). A very popular technique to estimate the PSF relies on using a pair of gyroscopic sensors to measure the hand motion. However, the errors caused either by the loss of the translational component of the movement or due to the lack of precision in gyro-sensors measurements impede the achievement of a good quality restored image. In order to compensate for this, we propose a method that begins with an estimation of the PSF obtained from 2 gyro sensors and uses a pair of under-exposed image together with the blurred image to adaptively improve it. The luminance of the under-exposed image is equalized with that of the blurred image. An initial estimation of the PSF is generated from the output signal of 2 gyro sensors. The PSF coefficients are updated using 2D-Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms with a coarse-to-fine approach on a grid of points selected from both images. This refined PSF is used to process the blurred image using known deblurring methods. Our results show that the proposed method leads to superior PSF support and coefficient estimation. Also the quality of the restored image is improved compared to 2 gyro only approach or to blind image de-convolution results.

  20. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  1. Surfactant fluid suitable for use in waterflood oil recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1982-08-10

    Disclosed is a novel surfactant, a method for making the surfactant and an aqueous fluid containing the surfactant which is effective for recovering petroleum from a high temperature formation containing high salinity water. The surfactant fluid is an aqueous fluid containing an organic sulfonate such as petroleum sulfonate and a solubilizing cosurfactant which is a sulfated or sulfonated, polyethoxylated alkylthiol, or a sulfated or sulfonated, polyethoxylated alkylarylthiol.

  2. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

    2009-06-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

  3. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Gayathri; Werth, Charles J; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2009-06-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Tricholoroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

  4. Binge ethanol prior to traumatic brain injury worsens sensorimotor functional recovery in rats.

    PubMed

    Vaagenes, Ian C; Tsai, Shih-Yen; Ton, Son T; Husak, Vicki A; McGuire, Susan O; O'Brien, Timothy E; Kartje, Gwendolyn L

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high blood alcohol level at the time of injury. Furthermore, drinking alcohol in a binge-like pattern is now recognized as a national problem, leading to a greater likelihood of being injured. Our objective was to determine the consequences of a binge paradigm of alcohol intoxication at the time of TBI on long-term functional outcome using a sensitive test of sensorimotor function. We trained adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats on the skilled forelimb reaching task and then administered a single binge dose of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) or saline for three consecutive days (for a total of 3 doses). One hour after the final ethanol dose, rats underwent a TBI to the sensorimotor cortex corresponding to the preferred reaching forelimb. Animals were then tested for seven weeks on the skilled forelimb reaching task to assess the profile of recovery. We found that the group given ethanol prior to TBI displayed a slower recovery curve with a lower recovery plateau as compared to the control group. Therefore, even a relatively short (3 day) episode of binge alcohol exposure can negatively impact long-term recovery from a TBI, underscoring this significant public health problem.

  5. The effect of memantine on functional recovery of the facial nerve after crush injury.

    PubMed

    Topdag, Murat; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ila, Kadri; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Yaprak, Busra; Ozturk, Murat; Caliskan, Sebla; Iseri, Mete

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to establish whether memantine is an alternative and effective treatment on facial nerve recovery after crush injury, and also to analyze the effective doses of this promising agent. This is a randomized controlled animal study. 40 rats underwent crush injury to left main trunk of the facial nerve, and divided into 4 groups; (1) control (saline treated), (2) 5-mg/kg memantine, (3) 10-mg/kg memantine, and (4) 20-mg/kg memantine group. Facial nerve functions were evaluated by eye reflex, and whisker movement compared to the unaffected side. They were scored on a 3-point scale. On day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the facial nerves were dissected. The paraffin sections were studied with caspase-3 immunostaining. According to statistical data, the recovery in Group 4 began significantly earlier than the other groups on the basis of restoring eye blink reflexes and whisker movement. Groups 2 and 3 showed faster recovery than Group 1 on the basis of whisker movement. The caspase-3 positive staining was rarely detected in all groups. The Kruskal–Wallis test revealed that Group 4 showed fewer apoptotic cells than other groups; this was statistically significant. However, the Mann–Whitney U test with the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, this study revealed that memantine acted to restore facial nerve functions, and accelerate recovery after facial nerve injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

  6. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  7. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults.

  8. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. PMID:27005785

  9. Spray method for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Oh; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Selective agar is inadequate for supporting recovery of injured cells. During risk assessment of certain foods, both injured and noninjured cells must be enumerated. In this study, a new method (agar spray method) for recovering sublethally heat-injured microorganisms was developed and used for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Molten selective agar was applied as an overlay to presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar (TSA) by spray application. Heat-injured cells (55°C for 10 min in 0.1% peptone water or 55°C for 15 min in sterilized skim milk) were inoculated directly onto solidified TSA. After a 2-h incubation period for cell repair, selective agar was applied to the TSA surface with a sprayer, and the plates were incubated. The recovery rate for heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes with the spray method was compared with the corresponding rates associated with TSA alone, selective media alone, and the conventional overlay method (selective agar poured on top of resuscitated cells grown on TSA and incubated for 2 h). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pathogen recovery obtained with TSA, the overlay method, and the spray method. However, a lower recovery rate (P < 0.05) was obtained for isolation of injured cells on selective media. Overall, these results indicate that the agar spray method is an acceptable alternative to the conventional overlay method and is a simpler and more convenient approach to recovery and detection of injured cells.

  10. Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B. ); Best, R.E. ); Jones, R.H. , Los Gatos, CA )

    1991-01-01

    Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

  11. Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B.; Best, R.E.; Jones, R.H.

    1991-12-31

    Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

  12. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  13. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  14. Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Krajicek, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  15. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hwang, H C; Achinko, L

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Our results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that lung digestion methods should be carefully assessed for each fiber type before initiating fiber clearance studies.

  16. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  17. Effect of intermittent hypoxia on neuro-functional recovery post brain ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yanxiang; Liu, Zhenfang; Yan, Xianliang; Luo, Chuanming

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent hypoxia was a simulation of a high-altitude environment. Neuro-inflammation post brain ischemia was considered as a vital impact which contributed to cognitive-functional deficit. The isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was an inflammation factor secreted by microglias in neuro-inflammation. In this study, we established a high-altitude environment as the hypoxic condition. Twenty mice were selected and randomized into a hypoxia group (n = 10) or a normoxia group (n = 10) post three vessel occlusion-induced brain ischemia. An enhancement of cognitive-functional recovery was presented in the hypoxia group by survival neuron counting and revealed by the Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, a high level of hypoxia-inducable factor 1 (HIF-1) expression associated with a lower expression of iNOS was observed in the border between infarcts and normal tissue of the hippocampus in the hypoxia group. However, these phenomenons were blocked by HIF-1 inhibition. This suggested that the acceleration of cognitive-functional recovery induced by intermittent hypoxia may depend on HIF-1 activating. An imitation of the hypoxic condition with or without HIF-1 inhibition was operated on the BV-2 cell. A high level of HIF-1 expression associated with a lower-level expression of iNOS was performed in the hypoxic condition. These data suggested that intermittent hypoxia can accelerate cognitive function recovery through attenuating neuro-inflammation. PMID:25344154

  18. Supplementary motor area deactivation impacts the recovery of hand function from severe peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-Chen; Liu, Han-Qiu; Hua, Xu-Yun; Shen, Yun-Dong; Xu, Wen-Dong; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is difficult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function. PMID:27212933

  19. Increasing functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex during the course of recovery from Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Chuanfu; Park, Kyungmo; Lu, Guangming; Mohamed, Abdalla Z; Wu, Hongli; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Linying; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Bensheng

    2015-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP), a unilateral and idiopathic palsy of the facial nerve, is a common disorder generally followed by a good natural recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the recovery process of BP. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers and 67 patients were studied by functional MRI (fMRI). The seed regions of bilateral ACC were first extracted from the task-state fMRI data of healthy participants performing the task of mouth opening and closing. The connectivity of bilateral ACC was calculated from resting-state fMRI data of patients in whom only resting-state fMRI data were collected. The correlation between the strength of ACC's connectivity with the duration (time course of disease) was computed by analysis of covariance. It was found that the functional connectivity of the ACC ipsilateral to the lesioned side was enforced as the duration increased. The enforced brain areas included the sensorimotor areas and the ACC contralateral to the palsy. It was suggested that enforced functional connectivity of ACC might be related to cortical reorganization, which is important in the process of BP recovery. PMID:25426823

  20. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zefeng; Song, Fahuan; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhou, Huifen; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1 mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2 mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4 mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with (18)F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

  1. Method of energy recovery for wastewater treatment: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Chih

    1989-01-01

    The principle of using the energy of falling water to compress air was invented in antiquity and largely forgotten until comparatively recently. It was used by the Romans to supply air to their catalan forges and was not used again until around the turn of the century in this country and Canada as an air compressor in mining, lumbering, canal lock operations and other applications. More recently, the principle was studied extensively as part of an ultra low-head hydropower system. The present application of the principle to subsurface aeration is an innovative method for saving energy and reducing costs of water pollution control. The Hydraulic Compression Aerator (HCA) as this application is called, was invented by Innovative Technology Laboratories. Development of the HAC, which is the subject of this report, was sponsored by a grant (No. CE-FG01-85CE15210) from the US Department of Energy. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  3. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods.

  5. Women's Voices on Recovery: A Multi-Method Study of the Complexity of Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors' own narratives about correlates of healing. Method: This study was longitudinal and used both…

  6. Deconvolution methods based on φHL regularization for spectral recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Deng, Lizhen; Bai, Xiaodong; Li, Meng; Cheng, Zhao

    2015-05-10

    The recorded spectra often suffer noise and band overlapping, and deconvolution methods are always used for spectral recovery. However, during the process of spectral recovery, the details cannot always be preserved. To solve this problem, two regularization terms are introduced and proposed. First, the conditions on the regularization term are analyzed for smoothing noise and preserving detail, and according to these conditions, φHL regularization is introduced into the spectral deconvolution model. In view of the deficiency of φHL under noisy condition, adaptive φHL regularization (φAHL) is proposed. Then semi-blind deconvolution methods based on φHL regularization (SBD-HL) and based on adaptive φHL regularization (SBD-AHL) are proposed, respectively. The simulation experimental results indicate that the proposed SBD-HL and SBD-AHL methods have better recovery, and SBD-AHL is superior to SBD-HL, especially in the noisy case.

  7. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  8. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. )

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

  9. Stimulation of autophagy promotes functional recovery in diabetic rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-liang; Zhou, Yi-fei; Wu, Kai; Tian, Nai-feng; Wu, Yao-sen; Wang, Yong-li; Chen, De-heng; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Xiang-yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in diabetic rats after spinal cord injury (SCI), also we determined the role of autophagy in diabetes-aggravated neurological injury in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that diabetes decreased the survival of neurons, promoted astrocytes proliferation, increased inflammatory cells infiltration and inhibited functional recovery after SCI. Diabetes was shown to confer increased activation of apoptotic pathways, along with an increase in autophagy; similar effects were also observed in vitro in neuronal PC12 cells. Treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy activator, partially abolished the adverse effect of diabetes, suggesting that diabetes may enhance neurological damage and suppress locomotor recovery after SCI, in addition to its effects on apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, further stimulation of autophagy improved neurological function via inhibition of apoptosis. These results explained how diabetes exacerbates SCI in cellular level and suggested autophagy stimulation to be a new therapeutic strategy for diabetic SCI. PMID:26597839

  10. Brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation to drive neural plasticity and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Ethier, C; Gallego, J A; Miller, L E

    2015-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient's voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to match the details of the patient's voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  11. Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation to Drive Neural Plasticity and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, C.; Gallego, J.A.; Miller, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient’s voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to matched the details of the patient’s voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  12. Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical

  13. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Changes and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Microgravity-induced physiological changes could impair a crewmember s performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in mission-critical tasks. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) simulates one such task, measuring the ability to recover from a prone position and the cardiovascular response to orthostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during the FTT. METHODS: Five astronauts participated in the FTT before 10-15 day missions, on landing day (R+0), and one (R+1), six (R+6) and thirty (R+30) days after landing. The RFST consisted of a 2-minute prone rest followed by a 3-minute stand during which heart rate (HR, Holter) and continuous blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were measured. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated during the RFST to approximate autonomic function. Statistical analysis was performed with two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: During RFST, HR was higher on R+0 than preflight (p<0.004). This increase in HR persisted on R+1 and R+6 during the stand portion of RFST (p<0.026). BP was well-regulated on all test days. Parasympathetic activity was diminished on R+0 (p=0.035). Sympathovagal balance tended to be affected by spaceflight (main effect, p=0.072), appearing to be slightly elevated during postflight RFST except on R+30. Additionally, analysis of HR during the functional tasks yielded a higher HR on R+0 than preflight during 8 of 11 tasks analyzed, where all tasks had HR return to preflight values by R+30 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Spaceflight causes an increase in HR, decrease in parasympathetic activity, and increase in sympathovagal balance, which we confirmed during RFST. These spaceflight-induced changes seen in the RFST, along with the increased postflight HR in most functional tasks, can be used to assess functional performance after short-duration spaceflight.

  14. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  15. A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Douglas J.; Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V.; Zeph, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters’ recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential.

  16. A method for comparative analysis of recovery potential in impaired waters restoration planning.

    PubMed

    Norton, Douglas J; Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V; Zeph, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters' recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential. PMID:19452204

  17. A solid agar overlay method for recovery of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhinong; Gurtler, Joshua B; Kornacki, Jeffrey L

    2006-02-01

    A solid agar overlay method was developed for recovery of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes. Presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE, 2% agar) was overlaid on top of solidified modified Oxford agar (MOX). Heat injury of L. monocytogenes was conducted at 58 degrees C for 6 min in a jacketed flask filled with tryptic soy broth. Both noninjured and heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells were plated onto TSAYE, MOX, and TSAYE-MOX plates. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in recovery were found among the three media for noninjured bacterial cells. Recovery of heat-injured L. monocytogenes cells on TSAYE-MOX overlay plates was equivalent to that on the nonselective TSAYE medium, whereas recovery on the selective MOX medium was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with both TSAYE and the overlay plates. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the overlay plates prepared 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 h prior to plating heat-injured bacterial cells. The TSAYE-MOX overlay also allowed differentiation of L. monocytogenes from a mixture of four other types of foodborne pathogens. This solid agar overlay method for recovery of heat-injured L. monocytogenes cells is less time-consuming and less complicated than the conventional overlay-underlay technique and the double overlay modification of the thin agar layer method and may allow for greater laboratory plating efficiencies.

  18. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  19. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in normal condition. However, it is unclear whether its beneficial effect on nerve regeneration still exists under diabetic mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes in rats was developed by a single dose of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg. Immediately after nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery was significantly enhanced by curcumin, which were significantly better than those in vehicle saline group. In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than low dose (50 mg/kg). In conclusion, curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus.

  20. Upslope treadmill exercise enhances motor axon regeneration but not functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Cannoy, Jill; Crowley, Sam; Jarratt, Allen; Werts, Kelly LeFevere; Osborne, Krista; Park, Sohee; English, Arthur W

    2016-09-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, moderate daily exercise conducted on a level treadmill results in enhanced axon regeneration and modest improvements in functional recovery. If the exercise is conducted on an upwardly inclined treadmill, even more motor axons regenerate successfully and reinnervate muscle targets. Whether this increased motor axon regeneration also results in greater improvement in functional recovery from sciatic nerve injury was studied. Axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation were studied in Lewis rats over an 11 wk postinjury period using stimulus evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses in the soleus muscle of awake animals. Motor axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation were enhanced in slope-trained rats. Direct muscle (M) responses reappeared faster in slope-trained animals than in other groups and ultimately were larger than untreated animals. The amplitude of monosynaptic H reflexes recorded from slope-trained rats remained significantly smaller than all other groups of animals for the duration of the study. The restoration of the amplitude and pattern of locomotor EMG activity in soleus and tibialis anterior and of hindblimb kinematics was studied during treadmill walking on different slopes. Slope-trained rats did not recover the ability to modulate the intensity of locomotor EMG activity with slope. Patterned EMG activity in flexor and extensor muscles was not noted in slope-trained rats. Neither hindblimb length nor limb orientation during level, upslope, or downslope walking was restored in slope-trained rats. Slope training enhanced motor axon regeneration but did not improve functional recovery following sciatic nerve transection and repair. PMID:27466130

  1. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ting-ting; Yang, Xiao-yu; Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Liu, Jian; Qi, Zhi-ping

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury. PMID:26170828

  2. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting-Ting; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Liu, Jian; Qi, Zhi-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury. PMID:26170828

  3. Electromyographic biofeedback and recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Draper, V

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of biofeedback-facilitated exercise with exercise alone on the recovery rate of quadriceps femoris muscle function following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Functional measures included 1) a dynamometric test of quadriceps femoris muscle isometric peak torque during the 12th postoperative week and 2) the number of days post-operatively that a patient achieved full active extension of the knee. Twenty-two patients with acute ACL injury were randomly assigned to a Treatment (biofeedback) Group (n = 11) or a Control (nonfeedback) Group (n = 11) during the first therapy session one week after reconstructive surgery. After the patients had completed the 12-week exercise program, the quadriceps femoris muscle isometric peak torque in the operative limb was compared with that in the nonoperative limb at three angles (90 degrees, 60 degrees, and 45 degrees) of extension. An analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the Treatment and Control Groups at all three angles. Mean recovery time was calculated for each group, and a t test for independent samples indicated a significant difference between the groups. These results demonstrate that the addition of biofeedback to muscle strengthening exercises facilitates the rate of recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle function following ACL reconstruction.

  4. Functional methods for waves in random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media; and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

  5. Functional methods for waves in random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media, and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

  6. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489

  7. Standard regression-based methods for measuring recovery after sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael; Barr, William B; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Randolph, Christopher; Marshall, Stephen W; Cantu, Robert; Onate, James A; Kelly, James P

    2005-01-01

    Clinical decision making about an athlete's return to competition after concussion is hampered by a lack of systematic methods to measure recovery. We applied standard regression-based methods to statistically measure individual rates of impairment at several time points after concussion in college football players. Postconcussive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and balance were assessed in 94 players with concussion (based on American Academy of Neurology Criteria) and 56 noninjured controls during preseason baseline testing, and immediately, 3 hr, and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days postinjury. Ninety-five percent of injured players exhibited acute concussion symptoms and impairment on cognitive or balance testing immediately after injury, which diminished to 4% who reported elevated symptoms on postinjury day 7. In addition, a small but clinically significant percentage of players who reported being symptom free by day 2 continued to be classified as impaired on the basis of objective balance and cognitive testing. These data suggest that neuropsychological testing may be of incremental utility to subjective symptom checklists in identifying the residual effects of sport-related concussion. The implementation of neuropsychological testing to detect subtle cognitive impairment is most useful once postconcussive symptoms have resolved. This management model is also supported by practical and other methodological considerations.

  8. Caregiver-mediated intervention can improve physical functional recovery of patients with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Alan C; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Yu-Te; Lin, Ko-Long; Chen, Jiun Jiang; Lin, Bei Yi; Lin, Tai Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Patients with chronic stroke may benefit from continuing rehabilitation training after hospital discharge. This study examined whether caregiver-mediated, home-based intervention (CHI) could improve physical functioning and social participation in these patients. Methods. A single-blind, randomized, controlled 12-week trial conducted with 51 patients from 3 hospitals in Taiwan who had chronic stroke (>6 months; Brunnstrom recovery stages III-V). Patients and their caregivers in the intervention arm (n = 25) were given weekly personalized CHI trainings designed by a physical therapist. Patients in the control arm (n = 26) received visits from the therapist without intervention. All were evaluated for physical recovery through the Stroke Impact Scale, Berg Balance Scale, 10-Meter Walk Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Barthel Index at baseline and endpoint. Caregivers were evaluated with the Caregiver Burden Scale. Results were analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test. Results. CHI significantly improved scores of the Stroke Impact Scale: strength (control vs intervention, respectively: 1.4 vs 15.5; P = .002), mobility (-0.5 vs 13.7; P < .001), composite physical (-0.7 vs 11.2; P < .001), and general recovery domain (0.2 vs 17.4; P < .001). CHI also significantly improved free-walking velocity (-1.4 vs 7.5 cm/s; P = .006), 6-minute walk distance (-10.5 vs 15.8 m; P = .003), Berg Balance Scale score (-0.8 vs 4.5; P = .006), and Barthel Index score (0.6 vs 7.2; P = .008). CHI did not significantly increase caregiver burden at endpoint. Conclusion. CHI can improve physical functional recovery and, possibly, social participation in patients with chronic stroke.

  9. The role of recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in desiccation tolerance of pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial repair is of fundamental importance for seed germination. When mature orthodox seeds are imbibed and germinated, they lose their desiccation tolerance in parallel. To gain a better understanding of this process, we studied the recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Jizhuang) seeds with different tolerance to desiccation. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the embryo axes of control and imbibed-dehydrated pea seeds after (re-)imbibition for various times. Recovery of mitochondrial structure and function occurred both in control and imbibed-dehydrated seed embryo axes, but at different rates and to different maximum levels. The integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane reached 96% in all treatments. However, only the seeds imbibed for 12 h and then dehydrated recovered the integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and State 3 (respiratory state in which substrate and ADP are present) respiration (with NADH and succinate as substrate) to the control level after re-imbibition. With increasing imbibition time, the degree to which each parameter recovered decreased in parallel with the decrease in desiccation tolerance. The tolerance of imbibed seeds to desiccation increased and decreased when imbibed in CaCl(2) and methylviologen solution, respectively, and the recovery of the IMM integrity similarly improved and weakened in these two treatments, respectively. Survival of seeds after imbibition-dehydration linearly increased with the increase in ability to recover the integrity of IMM and State 3 respiration, which indicates that recovery of mitochondrial structure and function during germination has an important role in seed desiccation tolerance.

  10. Pyridoxamine reduces postinjury fibrosis and improves functional recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Skrypnyk, Nataliya I; Voziyan, Paul; Yang, Haichun; de Caestecker, Christian R; Theberge, Marie-Claude; Drouin, Mathieu; Hudson, Billy; Harris, Raymond C; de Caestecker, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and independent risk factor for death and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite promising preclinical data, there is no evidence that antioxidants reduce the severity of injury, increase recovery, or prevent CKD in patients with AKI. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a structural analog of vitamin B6 that interferes with oxidative macromolecular damage via a number of different mechanisms and is in a phase 3 clinical efficacy trial to delay CKD progression in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main drivers of renal injury after AKI, the ability of PM to interfere with multiple aspects of oxidative damage may be favorable for AKI treatment. In these studies we therefore evaluated PM treatment in a mouse model of AKI. Pretreatment with PM caused a dose-dependent reduction in acute tubular injury, long-term postinjury fibrosis, as well as improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion AKI (IR-AKI). This was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in the oxidative stress marker isofuran-to-F2-isoprostane ratio, indicating that PM reduces renal oxidative damage post-AKI. PM also reduced postinjury fibrosis when administered 24 h after the initiating injury, but this was not associated with improvement in functional recovery after IR-AKI. This is the first report showing that treatment with PM reduces short- and long-term injury, fibrosis, and renal functional recovery after IR-AKI. These preclinical findings suggest that PM, which has a favorable clinical safety profile, holds therapeutic promise for AKI and, most importantly, for prevention of adverse long-term outcomes after AKI. PMID:27194713

  11. Long-Term Functional Recovery, Quality of Life, and Pregnancy After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Swati; Ghanta, Mythili; Moritz, Michael J; Constantinescu, Serban

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the salient features of functional recovery, health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), and reproductive health, with special emphasis on pregnancy outcomes in kidney and liver recipients. Transplantation results in improved functional status and HR-QOL. Addressing factors that limit the optimal rehabilitation of transplant recipients can improve transplant outcomes. After successful transplantation, there is a rapid return of fertility, warranting counseling regarding contraception. Practitioners should be aware of the teratogenic potential of mycophenolic acid products. Posttransplant pregnancies are high risk, with increased incidences of hypertension, preeclampsia, and prematurity. Most pregnancies in kidney and liver recipients have successful maternal and newborn outcomes.

  12. Boron removal and recovery from concentrated wastewater using a microwave hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hao-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2011-02-28

    Boron compounds are widely-used raw materials in industries. However, elevated boron concentrations in aqueous systems may be harmful to human and plants. In this study, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) alone and Ca(OH)(2) with phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) addition (P-addition) were used to remove and recover boron from wastewater using hydrothermal methods. A microwave (MW) hydrothermal method was used and compared with the conventional heating (CH) method in batch experiments. Physicochemical properties of the precipitates obtained from both methods were analysed by XRD, SEM with EDX and BET. For the case of Ca(OH)(2) alone and the MW method, experimental results showed that boron recovery efficiency reached 90% within 10 min, and crystals of Ca(2)B(2)O(5)·H(2)O were found in the precipitates as indicated by the XRD analysis. For the case of P-addition and the MW method, boron recovery efficiency reached 99% within 10 min, and calcium phosphate species (CaHPO(4)·H(2)O, CaHPO(4) and Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)) were formed. The experimental results of this study indicate that the required reaction time of the MW method was much less than that of the CH method, and the MW method is an effective and efficient method for boron removal and recovery from concentrated wastewater.

  13. Boron removal and recovery from concentrated wastewater using a microwave hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hao-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2011-02-28

    Boron compounds are widely-used raw materials in industries. However, elevated boron concentrations in aqueous systems may be harmful to human and plants. In this study, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) alone and Ca(OH)(2) with phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) addition (P-addition) were used to remove and recover boron from wastewater using hydrothermal methods. A microwave (MW) hydrothermal method was used and compared with the conventional heating (CH) method in batch experiments. Physicochemical properties of the precipitates obtained from both methods were analysed by XRD, SEM with EDX and BET. For the case of Ca(OH)(2) alone and the MW method, experimental results showed that boron recovery efficiency reached 90% within 10 min, and crystals of Ca(2)B(2)O(5)·H(2)O were found in the precipitates as indicated by the XRD analysis. For the case of P-addition and the MW method, boron recovery efficiency reached 99% within 10 min, and calcium phosphate species (CaHPO(4)·H(2)O, CaHPO(4) and Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)) were formed. The experimental results of this study indicate that the required reaction time of the MW method was much less than that of the CH method, and the MW method is an effective and efficient method for boron removal and recovery from concentrated wastewater. PMID:21211905

  14. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    PubMed Central

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. METHODS: In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury. PMID:26598084

  15. Relationship between T-wave normalization on exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Shim, Wan Joo; Jung, Seong Won; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Soo Jin; Song, Woo Hyuk; Kim, Young Hoon; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Ro, Young Moo

    2002-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested that T-wave normalization (TWN) in exercise ECG indicates the presence of viable myocardium. But the clinical implication of this phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction who received proper revascularization therapy was not determined. Precisely the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TWN in exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. Methods We studied 30 acute myocardial infarction patients with negative T waves in infarct related electrocardiographic leads and who had received successful revascularization therapy. Exercise ECG was performed 10–14days after infarct onset using Naughton protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to presence (group I; n=14) or not (group II; n=16) of TWN in exercise ECG. Exercise parameters and coronary angiographic findings were compared between groups. Baseline and follow-up (mean 11 months) regional and global left ventricular function was analyzed by echocardiography. Results Exercise parameters were similar between groups. There was no difference in baseline ejection fraction and wall motion score between group I and II (EF; 56±12% vs 52±11%, p=ns. WMS; 21±3 vs 23±4, p=ns) and it was improved at the tenth month by similar magnitude (group I/group II, EF % change=12±12% vs 7±6%, p=ns, WMS % change=6±6% vs 7±5%, p=ns). The finding of no relation between TWN and functional recovery was observed also when the patients were analysed according to infarct location and presence or absence of Q-waves. Conclusion As the exercise-induced TWN in patients with acute myocardial infarction was not related with better functional recovery of dysfunctional regional wall motion and ejection fraction, TWN does not appear to be an indicator of myocardial viability. PMID:12164089

  16. Recovery of delay time from time series based on the nearest neighbor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, M. D.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Khorev, V. S.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a method for the recovery of delay time from time series of time-delay systems. The method is based on the nearest neighbor analysis. The method allows one to reconstruct delays in various classes of time-delay systems including systems of high order, systems with several coexisting delays, and nonscalar time-delay systems. It can be applied to time series heavily corrupted by additive and dynamical noise.

  17. Chondroitinase combined with rehabilitation promotes recovery of forelimb function in rats with chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Difei; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M; Zhao, Rongrong; Andrews, Melissa R; Fawcett, James W

    2011-06-22

    Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in combination with rehabilitation has been shown to promote functional recovery in acute spinal cord injury. For clinical use, the optimal treatment window is concurrent with the beginning of rehabilitation, usually 2-4 weeks after injury. We show that ChABC is effective when given 4 weeks after injury combined with rehabilitation. After C4 dorsal spinal cord injury, rats received no treatment for 4 weeks. They then received either ChABC or penicillinase control treatment followed by hour-long daily rehabilitation specific for skilled paw reaching. Animals that received both ChABC and task-specific rehabilitation showed the greatest recovery in skilled paw reaching, approaching similar levels to animals that were treated at the time of injury. There was also a modest increase in skilled paw reaching ability in animals receiving task-specific rehabilitation alone. Animals treated with ChABC and task-specific rehabilitation also showed improvement in ladder and beam walking. ChABC increased sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and these sprouts had more vGlut1(+ve) presynaptic boutons than controls. Animals that received rehabilitation showed an increase in perineuronal net number and staining intensity. Our results indicate that ChABC treatment opens a window of opportunity in chronic spinal cord lesions, allowing rehabilitation to improve functional recovery. PMID:21697383

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Predictor of Locomotor Function after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian J.; Harel, Noam Y.; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Papademetris, Xenophon; Coman, Daniel; Wang, Xingxing; Hasan, Omar; Kaufman, Adam; Globinsky, Ronen; Staib, Lawrence H.; Cafferty, William B.J.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability with limited functional recovery linked to the extent of axonal connectivity. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of axonal integrity has been suggested as a potential biomarker for prognostic and therapeutic evaluation after trauma, but its correlation with functional outcomes has not been clearly defined. To examine this application, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midthoracic laminectomy followed by traumatic spinal cord contusion of differing severities or laminectomy without contusion. Locomotor scores and hindlimb kinematic data were collected for 4 weeks post-injury. Ex vivo DTI was then performed to assess axonal integrity using tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA), a numerical measure of relative white matter integrity, at the injury epicenter and at specific intervals rostral and caudal to the injury site. Immunohistochemistry for tissue sparing was also performed. Statistical correlation between imaging data and functional performance was assessed as the primary outcome. All injured animals showed some recovery of locomotor function, while hindlimb kinematics revealed graded deficits consistent with injury severity. Standard T2 magnetic resonance sequences illustrated conventional spinal cord morphology adjacent to contusions while corresponding FA maps indicated graded white matter pathology within these adjacent regions. Positive correlations between locomotor (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and gait kinematics) and imaging (FA values) parameters were also observed within these adjacent regions, most strongly within caudal segments beyond the lesion. Evaluation of axonal injury by DTI provides a mechanism for functional recovery assessment in a rodent SCI model. These findings suggest that focused DTI analysis of caudal spinal cord should be studied in human cases in relationship to motor outcome to augment outcome biomarkers for clinical cases. PMID

  19. Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Te; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4 ± 8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4 ± 14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home. PMID:23746577

  20. Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N.; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Metz, Gerlinde A.S.; Allan, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24 h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

  1. Behavioural assessment of functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Suresh Babu, R; Muthusamy, R; Namasivayam, A

    2000-09-15

    In spinal cord research, current approaches to behavioural assessment often fail in defining the exact nature of motor deficits or in evaluating the return of motor behaviour from lost functions following spinal cord injury. In addition to the assessment of gross motor behaviour, it is often appropriate to use complex tests for locomotion to evaluate the masked deficits in the evaluation of functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We designed a series of sensitive quantitative tests for reflex responses and complex locomotor behaviour in the form of a combined behavioural score (CBS) to assess the recovery of function in the Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Monkeys were tested for various motor/reflex components, trained to cross different complex runways, and to walk on a treadmill bipedally. The overall performance of animal's motor behaviour and the functional status of individual limb movement during bipedal locomotion was graded and scored by the CBS. Surgical hemisection was then performed on the right side of the spinal cord at the T12-L1 level. Spinal cord hemisected animals showed a significant alteration in certain reflex responses such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through 1 year of follow-up. The spinal cord hemisected animals traversed the complex locomotor runways (Narrow beam and Grid runway) with more steps and few errors, at similar levels to control animals. These observations indicate that the various motor/reflex components and bipedal locomotor behaviour of spinal cord hemisected monkeys return to control levels gradually. These results are similar to those obtained in rat models by other investigators. These results demonstrate that the basic motor strategy and the spinal pattern generator for locomotion (SPGL) in adult monkeys for the accomplishment of complex motor tasks is similar, but not identical, to that in adult rats. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying recovery are probably

  2. A tutorial on the LQG/LTR method. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the so-called Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian method with Loop-Transfer-Recovery is surveyed. The objective is to provide a pragmatic exposition, with special emphasis on the step-by-step characteristics for designing multivariable feedback control systems.

  3. Allotransplanted DRG neurons or Schwann cells affect functional recovery in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Markman, John D.; Gelbard, Harris A.; Huang, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, the functional recoveries of Sprague-Dawley rats following repair of a complete sciatic nerve transection using allotransplanted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons or Schwann cells were examined using a number of outcome measures. Methods Four groups were compared: (1) repair with a nerve guide conduit seeded with allotransplanted Schwann cells harvested from Wistar rats, (2) repair with a nerve guide conduit seeded with DRG neurons, (3) repair with solely a nerve guide conduit, and (4) sham-surgery animals where the sciatic nerve was left intact. The results corroborated our previous reported histology findings and measures of immunogenicity. Results The Wistar-DRG-treated group achieved the best recovery, significantly outperforming both the Wistar-Schwann group and the nerve guide conduit group in the Von Frey assay of touch response (P < 0.05). Additionally, Wistar-DRG and Wistar-Schwann seeded repairs showed lower frequency and severity in an autotomy measure of the self-mutilation of the injured leg because of neuralgia. Conclusion These results suggest that in complete peripheral nerve transections, surgical repair using nerve guide conduits with allotransplanted DRG and Schwann cells may improve recovery, especially DRG neurons, which elicit less of an immune response. PMID:24836462

  4. A Content Analysis of Functional Recovery Strategies of Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Svensborn, Ingrid A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-04-01

    Seventeen breast cancer survivors completed a 6-week, telephone-delivered, behavioral activation/problem-solving intervention designed to reduce participation restrictions. A content analysis of the session data was conducted to identify the goals and patterns of goal attainment and to understand what women were trying to achieve in their recovery. The 17 women set 141 goals. Sixty-six (47%) of the goals reflected a desire to add a new activity to their routine and 75 (53%) of the goals reflected a desire to perform a routine activity more efficiently. The women primarily set goals to address challenges in exercising (24%), work (13%), nutrition (12%), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs; 10%), stress management (9%), and social activities (9%). The women set an average of 8 goals and met 71% of their goals. The intervention shows promise in helping women set and achieve a number of functional goals as part of breast cancer recovery.

  5. A Content Analysis of Functional Recovery Strategies of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Kathleen D.; Svensborn, Ingrid A.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen breast cancer survivors completed a six-week, telephone-delivered, Behavioral Activation/Problem-solving intervention designed to reduce participation restrictions. A content analysis of the session data was conducted to identify the goals and patterns of goal attainment, in order to understand what women were trying to achieve in their recovery. The 17 women set 141 goals. Sixty-six (47%) of the goals reflected a desire to add a new activity to their routine and 75 (53%) of the goals reflected a desire to perform a routine activity more efficiently. The women set goals to address challenges in exercising (24%), work (13%), nutrition (11%), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs; 10%), stress management (9%), and social activities (9%). The women set an average of 8 goals and met 71% of their goals. The intervention shows promise in helping women set and achieve a number of functional goals as part of breast cancer recovery. PMID:26460469

  6. Effect of lacosamide on structural damage and functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, A; Immonen, R; Ndode-Ekane, X; Gröhn, O; Stöhr, T; Nissinen, J

    2014-05-01

    In a subgroup of patients, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in the occurrence of acute epileptic seizures or even status epilepticus, which are treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Recent experimental data, however, suggest that administration of AEDs at the early post-injury phase can compromise the recovery process. The present study was designed to assess the profile of a novel anticonvulsant, lacosamide (Vimpat) on post-TBI structural, motor and cognitive outcomes. Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in adult rats. Treatment with 0.9% saline or lacosamide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was started at 30 min post-injury and continued at 8h intervals for 3d (total daily dose 90 mg/kg/d). Rats were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: sham-operated controls treated with vehicle (Sham-Veh) or lacosamide (Sham-LCM) and injured animals treated with vehicle (TBI-Veh) or lacosamide (TBI-LCM). As functional outcomes we tested motor recovery with composite neuroscore and beam-walking at 2, 7, and 15 d post-injury. Cognitive recovery was tested with the Morris water-maze at 12-14 d post-TBI. To assess the structural outcome, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 d post-TBI. At 16d post-TBI, rats were perfused for histology to analyze cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration and axonal damage. Our data show that at 2 d post-TBI, both the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups were equally impaired in neuroscore. Thereafter, motor recovery occurred similarly during the first week. At 2 wk post-TBI, recovery of the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-VEH group (p<0.05). Performance in beam-walking did not differ between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Both TBI groups were similarly impaired in the Morris water-maze at 2 wk post-TBI. MRI and histology did not reveal any differences in the cortical or hippocampal damage between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Taken together, acute treatment with LCM had no protective effects on post

  7. Recovery From an At-Risk State: Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Putatively Prodromal Youth Who Do Not Develop Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Danielle A.; Jacobson, Sarah; Chen, Qiaolin; Sugar, Catherine A.; Niendam, Tara A.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The “clinical high risk” (CHR) construct was developed to identify individuals at imminent risk of developing psychosis. However, most individuals identified as CHR do not convert to psychosis, and it is unknown whether these nonconverting individuals actually recover from an at-risk state. Methods: Eighty-four prospectively identified patients meeting CHR criteria, and 58 healthy comparison subjects were followed in a 2-year longitudinal study. Analyses examined rates of conversion, clinical, and functional recovery. Proportional cause-specific hazard models were used to examine the effects of baseline and time-varying predictors on conversion and remission. Trajectories of symptoms and psychosocial functioning measures were compared across outcome groups. Results: Competing risk survival analyses estimated that 30% of CHR subjects convert to psychosis by 2 years, while 36% symptomatically remit and 30% functionally recover by 2 years. Lower levels of negative and mood/anxiety symptoms were related to increased likelihood of both symptomatic and functional recovery. CHR subjects who remitted symptomatically were more similar to healthy controls in terms of both their baseline and longitudinal symptoms and functioning than the other outcome groups. Conclusions: Nonconverting CHR cases represented a heterogeneous group. Given that nonconverted subjects who remitted symptomatically also presented initially with less severe prodromal symptomatology and showed a distinct normative trajectory of both symptoms and psychosocial functioning over time, it may be possible to refine the CHR criteria to reduce the number of “false positive” cases by eliminating those who present with less severe attenuated positive symptoms or show early improvements in terms of symptoms or functioning. PMID:21825282

  8. Comparison of methods for determining the hydrologic recovery time after forest disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Green, M.; Ohte, N.; Urakawa, R.; Endo, I.; Scanlon, T. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; McGuire, K. J.; Katsuyama, M.; Fukuzawa, K.; Tague, C.; Hiraoka, M.; Fukushima, K.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in forest hydrology changes after forest disturbance vary among catchments. Although studies have summarized the initial runoff changes following forest disturbance, the estimates of long-term recovery time are less frequently reported. To understand the mechanisms of long-term recovery processes and to predict the long-term changes in streamflow after forest disturbance, it is important to compare recovery times after disturbance. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the best methodology for such research, especially for watershed studies that were not designed as paired watersheds. We compared methods of determining the hydrologic recovery time to determine if there is a common method for sites in any hydroclimatic setting. We defined the hydrologic recovery time to be the time of disturbance to the time when hydrological factors first recovered to pre-disturbance levels. We acquired data on long-term rainfall and runoff at 16 sites in northeastern USA and Japan that had at least 10 years (and up to 50 years) of post disturbance data. The types of disturbance include harvesting, diseases and insect damages. We compared multiple indices of hydrological response including annual runoff, annual runoff ratio (annual runoff/annual rainfall), annual loss (annual rainfall-annual runoff), fiftieth-percentile annual flow, and seasonal water balance. The results showed that comparing annual runoff to a reference site was most robust at constraining the recovery time, followed by using pre-disturbance data as reference data and calculating the differences in annual runoff from pre-disturbance levels. However, in case of small disturbance at sites without reference data or long-term pre-disturbance data, the inter-annual variation of rainfall makes the effect of disturbance unclear. We found that annual loss had smaller inter-annual variation, and defining recovery time with annual loss was best in terms of matching the results from paired watersheds. The

  9. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  10. Comparison of methods for recovery of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from seeded laundry fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Cody, H J; Smith, P F; Blaser, M J; LaForce, F M; Wang, W L

    1984-01-01

    To assess the effect of laundry procedures on fabric-associated bacteria, a standard method of enumeration is needed. We evaluated six methods for enumeration of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus seeded (10(2) and 10(5) CFU/100 cm2 of fabric area) onto sterilized hospital sheets and terry . Two methods involved maceration of seeded swatches in broth followed by passage of the broth through a 0.45-micron-pore-size, 47-mm-diameter filter membrane. Three methods involved agitation of seeded swatches in broth with a paint shaker and membrane filtration of the broth to recover eluted bacterial cells, and the final method involved direct enumeration of cells on fabrics by overlaying seeded swatches with agar containing triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an indicator. The most convenient recovery method employed a 90-s agitation followed by serial dilution of broths and membrane filtration. This method provided 44/57% (low seed/high seed) recovery of E. coli from sheets and 133/31% from terry and 34/74% recovery of S. aureus from sheets and 58/57% from terry . Although maceration provided similar recovery of E. coli and S. aureus, it is a less-practical method. The direct enumeration method was ineffective for enumerating gram-positive bacteria. We conclude that either the agitation or maceration method used enumerated the seeded bacteria to within 1 log10 of their expected number and can be used to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of various steps in the laundering process. PMID:6378092

  11. Anatomical and Functional Recovery of Intracapsular Fractures of the Mandibular Condyle: Analysis of 124 Cases after Closed Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Sung; Jeon, Eun-Gyu; Seol, Guk-Jin; Choi, So-Young; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Paeng, Jun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of intracapsular fracture lines of the mandibular condyle on the anatomical and functional recovery after non-surgical closed treatment. Methods: Clinical and radiological follow-up of 124 patients with intracapsular fractures of the mandibular condyle was performed after closed treatment between 2005 and 2012. The intracapsular fractures were classified into three categories: type A (medial condylar pole fracture), type B (lateral condylar pole fracture with loss of vertical height) and type M (multiple fragments or comminuted fracture). Results: By radiological finding, fracture types B and M lost up to 24% vertical height of the mandibular condyle compared to the height on the opposite side. In Type M, moderate to severe dysfunction was observed in 33% of the cases. Bilateral fractures were significantly associated with the risk of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction in fracture types A and B. Bilateral fracture and TMJ dysfunction were not statistically significantly associated in type M fractures. Conclusion: Most of the mandibular intracapsular condylar fractures recovered acceptably after conservative non-surgical treatment with functional rehabilitation, even with some anatomical shortening of the condylar height. The poor functional recovery encountered in type M fractures, especially in cases with additional fracture sites and bilateral fractures, points up the limitation of closed treatment in such cases. PMID:27489844

  12. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from −4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from −4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to −2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34Δ ± 14Δ-15Δ ± 9Δ (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47Δ ± 20Δ-20Δ ± 22Δ (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  14. A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

  15. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Anaël; Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Coutts, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR) may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR) in endurance athletes. Methods and Results Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects) before (Pre), and immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and after a 2-week taper (Post). Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue). Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size). Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large), plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small) and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate). These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that i) a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii) changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii) the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity. PMID:26488766

  16. The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

  17. Do empowered stroke patients perform better at self-management and functional recovery after a stroke? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Janet WH; Chair, Sek Ying; Choi, Kai Chow; Chan, Carmen WH; Lee, Diana TF; Chan, Aileen WK; Cheung, Jo LK; Tang, Siu Wai; Chan, Po Shan; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-management after a stroke is a challenge because of multifaceted care needs and complex disabling consequences that cause further hindrance to patient participation. A 13-week stroke patient empowerment intervention (Health Empowerment Intervention for Stroke Self-management [HEISS]) was developed to enhance patients’ ability to participate in self-management. Purpose To examine the effects of the empowerment intervention on stroke patients’ self-efficacy, self-management behavior, and functional recovery. Methods This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with stroke survivors assigned to either a control group (CG) receiving usual ambulatory rehabilitation care or the HEISS in addition to usual care (intervention group [IG]). Outcome data were collected at baseline (T0), 1 week (T1), 3 months (T2), and 6 months (T3) postintervention. Data were analyzed on the intention-to-treat principle. The generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the differential change of self-efficacy in illness management, self-management behaviors (cognitive symptom management, communication with physician, medication adherence, and self-blood pressure monitoring), and functional recovery (Barthel and Lawton indices) across time points (baseline = T0, 1 week = T1, 3 months = T2, and 6 months = T3 postintervention) between the two groups. Results A total of 210 (CG =105, IG =105) Hong Kong Chinese stroke survivors (mean age =69 years, 49% women, 72% ischemic stroke, 89% hemiparesis, and 63% tactile sensory deficit) were enrolled in the study. Those in IG reported better self-efficacy in illness management 3-month (P=0.011) and 6-month (P=0.012) postintervention, along with better self-management behaviors at all follow-up time points (all P<0.05), apart from medication adherence (P>0.05). Those in IG had significantly better functional recovery (Barthel, all P<0.05; Lawton, all P<0.001), compared to CG. The overall dropout rate was 16

  18. Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of

  19. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries.

  20. Functional recovery after stroke: a review of current developments in stroke rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Kollen, Boudewijn; Kwakkel, Gert; Lindeman, Eline

    2006-01-01

    This review article discusses current research developments in functional recovery after stroke. With the institutionalization of stroke services across health care facilities, a reduction in mortality rates, length of inpatient stay and improved independence in activities of daily living has been reported. Several systematic reviews show that traditional treatment approaches induce improvements that are confined to impairment level only and do not generalize to a functional improvement level. More recently developed treatment strategies that incorporate compensation strategies with a strong emphasis on functional training, may hold the key to optimal stroke rehabilitation. Intensity and task-specific exercise therapy are important components of such an approach. Guidelines may assist the clinician in this responsibility. However, due to marked heterogeneity of the stroke population and poor methodological quality of many studies, results are uncertain. Several options are discussed to overcome the problem of stroke heterogeneity in research designs. Longitudinal repeated measurements designs are required to study the effects of non-linearity and time dependency of functional recovery in stroke. Furthermore, prognostic research based on sound clinimetric data generates relevant information that may guide the clinician in clinical decision making and in determining optimal treatment strategies.

  1. Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine on Functional Recovery and Neuronal Dendritic Plasticity after Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Bin; Zheng, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Juan; Liao, Wei-Jing; Wan, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been widely used in the treatment of ischemic stroke by Chinese doctors. Here, we report the effects of TMP on functional recovery and dendritic plasticity after ischemic stroke. A classical model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established in this study. The rats were assigned into 3 groups: sham group (sham operated rats treated with saline), model group (MCAO rats treated with saline) and TMP group (MCAO rats treated with 20 mg/kg/d TMP). The neurological function test of animals was evaluated using the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) at 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d after MCAO. Animals were euthanized for immunohistochemical labeling to measure MAP-2 levels in the peri-infarct area. Golgi-Cox staining was performed to test effect of TMP on dendritic plasticity at 14 d after MCAO. TMP significantly improved neurological function at 7 d and 14 d after ischemia, increased MAP-2 level at 14 d after ischemia, and enhanced spine density of basilar dendrites. TMP failed to affect the spine density of apical dendrites and the total dendritic length. Data analyses indicate that there was significant negative correlation between mNSS and plasticity measured at 14 d after MCAO. Thus, enhanced dendritic plasticity contributes to TMP-elicited functional recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:26379744

  2. The recovery time of sevoflurane and desflurane and the effects of anesthesia on mental and psychomotor functions and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ergönenç, Jalan; Ergönenç, Tolga; İdin, Kadir; Uzun, Uğur; Dirik, Ali; Gedikli, Gökhan; Bican, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhalation anesthetics have many advantages for outpatient general anesthesia, such as minimal postoperative side-effects and rapid and full recovery. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the postoperative recovery time of sevoflurane and desflurane and to observe the effects of anesthesia on mental, psychomotor and cognitive functions and pain in outpatients undergoing arthroscopic surgery. Patients and Methods: This study included 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients who were divided into two groups via sealed envelopes. For maintenance of anesthesia, a mixture of 66% N2O and 33% O2 and 4–7% desflurane was used in Group D, and a mixture of 66% N2O and 33% O2 and 1–2.5% sevoflurane was used in Group S. The modified Aldrete score (MAS) was evaluated postoperatively at time points determined previously. An MAS of 8 or higher was considered to indicate alertness. Mental and psychomotor functions of the patients were evaluated using the short cognitive examination (SCE), and postoperative pain levels were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data (P > 0.05). The mean time to reach MAS 8, eye-opening, and orientation were higher in Group S as compared to Group D (P < 0.01). The mean MAS initially and at 5 and 10 min was higher in Group D as compared to Group S (P < 0.001). The mean SCE at 5 and 15 min was higher in Group D as compared to Group S (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It has been determined that desflurane provided better quality and more rapid recovery than sevoflurane, and the return of cognitive functions in the early postoperative period was faster. In conclusion, both agents can apparently be used safely in outpatient anesthetic procedures. PMID:25886337

  3. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  4. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone.

    PubMed

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2015-11-01

    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples.

  5. Reduced functional recovery by delaying motor training after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Norrie, B A; Nevett-Duchcherer, J M; Gorassini, M A

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if a delay in rehabilitative motor training after spinal cord injury affects functional motor recovery. We studied a skilled motor task in which rats traversed a raised horizontal ladder and we quantified errors in accurate stepping, i.e., foot slips between rungs. After lesions to the dorsal quadrant of the thoracic (T8) spinal cord that aimed to unilaterally sever the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, rats were re-trained to walk across the ladder, either immediately after injury or after a 3-mo delay. Before training, the error rate in accurate stepping of the affected hindlimb was similar in the immediately (69.4 +/- 5.3%) and delay (62.7 +/- 4.1%; means +/- SE)-trained animals (not significantly different), suggesting that accurate stepping did not improve spontaneously if rats were not exposed to the ladder. After a 3-wk course of training (30 runs across the ladder per day, 5 day/wk), improvements in accurate stepping performance were greater if training was implemented immediately after injury. On average, immediately trained animals improved stepping performance by 61.5 +/- 28.2%, whereas the delay trained group improved by only 34.9 +/- 28.8% (significantly different). The degree of damage to the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts was very similar in the two groups of animals, indicating that differences in lesion size did not contribute to the differences in performance improvement. Animals with large lesions to the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts (>70%) displayed poor recovery from training (especially for delay-trained animals), suggesting that these two pathways were important in mediating improvements in accurate stepping. In addition, recovery of stepping-like reflexes appeared not to contribute to the recovery of accurate stepping given that the time course of reflex recovery was not related to the time course of recovery of accurate stepping. We conclude that training of a skilled motor task that

  6. Hierarchical Ensemble Methods for Protein Function Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Protein function prediction is a complex multiclass multilabel classification problem, characterized by multiple issues such as the incompleteness of the available annotations, the integration of multiple sources of high dimensional biomolecular data, the unbalance of several functional classes, and the difficulty of univocally determining negative examples. Moreover, the hierarchical relationships between functional classes that characterize both the Gene Ontology and FunCat taxonomies motivate the development of hierarchy-aware prediction methods that showed significantly better performances than hierarchical-unaware “flat” prediction methods. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of hierarchical methods for protein function prediction based on ensembles of learning machines. According to this general approach, a separate learning machine is trained to learn a specific functional term and then the resulting predictions are assembled in a “consensus” ensemble decision, taking into account the hierarchical relationships between classes. The main hierarchical ensemble methods proposed in the literature are discussed in the context of existing computational methods for protein function prediction, highlighting their characteristics, advantages, and limitations. Open problems of this exciting research area of computational biology are finally considered, outlining novel perspectives for future research. PMID:25937954

  7. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Zanetti, Giulia; Scorzeto, Michele; Megighian, Aram; Montecucco, Cesare; Pirazzini, Marco; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (β-Bungarotoxin, β-Btx, from elapid snakes and α-Latrotoxin, α-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. PMID:26670253

  8. Intrathecal morphine attenuates recovery of function after a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hook, Michelle A; Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W

    2009-05-01

    Prior work has shown that a high dose (20 mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24 h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90 microg) of intrathecal morphine 24 h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-microg dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90 microg of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

  9. Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment — Implications for community recovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villnäs, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

  10. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd C.; McConomy, Keith S.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Kantor, Eric D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72 h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24 h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24 h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24 h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  11. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A.; da-Silva, C.A.; Defino, H.L.A.; Bel, E.A.Del

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury. PMID:23579633

  12. Early Immunomodulation by Intravenously Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyongbum; Yang, Mal Sook; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Eom, Yong-Woo; Lee, Doo-Hoon; Yu, Ji Hea; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyun Ok; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2011-01-01

    Although intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can enhance functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the underlying mechanisms have to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms for functional recovery in SCI rats after intravenous transplantation of MSCs derived from human umbilical cord blood. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either MSCs (1 × 106 cells/0.5 ml) or PBS into the tail vein immediately after SCI. They were then evaluated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale weekly for 8 weeks and by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) 8 weeks after transplantation. MSC-treated rats showed a modest but significant improvement in BBB scores and latencies of SSEPs, compared with PBS controls. When human-specific Alu element was measured in the spinal cord, it was detected only 1 h after transplantation, suggesting transient engraftment of MSCs. Inflammatory cytokines were also determined using RT-PCR or Western blot in spinal cord extracts. In MSC-treated rats, the level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was decreased, but that of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. MSCs also immediately suppressed IL-6 at 1 h posttransplantation. However, the response of IL-6, which has an immunoregulatory role, was increased 1–3 days after transplantation. In addition, we quantified microglia/macrophage stained with Iba-1 around the damaged spinal cord using immunohistochemistry. A proportion of activated microglia and macrophages in total Iba-1+ cells was significantly decreased in MSC-treated rats, compared with PBS controls. These results suggest that early immunomodulation by intravenously transplanted MSCs is a potential underlying mechanism for functional recovery after SCI. PMID:26998402

  13. The effect of claustrum lesions on human consciousness and recovery of function.

    PubMed

    Chau, Aileen; Salazar, Andres M; Krueger, Frank; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Crick and Koch proposed that the claustrum plays a crucial role in consciousness. Their proposal was based on the structure and connectivity of the claustrum that suggested it had a role in coordinating a set of diverse brain functions. Given the few human studies investigating this claim, we decided to study the effects of claustrum lesions on consciousness in 171 combat veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injuries. Additionally, we studied the effects of claustrum lesions and loss of consciousness on long-term cognitive abilities. Claustrum damage was associated with the duration, but not frequency, of loss of consciousness, indicating that the claustrum may have an important role in regaining, but not maintaining, consciousness. Total brain volume loss, but not claustrum lesions, was associated with long-term recovery of neurobehavioral functions. Our findings constrain the current understanding of the neurobehavioral functions of the claustrum and its role in maintaining and regaining consciousness.

  14. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5) received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip) immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5) received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5), where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI) on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group) had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects. PMID:19036161

  15. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

    2011-08-17

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure.

  16. Disturbance and recovery of microbial community structure and function following Hurricane Frances.

    PubMed

    Yannarell, Anthony C; Steppe, Timothy F; Paerl, Hans W

    2007-03-01

    Disturbance and recovery influence microbial community structure and ecosystem functions in most natural environments. This study from a hypersaline Bahamian lagoon details the response of a benthic cyanobacterial mat to disturbance by Hurricane Frances, a category-4 storm. Clone libraries of cyanobacterial small subunit r-RNA genes and nitrogenase genes revealed significant shifts in cyanobacterial and diazotroph community composition following the hurricane. Post-hurricane clone libraries were dominated by sequences that had been rare in pre-hurricane communities. In spite of this dominance shift, re-colonizing mat communities performed nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis at rates within the normal range of variation measured in the mat at similar salinities. There was a tendency for nitrogen fixation rates from mats re-colonizing sites with hurricane-related sand deposition to be higher than those from mats re-colonizing sites without significant sand deposition. This suggests that the altered communities responded to a carbon : nitrogen imbalance that was particularly pronounced in areas subjected to disturbance by sand burial. The post-hurricane dominance of organisms that had been previously rare suggests that pre-hurricane diversity and functional redundancy contributed to the rapid recovery of ecosystem function in the post-disturbance environment.

  17. Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration.

  18. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  19. Norepinephrine and brain damage: alpha noradrenergic pharmacology alters functional recovery after cortical trauma.

    PubMed

    Feeney, D M; Westerberg, V S

    1990-06-01

    The goal of these experiments was to evaluate the effects of some drugs affecting noradrenergic (NE) synaptic transmission, commonly prescribed following stroke or traumatic brain injury, on functional recovery. Measurement of recovery from a transient hemiplegia produced by a traumatic unilateral focal contusion in sensorimotor cortex (SMCX) of rats was used to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol (HAL) treatment begun early (1 day) or late (18 days to recovered animals) after injury. Additionally, using the same model, the effects of a single administration of drugs with selective action at NE receptors were also evaluated early or late (30 days) after injury. These drugs were: phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), an alpha 1-NE antagonist; prazosin (PRAZ), an alpha 1-NE antagonist; yohimbine (YOH), an alpha 2-NE antagonist; propranolol (PROP), a beta 1- and 2-NE receptor antagonist; methoxymine (METHOX), an alpha 1-NE agonist; and clonidine (CLON), an alpha 2-NE agonist. The data indicate that drugs with antagonistic effects at alpha 1 NE receptors, including HAL and PRAZ but not PROP, administered early after SMCX contusion retard locomotor recovery. Beneficial effects of enhancing NE transmission by METHOX or YOH were not observed. In animals recovered from beam walk (BW) deficits, a single administration of PBZ or PRAZ (alpha 1 NE antagonists) or CLON (alpha 2 NE agonist) transiently reinstated hemiplegic symptoms. The nonspecific beta NE receptor antagonist PROP had no effect in recovered animals. A single dose of HAL had no effect in recovered animals, but a BW deficit transiently developed in some animals following chronic treatment. The data are discussed with reference to drug contraindications noted in clinical studies of recovery from poststroke aphasia and cognition in demented patients with degenerative brain disease. PMID:2166617

  20. Agar underlay method for recovery of sublethally heat-injured bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kang, D H; Siragusa, G R

    1999-12-01

    A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0. 05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60 degrees C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80 degrees C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media. PMID:10583985

  1. A combined scoring method to assess behavioral recovery after mouse spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Byrnes, Kimberly R; Fatemi, Gita; Faden, Alan I

    2010-06-01

    Although the rat has been the predominant rodent used to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), the increasing availability of transgenic animals has led to greater use of mouse models. However, behavioral assessment after SCI in mice has been less extensively investigated than in rats and few studies have critically examined the correlation between behavioral tests and injury severity or tissue damage. The present study characterized hindlimb functional performance in C57Bl/6 mice after contusion SCI at T9 using the weight drop method. A number of behavioral tests were examined with regard to variability, inter-rater reliability, and correlation to injury severity and white matter sparing. Mice were subjected to sham, mild-moderate or moderate-severe SCI and evaluated at day 1 and weekly up to 42 days using the Basso mouse scale (BMS), ladder climb, grid walk, inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick tests. The ladder climb and grid walk tests proved sub-optimal for use in mice, but modifications enhanced their predictive value with regard to injury severity. The inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick test showed far too much variability to have meaningful predictive value. The BMS score proved reliable, as previously reported, but a combined score (BLG) using BMS, Ladder climb (modified), and Grip walk (modified grid walk) provided better separation across injury levels and less variability than the individual tests. These data provide support for use of a combined scoring method to follow motor recovery in mice after contusion SCI. PMID:20188770

  2. Interhemispheric Cerebral Blood Flow Balance during Recovery of Motor Hand Function after Ischemic Stroke—A Longitudinal MRI Study Using Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Missimer, John; Schroth, Gerhard; Hess, Christian W.; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Wang, Danny J. J.; Weder, Bruno; Federspiel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Unilateral ischemic stroke disrupts the well balanced interactions within bilateral cortical networks. Restitution of interhemispheric balance is thought to contribute to post-stroke recovery. Longitudinal measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes might act as surrogate marker for this process. Objective To quantify longitudinal CBF changes using arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL) and interhemispheric balance within the cortical sensorimotor network and to assess their relationship with motor hand function recovery. Methods Longitudinal CBF data were acquired in 23 patients at 3 and 9 months after cortical sensorimotor stroke and in 20 healthy controls using pulsed ASL. Recovery of grip force and manual dexterity was assessed with tasks requiring power and precision grips. Voxel-based analysis was performed to identify areas of significant CBF change. Region-of-interest analyses were used to quantify the interhemispheric balance across nodes of the cortical sensorimotor network. Results Dexterity was more affected, and recovered at a slower pace than grip force. In patients with successful recovery of dexterous hand function, CBF decreased over time in the contralesional supplementary motor area, paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex and superior precuneus, and interhemispheric balance returned to healthy control levels. In contrast, patients with poor recovery presented with sustained hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor cortices encompassing the ischemic tissue, and CBF remained lateralized to the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusions Sustained perfusion imbalance within the cortical sensorimotor network, as measured with task-unrelated ASL, is associated with poor recovery of dexterous hand function after stroke. CBF at rest might be used to monitor recovery and gain prognostic information. PMID:25191858

  3. Recovery of proteins from beef bone and the functionality of these proteins in sausage batters.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Rathgeber, B M; Shand, P J

    2000-06-01

    Four solutions [4% sodium chloride (control), 4% sodium chloride with 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), 0.3% tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TTP) or 0.05 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH)] were used to extract proteins from beef bones. Three bone solution ratios (1:1, 1:4 or 1:10), three bone types [vertebra (lumbar), rib (4-7) and leg (femur)] and two methods of protein recovery from the extraction slurries [dialysis against 0.03 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.3) and acid precipitation] were evaluated. Solutions containing phosphates or NaOH were more effective in extracting protein than sodium chloride alone. Total protein recovery was highest from vertebra bones while extraction of proteins from leg bones resulted in the lowest recovery. A solution to bone ratio of 1 to 10 recovered more total protein from vertebra or rib bones than leg bones. Dialysis recovered more total protein from extraction solutions when the protein concentration was low. Acid precipitation, however, worked best if the protein concentration in the extraction solution was high. Extraction procedures resulted in some myosin degradation. Proteins extracted from beef bone materials and recovered by dialysis, performed equally as well as other commercially available proteins when added to a finely comminuted sausage product.

  4. Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Man C.; Jang, Woochan; Schwob, James E.; Wachowiak, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss. PMID:24431990

  5. Impact of processing method on recovery of bacteria from wipes used in biological surface sampling.

    PubMed

    Downey, Autumn S; Da Silva, Sandra M; Olson, Nathan D; Filliben, James J; Morrow, Jayne B

    2012-08-01

    Environmental sampling for microbiological contaminants is a key component of hygiene monitoring and risk characterization practices utilized across diverse fields of application. However, confidence in surface sampling results, both in the field and in controlled laboratory studies, has been undermined by large variation in sampling performance results. Sources of variation include controlled parameters, such as sampling materials and processing methods, which often differ among studies, as well as random and systematic errors; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relative impacts of sample processing methods, including extraction solution and physical dissociation method (vortexing and sonication), on recovery of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Burkholderia thailandensis and Escherichia coli) bacteria from directly inoculated wipes. This work showed that target organism had the largest impact on extraction efficiency and recovery precision, as measured by traditional colony counts. The physical dissociation method (PDM) had negligible impact, while the effect of the extraction solution was organism dependent. Overall, however, extraction of organisms from wipes using phosphate-buffered saline with 0.04% Tween 80 (PBST) resulted in the highest mean recovery across all three organisms. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence sampling performance, which is critical to the development of efficient and reliable sampling methodologies relevant to public health and biodefense.

  6. A Method Improving the Accuracy of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Peter; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Höök, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching has been an established technique of quantifying the mobility of molecular species in cells and cell membranes for more than 30 years. However, under nonideal experimental conditions, the current methods of analysis still suffer from occasional problems; for example, when the signal/noise ratio is low, when there are temporal fluctuations in the illumination, or when there is bleaching during the recovery process. We here present a method of analysis that overcomes these problems, yielding accurate results even under nonideal experimental conditions. The method is based on circular averaging of each image, followed by spatial frequency analysis of the averaged radial data, and requires no prior knowledge of the shape of the bleached area. The method was validated using both simulated and experimental fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data, illustrating that the diffusion coefficient of a single diffusing component can be determined to within ∼1%, even for small signal levels (100 photon counts), and that at typical signal levels (5000 photon counts) a system with two diffusion coefficients can be analyzed with <10% error. PMID:18567628

  7. Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus: Heavy Equipment Methods and Techniques for Complex Well Excavations.

    PubMed

    Ceker, Deren; Stevens, William D

    2015-11-01

    This technical note presents the methods and techniques developed by the Bi-communal Forensic Team (BCFT) of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP) used to excavate and exhume the remains of missing persons, many of whom were buried in deep wells at sites across the island of Cyprus during the conflict period of the 1960s and 1970s. A total of 493 Turkish Cypriots and 1508 Greek Cypriots were officially reported missing by the two communities as a result of the conflict. Since the team's formation, in 2005, the BCFT has excavated 114 wells, resulting in the recovery of 195 missing individuals from 35 of these well excavations. The standard excavation approach used by the BCFT, especially for deep well recovery, consists of "ramp," "pocket," and "pool" components. These excavation features enable CMP archaeologists to excavate deep wells safely and efficiently while simultaneously permitting time for thorough documentation and unimpeded recovery of human remains. The team uses three variants of this approach to cope with the variety of geological, physical, and hydrological contexts faced in Cyprus' wells, including hard and soft landforms, the presence or absence of water, and limitations imposed by surrounding infrastructure. The "terracing", "double-ramp", and "single-ramp" variations are detailed with respect to the environmental contexts which prescribe their use. The BCFT's general procedures for human remains recovery and standard well safety protocols conclude the article.

  8. Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus: Heavy Equipment Methods and Techniques for Complex Well Excavations.

    PubMed

    Ceker, Deren; Stevens, William D

    2015-11-01

    This technical note presents the methods and techniques developed by the Bi-communal Forensic Team (BCFT) of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP) used to excavate and exhume the remains of missing persons, many of whom were buried in deep wells at sites across the island of Cyprus during the conflict period of the 1960s and 1970s. A total of 493 Turkish Cypriots and 1508 Greek Cypriots were officially reported missing by the two communities as a result of the conflict. Since the team's formation, in 2005, the BCFT has excavated 114 wells, resulting in the recovery of 195 missing individuals from 35 of these well excavations. The standard excavation approach used by the BCFT, especially for deep well recovery, consists of "ramp," "pocket," and "pool" components. These excavation features enable CMP archaeologists to excavate deep wells safely and efficiently while simultaneously permitting time for thorough documentation and unimpeded recovery of human remains. The team uses three variants of this approach to cope with the variety of geological, physical, and hydrological contexts faced in Cyprus' wells, including hard and soft landforms, the presence or absence of water, and limitations imposed by surrounding infrastructure. The "terracing", "double-ramp", and "single-ramp" variations are detailed with respect to the environmental contexts which prescribe their use. The BCFT's general procedures for human remains recovery and standard well safety protocols conclude the article. PMID:26250595

  9. Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2012-06-01

    The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    Urt-Filho, Antônio; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; de David, Natan; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  11. Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2012-06-01

    The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22361356

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model.

    PubMed

    Urt, Antônio Filho; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; David, Natan de; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  13. Reorganization of functional connectivity as a correlate of cognitive recovery in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Nazareth P; Paúl, Nuria; Ordóñez, Victoria E; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomás; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on functional connectivity patterns. Networks were calculated from resting-state magnetoencephalographic recordings from 15 brain injured patients and 14 healthy controls by means of wavelet coherence in standard frequency bands. We compared the parameters defining the network, such as number and strength of interactions as well as their topology, in controls and patients for two conditions: following a traumatic brain injury and after a rehabilitation treatment. A loss of delta- and theta-based connectivity and conversely an increase in alpha- and beta-band-based connectivity were found. Furthermore, connectivity parameters approached controls in all frequency bands, especially in slow-wave bands. A correlation between network reorganization and cognitive recovery was found: the reduction of delta-band-based connections and the increment of those based on alpha band correlated with Verbal Fluency scores, as well as Perceptual Organization and Working Memory Indexes, respectively. Additionally, changes in connectivity values based on theta and beta bands correlated with the Patient Competency Rating Scale. The current study provides new evidence of the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity processes after brain injury, and suggests that these changes are related with observed changes at the behavioural level.

  14. Effects of enriched housing on functional recovery after spinal cord contusive injury in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lankhorst, A J; ter Laak, M P; van Laar, T J; van Meeteren, N L; de Groot, J C; Schrama, L H; Hamers, F P; Gispen, W H

    2001-02-01

    To date, most research performed in the area of spinal cord injury focuses on treatments designed to either prevent spreading lesion (secondary injury) or to enhance outgrowth of long descending and ascending fiber tracts around or through the lesion. In the last decade, however, several authors have shown that it is possible to enhance locomotor function after spinal cord injury in both animals and patients using specific training paradigms. As a first step towards combining such training paradigms with pharmacotherapy, we evaluated recovery of function in adult rats sustaining a spinal cord contusion injury (MASCIS device, 12.5 mm at T8), either housed in an enriched environment or in standard cages (n = 15 in both groups). The animals in the enriched environment were stimulated to increase their locomotor activity by placing water and food on opposite sides of the cage. As extra stimuli, a running wheel and several other objects were added to the cage. We show that exposure to the enriched environment improves gross and fine locomotor recovery as measured by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, the BBB subscale, the Gridwalk, and the Thoracolumbar height test. However, no group differences were found on our electrophysiological parameters nor on the amount of spared white matter. These data justify further studies on enriched housing and more controlled exercise training, with their use as potential additive to pharmacological intervention. PMID:11229712

  15. Exogenous tissue plasminogen activator enhances peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tie; Ling, Changchun; Xiao, Yao; Tao, Xianmei; Ma, Duan; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Song, Houyan

    2006-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an essential component of the proteolytic cascade that lyses blood clots. Various studies also suggest that tPA plays important roles in the nervous system. We show that exogenous tPA or tPA/plasminogen (plg) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination, and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in the mouse. Local application of tPA or tPA/plg 7 days after sciatic nerve crush significantly increased the total number of axons and myelinated axons, which is accompanied by enhanced expression of neurofilament. Treatment with tPA or tPA/plg reduced the deposition of fibrin(ogen) after nerve injury. Moreover, tPA or tPA/plg increased the number of macrophages and induced MMP-9 expression at the injury site, coincident with reduced collagen scar formation and accelerated clearance of myelin and lipid debris after treatment. Consequently, tPA or tPA/plg treatment protected muscles from atrophy after nerve injury, indicating better functional recovery. These results suggest that administration of exogenous tPA or tPA/plg promotes axonal regeneration and remyelination through removal of fibrin deposition and activation of MMP-9-positive macrophages, which may be responsible for myelin debris clearance and preventing collagen scar formation. Therefore, tPA may be useful for treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model.

    PubMed

    Urt-Filho, Antônio; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; David, Natan de; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF.

  17. Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Timothy R.; Tamayo, Francisco J.; Leckie, James O.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2011-01-01

    The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies. PMID:21821742

  18. Method of making low work function component

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Vance; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2011-11-15

    A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

  19. Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

  20. Promoting endothelial function by S-nitrosoglutathione through the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway stimulates neurorepair and functional recovery following experimental stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mushfiquddin; Dhammu, Tajinder S; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Baarine, Mauhammad; Dhindsa, Tejbir Singh; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K

    2015-01-01

    Background For stroke patients, stimulating neurorepair mechanisms is necessary to reduce morbidity and disability. Our previous studies on brain and spinal cord trauma show that exogenous treatment with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) – a nitric oxide and glutathione metabolite of the human body – stimulates neurorepair and aids functional recovery. Using a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this study, we tested the hypothesis that GSNO invokes the neurorepair process and improves neurobehavioral functions through the angiogenic HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. Methods Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion in adult male rats. The injured animals were treated with saline (IR group, n=7), GSNO (0.25 mg/kg, GSNO group, n=7), and GSNO plus the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestra-diol (2-ME) (0.25 mg/kg GSNO + 5.0 mg/kg 2-ME, GSNO + 2-ME group, n=7). The groups were studied for either 7 or 14 days to determine neurorepair mediators and functional recovery. Brain capillary endothelial cells were used to show that GSNO promotes angiogenesis and that GSNO-mediated induction of VEGF and the stimulation of angiogenesis are dependent on HIF-1α activity. Results IR injury increased the expression of neurorepair mediators HIF-1α, VEGF, and PECAM-1 and vessel markers to a limited degree that correlate well with significantly compromised neurobehavioral functions compared with sham animals. GSNO treatment of IR not only remarkably enhanced further the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and PECAM-1 but also improved functioning compared with IR. The GSNO group also had a higher degree of vessel density than the IR group. Increased expression of VEGF and the degree of tube formation (angiogenesis) by GSNO were reduced after the inhibition of HIF-1α by 2-ME in an endothelial cell culture model. 2-ME treatment of the GSNO group also blocked not only GSNO’s effect of reduced infarct volume

  1. NT3-chitosan elicits robust endogenous neurogenesis to enable functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Aifeng; Duan, Hongmei; Zhang, Sa; Hao, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Sun, Yi E.; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) hold the key to neural regeneration through proper activation, differentiation, and maturation, to establish nascent neural networks, which can be integrated into damaged neural circuits to repair function. However, the CNS injury microenvironment is often inhibitory and inflammatory, limiting the ability of activated NSCs to differentiate into neurons and form nascent circuits. Here we report that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-coupled chitosan biomaterial, when inserted into a 5-mm gap of completely transected and excised rat thoracic spinal cord, elicited robust activation of endogenous NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Through slow release of NT3, the biomaterial attracted NSCs to migrate into the lesion area, differentiate into neurons, and form functional neural networks, which interconnected severed ascending and descending axons, resulting in sensory and motor behavioral recovery. Our study suggests that enhancing endogenous neurogenesis could be a novel strategy for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26460015

  2. NT3-chitosan elicits robust endogenous neurogenesis to enable functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Aifeng; Duan, Hongmei; Zhang, Sa; Hao, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) hold the key to neural regeneration through proper activation, differentiation, and maturation, to establish nascent neural networks, which can be integrated into damaged neural circuits to repair function. However, the CNS injury microenvironment is often inhibitory and inflammatory, limiting the ability of activated NSCs to differentiate into neurons and form nascent circuits. Here we report that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-coupled chitosan biomaterial, when inserted into a 5-mm gap of completely transected and excised rat thoracic spinal cord, elicited robust activation of endogenous NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Through slow release of NT3, the biomaterial attracted NSCs to migrate into the lesion area, differentiate into neurons, and form functional neural networks, which interconnected severed ascending and descending axons, resulting in sensory and motor behavioral recovery. Our study suggests that enhancing endogenous neurogenesis could be a novel strategy for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26460015

  3. Simplified two-stage method to B-phycoerythrin recovery from Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Jorge; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2006-11-21

    A simplified two-stage method for B-phycoerythrin (BPE) recovery from Porphyridium cruentum was developed. The proposed method involved cell disruption by sonication and primary recovery by aqueous two-phase partition. The evaluation of two different methods of cell disruption and the effect of increasing concentration of cell homogenate from P. cruentum culture upon aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) performance was carried out to avoid the use of precipitation stages. Cell disruption by sonication proved to be superior over manual maceration since a five time increase in the concentration of B-phycoerythrin release was achieved. An increase in the concentration of crude extract from disrupted P. cruentum cells loaded to the ATPS (from 10 to 40%, w/w) proved to be suitable to increase the product purity and benefited the processing of highly concentrated disrupted extract. Kinetics studies of phase separation performed suggested the use of batch settlers with height/diameter (H/D) ratio less than one to reduce the necessary time for the phases to separate. The proposed ATPS stage comprising of 29% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000g/mol, 9% (w/w) potassium phosphate, tie-line length (TLL) of 45% (w/w), volume ratio (V(R)) of 4.5, pH 7.0 and 40% (w/w) crude extract loaded in a batch settler with H/D ratio of 0.5 proved to be efficient for the recovery of 90% of B-phycoerythrin at the top PEG-rich phase. The purity of B-phycoerythrin increased up to 4.0 times after the two-stage method. The results reported here demonstrate the potential implementation of a strategy to B-phycoerythrin recovery with a purity of 3.2 (estimated by the absorbance relation of 545-280nm) from P. cruentum.

  4. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  5. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  6. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, J.W.; Bridges, R.A.; Lorinovich, C.J.; Molz, Fred J.; Dinwiddie, C.L.; Lu, S.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  7. Functional sensory function recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip skin defects

    PubMed Central

    YU, YA-DONG; ZHANG, YING-ZE; BI, WEI-DONG; WU, TAO

    2013-01-01

    The fingertip skin defect is a common hand injury often accompanied by tendon or bone exposure, and is normally treated with flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional sensory recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip cutaneous deficiency. A total of 23 patients, aged between 18 and 50 years (mean age, 31 years) with fingertip cutaneous deficiency (30 digits) were treated with random-pattern abdominal skin flaps. The post-debridement defect area measured from 0.7×1.2 to 2.5×3 cm. The flap pedicle was divided three weeks after surgery, which marked the onset of the second stage. A second surgery was performed on 2 patients after 3 months and on another set of 2 patients after 6 months to create a thinner flap. Tissue was dissected during surgery for a histological examination. All the flaps survived and the post-operative follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the appearance of their fingers and the flaps. All flaps demonstrated satisfactory flexibility and texture and sensory recovery was achieved. Only 4 patients were subjected to a second surgery to make the flap thinner. The flaps for the 3-month tissue section had several low-density, free nerve endings, whereas those of the 6-month section had more intensive free nerve endings, nerve tracts, tactile cells and lamellar corpuscles. Random-pattern abdominal skin flap therefore repairs fingertip skin defects achieving sensory recovery. PMID:23403483

  8. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  9. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  10. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  11. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    PubMed

    Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Abelson, Avigdor

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world's reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR) should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery-a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs. PMID:26966666

  12. Is it the method or the process-separating the causes of low recovery.

    PubMed

    Cory, Wendy; Field, Kelly; Wu-Linhares, Dan

    2004-09-01

    During the development of a tablet formulation, a solvent capable of extracting 100% of the drug from the tablet excipients must be identified as part of the analytical assay method. When a low drug recovery from a tablet is observed with the assay method, it must be determined whether a problem with the manufacturing process exists, or if the extraction of the drug was incomplete. A solvent screen study was conducted with CP-122,721 prototype formulations to select a robust solvent for the assay method. However, low tablet assay values (ca. 95%) were routinely observed during tablet formulation development and process scale up. Drug-excipient interactions in a variety of solvents were subsequently evaluated to confirm the selection of the extraction solvent as capable of 100% extraction. At this point the focus of the investigation was placed on process-related sources of low recovery, such as loss of drug to manufacturing equipment and/or segregation during the tableting process. The results suggest that the low drug recovery observed for the CP-122,721 tablets was due to segregation during the manufacture, while the selected extraction solvent was able to eliminate any interactions between CP-122,721 and the tablet excipients. PMID:15521334

  13. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    PubMed

    Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Abelson, Avigdor

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world's reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR) should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery-a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs.

  14. Hindlimb Immobilization in a Wheelchair Alters Functional Recovery Following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Brown, Edward H.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, Trystan S. G.; Voor, Michael J.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locomotor training of rats with thoracic contusion spinal cord injuries can induce task-specific changes in stepping but rarely results in improved overground locomotion, possibly due to a ceiling effect. Thus, the authors hypothesize that incompletely injured rats maximally retrain themselves while moving about in their cages over the first few weeks postinjury. Objective To test the hypothesis using hindlimb immobilization after mild thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in adult female rats. A passive stretch protocol was included as an independent treatment. Methods Wheelchairs were used to hold the hindlimbs stationary in an extended position leaving the forelimbs free. The wheelchairs were used for 15 to 18 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks, beginning at 4 days postinjury. A 20-minute passive hindlimb stretch therapy was applied to half of the animals. Results Hindlimb locomotor function of the wheelchair group was not different from controls at 1 week postinjury but declined significantly over the next 4 weeks. Passive stretch had no influence on wheelchair animals but limited functional recovery of normally housed animals, preventing them from regaining forelimb–hindlimb coordination. Following 8 weeks of wheelchair immobilization and stretch therapy, only the wheelchair group displayed an improvement in function when returned to normal housing but retained significant deficits in stepping and coordination out to 16 weeks. Conclusion Hindlimb immobilization and passive stretch may hinder or conceal the normal course of functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats. These observations have implications for the management of acute clinical spinal cord injuries. PMID:21697451

  15. Long Term Results and Predictors of Left Ventricular Function Recovery after Aortic Valve Replacement for Chronic Aortic Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Saisho, Hiroyuki; Arinaga, Koichi; Kikusaki, Satoshi; Hirata, Yuichiro; Wada, Kumiko; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In most patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), aortic valve replacement (AVR) improves left ventricular (LV) function, but some patients will not have favorable remodeling. Our objectives were to review long term clinical results of AVR for AR and to examine what factors affect the normalization of LV function after AVR for chronic AR. Methods: Between 1989 and 2010, 177 patients underwent isolated AVR for chronic pure AR. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on indexed end-systolic LV diameter (iESD): Group L (iESD) ≧25 mm/m2) (130 patients) and Group S (iESD <25 mm/m2) (47 patients). Results: There was no significant difference between groups in late mortality, freedom from cardiac-related death and rehospitalization for heart failure at late follow up after operation. At postoperative follow-up, 16% of patients had not recovered normal LV systolic function. By means of multivariate analysis, iESD and cardiac index (CI) were independent predictors of recovery of LV function and iESD >26.7 mm/m2 and CI <2.71 l/min/m2 were the best cut-off values. Conclusions: Early and late surgical results of AVR for chronic AR were good, but for the preservation of postoperative normal LV function, AVR for AR patients should be performed before iESD reaches 26.7 mm/m2. PMID:25740455

  16. Computationally efficient method to construct scar functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelta, F.; Vergini, E. G.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2012-02-01

    The performance of a simple method [E. L. Sibert III, E. Vergini, R. M. Benito, and F. Borondo, New J. Phys.NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/5/053016 10, 053016 (2008)] to efficiently compute scar functions along unstable periodic orbits with complicated trajectories in configuration space is discussed, using a classically chaotic two-dimensional quartic oscillator as an illustration.

  17. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  18. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere.

  19. L-DOPS-Accelerated recovery of locomotor function in rats subjected to sensorimotor cortex ablation injury: pharmacobehavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, K; Nishino, K; Ohyu, H

    1999-07-01

    Central norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to play a beneficial role in amphetamine-facilitated recovery of behavior. To give insight into understanding the mechanism, the present studies were conducted to examine (a) the effects of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS) combined with benserazide (BSZ; a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), precursors of NE and dopamine (DA), respectively, on the recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats subjected to unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation injury, and (b) the relationships between the behavioral recovery and the frequency of postoperative training and the size of ablation injury. It was found that the combined treatments with L-DOPS and BSZ promoted the recovery of locomotor function as early as 24 hours after injury. L-DOPA alone, however, did not facilitate behavioral recovery. The results of assay for the tissue levels of NE and its major metabolite (3-methoxy-4-hydoxyphenylethylene glycol; MHPG) in the brain using high-pressure liquid chromotography showed MHPG, but not NE, significantly increased in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The behavioral recovery was also significantly correlated with the frequency of training subsequent to injury, but inversely with the size of cortex ablation. These results suggest that NE is likely to modulate functional recovery in this rodent model. PMID:10587012

  20. Solving functional flow equations with pseudospectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchardt, J.; Knorr, B.

    2016-07-01

    We apply pseudospectral methods to integrate functional flow equations with high accuracy, extending earlier work on functional fixed point equations [J. Borchardt and B. Knorr, Phys. Rev. D 91, 105011 (2015)]. The advantages of our method are illustrated with the help of two classes of models: first, to make contact with literature, we investigate flows of the O (N ) model in three dimensions, for N =1 , 4 and in the large N limit. For the case of a fractal dimension, d =2.4 , and N =1 , we follow the flow along a separatrix from a multicritical fixed point to the Wilson-Fisher fixed point over almost 13 orders of magnitude. As a second example, we consider flows of bounded quantum-mechanical potentials, which can be considered as a toy model for Higgs inflation. Such flows pose substantial numerical difficulties, and represent a perfect test bed to exemplify the power of pseudospectral methods.

  1. Transplantation of specific human astrocytes promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Davies, Stephen J A; Shih, Chung-Hsuan; Noble, Mark; Mayer-Proschel, Margot; Davies, Jeannette E; Proschel, Christoph

    2011-03-02

    Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human astrocytes that

  2. Watering, fertilization, and slurry inoculation promote recovery of biological crust function in degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Martín, Noelia; Díez, Beatriz; López-Poma, Rosario; Santos, Fernando; Luque, Ignacio; Cortina, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete fragments vs slurry), fertilization (control vs addition of composted sewage sludge), and watering frequency (two vs five times per week) on the cyanobacterial composition, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll content, and net CO2 exchange rate of biological soil crusts inoculated on a semiarid degraded soil from SE Spain. Six months after the inoculation, the highest rates of nitrogen fixation and chlorophyll a content were found when the biological crusts were inoculated as slurry, composted sewage sludge was added, and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Net CO2 exchange rate increased when biological crusts were inoculated as slurry and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the cyanobacterial species already present in the inoculated crust had the capability to spread and colonize the surface of the surrounding soil. These analyses showed that cyanobacterial communities were less diverse when the microcosms were watered five times per week, and that watering frequency (followed in importance by the addition of composted sewage sludge and inoculation type) was the treatment that most strongly influenced their composition. Our results suggest that the inoculation of biological soil crusts in the form of slurry combined with the addition of composted sewage sludge could be a suitable technique to accelerate the recovery of the composition and functioning of biological soil crusts in drylands. PMID:16710791

  3. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  4. Recovery of waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water samples by the membrane-filter dissolution method.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Fayer, R

    1997-01-01

    The cellulose-acetate membrane (CAM)-filter dissolution method implemented into a Millipore Glass Microanalysis system was used for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts seeded into 25 l of drinking water in polyethylene carboy aspirator bottles. CAM-entrapped oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From 65 to 94 oocysts/l (mean 75 oocysts/l), 34.7% overall of the inoculated oocysts, were unrecovered as determined after the water had been drained from the bottle, rinsed with 1 l of eluting fluid (EF), and CAM-filtered. Efficiency rates of oocyst recovery ranged from 24.0% to 64.0% (mean 44.1%), without the use of EF and from 72.1% to 82.3% (mean 78.8%) when EF was used. To ensure a high recovery efficiency of Cryptosporidium oocysts from sampled water by the CAM-filter dissolution method, it is recommended that 1 l of EF per 25 l of water be used. PMID:9039693

  5. Unexpected Recovery of Function after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Limits of Early Neuroimaging-Based Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Giacino, Joseph T.; Hirschberg, Ronald E.; Gerrard, Jason; Wu, Ona; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostication in the early stage of traumatic coma is a common challenge in the neuro-intensive care unit. We report the unexpected recovery of functional milestones (i.e., consciousness, communication, and community reintegration) in a 19-year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. The early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, at the time, suggested a poor prognosis. Methods During the first year of the patient’s recovery, MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2*-weighted imaging was performed on day 8 (coma), day 44 (minimally conscious state), day 198 (post-traumatic confusional state), and day 366 (community reintegration). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheric white matter and thalamus were compared with clinical assessments using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Results Extensive diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum and bihemispheric white matter was observed on day 8, with ADC values in a range typically associated with neurotoxic injury (230 to 400 × 10−6 mm2/sec). T2*-weighted MRI revealed widespread hemorrhagic axonal injury in the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Despite the presence of severe axonal injury on early MRI, the patient regained the ability to communicate and perform activities of daily living independently at one year post-injury (DRS = 8). Conclusions MRI data should be interpreted with caution when prognosticating for patients in traumatic coma. Recovery of consciousness and community reintegration are possible even when extensive traumatic axonal injury is demonstrated by early MRI. PMID:23860665

  6. Enhancement of satellite cell differentiation and functional recovery in injured skeletal muscle by hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masaki; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Shimoda, Manabu; Okawa, Atsushi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-15

    Recently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments by elite athletes to accelerate recovery from muscle injuries has become increasingly popular. However, the mechanism of promoting muscle regeneration under HBO conditions has not yet been defined. In this study, we investigated whether HBO treatments promoted muscle regeneration and modulated muscle regulatory factor expression in a rat skeletal muscle injury model. Muscle injury was induced by injecting cardiotoxin (CTX) into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. As the HBO treatment, rats were placed in an animal chamber with 100% oxygen under 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 2 h/day, 5 days/wk for 2 wk. We then performed histological analyses, measured the maximum force-producing capacity of the regenerating muscle fibers, and performed quantitative RT-PCR analysis of muscle regulatory factor mRNAs. The cross-sectional areas and maximum force-producing capacity of the regenerating muscle fibers were increased by HBO treatment after injury. The mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and IGF-1 increased significantly in the HBO group at 3 and 5 days after injury. The number of Pax7(+)/MyoD(+), Pax7(-)/MyoD(+), and Pax7(+)/BrdU(+)-positive nuclei was increased by HBO treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that HBO treatment accelerated satellite cell proliferation and myofiber maturation in rat muscle that was injured by a CTX injection. These results suggest that HBO treatment accelerates healing and functional recovery after muscle injury.

  7. Treadmill exercise facilitates recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Dae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts both axonal pathways and segmental spinal cord circuity, resulting in permanent neurological deficits. Physical exercise is known to increase the expression of neurotrophins for improving the injured spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on locomotor function in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression after SCI. The rats were divided into five groups: control group, sham operation group, sham operation and exercise group, SCI group, and SCI and exercise group. The laminectomy was performed at the T9-T10 level. The exposed dorsal surface of the spinal cord received contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) using the impactor. Treadmill exercise was performed 6 days per a week for 6 weeks. In order to evaluate the locomotor function of animals, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale was conducted once a week for 6 weeks. We examined BDNF expression and axonal sprouting in the injury site of the spinal cord using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. SCI induced loss of locomotor function with decreased BDNF expression in the injury site. Treadmill exercise increased the score of BBB locomotor scale and reduced cavity formation in the injury site. BDNF expression and axonal sprouting within the trabecula were further facilitated by treadmill exercise in SCI-exposed rats. The present study provides the evidence that treadmill exercise may facilitate recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration via BDNF expression following SCI.

  8. Treadmill exercise facilitates recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sun-Young; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Dae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts both axonal pathways and segmental spinal cord circuity, resulting in permanent neurological deficits. Physical exercise is known to increase the expression of neurotrophins for improving the injured spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on locomotor function in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression after SCI. The rats were divided into five groups: control group, sham operation group, sham operation and exercise group, SCI group, and SCI and exercise group. The laminectomy was performed at the T9–T10 level. The exposed dorsal surface of the spinal cord received contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) using the impactor. Treadmill exercise was performed 6 days per a week for 6 weeks. In order to evaluate the locomotor function of animals, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale was conducted once a week for 6 weeks. We examined BDNF expression and axonal sprouting in the injury site of the spinal cord using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. SCI induced loss of locomotor function with decreased BDNF expression in the injury site. Treadmill exercise increased the score of BBB locomotor scale and reduced cavity formation in the injury site. BDNF expression and axonal sprouting within the trabecula were further facilitated by treadmill exercise in SCI-exposed rats. The present study provides the evidence that treadmill exercise may facilitate recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration via BDNF expression following SCI. PMID:27656624

  9. Treadmill exercise facilitates recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sun-Young; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Dae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts both axonal pathways and segmental spinal cord circuity, resulting in permanent neurological deficits. Physical exercise is known to increase the expression of neurotrophins for improving the injured spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on locomotor function in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression after SCI. The rats were divided into five groups: control group, sham operation group, sham operation and exercise group, SCI group, and SCI and exercise group. The laminectomy was performed at the T9–T10 level. The exposed dorsal surface of the spinal cord received contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) using the impactor. Treadmill exercise was performed 6 days per a week for 6 weeks. In order to evaluate the locomotor function of animals, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale was conducted once a week for 6 weeks. We examined BDNF expression and axonal sprouting in the injury site of the spinal cord using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. SCI induced loss of locomotor function with decreased BDNF expression in the injury site. Treadmill exercise increased the score of BBB locomotor scale and reduced cavity formation in the injury site. BDNF expression and axonal sprouting within the trabecula were further facilitated by treadmill exercise in SCI-exposed rats. The present study provides the evidence that treadmill exercise may facilitate recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration via BDNF expression following SCI.

  10. Accelerated remyelination during inflammatory demyelination prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Feng; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Shen, Yun-An A; Rankin, Kelsey A; Stebbins, Karin J; Lorrain, Daniel S; Pekarek, Kara; A Sagan, Sharon; Xiao, Lan; Teuscher, Cory; von Büdingen, H-Christian; Wess, Jürgen; Lawrence, J Josh; Green, Ari J; Fancy, Stephen PJ; Zamvil, Scott S; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-01-01

    Demyelination in MS disrupts nerve signals and contributes to axon degeneration. While remyelination promises to restore lost function, it remains unclear whether remyelination will prevent axonal loss. Inflammatory demyelination is accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and evidence for remyelination in this model is complicated by ongoing inflammation, degeneration and possible remyelination. Demonstrating the functional significance of remyelination necessitates selectively altering the timing of remyelination relative to inflammation and degeneration. We demonstrate accelerated remyelination after EAE induction by direct lineage analysis and hypothesize that newly formed myelin remains stable at the height of inflammation due in part to the absence of MOG expression in immature myelin. Oligodendroglial-specific genetic ablation of the M1 muscarinic receptor, a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, results in accelerated remyelination, preventing axonal loss and improving functional recovery. Together our findings demonstrate that accelerated remyelination supports axonal integrity and neuronal function after inflammatory demyelination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18246.001 PMID:27671734

  11. Accelerated remyelination during inflammatory demyelination prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Feng; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Shen, Yun-An A; Rankin, Kelsey A; Stebbins, Karin J; Lorrain, Daniel S; Pekarek, Kara; A Sagan, Sharon; Xiao, Lan; Teuscher, Cory; von Büdingen, H-Christian; Wess, Jürgen; Lawrence, J Josh; Green, Ari J; Fancy, Stephen PJ; Zamvil, Scott S; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-01-01

    Demyelination in MS disrupts nerve signals and contributes to axon degeneration. While remyelination promises to restore lost function, it remains unclear whether remyelination will prevent axonal loss. Inflammatory demyelination is accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and evidence for remyelination in this model is complicated by ongoing inflammation, degeneration and possible remyelination. Demonstrating the functional significance of remyelination necessitates selectively altering the timing of remyelination relative to inflammation and degeneration. We demonstrate accelerated remyelination after EAE induction by direct lineage analysis and hypothesize that newly formed myelin remains stable at the height of inflammation due in part to the absence of MOG expression in immature myelin. Oligodendroglial-specific genetic ablation of the M1 muscarinic receptor, a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, results in accelerated remyelination, preventing axonal loss and improving functional recovery. Together our findings demonstrate that accelerated remyelination supports axonal integrity and neuronal function after inflammatory demyelination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18246.001

  12. Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.

    PubMed

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2014-11-15

    Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function.

  13. Treadmill exercise facilitates recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Dae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts both axonal pathways and segmental spinal cord circuity, resulting in permanent neurological deficits. Physical exercise is known to increase the expression of neurotrophins for improving the injured spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on locomotor function in relation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression after SCI. The rats were divided into five groups: control group, sham operation group, sham operation and exercise group, SCI group, and SCI and exercise group. The laminectomy was performed at the T9-T10 level. The exposed dorsal surface of the spinal cord received contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) using the impactor. Treadmill exercise was performed 6 days per a week for 6 weeks. In order to evaluate the locomotor function of animals, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale was conducted once a week for 6 weeks. We examined BDNF expression and axonal sprouting in the injury site of the spinal cord using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. SCI induced loss of locomotor function with decreased BDNF expression in the injury site. Treadmill exercise increased the score of BBB locomotor scale and reduced cavity formation in the injury site. BDNF expression and axonal sprouting within the trabecula were further facilitated by treadmill exercise in SCI-exposed rats. The present study provides the evidence that treadmill exercise may facilitate recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration via BDNF expression following SCI. PMID:27656624

  14. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  15. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the recovery of foodborne pathogens from fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Ri; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Won-Il; Park, Kyeong-Hun; Yun, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Duck Hwa; Yun, Jong Chul; Ryu, Kyoung Yul

    2012-07-01

    Sample preparation methods (pummeling, pulsifying, sonication, and shaking by hand) were compared for achieving maximum recovery of foodborne pathogens from iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, green pepper, and cherry tomato. Antimicrobial and dehydration effects also were examined to investigate causes of poor recovery of pathogens. Each produce type was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at 6.0 log CFU/cm(2), and samples were prepared using the four methods. Bacterial populations recovered from the five types of produce were significantly different (P < 0.05) according to sample preparation methods and produce type. The bacterial populations recovered from pummeled and pulsified samples were higher (P < 0.05) than those recovered from sonicated and hand-shaken samples, except for cherry tomato. The number of bacteria recovered from produce was reduced (P < 0.05) from that of the inoculum by 0.16 to 2.69 log CFU/cm(2). Although extracts of iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, and green pepper had no antimicrobial activity, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes in cherry tomato extract were slightly reduced after these treatments (P < 0.05). The pathogen populations on perilla leaves and cherry tomatoes decreased by >2 log CFU/cm(2) after exposure to 40% relative humidity for 1 h. No reduction was observed when the five pathogens were exposed to 90% relative humidity. These data suggest that pummeling and pulsifying are optimal sample preparation methods for detection of microorganisms. Acidic produce such as cherry tomato should be treated with a method that does not cause sample breakdown so that acid stress on the bacteria can be minimized. Dehydration stress also affects recovery of pathogens from produce. PMID:22980003

  16. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program.

  17. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

  18. Effect of exosomes derived from multipluripotent mesenchymal stromal cells on functional recovery and neurovascular plasticity in rats after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanlu; Chopp, Michael; Meng, Yuling; Katakowski, Mark; Xin, Hongqi; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Object Transplanted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) improve functional recovery in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we test a novel hypothesis that systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated from MSCs promotes functional recovery and neurovascular remodeling in rats after TBI. Methods Wistar rats were subjected to TBI followed by tail vein injection of 100 μg protein of exosomes derived from MSCs or an equal volume of vehicle phosphate-buffered saline (n = 8/group) 24 hours later. To evaluate cognitive and sensorimotor functional recovery, the modified Morris water maze, neurological severity score and footfault tests were performed. Animals were sacrificed at 35 days after TBI. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for measurements of lesion volume, neurovascular remodeling (angiogenesis and neurogenesis), and neuroinflammation. Results Compared with saline-treated controls, exosome-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning at 34-35 days measured by the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05), and sensorimotor functional recovery, i.e., reduced neurological deficits and footfault frequency, observed at 14-35 days post injury (p < 0.05). Exosome treatment significantly increased the number of newborn endothelial cells in the lesion boundary zone and dentate gyrus, and significantly increased the number of newborn immature and mature neurons in the dentate gyrus as well as reduced neuroinflammation. Conclusions We, for the first time, demonstrate that MSC-generated exosomes effectively improve functional recovery, at least in part, by promoting endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis and reducing inflammation in rats after TBI. Thus, MSC-generated exosomes may provide a novel cell-free therapy for TBI and possibly other neurological diseases. PMID:25594326

  19. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S.; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E.; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  20. Enhanced regeneration and functional recovery after spinal root avulsion by manipulation of the proteoglycan receptor PTPσ

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Wong, Connie; Li, Wen; Ruven, Carolin; He, Liumin; Wu, Xiaoli; Lang, Bradley T.; Silver, Jerry; Wu, Wutian

    2015-01-01

    Following root avulsion, spinal nerves are physically disconnected from the spinal cord. Severe motoneuron death and inefficient axon regeneration often result in devastating motor dysfunction. Newly formed axons need to extend through inhibitory scar tissue at the CNS-PNS transitional zone before entering into a pro-regenerative peripheral nerve trajectory. CSPGs are dominant suppressors in scar tissue and exert inhibition via neuronal receptors including PTPσ. Previously, a small peptide memetic of the PTPσ wedge region named ISP (Intracellular Sigma Peptide) was generated, and its capabilities to target PTPσ and relieve CSPG inhibition were validated. Here, we demonstrate that after ventral root avulsion and immediate re-implantation, modulation of PTPσ by systemic delivery of ISP remarkably enhanced regeneration. ISP treatment reduced motoneuron death, increased the number of axons regenerating across scar tissue, rebuilt healthy neuromuscular junctions and enhanced motor functional recovery. Our study shows that modulation of PTPσ is a potential therapeutic strategy for root avulsion. PMID:26464223

  1. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

  2. Two is More Than One: How to Combine Brain Stimulation Rehabilitative Training for Functional Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that non-invasive brain stimulation has an additional effect in combination with rehabilitative therapy to enhance functional recovery than either therapy alone. The combination enhances use-dependent plasticity induced by repetitive training. The neurophysiological mechanism of the effects of this combination is based on associative plasticity. However, these effects were not reported in all cases. We propose a list of possible strategies to achieve an effective association between rehabilitative training with brain stimulation for plasticity: (1) control of temporal aspect between stimulation and task execution; (2) the use of a shaped task for the combination; (3) the appropriate stimulation of neuronal circuits where use-dependent plastic changes occur; and (4) phase synchronization between rhythmically patterned brain stimulation and task-related patterned activities of neurons. To better utilize brain stimulation in neuro-rehabilitation, it is important to develop more effective techniques to combine them. PMID:26617497

  3. Dopamine agonists produce functional recovery from septal lesions which affect hypothalamic defensive attack in cats.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Maki, S

    1987-03-31

    Effects of lesions of the lateral septum and subsequent administration of methamphetamine (MAT, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or apomorphine (APO, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) on thresholds for defensive attack elicited by electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VM) were examined. Hissing and directed attack were selected for threshold determination. Thresholds were measured under two situations: one with provocation by a human and the other without it. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral septum enhanced the facilitative influences exerted by the provocation on the thresholds, however, subsequent administration of MAT or APO abolished or tended to abolish the enhancement. The rapid recovery of function was interpreted to have taken place due to excessive dopaminergic inputs to the spared tissue of the lateral septum, and a gating mechanism of neuronal information by dopamine was suggested. PMID:3032366

  4. Addition of transversus abdominis plane block to patient controlled analgesia for laparoscopic high anterior resection improves analgesia, reduces opioid requirement and expedites recovery of bowel function

    PubMed Central

    Ris, F; Findlay, JM; Hompes, R; Rashid, A; Warwick, J; Cunningham, C; Jones, O; Crabtree, N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Opioid sparing in postoperative pain management appears key in colorectal enhanced recovery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks offer such an effect. This study aimed to quantify this effect on pain, opioid use and recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic high anterior resection. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data on 68 patients. Patients received an epidural (n=24), intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA, n=22) or TAP blocks plus PCA (n=22) determined by anaesthetist preference. Outcome measures were numerical pain scores (0–3), cumulative intravenous morphine dose and time to recovery of bowel function (passage of flatus or stool). Results There were no differences in patient characteristics, complications or extraction site. The TAP block group had lower pain scores (0.7 vs 1.36, p<0.001) and morphine requirements (8mg vs 15mg, p=0.01) than the group receiving PCA alone at 12 hours and 24 hours. Earlier passage of flatus (2.0 vs 2.7 vs 3.4 days, p=0.002), stool (3.1 vs 4.1 vs 5.5 days, p=0.04) and earlier discharge (4 vs 5 vs 6 days, p=0.02) were also seen. Conclusions Use of TAP blocks was found to reduce pain and morphine use compared with PCA, expedite recovery of bowel function compared with PCA and epidural, and expedite hospital discharge compared with epidural. PMID:25350178

  5. Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Moslem; Lotfi, Yones; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Current experimental research on the therapeutic effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has mainly focused on neurodegenerative disorders. However, it primarily stimulates the vestibular nuclei and could be potentially effective in modulating imbalance between them in the case of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Fifty male Wistar rats (180-220g) were used in 5 groups of 10: intact, sham, right-UL (RUL; without intervention), and two other right-UL groups with GVS intervention [one group treated with low rate GVS (GVS.LF; 6-7Hz), and the other treated with high rate GVS (GVS.HF; 17-18Hz)]. The UL models were prepared by intratympanic injection of sodium arsanilate. GVS protocols were implemented 30min/day and continued for 14 days via ring-shaped copper electrodes inserted subcutaneously over each mastoid. Functional recovery was assessed by several postural tests including support surface area, landing and air-righting reflexes, and rotarod procedure. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed on ipsi- and contra-lesional medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67, as markers of cell proliferation. Behavioral evaluations showed significant functional recovery of GVS-treated groups compared to RUL group. The percent of marked cells with BrdU and Ki67 were significantly higher in the ipsilesional MVN of both GVS-treated groups compared with other groups. Our findings confirmed the effectiveness of GVS-intervention in accelerating static and dynamic vestibular compensation. This could be explained by the cell proliferation in ipsilesional MVN cells and rapid rebalancing of the VNs and the modulation of their motor outputs. Therefore, GVS could be promising for rehabilitating patients with unilateral vestibular weakness.

  6. Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Moslem; Lotfi, Yones; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Current experimental research on the therapeutic effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has mainly focused on neurodegenerative disorders. However, it primarily stimulates the vestibular nuclei and could be potentially effective in modulating imbalance between them in the case of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Fifty male Wistar rats (180-220g) were used in 5 groups of 10: intact, sham, right-UL (RUL; without intervention), and two other right-UL groups with GVS intervention [one group treated with low rate GVS (GVS.LF; 6-7Hz), and the other treated with high rate GVS (GVS.HF; 17-18Hz)]. The UL models were prepared by intratympanic injection of sodium arsanilate. GVS protocols were implemented 30min/day and continued for 14 days via ring-shaped copper electrodes inserted subcutaneously over each mastoid. Functional recovery was assessed by several postural tests including support surface area, landing and air-righting reflexes, and rotarod procedure. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed on ipsi- and contra-lesional medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67, as markers of cell proliferation. Behavioral evaluations showed significant functional recovery of GVS-treated groups compared to RUL group. The percent of marked cells with BrdU and Ki67 were significantly higher in the ipsilesional MVN of both GVS-treated groups compared with other groups. Our findings confirmed the effectiveness of GVS-intervention in accelerating static and dynamic vestibular compensation. This could be explained by the cell proliferation in ipsilesional MVN cells and rapid rebalancing of the VNs and the modulation of their motor outputs. Therefore, GVS could be promising for rehabilitating patients with unilateral vestibular weakness. PMID:27444558

  7. Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  8. REM sleep loss and recovery regulates blood-brain barrier function.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Beatriz; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Esqueda-León, Enrique; Santana-Miranda, Rafael; Rojas-Zamorano, José Ángel; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2013-08-01

    The functions of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have remained elusive since more than 50 years. Previous reports have identified several independent processes affected by the loss and subsequent recovery of REM sleep (hippocampal neurogenesis, brain stem neuronal cell death, and neurotransmitter content in several brain regions); however, a common underlying mechanism has not been found. We propose that altered brain homeostasis secondary to blood-brain barrier breakdown may explain all those changes induced by REM sleep loss. Therefore, the present report aimed to study the consequences of REM sleep restriction upon blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue. REM sleep restriction was induced by the multiple platform technique; male rats were REM sleep restricted 20h daily (with 4h sleep opportunity) during 10 days; control groups included large platform and intact rats. To study blood-brain barrier permeability Evans blue was intracardially administered; stained brains were sliced and photographed for optical density quantification. An independent experiment was carried out to elucidate the mechanism of blood-brain breakdown by transmission electron microscopy. REM sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue in the whole brain as compared to both control groups. Brief periods of sleep recovery rapidly and effectively restored the severe alteration of blood-brain barrier function by reducing blood-to-brain transfer of Evans blue. The mechanism of blood-brain barrier breakdown involved increased caveolae formation at brain endothelial cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep regulates the physical barrier properties of the blood-brain barrier.

  9. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC/PCu during mood recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhuo; Zhu, Senhua; Gillihan, Seth J.; Korczykowski, Marc; Detre, John A.; Rao, Hengyi

    2013-01-01

    The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The brain default mode network (DMN) has also been shown to modulate amygdala activity. However, it remains unclear whether 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and regions of DMN. In this study, we re-analyzed our previous imaging dataset and examined the effects of 5-HTTLPR genetic variation on amygdala connectivity. A total of 15 homozygous short (S/S) and 15 homozygous long individuals (L/L) were scanned in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery, and return to baseline. The S/S and L/L groups showed a similar pattern of FC and no differences were found between the two groups during baseline and sad mood scans. However, during mood recovery, the S/S group showed significantly reduced anti-correlation between amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu) compared to the L/L group. Moreover, PCC/PCu-amygdala connectivity correlated with amygdala activity in the S/S group but not the L/L group. These results suggest that 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates amygdala connectivity which subsequently affects its activity during mood regulation, providing an additional mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk. PMID:24198772

  10. Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the

  11. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  12. Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non-Neural Replacement Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L.; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L.; Lewis, Martin D.; Helps, Stephen C.; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A.; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

  13. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules. PMID:25807288

  14. Preserved recovery of cardiac function following ischemia-reperfusion in mice lacking SIRT3.

    PubMed

    Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Meyer-Steenbuck, Maximilian; Lother, Achim; Hoffmann, Michael M; Odening, Katja E; Hein, Lutz; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Lack of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) impairs mitochondrial function and increases the susceptibility to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Because these alterations contribute to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, we hypothesized that SIRT3 deficiency may increase cardiac injury following myocardial IR. Hearts of 10-week-old mice were perfused in the isolated working mode and subjected to 17.5 min of global no-flow ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Measurements before ischemia revealed a decrease in cardiac power (-20%) and rate pressure product (-15%) in SIRT3(-/-) mice. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration (-15%), ATP synthesis (-39%), and ATP/O ratios (-29%) were decreased in hearts of SIRT3(-/-) mice. However, percent recovery of cardiac power (WT 94% ± 9%; SIRT3(-/-) 89% ± 9%) and rate pressure product (WT 89% ± 16%; SIRT3(-/-) 96% ± 3%) following IR was similar in both groups. Myocardial infarct size was not increased in SIRT3(-/-) mice following permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Left ventricular pressure and dP/dtmax, and mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis were not different between groups following LAD ligation. Thus, despite pre-existing defects in cardiac function and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in SIRT3(-/-) mice, SIRT3 deficiency does not additionally impair cardiac function following IR or following myocardial infarction.

  15. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  17. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  18. CITED4 induces physiologic hypertrophy and promotes functional recovery after ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Bezzerides, Vassilios J.; Platt, Colin; Paruchuri, Kaavya; Oh, Nul Loren; Xiao, Chunyang; Cao, Yunshan; Mann, Nina; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise mediates its multiple cardiac benefits are only partly understood. Prior comprehensive analyses of the cardiac transcriptional components and microRNAs dynamically regulated by exercise suggest that the CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED4 is a downstream effector in both networks. While CITED4 has documented functional consequences in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro, nothing is known about its effects in the adult heart. To investigate the impact of cardiac CITED4 expression in adult animals, we generated transgenic mice with regulated, cardiomyocyte-specific CITED4 expression. Cardiac CITED4 expression in adult mice was sufficient to induce an increase in heart weight and cardiomyocyte size with normal systolic function, similar to the effects of endurance exercise training. After ischemia-reperfusion, CITED4 expression did not change initial infarct size but mediated substantial functional recovery while reducing ventricular dilation and fibrosis. Forced cardiac expression of CITED4 also induced robust activation of the mTORC1 pathway after ischemic injury. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 abrogated CITED4’s effects in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data establish CITED4 as a regulator of mTOR signaling that is sufficient to induce physiologic hypertrophy at baseline and mitigate adverse ventricular remodeling after ischemic injury. PMID:27430023

  19. Investigation of the nanoscale elastic recovery of a polymer using an atomic force microscopy-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yanquan; Yan, Yongda; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen

    2016-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method to reveal the elastic recovery behavior of a polymer material after the nanoscratching process is presented. The machined depth during scratching is obtained by monitoring the position of the piezoceramic tube (PZT) of the AFM system. By comparison with the measured depth of the nanogroove, the elastic recovery of the machined depth can be achieved. Experiments are also undertaken to study the effects of the scratching velocity and the applied normal load on the elastic recovery of the machined depth when scratching on polycarbonate (PC). Results show that the elastic recovery rate has a logarithmically proportional relationship to the scratching velocity, while it has little change with the variation of the applied normal load. In addition, the constitutive model of the polymer material is also used to verify the obtained conclusions, indicating that this is a potential method for measuring the elastic recovery of the material under the mechanical process on the nanoscale.

  20. Method for printing functional protein microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

  1. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  2. Rapid method for recovery of strongylid third stage larvae of parasitic nematodes from small soil samples.

    PubMed

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Livestock with access to pasture is generally exposed to infections with parasitic nematode species by uptake of infective third stage larvae (L3) with the grass. L3 can survive on pasture and particularly also in the soil up to several months and sometimes even longer, depending on temperature and humidity. As indicators for health and productivity of grazing animals it is important to determine the intensity and species spectrum of parasitic nematode larvae by analysing grass as well as soil samples. A rapid method for the recovery of L3 using a centrifugal-flotation technique from soil samples of 50-500 g was developed. The method takes advantage of the low specific weight of larvae to separate them from equal sized soil and debris particles by centrifuging them in a saturated sugar solution. A stack of differently sized sieves is used to achieve elimination of larger particles, dust and sugar from the sample to enable easy counting of larvae. Independent of the number of larvae used for inoculation of the samples a mean recovery of 75.3% was obtained. The recovery rates obtained ranged between 60.8% and 88.0% which demonstrates a considerably lower variability compared to earlier approaches and therefore a more precise estimation of the actual numbers of parasite larvae in soil is achieved. Further advantages over already developed methods are the use of easy, affordable and eco-friendly materials, the simplicity of the procedure and a faster processing time with the possibility to examine up to 20 samples per day.

  3. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  4. Comparison of Mechanical Allodynia and Recovery of Locomotion and Bladder Function by Different Parameters of Low Thoracic Spinal Contusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michael W.; Johnson, Kathia M.; Lee, Jun Yeon; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) by adjusting the parameters of impact force and dwell-time using the Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor device. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (225–240 g) were divided into eight injury groups based on force of injury (Kdyn) and dwell time (seconds), indicated as Force-Dwell time: 150-4, 150-3, 150-2, 150-1, 150-0, 200-0, 90-2 and sham controls, respectively. Results After T10 SCI, higher injury force produced greater spinal cord displacement (P < 0.05) and showed a significant correlation (r = 0.813) between the displacement and the force (P < 0.05). In neuropathic pain-like behavior, the percent of paw withdrawals scores in the hindpaw for the 150-4, 150-3, 150-2, 150-1 and the 200-0 injury groups were significantly lowered compared with sham controls (P < 0.05). The recovery of locomotion had a significant within-subjects effect of time (P < 0.05) and the 150-0 group had increased recovery compared to other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the 200-0 and the 90-2 recovered significantly better than all the 150 kdyn impact groups that included a dwell-time (P < 0.05). In recovery of spontaneous bladder function, the 150-4 injury group took significantly longer recovery time whereas the 150-0 and the 90-2 groups had the shortest recovery times. Conclusions The present study demonstrates SCI parameters optimize development of mechanical allodynia and other pathological outcomes. PMID:27103963

  5. Recovery from aphasia as a function of language therapy in an early bilingual patient demonstrated by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, M; Obleser, J; Flaisch, T; Eulitz, C; Rockstroh, B

    2007-03-25

    Knowledge about the recovery of language functions in bilingual aphasic patients who suffer from left-hemispheric stroke is scarce. Here, we present the case of an early bilingual patient (German/French) with chronic aphasia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of language performance during an overt picture naming task in German and French (a) 32 months after stroke to assess differential recovery of both languages as a function of the preceding language therapy that was provided exclusively in German and (b) after additional short-term intensive (German) language training. At the first investigation behavioral performance confirmed selective recovery of German naming ability which was associated with increased functional brain activation compared to the French naming condition. Changes in behavioral performance and brain activation pattern as disclosed by fMRI after an additional experimental treatment were confined to the trained (German) language and indicate bilateral neuroplastic reorganization. No generalization to the untrained (French) language was observed. The present case results demonstrate use and/or training-dependent differential recovery of expressive language functions and an enhanced pattern of brain activation as a function of the rehabilitation efforts that were focussed exclusively on the patient's German language abilities.

  6. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    PubMed Central

    Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world’s reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR) should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery—a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs. PMID:26966666

  7. Long-term respiratory function recovery in patients with stage I lung cancer receiving video-assisted thoracic surgery versus thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy are standard treatment methods for early lung cancer. We compared their effects on the long-term recovery of pulmonary function in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 203 patients with early NSCLC who underwent VATS or thoracotomy at Seoul University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. Two matched groups (VATS and thoracotomy) each consisting of 60 patients were created via propensity score matching according to TNM stage, age, sex, smoking history, lung disease history, and preoperative pulmonary function. Results There were no significant differences in the recovery of forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the forced vital capacity (FVC), or the peak flow rate (PFR), presented as the postoperative value/predicted value, between the VATS and thoracotomy groups during the 12-month follow-up period. The standardized functional loss ratio [(measured postoperative value – predicted postoperative value)/(predicted postoperative value × 100)] did not differ between the two groups at 6 and 12 months. In an intragroup analysis, the postoperative FVC in the thoracotomy group remained below predicted postoperative value during the follow-up period and did not reach the predicted postoperative FVC (6 months/12 months: –6.58%/–2.43%). The analgesic requirements and pain procedures were similar in the VATS and thoracotomy groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions There were no significant differences in pulmonary function recovery during the late postoperative period in NSCLC patients receiving VATS versus thoracotomy. We suggest that the volume of the resected lung and preoperative lung function are the main determinants of late recovery, rather than postoperative pain. PMID:26904225

  8. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Samar M; Saussez, Geoffroy; Della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  9. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  10. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Samar M; Saussez, Geoffroy; Della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  11. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  12. Structural methods for studying IRES function.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Jeffrey S; Costantino, David A; Filbin, Megan E; Hammond, John; Pfingsten, Jennifer S

    2007-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) substitute RNA sequences for some or all of the canonical translation initiation protein factors. Therefore, an important component of understanding IRES function is a description of the three-dimensional structure of the IRES RNA underlying this mechanism. This includes determining the degree to which the RNA folds, the global RNA architecture, and higher resolution information when warranted. Knowledge of the RNA structural features guides ongoing mechanistic and functional studies. In this chapter, we present a roadmap to structurally characterize a folded RNA, beginning from initial studies to define the overall architecture and leading to high-resolution structural studies. The experimental strategy presented here is not unique to IRES RNAs but is adaptable to virtually any RNA of interest, although characterization of RNA-protein interactions requires additional methods. Because IRES RNAs have a specific function, we present specific ways in which the data are interpreted to gain insight into that function. We provide protocols for key experiments that are particularly useful for studying IRES RNA structure and that provide a framework onto which additional approaches are integrated. The protocols we present are solution hydroxyl radical probing, RNase T1 probing, native gel electrophoresis, sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation, and strategies to engineer RNA for crystallization and to obtain initial crystals. PMID:17913644

  13. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  14. Rolipram promotes functional recovery after contusive thoracic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luís M; Pereira, José E; Filipe, Vítor M; Magalhães, Luís G; Couto, Pedro A; Gonzalo-Orden, José M; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Maurício, Ana C; Nikulina, Elena; Filbin, Marie T; Varejão, Artur S P

    2013-04-15

    Numerous animal model studies in the past decade have demonstrated that pharmacological elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) alone, or in combination with other treatments, can promote axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Elevation of cAMP via the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram, decreases neuronal sensitivity to myelin inhibitors, increases growth potential and is neuroprotective. Rolipram's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it a practical and promising treatment for CNS regeneration. However, several studies have questioned the efficacy of rolipram when given alone. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of continuous administration of rolipram, given alone for 2 weeks, following a moderate T10 contusion injury in rat. Functional recovery was evaluated using the 21-point Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor recovery scale and the beam walk. We used three-dimensional (3D) instrumented gait analysis to allow detailed assessment and quantification of hindlimb motion. The amount of the damaged tissue and spared white matter was estimated stereologically. Our results show that administration of rolipram following acute spinal cord contusion results in improved motor performance at each time-point. Dynamic assessment of foot motion during treadmill walking revealed a significantly decreased external rotation during the entire step cycle after 8 weeks in rolipram-treated animals. Stereological analysis revealed no significant differences in lesion volume and length. By contrast, spared white matter was significantly higher in the group treated with rolipram. Our results suggest a therapeutic role for rolipram delivered alone following acute SCI. PMID:23295392

  15. Hypothermic continuous machine perfusion improves metabolic preservation and functional recovery in heart grafts.

    PubMed

    Van Caenegem, Olivier; Beauloye, Christophe; Vercruysse, Jonathan; Horman, Sandrine; Bertrand, Luc; Bethuyne, Noëlla; Poncelet, Alain J; Gianello, Pierre; Demuylder, Peter; Legrand, Eric; Beaurin, Gwen; Bontemps, Françoise; Jacquet, Luc M; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

    2015-02-01

    The number of heart transplants is decreasing due to organ shortage, yet the donor pool could be enlarged by improving graft preservation. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) has been shown to improve kidney, liver, or lung graft preservation. Sixteen pig hearts were recovered following cardioplegia and randomized to two different groups of 4-hour preservation using either static cold storage (CS) or MP (Modified LifePort© System, Organ Recovery Systems, Itasca, Il). The grafts then underwent reperfusion on a Langendorff for 60 min. Energetic metabolism was quantified at baseline, postpreservation, and postreperfusion by measuring lactate and high-energy phosphates. The contractility index (CI) was assessed both in vivo prior to cardioplegia and during reperfusion. Following reperfusion, the hearts preserved using CS exhibited higher lactate levels (56.63 ± 23.57 vs. 11.25 ± 3.92 μmol/g; P < 0.001), increased adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate (AMP/ATP) ratio (0.4 ± 0.23 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04; P < 0.001), and lower phosphocreatine/creatine (PCr/Cr) ratio (33.5 ± 12.6 vs. 55.3 ± 5.8; P <0.001). Coronary flow was similar in both groups during reperfusion (107 ± 9 vs. 125 + /-9 ml/100 g/min heart; P = ns). CI decreased in the CS group, yet being well-preserved in the MP group. Compared with CS, MP resulted in improved preservation of the energy state and more successful functional recovery of heart graft.

  16. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers.

  17. Testing a Family-centered Intervention to Promote Functional and Cognitive Recovery in Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2016-01-01

    A comparative trial using repeated measures design evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-centered Function-focused Care (Fam-FFC) intervention intended to promote functional recovery in the hospitalized older adult. A three component intervention (1) environmental assessment/ modification, 2) staff education, 3) family/patient education and partnership in care planning with post-acute follow-up) was implemented by a family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion. Control units were exposed to function-focused care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients age 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. The majority of patients were female (53%); white (89%), married (51%) or widowed (40%), with a mean age of 80.8 (± 7.5). The majority of FCGs were married (78%) daughters (34%), followed by female spouses/partners (31%), in the age range of 46–65 (38%). Outcomes for patients included: functional outcomes (ADL and walking performance, gait, balance), and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and duration of delirium, and better ADL and walking performance, but not gait/balance as compared to the control group. FCG who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving, less anxiety and less depression from admission to two months post-discharge, but no significant differences in strain and mutuality, as compared to FCG in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and family caregivers. PMID:25481973

  18. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  19. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and

  20. A novel method for the photographic recovery of fingermark impressions from ammunition cases using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Glenn; Ebeyan, Robert; Crumlish, Charles; Renshaw, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The photographic preservation of fingermark impression evidence found on ammunition cases remains problematic due to the cylindrical shape of the deposition substrate preventing complete capture of the impression in a single image. A novel method was developed for the photographic recovery of fingermarks from curved surfaces using digital imaging. The process involves the digital construction of a complete impression image made from several different images captured from multiple camera perspectives. Fingermark impressions deposited onto 9-mm and 0.22-caliber brass cartridge cases and a plastic 12-gauge shotgun shell were tested using various image parameters, including digital stitching method, number of images per 360° rotation of shell, image cropping, and overlap. The results suggest that this method may be successfully used to recover fingermark impression evidence from the surfaces of ammunition cases or other similar cylindrical surfaces.

  1. Recovery of liver function in partially hepatectomized rats evaluated by aminopyrine demethylation capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Sendama, I.; de Hemptinne, B.; Lambotte, L.

    1985-07-01

    Aminopyrine demethylation was investigated in rats after a 70% hepatectomy to assess possible parallelism between the recovery of mass and function. Tests were performed by analyzing UCO2 exhalation from 0.1 microCi per 100 gm of body weight of (dimethylamine- UC)aminopyrine given intraperitoneally with incremental doses of unlabeled drug. Early after 70% hepatectomy, Vmax was reduced by 52%. This discordance between mass and function was not due to extrahepatic aminopyrine demethylation, since liver exclusion reduced demethylation of aminopyrine to nearly nil. Whether it results from increased liver blood flow in the remnant liver is less clear. The early increase in Vmax could be related to a hepatotrophic factor of splanchnic origin which increased after partial hepatectomy and decreased after portacaval shunt. After the early period, Vmax, expressed per gram of actual liver weight, returned to control range. Throughout regeneration (4 to 144 hr), no modification was observed in Km nor in cytochrome P-450 concentration. Enzymatic induction with phenobarbital increased the demethylation capacity more than liver weight in intact and regenerating liver. Except for the first hours after partial hepatectomy or after enzymatic induction, the aminopyrine demethylation capacity directly correlated with liver mass and may be useful in evaluating liver regeneration in vivo.

  2. Oct4-induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells enhance functional recovery in spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Beom; Lee, Hyunah; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hwang, Kyujin; Nam, Donggyu; Park, Myung Rae; Zaehres, Holm; Park, Kook In; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The generation of patient-specific oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) holds great potential as an expandable cell source for cell replacement therapy as well as drug screening in spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases. Here, we demonstrate that induced OPCs (iOPCs) can be directly derived from adult mouse fibroblasts by Oct4-mediated direct reprogramming, using anchorage-independent growth to ensure high purity. Homogeneous iOPCs exhibit typical small-bipolar morphology, maintain their self-renewal capacity and OPC marker expression for more than 31 passages, share high similarity in the global gene expression profile to wild-type OPCs, and give rise to mature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Notably, transplanted iOPCs contribute to functional recovery in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model without tumor formation. This study provides a simple strategy to generate functional self-renewing iOPCs and yields insights for the in-depth study of demyelination and regenerative medicine.

  3. Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice. PMID:22348029

  4. Angiogenic microspheres promote neural regeneration and motor function recovery after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shukui; Yao, Shenglian; Wen, Yujun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Hao; Xu, Qunyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sustained co-delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) encapsulated in angiogenic microspheres. These spheres were delivered to sites of spinal cord contusion injury in rats, and their ability to induce vessel formation, neural regeneration and improve hindlimb motor function was assessed. At 2–8 weeks after spinal cord injury, ELISA-determined levels of VEGF, angiopoietin-1, and bFGF were significantly higher in spinal cord tissues in rats that received angiogenic microspheres than in those that received empty microspheres. Sites of injury in animals that received angiogenic microspheres also contained greater numbers of isolectin B4-binding vessels and cells positive for nestin or β III-tubulin (P < 0.01), significantly more NF-positive and serotonergic fibers, and more MBP-positive mature oligodendrocytes. Animals receiving angiogenic microspheres also suffered significantly less loss of white matter volume. At 10 weeks after injury, open field tests showed that animals that received angiogenic microspheres scored significantly higher on the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale than control animals (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that biodegradable, biocompatible PLGA microspheres can release angiogenic factors in a sustained fashion into sites of spinal cord injury and markedly stimulate angiogenesis and neurogenesis, accelerating recovery of neurologic function. PMID:27641997

  5. Heat acclimation provides sustained improvement in functional recovery and attenuates apoptosis after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Umscheif, Gali; Umschwief, Gali; Shein, Na'ama A; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Horowitz, Michal; Shohami, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) offers functional neuroprotection in mice after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study further characterizes endogenous neuroprotection acquired by HA (34+/-1 degrees C, 30 d) after TBI. We establish here the ability of HA to induce sustained functional benefits and to reduce activation of apoptotic pathways. Neurobehavioral recovery, assessed by the Neurological Severity Score, was greater in HA mice up to 8 days after injury as compared with normothermic controls (P<0.05) and lesion volume was also smaller in the HA group (P<0.05). Reduced apoptotic cell death in HA mice was confirmed using caspase-3 activity measurements and immunohistochemistry. To investigate the underlying molecular pathways, expression levels of intrinsic apoptotic pathway-related proteins were examined. HA mice displayed higher mitochondrial levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL, accompanied by lower proapoptotic Bad levels and decreased cytochrome c release, suggesting a higher apoptotic threshold. Taken together with our previous reports, indicating increased Akt phosphorylation and antioxidative capacity, alongside with reduced tumor necrosis alpha levels after TBI in HA animals, the current results support the involvement of an antiapoptotic effect in HA-induced neuroprotection. Current results warrant further study as TBI-induced apoptosis may persist over weeks after injury, possibly providing a target for belated therapeutic intervention. PMID:19904288

  6. Angiogenic microspheres promote neural regeneration and motor function recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shukui; Yao, Shenglian; Wen, Yujun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Hao; Xu, Qunyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sustained co-delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) encapsulated in angiogenic microspheres. These spheres were delivered to sites of spinal cord contusion injury in rats, and their ability to induce vessel formation, neural regeneration and improve hindlimb motor function was assessed. At 2-8 weeks after spinal cord injury, ELISA-determined levels of VEGF, angiopoietin-1, and bFGF were significantly higher in spinal cord tissues in rats that received angiogenic microspheres than in those that received empty microspheres. Sites of injury in animals that received angiogenic microspheres also contained greater numbers of isolectin B4-binding vessels and cells positive for nestin or β III-tubulin (P < 0.01), significantly more NF-positive and serotonergic fibers, and more MBP-positive mature oligodendrocytes. Animals receiving angiogenic microspheres also suffered significantly less loss of white matter volume. At 10 weeks after injury, open field tests showed that animals that received angiogenic microspheres scored significantly higher on the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale than control animals (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that biodegradable, biocompatible PLGA microspheres can release angiogenic factors in a sustained fashion into sites of spinal cord injury and markedly stimulate angiogenesis and neurogenesis, accelerating recovery of neurologic function. PMID:27641997

  7. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  8. Recovery comparison of two virus concentration methods from wastewater using cell culture and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Amdiouni, Hasna; Maunula, Leena; Hajjami, Kawtar; Faouzi, Abdellah; Soukri, Abdelaziz; Nourlil, Jalal

    2012-10-01

    Enteric viruses are shed in the feces and may be present in environmental waters. Their detection in wastewater, even at low concentration, is a major challenge. In this study, recoveries of Echovirus 7 (EV7), virions and RNA in wastewater, using virus concentration methods were determined to evaluate the detection of infectious viruses and the possibility of recovering viral genomes. Two virus concentration methods, PEG precipitation method and two-phase separation method, were applied to recovery experiments of EV7-virions from wastewater, in parallel with recovery experiments of EV7 RNA. The titration of EV7 virions was carried out by cell culture using human rhabdomyosarcoma tumor tissue and the EV7 RNA quantification was performed by real-time PCR. The mean recovery yields of EV7 virions using the PEG precipitation method and the two-phase separation method were 78.5 ± 10.99 and 83.1 ± 0.28 %, respectively. Besides, EV7 RNA recoveries obtained using the PEG precipitation method were four times higher than those using the two-phase separation method. According to our results, the two methods enable to concentrate both infectious viruses and viral genomes. Moreover, considering the protocol time and cost together with the ratio of the EV7 virion recovery to the EV7 RNA recovery, the two-phase separation method (83.1/2.71 %, or 30.6) seems to be more appropriate for selective concentration of viral virions than the PEG precipitation method (78.5/10.33 %, or 7.6).

  9. A non-iterative method for the electrical impedance tomography based on joint sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ok Kyun; Kang, Hyeonbae; Ye, Jong Chul; Lim, Mikyoung

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a non-iterative method for the inverse conductivity problem of recovering multiple small anomalies from the boundary measurements. When small anomalies are buried in a conducting object, the electric potential values inside the object can be expressed by integrals of densities with a common sparse support on the location of anomalies. Based on this integral expression, we formulate the reconstruction problem of small anomalies as a joint sparse recovery and present an efficient non-iterative recovery algorithm of small anomalies. Furthermore, we also provide a slightly modified algorithm to reconstruct an extended anomaly. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the linearized method and the multiple signal classification algorithm by numerical simulations. This work is supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Sciences and Technology through NRF grant No. NRF-2010-0017532 (to H K), the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning; through NRF grant No. NRF-2013R1A1A3012931 (to M L), the R&D Convergence Program of NST (National Research Council of Science & Technology) of Republic of Korea (Grant CAP-13-3-KERI) (to O K L and J C Y).

  10. United States environmental protection agency perchlorate method 332.0. Statistically sound recovery studies in simulated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vanatta, L E; Slingsby, R W

    2011-09-01

    This research is a continuation of an earlier work, which evaluated the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Perchlorate Method 332.0, in which standards were prepared in deionized water over an extended concentration range (i.e., to a maximum of 200 μg/L). This current paper investigates the performance of the same method in which standards were made in simulated drinking water. A microbore format with a 15-μL injection volume was employed to conduct a recovery study and generate recovery curves (which hold the key to a statistically sound assessment of method performance in more complex matrices). The maximum analyte concentration range was 1 to 200 μg/L. For various subset concentration ranges, recovery evaluations were made using both raw peak-area data and analyte responses scaled by the internal standard (ISTD). The results indicate that in complicated matrices such as drinking water, ISTDs may not provide simultaneously high precision and recovery.

  11. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  12. Differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promote the recovery of nociceptor function in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Tomita, Koichi; Kiya, Koichiro; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2016-10-19

    The loss of nociceptive function in the skin because of trauma or surgery can impair the quality of life. The recovery of nociceptor function is mediated by two different axonal responses: nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent collateral sprouting of undamaged nerves and NGF-independent regeneration of damaged nerves. We reported previously that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can transdifferentiate into Schwann cell (SC)-like cells (dASCs) and that transplantation of dASCs increases axonal density in skin flaps. In the present study, we used an animal model that allowed for the individual assessment of collateral sprouting and regeneration. In-vitro differentiation of ASCs to dASCs significantly increased the production of NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to levels comparable with SCs. In-vivo experiments showed that dASC and SC transplantation significantly increased the area of the mechano-nociceptive field in both collateral sprouting and regeneration models, whereas ASC transplantation exerted no significant effect. Antibody blocking experiment showed that these effects of dASC transplantation in the regeneration model were partly mediated by BDNF. Interestingly, the final areas of nociceptive fields between the two experimental models did not differ significantly for any treatment condition. These results indicate that dASC transplantation differentially facilitates collateral sprouting and axonal regeneration by delivering NGF and other neurotrophic factors (e.g. BDNF), respectively. Although there is a limit to nociceptive field enlargement irrespective of axonal response, dASC transplantation could present a new approach for improving nociceptive function in denervated skin. PMID:27513202

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W.

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  14. Species differences in impairment and recovery of alveolar macrophage functions following single and repeated ozone exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J.; Van Bree, L. )

    1991-08-01

    Effects of single (0.4 ppm for 3, 6, or 12 hr) and repeated (0.4 ppm, 12 hr/day for 3 or 7 days) in vivo ozone exposures on rat and mouse alveolar macrophage functions and cell number were investigated. Single ozone exposure of rats resulted in a small (approximately 15%) decrease in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and phorbol ester-induced superoxide production by the alveolar macrophages and was followed by recovery above control levels within 12 hr of exposure. Repeated exposures of rats for up to 7 days did not alter alveolar macrophage functions, with the exception of the effects of 3 days of exposure on superoxide production (71 {plus minus} 9% as compared with the controls). In mice, significant changes in alveolar macrophage functions were not observed until 12 hr of exposure (at that timepoint phagocytosis was 74 {plus minus} 2%). Repeated ozone exposures of mice did not cause a further decrease in phagocytosis (at Day 7, 74 {plus minus} 14%). Both after 3 and 7 days of repeated ozone exposure of mice, superoxide production by the alveolar macrophages was inhibited approximately 50%. In rats and mice, repeated ozone exposures led to an increase in the number of alveolar macrophages. In mice, this increase appeared at a later time point (at Day 7 vs Day 3) and was less pronounced (at Day 7, 139 {plus minus} 9% vs 179 {plus minus} 17%) as compared with rats. In summary, our data show that rat and mouse alveolar macrophages have different susceptibilities to both single and repeated in vivo ozone exposures.

  15. Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

    2014-10-01

    The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant

  16. Impaired Cerebrovascular Function in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Recovery Following Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, Udunna C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, Neville; Ssali, Tracy; Wang, Danny J. J.; St. Lawrence, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 34 CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate (AC), insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal, and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the AC, insula, post-central and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in GMV were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-months exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral AC, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right AC, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the AC is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26779011

  17. Measurement of acceleration: a new method of monitoring neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Jensen, E; Werner, M; Nielsen, H K

    1988-01-01

    A new method for monitoring neuromuscular function based on measurement of acceleration is presented. The rationale behind the method is Newton's second law, stating that the acceleration is directly proportional to the force. For measurement of acceleration, a piezo-electric ceramic wafer was used. When this piezo electrode was fixed to the thumb, an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration was produced whenever the thumb moved in response to nerve stimulation. The electrical signal was registered and analysed in a Myograph 2000 neuromuscular transmission monitor. In 35 patients anaesthetized with halothane, train-of-four ratios measured with the accelerometer (ACT-TOF) were compared with simultaneous mechanical train-of-four ratios (FDT-TOF). Control ACT-TOF ratios were significantly higher than control FDT-TOF ratios: 116 +/- 12 and 98 +/- 4 (mean +/- s.d.), respectively. In five patients not given any relaxant during the anaesthetic procedure (20-60 min), both responses were remarkably constant. In 30 patients given vecuronium, a close linear relationship was found during recovery between ACT-TOF and FDT-TOF ratios. It is concluded that the method fulfils the basic requirements for a simple and reliable clinical monitoring tool.

  18. Kinetic quantitation of cerebral PET-FDG studies without concurrent blood sampling: statistical recovery of the arterial input function.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, F; Kirrane, J; Muzi, M; O'Sullivan, J N; Spence, A M; Mankoff, D A; Krohn, K A

    2010-03-01

    Kinetic quantitation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies via compartmental modeling usually requires the time-course of the radio-tracer concentration in the arterial blood as an arterial input function (AIF). For human and animal imaging applications, significant practical difficulties are associated with direct arterial sampling and as a result there is substantial interest in alternative methods that require no blood sampling at the time of the study. A fixed population template input function derived from prior experience with directly sampled arterial curves is one possibility. Image-based extraction, including requisite adjustment for spillover and recovery, is another approach. The present work considers a hybrid statistical approach based on a penalty formulation in which the information derived from a priori studies is combined in a Bayesian manner with information contained in the sampled image data in order to obtain an input function estimate. The absolute scaling of the input is achieved by an empirical calibration equation involving the injected dose together with the subject's weight, height and gender. The technique is illustrated in the context of (18)F -Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in humans. A collection of 79 arterially sampled FDG blood curves are used as a basis for a priori characterization of input function variability, including scaling characteristics. Data from a series of 12 dynamic cerebral FDG PET studies in normal subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the penalty-based AIF estimation technique. The focus of evaluations is on quantitation of FDG kinetics over a set of 10 regional brain structures. As well as the new method, a fixed population template AIF and a direct AIF estimate based on segmentation are also considered. Kinetics analyses resulting from these three AIFs are compared with those resulting from radially sampled AIFs. The proposed penalty-based AIF extraction method is found to

  19. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  20. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  1. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  2. Knockdown of Nogo gene by short hairpin RNA interference promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Min; Luo, Yun-Gang; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The specific myelin component Nogo protein is one of the major inhibitory molecules of spinal cord axonal outgrowth following spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing Nogo protein with shRNA interference on the promotion of functional recovery in a rat model with spinal cord hemisection. Nogo-A short hairpin RNAs (Nogo shRNAs) were constructed and transfected into rats with spinal cord hemisection by adenovirus-mediated transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of Nogo-A and Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43). In addition, Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scores were used to assess the functional recovery of rats following spinal cord injury. The results demonstrated that expression of the Nogo‑A gene was observed to be downregulated following transfection and GAP‑43 expression was observed to increase. The BBB scores were increased following treatment with Nogo shRNAs, indicating functional recovery of the injured nerves. Thus, Nogo-A shRNA interference can knockdown Nogo gene expression and upregulate GAP-43 to promote the functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats. This finding may advance progress toward assisting the regeneration of injured neurons through the use of Nogo-A shRNA. PMID:27035338

  3. Effects of Autogenic Drainage on Sputum Recovery and Pulmonary Function in People with Cystic Fibrosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Osterling, Kristin; Gilbert, Robert; Dechman, Gail

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the effects of short- and long-term use of autogenic drainage (AD) on pulmonary function and sputum recovery in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials in which participants were people with CF who use AD as their sole airway clearance technique. Results: Searches in 4 databases and secondary sources using 5 key terms yielded 735 articles, of which 58 contained the terms autogenic drainage and cystic fibrosis. Ultimately, 4 studies, 2 of which were long term, were included. All measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and found no change. The long-term studies were underpowered to detect change in FEV1; however, the short-term studies found a clinically significant sputum yield (≥4 g). Conclusion: AD has been shown to produce clinically significant sputum yields in a limited number of investigations. The effect of AD on the function of the pulmonary system remains uncertain, and questions have emerged regarding the appropriateness of FEV1 as a valid measure of airway clearance from peripheral lung regions. Further consideration should be given to the use of FEV1 as a primary measure of the effect of AD. PMID:27504031

  4. Diastolic Dyssynchrony in Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Relationship with Functional Recovery of Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Daşli, Tolga; Erkol, Ayhan; Erden, İsmail; Başaran, Yelda

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence of diastolic dyssynchrony (DD) and its impact on functional recovery of left ventricle (LV) after ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is not known. Methods Consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent successful revascularization were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging was performed within 48 hours of admission and at 6 months. LV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), end-systolic volume index (ESVI), ejection fraction (EF), and left atrial volume index (LAVI) were calculated. Diastolic delay was calculated from onset of QRS complex to peak of E wave in tissue Doppler image and presented as maximal temporal difference between peak early diastolic velocity of 6 basal segments of LV (TeDiff). Study patients were compared with demographically matched control group. Results Forty eight consecutive patients (55 ± 10 years, 88% male) and 24 controls (56 ± 6 years, 88% male) were included. TeDiff was higher in STEMI than in controls (35.9 ± 19.9 ms vs. 26.3 ± 6.8 ms, p = 0.025). Presence of DD was higher in STEMI than controls (58% vs. 33%, p = 0.046) according to calculated cut-off value (≥ 29 ms). There was no correlation between TeDiff and change in EDVI, ESVI, and LAVI at 6 months, however TeDiff and change in EF at 6 months was positively correlated (r = 0.328, p = 0.023). Patients with baseline DD experienced remodeling less frequently compared to patients without baseline DD (11% vs. 38%, p = 0.040) during follow-up. Conclusion STEMI disrupts diastolic synchronicity of LV. However, DD during acute phase of STEMI is associated with better recovery of LV thereafter. This suggests that DD is associated with peri-infarct stunned myocardium that is salvaged with primary intervention as well as infarct size. PMID:27721951

  5. Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury. PMID:19635528

  6. Doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in transected peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mohanty, Chandan; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Bryszewska, Maria; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Alant, Jacob; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-12-28

    Increased production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the key responses seen following peripheral nerve injury, making them an attractive choice for pro-regenerative gene therapies. However, the downside of over-expression of certain NTFs, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), was earlier found to be the trapping and misdirection of regenerating axons, the so-called 'candy-store' effect. We report a proof-of-principle study on the application of conditional GDNF expression system in injured peripheral nerve. We engineered Schwann cells (SCs) using dendrimers or lentiviral transduction with the vector providing doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression. Injection of GDNF-modified cells into the injured peripheral nerve followed by time-restricted administration of doxycycline demonstrated that GDNF expression in SCs can also be controlled locally in the peripheral nerves of the experimental animals. Cell-based GDNF therapy was shown to increase the extent of axonal regeneration, while controlled deactivation of GDNF effectively prevented trapping of regenerating axons in GDNF-enriched areas, and was associated with improved functional recovery.

  7. The effect of ubiquinone on functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Z; Azizi, S; Hobbenaghi, R

    2014-01-01

    A common cause of peripheral nerve injury is trauma. The positive effect of antioxidants on the improvement of nerve regeneration has currently become a focus of attention. In this experiment, the effect of intraperitoneal administration of ubiquinone (CoQ10) on an acute experimentally sciatic nerve crush was studied in a rat model. Forty-five male Wistar rats, weighing between 160-180 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20). Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each. Functional studies confirmed the faster recovery of regenerated axons in the treatment group compared to the un-treated group (P<0.05). Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers to be significantly higher in the treatment group than the un-treated group (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal administration of CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day) in the early inflammatory stage of sciatic nerve crush was found to improve nerve regeneration. PMID:27175137

  8. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment.

  9. The validation of made-to-measure method for reconstruction of phase-space distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Hara, T.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate how accurately phase-space distribution functions (DFs) in galactic models can be reconstructed by a made-to-measure (M2M) method, which constructs N-particle models of stellar systems from photometric and various kinematic data. The advantage of the M2M method is that this method can be applied to various galactic models without assumption of the spatial symmetries of gravitational potentials adopted in galactic models, and furthermore, numerical calculations of the orbits of the stars cannot be severely constrained by the capacities of computer memories. The M2M method has been applied to various galactic models. However, the degree of accuracy for the recovery of DFs derived by the M2M method in galactic models has never been investigated carefully. Therefore, we show the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs for the anisotropic Plummer model and the axisymmetric Stäckel model, which have analytic solutions of the DFs. Furthermore, this study provides the dependence of the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs on various parameters and a procedure adopted in this paper. As a result, we find that the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs derived by the M2M method for the spherical target model is a few per cent, and more than 10 per cent for the axisymmetric target model.

  10. The validation of made-to-measure method for reconstruction of phase space distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Hara, T.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate how accurately phase space distribution functions (DFs) in galactic models can be reconstructed by a made-to-measure (M2M) method, which constructs N-particle models of stellar systems from photometric and various kinematic data. The advantage of the M2M method is that this method can be applied to various galactic models without assumption of the spatial symmetries of gravitational potentials adopted in galactic models, and furthermore, numerical calculations of the orbits of the stars cannot be severely constrained by the capacities of computer memories. The M2M method has been applied to various galactic models. However, the degree of accuracy for the recovery of DFs derived by the M2M method in galactic models has never been investigated carefully. Therefore, we show the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs for the anisotropic Plummer model and the axisymmetric Stäckel model, which have analytic solutions of the DFs. Furthermore, this study provides the dependence of the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs on various parameters and a procedure adopted in this paper. As a result, we find that the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs derived by the M2M method for the spherical target model is a few percent, and more than ten percent for the axisymmetric target model.

  11. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  12. [Anorexia nervosa: endocrine function during the phases of body weight loss and recovery].

    PubMed

    Méndez, J P; García, E; Salinas, J L; Pérez-Palacios, G; Ulloa-Aguirre, A

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the endocrine status of patients with anorexia nervosa during weight loss (WL), as well as, after weight recovery (WR). A comparison between our findings and those obtained from other populations previously described was made. We studied 12 female patients during WL; 7 of them were reevaluated after WR. Stimulation tests with LRH, TRH, ACTH and insulin-induced hypoglycemia were performed in all cases. During the WL phase, basal serum levels of LH and estradiol, as well as the LH response to LRH, were diminished in comparison with normal values. Basal serum levels of FSH were low or normal. The function of the hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian axis was recovered in all patients restudied; six out of seven returned to ovulation within the first 4 months after WR. The remaining patient presented hypothalamic amenorrhea because of excessive physical activity. Four patients exhibited basal low T3 and T4 levels with normal TSH and a retarded response to TRH during WL. At WR some patients completely recovered their thyroid function while others developed clinical hypothyroidism. Six months after WR all patients were euthyroid. Prolactin response to TRH was unaffected in 10 patients. One patient had basal hyperprolactinemia and hyperesponsiveness to TRH, and the remaining one had only a PRL hyperesponsiveness; this latter finding persisted in one of these patients during the WR phase. This abnormality was attributed to changes in the dopaminergic tone secondary to stress. Although serum growth hormone concentrations were normal in all patients during WL, two of them had basal hypersecretion and hyperesponsiveness to hypoglycemia during WR, which was attributed to protein deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

    2013-03-15

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI.

  14. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFRα may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFRα, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFRα mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFRα contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFRα is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFRα depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFRα is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  15. Involvement of Peripheral Adenosine A2 Receptors in Adenosine A1 Receptor–Mediated Recovery of Respiratory Motor Function After Upper Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    James, Elysia; Nantwi, Kwaku D

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: In an animal model of spinal cord injury, a latent respiratory motor pathway can be pharmacologically activated through central adenosine A1 receptor antagonism to restore respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection that paralyzes the hemidiaphragm ipsilateral to injury. Although respiration is modulated by central and peripheral mechanisms, putative involvement of peripheral adenosine A2 receptors in functional recovery in our model is untested. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of peripherally located adenosine A2 receptors on recovery of respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Methods: Respiratory activity was electrophysiologically assessed (under standardized recording conditions) in C2-hemisected adult rats with the carotid bodies intact (H-CBI; n =12) or excised (H-CBE; n =12). Animals were administered the adenosine A2 receptor agonist, CGS-21680, followed by the A1 receptor antagonist, 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or administered DPCPX alone. Recovered respiratory activity, characterized as drug-induced activity in the previously quiescent left phrenic nerve of C2-hemisected animals in H-CBI and H-CBE rats, was compared. Recovered respiratory activity was calculated by dividing drug-induced activity in the left phrenic nerve by activity in the right phrenic nerve. Results: Administration of CGS-21680 before DPCPX (n = 6) in H-CBI rats induced a significantly greater recovery (58.5 ± 3.6%) than when DPCPX (42.6 ± 4.6%) was administered (n = 6) alone. In H-CBE rats, prior administration of CGS-21680 (n = 6) did not enhance recovery over that induced by DPCPX (n = 6) alone. Recovery in H-CBE rats amounted to 39.7 ± 3.7% and 38.4 + 4.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that adenosine A2 receptors located in the carotid bodies can enhance the magnitude of adenosine A1 receptor–mediated recovery of respiratory function after C2 hemisection

  16. Multiresidue supercritical fluid extraction method for the recovery at low ppb levels of three sulfonamides from fortified chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, R J; Lightfield, A R

    1998-09-18

    A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method is proposed for the recovery of three sulfonamides from chicken liver. Samples were extracted at 680 bar and 40 degrees C using unmodified carbon dioxide and were collected free of co-extracted artifactual material on an in-line neutral alumina sorbent bed. High recoveries of sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) were obtained from chicken liver samples fortified at levels from 1000 to 50 ppm. PMID:9792530

  17. Influence of recovery methods and extenders on bull epididymal spermatozoa quality.

    PubMed

    Turri, F; Madeddu, M; Gliozzi, T M; Gandini, G; Pizzi, F

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two extraction methods in combination with two different extenders in bull epididymal sperm collection. Testes from 23 sexually mature Limousine bulls were collected at the abattoir. Epididymal sperm recovery was performed using both the float-up (FL) and the retrograde flushing (RF) technique. Within extraction methods, half testes were processed with a Tris egg yolk extender and half with a Tris egg yolk-free extender. Sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were evaluated. Sperm concentration was not significantly different between methods. Flushing technique was significantly better than the FL method in terms of sperm quality, considering total motility (80.3 ± 2.3% vs 71.6 ± 2.0%, p < 0.001, respectively) and viability (84.5 ± 1.5% vs 77.2 ± 1.3%, p < 0.001, respectively). Egg yolk influenced positively motility and morphology in the FL method, whereas decreased viability in flushed samples. Results suggest the use of the RF technique to collect cattle epididymal sperm.

  18. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ΔFosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage.

  19. Recovery of Renal Function among ESRD Patients in the US Medicare Program

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Sumit; Huff, Edwin; Wish, Jay; Lilly, Michael; Chen, Shu-Cheng; McClellan, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients started on long term hemodialysis have typically had low rates of reported renal recovery with recent estimates ranging from 0.9–2.4% while higher rates of recovery have been reported in cohorts with higher percentages of patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Study Design Our analysis followed approximately 194,000 patients who were initiated on hemodialysis during a 2-year period (2008 & 2009) with CMS-2728 forms submitted to CMS by dialysis facilities, cross-referenced with patient record updates through the end of 2010, and tracked through December 2010 in the CMS SIMS registry. Results We report a sustained renal recovery (i.e no return to ESRD during the available follow up period) rate among Medicare ESRD patients of > 5% - much higher than previously reported. Recovery occurred primarily in the first 2 months post incident dialysis, and was more likely in cases with renal failure secondary to etiologies associated with acute kidney injury. Patients experiencing sustained recovery were markedly less likely than true long-term ESRD patients to have permanent vascular accesses in place at incident hemodialysis, while non-White patients, and patients with any prior nephrology care appeared to have significantly lower rates of renal recovery. We also found widespread geographic variation in the rates of renal recovery across the United States. Conclusions Renal recovery rates in the US Medicare ESRD program are higher than previously reported and appear to have significant geographic variation. Patients with diagnoses associated with acute kidney injury who are initiated on long-term hemodialysis have significantly higher rates of renal recovery than the general ESRD population and lower rates of permanent access placement. PMID:24358285

  20. Superconvergence and recovery type a posteriori error estimation for hybrid stress finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing

    2016-09-01

    Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  1. Fourier transform infrared method validation at a carbon bed solvent recovery unit for four gaseous hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reagen, W.K.; Wright, B.D.; Krueger, D.J.; Plummer, G.M.

    1999-05-15

    The authors report the results of a 1995 study in which Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) gas-phase spectrometry was employed to measure the concentrations of four organic compounds (tetrahydrofuran, toluene, 2-butanone, and cyclohexanone) in the gas stream of an industrial solvent recovery unit. The goals of the study were to demonstrate that the extractive FTIR technique is (1) suitable for compliance measurements of the four individual compound concentrations and (2) an accurate substitute for flame ionization detection determinations of the total hydrocarbon content of the gas stream. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides guidance on this type of study in its Method 301, which lists specific procedures and statistical criteria, and in several recently published documents describing FTIR quality assurance/quality control measures. The EPA reviews of the procedures and results indicate that both goals of the study were met according to EPA standards.

  2. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOEpatents

    Klunder, Edgar B.

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  3. Method for efficient recovery of high-purity polycarbonates from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Soepriatna, Nicholas H; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-02-17

    More than one million tons of polycarbonates from waste electrical and electronic equipment are consigned to landfills at an increasing rate of 3-5% per year. Recycling the polymer waste should have a major environmental impact. Pure solvents cannot be used to selectively extract polycarbonates from mixtures of polymers with similar properties. In this study, selective mixed solvents are found using guidelines from Hansen solubility parameters, gradient polymer elution chromatography, and solubility tests. A room-temperature sequential extraction process using two mixed solvents is developed to recover polycarbonates with high yield (>95%) and a similar purity and molecular weight distribution as virgin polycarbonates. The estimated cost of recovery is less than 30% of the cost of producing virgin polycarbonates from petroleum. This method would potentially reduce raw materials from petroleum, use 84% less energy, reduce emission by 1-6 tons of CO2 per ton of polycarbonates, and reduce polymer accumulation in landfills and associated environmental hazards. PMID:25625790

  4. Non-invasive methods for estradiol recovery from infant fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda L; Whitten, Patricia L; Johnson, Michael L; Lampl, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    While the activation of the infant hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the existence of a postnatal gonadotropin surge were first documented in the early 1970s, study of the longitudinal development of gonadal hormones in infancy, and the potential physiological and behavioral correlates of this development, have been hampered by reliance on infrequent serum sampling. The present study reports the validation of a non-invasive method for repeated assessment of steroid hormones in infant fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected in and excised from cotton diaper liners and extracted using methanol. Extracts were analyzed for estradiol using a diluted assay modification. Method validity was supported by a steroid recovery rate of at least 80%, a sensitivity of 0.35 pg/ml, and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variations of less than 10 and 20%, respectively. Variation in estradiol concentration was assessed across (1) sample type (scraped vs. cut from diaper liner), (2) time of day (morning vs. afternoon/evening samples), (3) time interval between samples, and (4) time-to-assay (1 day vs. 489 days after collection). Of these characteristics, only the time interval between samples within an individual was significantly associated with estradiol concentration. This is the first report of human infant fecal estradiol levels. The results support fecal recovery as a novel and powerful non-invasive tool for longitudinal studies of human infants, expanding research opportunities for investigating development of sex-specific behaviors in infancy, and the potential effects of endocrine disruptors on development.

  5. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for recovery of soil protist DNA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate protist communities in soil is in rapid development this decade. Molecular analysis of soil protist communities is usually dependant on direct genomic DNA extraction from soil and inefficient or differential DNA extraction of protist DNA can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commonly used soil DNA extraction methods have been tested on soil samples from three European Long-Term Observatories (LTOs) with different land-use and three protist cultures belonging to different phylogenetic groups in different growth stages. The methods tested were: ISOm-11063 (a version of the ISO-11063 method modified to include a FastPrep ®-24 mechanical lysis step), GnS-GII (developed by the GenoSol platform to extract soil DNA in large-scale soil surveys) and a commercial DNA extraction kit - Power Lyzer™ PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio). DNA yield and quality were evaluated along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rDNA fragments by PCR. On soil samples, ISOm-11063 yields significantly higher DNA for two of the three soil samples, however, MoBio extraction favors DNA quality. This method was also more effective to recover copies of 18S rDNA numbers from all soil types. In addition and despite the lower yields, higher DNA quality was observed with DNA extracted from protist cultures with the MoBio method. Likewise, a bead-beating step shows to be a good solution for DNA extraction of soil protists, since the recovery of DNA from protist cultures and from the different soil samples with the ISOm method proved to be efficient in recovering PCR-amplifiable DNA. This study showed that soil DNA extraction methods provide biased results towards the cyst stages of protist organism.

  6. Sensitivity, variability, and recovery of functional and structural endpoints of an aquatic community exposed to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Katja; Hommen, Udo

    2012-04-01

    , determined via physical-chemical parameters, lasted for a shorter period than for the phytoplankton photosynthesis demonstrating the importance of the macrophytes for total primary production. Thus, the evaluation of effects on communities in model ecosystems such as micro- and mesocosms should not be based on structural endpoints only due to their comparably high inherent variability. Instead, we recommend complementing the risk assessment with data obtained from sensitive functional endpoints addressing the specific mode of action of the respective compound for the most sensitive group of organisms to avoid over-estimation of the recovery potential of the aquatic system. PMID:22153306

  7. Sensitivity, variability, and recovery of functional and structural endpoints of an aquatic community exposed to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Katja; Hommen, Udo

    2012-04-01

    , determined via physical-chemical parameters, lasted for a shorter period than for the phytoplankton photosynthesis demonstrating the importance of the macrophytes for total primary production. Thus, the evaluation of effects on communities in model ecosystems such as micro- and mesocosms should not be based on structural endpoints only due to their comparably high inherent variability. Instead, we recommend complementing the risk assessment with data obtained from sensitive functional endpoints addressing the specific mode of action of the respective compound for the most sensitive group of organisms to avoid over-estimation of the recovery potential of the aquatic system.

  8. Amphetamine accelerates recovery of locomotor function following bilateral frontal cortex ablation in cats.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R L; Hovda, D A; Feeney, D M

    1989-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that d-amphetamine hastens recovery of beam-walking ability following unilateral sensorimotor or frontal cortex ablation (Hovda & Feeney, 1984). In this study, after bilateral frontal cortex ablation, cats given injections of d-amphetamine showed an enduring acceleration of recovery of beam-walking ability relative to saline controls. In general, rates of spontaneous and drug-induced recovery in cats with bilateral lesions were similar to those previously reported for cats with unilateral ablations. These results indicate that the bilateral corticostriate and corticothalamic projections from the contralateral homotopic cortex do not mediate the beneficial effects of d-amphetamine on locomotor recovery after unilateral cortical ablation. PMID:2765187

  9. Function-triggering antibodies to the adhesion molecule L1 enhance recovery after injury of the adult mouse femoral nerve.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

  10. Factors Associated With Upper Extremity Functional Recovery Following Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors related to upper extremity functional improvement following inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in stroke patients. Methods Forty-one stroke patients received low-frequency rTMS over the contralesional hemisphere according to a standard protocol, in addition to conventional physical and occupational therapy. The rTMS-treated patients were divided into two groups according to their responsiveness to rTMS measured by the self-care score of the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI): responded group (n=19) and non-responded group (n=22). Forty-one age-matched stroke patients who had not received rTMS served as controls. Neurological, cognitive and functional assessments were performed before rTMS and 4 weeks after rTMS treatment. Results Among the rTMS-treated patients, the responded group was significantly younger than the non-responded group (51.6±10.5 years and 65.5±13.7 years, respectively; p=0.001). Four weeks after rTMS, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the Brunnstrom recovery stage and upper extremity muscle power scores were significantly more improved in the responded group than in the control group. Besides the self-care score, the mobility score of the K-MBI was also more improved in the responded group than in the non-responded group or controls. Conclusion Age is the most obvious factor determining upper extremity functional responsiveness to low-frequency rTMS in stroke patients. PMID:27446773

  11. Role of ankle foot orthosis in improving locomotion and functional recovery in patients with stroke: A prospective rehabilitation study

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayan, H.; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B.; Thennarasu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study role of ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in improving locomotion and functional recovery after stroke. Setting: Neurological Rehabilitation Department of a university research tertiary hospital. Patients and Methods: AFO and activity based rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures: Distance (meters) covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and speed (meter/second) during the 10-meter walk test. Functional abilities assessed using Functional Independence Measure (FIM®). Results: Twenty-six patients (21 male) with stroke (mean duration 196.7 days, range 45–360 days) and mean age of 41.6 years (range 18–65 years, standard deviation [SD] 12.5) were included. Fourteen had right hemiplegia. The mean length of stay in the unit was 26.5 days (range 18–45 days, SD 5.5). All patients had equinus deformity with spastic foot drop and were provided with AFO. Walking endurance with 6MWT was 90 m on admission (without AFO). At discharge, it improved to 174 m with AFO and 121 m without AFOs (P < 0.001-with and without AFO at discharge). Walking speed improved from 0.4 m/s (admission) to 0.51 m/s with AFO, P = 0.004 and 0.45 m/s without AFO, P = 0.015) at discharge. Nine patients (34.6%) had clinically important difference-minimal clinically important difference (>0.16 m/s speed gain; >50 m endurance gain) at discharge. The mean FIM® score on admission was 84.3 ± 18.6. At discharge FIM® improved to 101.9 ± 13.7 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Use of AFOs improve gait parameters significantly in only one-third stroke patients in the study when combined with activity-based inpatient-rehabilitation. PMID:27695234

  12. Role of ankle foot orthosis in improving locomotion and functional recovery in patients with stroke: A prospective rehabilitation study

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayan, H.; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B.; Thennarasu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study role of ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in improving locomotion and functional recovery after stroke. Setting: Neurological Rehabilitation Department of a university research tertiary hospital. Patients and Methods: AFO and activity based rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures: Distance (meters) covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and speed (meter/second) during the 10-meter walk test. Functional abilities assessed using Functional Independence Measure (FIM®). Results: Twenty-six patients (21 male) with stroke (mean duration 196.7 days, range 45–360 days) and mean age of 41.6 years (range 18–65 years, standard deviation [SD] 12.5) were included. Fourteen had right hemiplegia. The mean length of stay in the unit was 26.5 days (range 18–45 days, SD 5.5). All patients had equinus deformity with spastic foot drop and were provided with AFO. Walking endurance with 6MWT was 90 m on admission (without AFO). At discharge, it improved to 174 m with AFO and 121 m without AFOs (P < 0.001-with and without AFO at discharge). Walking speed improved from 0.4 m/s (admission) to 0.51 m/s with AFO, P = 0.004 and 0.45 m/s without AFO, P = 0.015) at discharge. Nine patients (34.6%) had clinically important difference-minimal clinically important difference (>0.16 m/s speed gain; >50 m endurance gain) at discharge. The mean FIM® score on admission was 84.3 ± 18.6. At discharge FIM® improved to 101.9 ± 13.7 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Use of AFOs improve gait parameters significantly in only one-third stroke patients in the study when combined with activity-based inpatient-rehabilitation.

  13. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability.

  14. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability. PMID:27220264

  15. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher

  16. Pain and Function Recovery Trajectories following Revision Hip Arthroplasty: Short-Term Changes and Comparison with Primary Hip Arthroplasty in the ADAPT Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Michael R.; Wylde, Vikki; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients report similar or better pain and function before revision hip arthroplasty than before primary arthroplasty but worse results are reported after revision surgery than after primary surgery. The trajectory of post-operative recovery during the first months and any differences by type of surgery have received little attention. We explored the trajectories of change in pain and function after revision hip arthroplasty to 12-months post-operatively and compare them with those observed after primary hip arthroplasty. Methods This study is a prospective cohort study of patients undergoing primary (n = 80 with 92% for an indication of osteoarthritis) and revision (n = 43) hip arthroplasties. WOMAC pain and function scores and walking speed were collected pre-operatively, at 3 and 12-months post-operatively. Multilevel regression models were used to chart and compare the trajectories of change (0–3 months and 3–12 months) between types of surgery. Results The improvements in pain and function following revision arthroplasty occurred within the first 3-months with no evidence of further change beyond this initial period. While the pattern of recovery was similar to the one observed after primary arthroplasty, improvements in the first 3-months were smaller after revision compared to primary arthroplasty. Patients listed for revision surgery reported lower pre-operative pain levels but similar post-operative levels compared to those undergoing primary surgery. At 12-months post-operation patients who underwent a revision arthroplasty had not reached the same level of function achieved by those who underwent primary arthroplasty. Conclusion The post-operative improvements in pain and function are larger following primary hip arthroplasty than following revision hip arthroplasty. Irrespectively of surgery type, most of the improvements occur in the first three post-operative months. More research is required to identify whether the recovery

  17. Functional lateral deviation of the mandible and its positional recovery on the rat condylar cartilage during the growth period.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chu; Muramoto, Takeshi; Soma, Kunimichi

    2006-07-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of a lateral functional shift of the rat mandible and the effects of a shift release on the condylar cartilage during the growth period. Fifty 5-week-old male Wistar rats were initially divided into three groups: shift, recovery, and control. At 5 weeks of age, each animal in the shift and recovery groups received an appliance designed to produce a lateral functional shift of the mandible to the left side. For the recovery group, the appliance was removed after 2 weeks. For the shift group, the appliance was used for 4 weeks. Total cartilage thickness, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeling index, and toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell number in the condylar cartilage at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks were compared with those in age-matched controls that had no appliances. In the shift group at 2 weeks, the cartilage thickness and labeling index increased in the central region on the contralateral side, whereas these decreased in the lateral region on the ipsilateral side. However, in the recovery group, 1 to 2 weeks after appliance removal, the cartilage thickness and labeling index in both investigated regions became similar to the control groups. These results emphasize the importance of early treatment to normalize occlusion and create appropriate conditions for normal occlusal development.

  18. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Posey, F.A.; Palko, A.A.

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration of decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  19. Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows

    SciTech Connect

    HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2008-07-01

    There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.

  20. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Posey, F.A.; Palko, A.A.

    1984-05-01

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  1. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Posey, Franz A.; Palko, Aloysius A.

    1984-01-01

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  2. Recovery of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Solution: Comparison of Methods and their Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, James; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, P. G.; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.

    2011-05-15

    Most methods currently being used to recover Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles from solutions (including the solvents they are synthesized or stored in) are potentially problematic because they may alter the particle composition (e.g., depositing salts formed from solutes) or leave the particles prone to transformations during subsequent storage and handling (e.g., due to residual moisture). In this study, several methods for recovery of nanoparticles from aqueous solution were studied to determine how they affect the structure and reactivity of the recovered materials. Simple washing of the nanoparticles during vacuum filtration (i.e., “flash drying”) can leave up to ~17 weight percent residual moisture. Modeling calculations suggest this moisture is mostly capillary or matric water held between particles and particle aggregates, which can be removed by drying for short periods at relative vapor pressures below 0.9. Flash drying followed by vacuum drying, all under N2, leaves no detectable residue from precipitation of solutes (detectable by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS), no significant changes in overall particle composition or structure (determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM), and negligible residual moisture (by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA). While this improved flash-drying protocol may be the preferred method for recovering nanoparticles for many purposes, we found that Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles still exhibit gradual aging during storage when characterized electrochemically with voltammetry.

  3. Electroacupuncture promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn of the injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-hui; Lv, Jian-guo; Wang, Hui; Nie, Hui-yong

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to lessen the inflammatory reaction after acute spinal cord injury and reduce secondary injury. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of spinal cord injury was established by compressing the T8–9 segments using a modified Nystrom method. Twenty-four hours after injury, Zusanli (ST36), Xuanzhong (GB39), Futu (ST32) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) were stimulated with electroacupuncture. Rats with spinal cord injury alone were used as controls. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the site of injury, the number of medium and large neurons in the spinal cord anterior horn, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores were greater in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that electroacupuncture increases AChE activity, up-regulates GDNF mRNA expression, and promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn after spinal cord injury. PMID:26889195

  4. Electroacupuncture promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn of the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Hui; Lv, Jian-Guo; Wang, Hui; Nie, Hui-Yong

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to lessen the inflammatory reaction after acute spinal cord injury and reduce secondary injury. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of spinal cord injury was established by compressing the T8-9 segments using a modified Nystrom method. Twenty-four hours after injury, Zusanli (ST36), Xuanzhong (GB39), Futu (ST32) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) were stimulated with electroacupuncture. Rats with spinal cord injury alone were used as controls. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the site of injury, the number of medium and large neurons in the spinal cord anterior horn, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores were greater in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that electroacupuncture increases AChE activity, up-regulates GDNF mRNA expression, and promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn after spinal cord injury. PMID:26889195

  5. Transplantated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Muscle Regeneration and Accelerate Functional Recovery of Injured Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Nana Takenaka; Isobe, Eri; Hirayama, Yuri; Murakami, Rumi; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Mami; Kawabata, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We previously established that mesenchymal stem cells originating from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (E-MSCs) showed markedly higher potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vitro than common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, the E-MSCs exhibited a low risk for teratoma formation. Here we evaluate the potential of E-MSCs for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo and reveal the regeneration and functional recovery of injured muscle by transplantation. E-MSCs were transplanted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 24 h following direct clamping. After transplantation, the myogenic differentiation of E-MSCs, TA muscle regeneration, and re-innervation were morphologically analyzed. In addition, footprints and gaits of each leg under spontaneous walking were measured by CatWalk XT, and motor functions of injured TA muscles were precisely analyzed. Results indicate that >60% of transplanted E-MSCs differentiated into skeletal muscles. The cross-sectional area of the injured TA muscles of E-MSC–transplanted animals increased earlier than that of control animals. E-MSCs also promotes re-innervation of the peripheral nerves of injured muscles. Concerning function of the TA muscles, we reveal that transplantation of E-MSCs promotes the recovery of muscles. This is the first report to demonstrate by analysis of spontaneous walking that transplanted cells can accelerate the functional recovery of injured muscles. Taken together, the results show that E-MSCs have a high potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo as well as in vitro. The transplantation of E-MSCs facilitated the functional recovery of injured muscles. Therefore, E-MSCs are an efficient cell source in transplantation. PMID:23914336

  6. Tenascin-R restricts posttraumatic remodeling of motoneuron innervation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

    2006-07-26

    Tenascin-R (TNR) is an extracellular glycoprotein in the CNS implicated in neural development and plasticity. Its repellent properties for growing axons in a choice situation with a conducive substrate in vitro have indicated that TNR may impede regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS. Here we tested whether constitutive lack of TNR has beneficial impacts on recovery from spinal cord injury in adult mice. Using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, we found that open-field locomotion in TNR-deficient (TNR-/-) mice recovered better that in wild-type (TNR+/+) littermates after compression of the thoracic spinal cord. We also designed, validated, and applied a motion analysis approach allowing numerical assessment of motor functions. We found, in agreement with the BBB score, that functions requiring low levels of supraspinal control such as plantar stepping improved more in TNR-/- mice. This was not the case for motor tasks demanding precision such as ladder climbing. Morphological analyses revealed no evidence that improved recovery of some functions in the mutant mice were attributable to enhanced tissue sparing or axonal regrowth. Estimates of perisomatic puncta revealed reduced innervation by cholinergic and GABAergic terminals around motoneurons in intact TNR-/- compared with TNR+/+ mice. Relative to nonlesioned animals, spinal cord repair was associated with increase in GABAergic and decrease of glutamatergic puncta in TNR-/- but not in TNR+/+ mice. Our results suggest that TNR restricts functional recovery by limiting posttraumatic remodeling of synapses around motoneuronal cell bodies where TNR is normally expressed in perineuronal nets.

  7. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Sung; Höke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration. PMID:24618564

  8. Delayed functional recovery in presymptomatic mSOD1(G93A) mice following facial nerve crush axotomy.

    PubMed

    Mesnard, Nichole A; Haulcomb, Melissa M; Tanzer, Lisa; Sanders, Virginia M; Jones, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease involving progressive loss of motoneurons (MN). Axonal pathology and presynaptic deaf-ferentation precede MN degeneration during disease progression in patients and the ALS mouse model (mSOD1). Previously, we determined that a functional adaptive immune response is required for complete functional recovery following a facial nerve crush axotomy in wild-type (WT) mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of facial nerve crush axotomy on functional recovery and facial MN survival in presymptomatic mSOD1 mice, relative to WT mice. The results indicate that functional recovery and facial MN survival levels are significantly reduced in presymptomatic mSOD1, relative to WT, and similar to what has previously been observed in immunodeficient mice. It is concluded that a potential immune system defect exists in the mSOD1 mouse that negatively impacts neuronal survival and regeneration following target disconnection associated with peripheral nerve axotomy. PMID:24672589

  9. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (<3m) to the ipsilesional cortex in late session (>3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  10. Synergist muscle ablation and recovery from nerve-repair grafting: contractile and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Lisa M.; Kuzon, William M.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    After nerve-repair grafting of medial gastrocnemius muscle, there is incomplete recovery of specific force and sustainable power, perhaps due to overcompensation by synergistic muscles. We hypothesized that increased workload due to synergist ablation would enhance graft recovery. Contractile and metabolic properties of control and nerve-repair grafted muscles, with and without synergist ablation, were determined after 120 days recovery. Specific force (N/cm2) and normalized power (W/kg) were less in the experimental groups compared with controls. Sustained power (W/kg) in the synergist-ablated nerve-repair grafted muscle was higher than nerve-repair grafted muscle, returning to control values. GLUT-4 protein was higher and glycogen content was diminished in both synergist-ablated groups. In summary, synergist ablation did not enhance the recovery of specific force or normalized power, but sustained power did recover, suggesting that metabolic and not mechanical parameters were responsible for this recovery. The enhanced endurance after synergist ablation was accompanied by increased GLUT-4 protein, suggesting a role for increased uptake of circulating glucose during contraction. PMID:11007584

  11. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    PubMed

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection. PMID:16995511

  12. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    PubMed

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  13. Method of managing interference during delay recovery on a train system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2005-12-27

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  14. Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar

    2009-08-15

    In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions.

  15. Modified method to enhanced recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for the purposes of diagnostic and therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Uga, Shoji

    2016-10-01

    Human toxocariasis, extraintestinal-migration of Toxocara species, is a worldwide helminthic zoonosis in many places of the undeveloped countries. Toxocara cati is one of the common helminths in cats and it is a potentially preventable disease. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on the demonstration of specific excretory-secretory Toxocara antibodies from Toxocara larvae by immunological assays. This study provides a simple manual technique which can be performed in any laboratory for recovering a large number of Toxocara cati larvae from the thick-shelled eggs. The devices that are required contain a manual homogenizer and a filter membrane of 40 μm mesh; the rest of materials and solutions is standard laboratory ware. In the modified method the larval yields were 2.7 times higher (3000 larval/ml) and the time spent in performing the modified method was shorter (75 min). Further benefits over already techniques are the easy and repeatable, inexpensive and convenient materials, simplicity to perform and require less time for recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for subsequent cultivation and harvest of the larval excretory-secretory antigens for diagnostic or treatment purposes. PMID:27502936

  16. Method for Recovery and Immunoaffinity Enrichment of Membrane Proteins Illustrated with Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Luke V.; Likhte, Varsha; Wright, William H.; Chu, Frances; Cambron, Emma; Baldwin-Burnett, Anne; Krakow, Jessica; Smejkal, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins play key biological roles in cell signaling, transport, and pathogen invasion. However, quantitative clinical assays for this critical class of proteins remain elusive and are generally limited to serum-soluble extracellular fragments. Furthermore, classic proteomic approaches to membrane protein analysis typically involve proteolytic digestion of the soluble pieces, resulting in separation of intra- and extracellular segments and significant informational loss. In this paper, we describe the development of a new method for the quantitative extraction of intact integral membrane proteins (including GPCRs) from solid metastatic ovarian tumors using pressure cycling technology in combination with a new (ProteoSolve-TD) buffer system. This new extraction buffer is compatible with immunoaffinity methods (e.g., ELISA and immunoaffinity chromatography), as well as conventional proteomic techniques (e.g., 2D gels, western blots). We demonstrate near quantitative recovery of membrane proteins EDG2, EDG4, FASLG, KDR, and LAMP-3 by western blots. We have also adapted commercial ELISAs for serum-soluble membrane protein fragments (e.g., sVEGFR2) to measure the tissue titers of their transmembrane progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate the compatibility of the new buffers with immunoaffinity enrichment/mass spectrometric characterization of tissue proteins. PMID:22919487

  17. Renal functional recovery of the hydronephrotic kidney predicted before relief of the obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, W.S.; Flanigan, R.C.

    1981-05-01

    Employing technetium labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid, we predicted the inulin and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearances after recovery of an obstructed kidney before relief of the obstruction. Sixteen rabbits had one renal unit obstructed for varying period of time. The animals were scanned immediately before relief of the obstruction. After 4 to 6 months recovery, inulin and PAH clearances were measured in all animals. The scans were mathematically analyzed, and accurately predicted the inulin and PAH clearances obtained after complete recovery (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001, respectively). Six rabbits were scanned at the time of the clearance measurements. By a different mathematical analysis, inulin and PAH clearance measured concurrently correlated with the scan (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01 respectively).

  18. p53 Regulates the neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic responses affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Floriddia, Elisa M; Rathore, Khizr I; Tedeschi, Andrea; Quadrato, Giorgia; Wuttke, Anja; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Kigerl, Kristina A; Popovich, Phillip G; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2012-10-01

    Following spinal trauma, the limited physiological axonal sprouting that contributes to partial recovery of function is dependent upon the intrinsic properties of neurons as well as the inhibitory glial environment. The transcription factor p53 is involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, cell survival, and axonal outgrowth, suggesting p53 as key modifier of axonal and glial responses influencing functional recovery following spinal injury. Indeed, in a spinal cord dorsal hemisection injury model, we observed a significant impairment in locomotor recovery in p53(-/-) versus wild-type mice. p53(-/-) spinal cords showed an increased number of activated microglia/macrophages and a larger scar at the lesion site. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggested p53 as a direct regulator of microglia/macrophages proliferation. At the axonal level, p53(-/-) mice showed a more pronounced dieback of the corticospinal tract (CST) and a decreased sprouting capacity of both CST and spinal serotoninergic fibers. In vivo expression of p53 in the sensorimotor cortex rescued and enhanced the sprouting potential of the CST in p53(-/-) mice, while, similarly, p53 expression in p53(-/-) cultured cortical neurons rescued a defect in neurite outgrowth, suggesting a direct role for p53 in regulating the intrinsic sprouting ability of CNS neurons. In conclusion, we show that p53 plays an important regulatory role at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury. Therefore, we propose p53 as a novel potential multilevel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury.

  19. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  20. Effect of sampling method on the representative recovery of microorganisms from the surfaces of aquacultured finfish.

    PubMed

    Nedoluha, P C; Owens, S; Russek-Cohen, E; Westhoff, D C

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a gentle rinse procedure was equivalent to the combination of excision and homogenization with a stomacher for the relative removal of various microorganisms from finfish fillets. Fillets of hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout were obtained from local markets and sampled using three methods: rinse (R), excision followed by homogenization in a stomacher (S), and homogenization of fillets following a rinse (RS). Microorganisms were enumerated on selective and nonselective media, and randomly selected colonies from aerobic plate counts were identified using MIDI Sherlock and BIOLOG microbial identification systems. Enrichments and selective media were used for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study confirms previous reports that stomaching is superior to rinsing for enumerating total microbial populations from fish fillets. Rinsing was more effective for rainbow trout than for striped bass. Sampling method did not affect the relative magnitude of plate counts on media selective for aeromonads, pseudomonads, Shewanella, lactic acid bacteria, enterics, and gram-positive cocci. In the compositional analysis of random isolates, R recovered significantly lower fractions of aeromonads than did S or RS, but sampling method did not affect the percent recovery of lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, Shewanella, Moraxellaceae, or Cytophaga/Flavobacterium. However, observations suggest that with increased replication, differences among Moraxellaceae, Pseudomonas, and gram positives might be significant. Only one L. monocytogenes colony was isolated, and no Salmonella or Y. enterocolitica, so the effect of sampling method could not be determined for these organisms. Differences in predominant bacterial populations were seen between fish species.

  1. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  2. Lithium accelerates functional motor recovery by improving remyelination of regenerating axons following ventral root avulsion and reimplantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chao-Fan; Wong, Wai-Man; Li, Wen; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) often involves the complete or partial avulsion of one or more of the cervical nerve roots, which leads to permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. Reimplantation surgery has been attempted as a clinical treatment for brachial plexus root avulsion but has failed to achieve complete functional recovery. Lithium is a mood stabilizer drug that is used to treat bipolar disorder; however, its effects on spinal cord or peripheral nerve injuries have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lithium can improve functional motor recovery after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in a rat model of BPI. The results showed that systemic treatment with a clinical dose of lithium promoted motor neuron outgrowth and increased the efficiency of motor unit regeneration through enhanced remyelination. An analysis of myelin-associated genes showed that the effects of lithium started during the early phase of remyelination and persisted through the late stage of the process. Efficient remyelination of the regenerated axons in the lithium-treated rats led to an earlier functional recovery. Therefore, we demonstrated that lithium might be a potential clinical treatment for BPI in combination with reimplantation surgery. PMID:27185485

  3. Effect of vitamin B12 on functional recovery and histopathologic changes of tibial nerve-crushed rats.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, E; Farshid, A A; Samadi, F; Eghdami, K

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested a neuroprotective effect for vitamin B12. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib in separate and combined treatments on functional recovery of crushed tibial nerve in rats. In ketamine plus xylazin anesthetized rats, right tibial nerve was crushed using a small hemoatatic forceps. Footprints were recorded 1 day before and on days 7, 14 and 21 after induction of nerve injury. Tibial functional index (TFI) was used to evaluate the recovery of tibial nerve function. Histological changes of tibial nerve were investigated by light microscopy. The recovery of TFI values were significantly accelerated with 10 consecutive days treatments with 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg of vitamin B12, 5 mg/kg of diclofenac and 1 and 5 mg/kg of celecoxib. The severity of Wallerian degeneration was reduced by above-mentioned doses of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib. Documented effects were observed when 0.1 mg/kg of vitamin B12 was concurrently used with 1 mg/kg of diclofenac and or 0.2 mg/kg of celecoxib. In the present study, vitamin B12, celecoxib and diclofenac (at a high dose) showed neuroprotective effects. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 pathways may be involved in neuroprotective effect of vitamin B12.

  4. Thermoregulation and Stress Hormone Recovery After Exercise Dehydration: Comparison of Rehydration Methods

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Brendon P.; Casa, Douglas J.; Lee, Elaine; Yamamoto, Linda; Beasley, Kathleen; Emmanuel, Holly; Anderson, Jeffrey; Pescatello, Linda; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Maresh, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers recommend and use a multitude of rehydration (REHY) methods with their patients. The REHY modality that most effectively facilitates recovery is unknown. Objective: To compare 5 common REHY methods for thermoregulatory and stress hormone recovery after exercise dehydration (EXDE) in trained participants. Design: Randomized, cross-over, controlled study. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active, non–heat-acclimatized men (age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, mass = 81.3 ± 3.7 kg, V̇o2max = 56.9 ± 4.4 mL·min−1·kg−1, body fat = 7.9% ± 3%) participated. Intervention(s): Participants completed 20-hour fluid restriction and 2-hour EXDE; they then received no fluid (NF) or REHY (half-normal saline) via ad libitum (AL), oral (OR), intravenous (IV), or combination IV and OR (IV + OR) routes for 30 minutes; and then were observed for another 30 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Body mass, rectal temperature, 4-site mean weighted skin temperature, plasma stress hormone concentrations, and environmental symptoms questionnaire (ESQ) score. Results: Participants were hypohydrated (body mass −4.23% ± 0.22%) post-EXDE. Rectal temperature for the NF group was significantly greater than for the IV group (P = .023) at 30 minutes after beginning REHY (REHY30) and greater than OR, IV, and IV + OR (P ≤ .009) but not AL (P = .068) at REHY60. Mean weighted skin temperature during AL was less than during IV + OR at REHY5 (P = .019). The AL participants demonstrated increased plasma cortisol concentrations compared with IV + OR, independent of time (P = .015). No differences existed between catecholamine concentrations across treatments (P > .05). The ESQ score was increased at REHY60 for NF, AL, OR, and IV (P < .05) but not for IV + OR (P = .217). The NF ESQ score was greater than that of IV + OR at REHY60 (P = .012). Conclusions: Combination IV + OR REHY reduced body temperature to a greater degree than OR and AL REHY when

  5. Comparative effect of immature neuronal or glial cell transplantation on motor functional recovery following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Chen, Jian; Zhong, Yuan; Ren, Wen-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the comparative effect of stereotaxically transplanted immature neuronal or glial cells in brain on motor functional recovery and cytokine expression after cold-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adult rats. A total of 60 rats were divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham group; TBI only group; TBI plus neuronal cells-transplanted group (NC-G); and TBI plus glial cells-transplanted group (GC-G). Cortical lesions were induced by a touching metal stamp, frozen with liquid nitrogen, to the dura mater over the motor cortex of adult rats. Neuronal and glial cells were isolated from rat embryonic and newborn cortices, respectively, and cultured in culture flasks. Rats received neurons or glia grafts (~1×106 cells) 5 days after TBI was induced. Motor functional evaluation was performed with the rotarod test prior to and following glial and neural cell grafts. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-cell transplantation. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain section to identify the transplanted neuronal or glial cells using neural and astrocytic markers. The expression levels of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which have key roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural cells, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A localized cortical lesion was evoked in all injured rats, resulting in significant motor deficits. Transplanted cells successfully migrated and survived in the injured brain lesion, and the expression of neuronal and astrocyte markers were detected in the NC-G and GC-G groups, respectively. Rats in the NC-G and GC-G cell-transplanted groups exhibited significant motor functional recovery and reduced histopathologic lesions, as compared with the TBI-G rats that did not receive neural cells (P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, GC-G treatment

  6. Comparative effect of immature neuronal or glial cell transplantation on motor functional recovery following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Chen, Jian; Zhong, Yuan; Ren, Wen-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the comparative effect of stereotaxically transplanted immature neuronal or glial cells in brain on motor functional recovery and cytokine expression after cold-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adult rats. A total of 60 rats were divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham group; TBI only group; TBI plus neuronal cells-transplanted group (NC-G); and TBI plus glial cells-transplanted group (GC-G). Cortical lesions were induced by a touching metal stamp, frozen with liquid nitrogen, to the dura mater over the motor cortex of adult rats. Neuronal and glial cells were isolated from rat embryonic and newborn cortices, respectively, and cultured in culture flasks. Rats received neurons or glia grafts (~1×106 cells) 5 days after TBI was induced. Motor functional evaluation was performed with the rotarod test prior to and following glial and neural cell grafts. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-cell transplantation. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain section to identify the transplanted neuronal or glial cells using neural and astrocytic markers. The expression levels of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which have key roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural cells, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A localized cortical lesion was evoked in all injured rats, resulting in significant motor deficits. Transplanted cells successfully migrated and survived in the injured brain lesion, and the expression of neuronal and astrocyte markers were detected in the NC-G and GC-G groups, respectively. Rats in the NC-G and GC-G cell-transplanted groups exhibited significant motor functional recovery and reduced histopathologic lesions, as compared with the TBI-G rats that did not receive neural cells (P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, GC-G treatment

  7. Recovery of function following grafting of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells into the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Himes, B Timothy; Neuhuber, Birgit; Coleman, Carl; Kushner, Robert; Swanger, Sharon A; Kopen, Gene C; Wagner, Joseph; Shumsky, Jed S; Fischer, Itzhak

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluates functional recovery after transplanting human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) into contusion models of spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors used a high-throughput process to expand BMSCs and characterized them by flow cytometry, ELISA, and gene expression. They found that BMSCs secrete neurotrophic factors and cytokines with therapeutic potential for cell survival and axon growth. In adult immune-suppressed rats, mild, moderate, or severe contusions were generated using the MASCIS impactor. One week following injury, 0.5 to 1 x 106 BMSCs were injected into the lesioned spinal cord; control animals received vehicle injection. Biweekly behavioral tests included the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Locomotor Rating Scale (BBB), exploratory rearing, grid walking, and thermal sensitivity. Animals receiving moderate contusions followed by BMSC grafts showed significant behavioral recovery in BBB and rearing tests when compared to controls. Animals receiving BMSC grafts after mild or severe contusion showed trends toward improved recovery. Immunocytochemistry identified numerous axons passing through the injury in animals with BMSC grafts but few in controls. BMSCS were detected at 2 weeks after transplantation; however, at 11 weeks very few grafted cells remained. The authors conclude that BMSCs show potential for repairing SCI. However, the use of carefully characterized BMSCs improved transplantation protocols ensuring BMSC, survival, and systematic motor and sensory behavioral testing to identify robust recovery is imperative for further improvement. PMID:16679505

  8. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients' records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60-70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  9. Tongxinluo Enhances Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis in Peri-Infarct Area and Subventricular Zone and Promotes Functional Recovery after Focal Cerebral Ischemic Infarction in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Jian; Dang, Chao; Liu, Gang; Liang, Zhijian; Huang, Gelun; Zhao, Weijia; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tongxinluo is a traditional Chinese medicine compound with the potential to promote the neuronal functional recovery in cerebral ischemic infarction. Objective. This study aimed to disclose whether tongxinluo promotes neurological functional recovery and neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the infarcted area and SVZ after cerebral ischemic infarction in hypertensive rats. Methods